WorldWideScience

Sample records for area polymer solar

  1. Nanoimprinted polymer solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Aryal, Mukti; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2012-04-24

    Among the various organic photovoltaic devices, the conjugated polymer/fullerene approach has drawn the most research interest. The performance of these types of solar cells is greatly determined by the nanoscale morphology of the two components (donor/acceptor) and the molecular orientation/crystallinity in the photoactive layer. A vertically bicontinuous and interdigitized heterojunction between donor and acceptor has been regarded as one of the ideal structures to enable both efficient charge separation and transport. Synergistic control of polymer orientation in the nanostructured heterojunction is also critical to improve the performance of polymer solar cells. Nanoimprint lithography has emerged as a new approach to simultaneously control both the heterojunction morphology and polymer chains in organic photovoltaics. Currently, in the area of nanoimprinted polymer solar cells, much progress has been achieved in the fabrication of nanostructured morphology, control of molecular orientation/crystallinity, deposition of acceptor materials, patterned electrodes, understanding of structure-property correlations, and device performance. This review article summarizes the recent studies on nanoimprinted polymer solar cells and discusses the outstanding challenges and opportunities for future work.

  2. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed...

  3. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak

    2009-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed...

  4. Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large-area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    A roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells that does not involve indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is presented. A commercially available kapton foil with an overlayer of copper was used as the substrate. Sputtering of titanium metal onto the kapton/copper in an R2R vacuum process gave the monolithic...... by screen printing a protective layer in the areas for front electrode contacts and finally a silver grid was applied by screen printing. The topology of the device and the choice of final grid electrode geometry allowed for serial connection of the individual cells into modules. The individual cells were...

  5. Realization of Large Area Flexible Fullerene - Conjugated Polymer Photocells : A Route to Plastic Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabec, C.J.; Padinger, F.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Bulk donor - acceptor heterojunctions between conjugated polymers and fullerenes have been utilized for photovoltaic devices with quantum efficiencies of around 1%. These devices are based on the photoinduced, ultrafast electron transfer between non degenerate ground state conjugated polymers and fu

  6. Correlation between Hierarchical Structure and Processing Control of Large-area Spray-coated Polymer Solar Cells toward High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Cha, Hou-Chin; Chuang, Chih-Min; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Charn-Ying

    2016-01-28

    The formation mechanism of a spray-coated film is different from that of a spin-coated film. This study employs grazing incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively) quantitatively and systematically to investigate the hierarchical structure and phase-separated behavior of a spray-deposited blend film. The formation of PCBM clusters involves mutual interactions with both the P3HT crystal domains and droplet boundary. The processing control and the formed hierarchical structure of the active layer in the spray-coated polymer/fullerene blend film are compared to those in the spin-coated film. How the different post-treatments, such as thermal and solvent vapor annealing, tailor the hierarchical structure of the spray-coated films is quantitatively studied. Finally, the relationship between the processing control and tailored BHJ structures and the performance of polymer solar cell devices is established here, taking into account the evolution of the device area from 1 × 0.3 and 1 × 1 cm(2). The formation and control of the special networks formed by the PCBM cluster and P3HT crystallites, respectively, are related to the droplet boundary. These structures are favorable for the transverse transport of electrons and holes.

  7. Progress in polymer solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiGui; LU GuangHao; YANG XiaoNiu; ZHOU EnLe

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines current progresses in polymer solar cell. Compared to traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, the completely different principle of optoelectric response in the polymer cell results in a novel configuration of the device and more complicated photovoltaic generation process. The conception of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) is introduced and its advantage in terms of morphology is addressed. The main aspects including the morphology of photoactive layer, which limit the efficiency and stability of polymer solar cell, are discussed in detail. The solutions to boosting up both the efficiency and stability (lifetime) of the polymer solar cell are highlighted at the end of this review.

  8. Polymer-based solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Mayer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the cost of solar panels comes from the photoactive materials and sophisticated, energy-intensive processing technologies. Recently, it has been shown that the inorganic components can be replaced by semiconducting polymers capable of achieving reasonably high power conversion efficiencies. These polymers are inexpensive to synthesize and can be solution-processed in a roll-to-roll fashion with high throughput. Inherently poor polymer properties, such as low exciton diffusion lengths and low mobilities, can be overcome by nanoscale morphology. We discuss polymer-based solar cells, paying particular attention to device design and potential improvements.

  9. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of substrate

  10. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Alstrup, J.; Spanggaard, H.

    2004-01-01

    ). The half-life based on I-sc in air for the devices were 63 h. The cells were laminated in a 125 mum PET encasement. Lamination had a negative effect on the lifetime. We demonstrate the feasibility of industrial production of large area solar cells (1 m(2)) by silk screen printing and envisage...

  11. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  12. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  13. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    oxygen since their EPR and conductivity data indicated the presence of unpaired charges. On the other hand, intramolecular CT complexes have recently...been reported for polythiophene [2], where weak CT occurs from a polymer unit cell to the covalently bonded acceptor molecule. Nevertheless, it was...intracavity optical doubler (532 nm), diode lasers (670, 810 nm) and light emitting diodes (490, 630 nm). Measurements were conducted for pump intensity 0.1

  14. Polymer tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, Afshin

    2007-01-01

    The global demand for energy is expanding continually. Therefore, realization of green power sources are needed since combustion of fossil fuels will have serious consequences for the climate on the Earth. With a photovoltaic device, the solar light can be converted into electricity which is the mos

  15. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  16. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Cruickshank, C.; Foged, S.

    2010-01-01

    and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found......The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent...... and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance...

  17. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdrhman M G; LI Hang-quan; ZHANG Li-ye; ZHOU Bing

    2006-01-01

    The conjugated polymer-based solar cell is one of the most promising devices in search of sustainable, renewable energy sources in last decade. It is the youngest field in organic solar cell research and also is certainly the fastest growing one at the moment. In addition, the key factor for polymer-based solar cells with high-efficiency is to invent new materials. Organic solar cell has attracted significant researches and commercial interest due to its low cost in fabrication and flexibility in applications. However, they suffer from relatively low conversion efficiency. The summarization of the significance and concept of high efficiency polymer solar cell technologies are presented.

  18. Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability...... during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art...

  19. Scalability and stability of very thin roll-to-roll processed large area indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod;

    2013-01-01

    Polymer solar cell modules were prepared directly on thin flexible barrier polyethylene terephthalate foil. The performance of the modules was found to be scalable from a single cell with an area of 6 cm2 to modules with a total area of up to 186 cm2. The substrate thickness was also explored...... and the performance was found to be independent of thickness in the range of 20–130 lm. The thinner substrates were found to present some challenge regarding handling but were not limited in performance. Large area modules on a substrate thickness of 45 lm were finally prepared by full roll-to-roll processing...... to high humidity and had low values for T80 for dark storage tests at 50 C/85%RH (ISOS-D-3) and accelerated operation conditions with 0.7 sun/65 oC/50%RH (ISOS-L-3). We found the modules to be particularly suited for information and communications technology (ICT) and mobile applications where low...

  20. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2010-01-01

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically...... station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than...... that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells....

  1. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... on the complete product integrated polymer solar cell. We have compared this portable lighting system with other lighting solutions, namely: a kerosene lamp in a remote rural area in Africa (Ethiopia), as a replacement of a silicon PV based lamp, in place of a torch with non-rechargeable lead-acid battery...

  2. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  3. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    . The line was at the same time adjusted and updated to handle the new production. The very first solar cells produced on this line appeared in July 2010. The line has subsequently been upgraded on a running basis, and Mekoprint's operators have been trained. The technology transfer is continued in the project's phase 2, where the goal is that Mekoprint fully masters both the production process and the production line. During the course of the project several applications for polymer solar cells have been investigated from a technical -, a design , and a market point of view. Faktor 3 has sketched and visualized a range of ideas. The ideas are communicated to a broader audience by means of a brochure. An on-line version of the brochure and a computer tool developed for guiding the designer through the process of dimensioning the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3's homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of solar powered products. A range of conceptual lamps have been evaluated, and two lamps have been produced in large series and demonstrated in public. Some hundred lamps targeted at school children in non-electrified areas in 3rd world countries were produced and distributed to target users in Asia, Africa and South America in collaboration with the Stroemme Foundation (NO). The feedback received was highly positive and proves the necessity for low-cost, off-grid lightening to replace the presently used kerosene lamps. A small credit-card sized lamp was produced in a series of 10.000 units in order to test the production setup's ability to handle large series. Several thousands of the lamps were handed out at an international conference for printed electronics, (LOPE-C, 2011). The response from this audience, who is well qualified to judge the news value of lamp's, has also been highly

  4. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    . The line was at the same time adjusted and updated to handle the new production. The very first solar cells produced on this line appeared in July 2010. The line has subsequently been upgraded on a running basis, and Mekoprint's operators have been trained. The technology transfer is continued in the project's phase 2, where the goal is that Mekoprint fully masters both the production process and the production line. During the course of the project several applications for polymer solar cells have been investigated from a technical -, a design , and a market point of view. Faktor 3 has sketched and visualized a range of ideas. The ideas are communicated to a broader audience by means of a brochure. An on-line version of the brochure and a computer tool developed for guiding the designer through the process of dimensioning the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3's homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of solar powered products. A range of conceptual lamps have been evaluated, and two lamps have been produced in large series and demonstrated in public. Some hundred lamps targeted at school children in non-electrified areas in 3rd world countries were produced and distributed to target users in Asia, Africa and South America in collaboration with the Stroemme Foundation (NO). The feedback received was highly positive and proves the necessity for low-cost, off-grid lightening to replace the presently used kerosene lamps. A small credit-card sized lamp was produced in a series of 10.000 units in order to test the production setup's ability to handle large series. Several thousands of the lamps were handed out at an international conference for printed electronics, (LOPE-C, 2011). The response from this audience, who is well qualified to judge the news value of lamp's, has also been highly

  5. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hendriks, Koen H; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-19

    Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a result, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells based on conjugated polymers as electron donor and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptor have exceeded 10% in single-junction and 11% in multijunction devices. Despite these efforts, it is notoriously difficult to establish thorough structure-property relationships that will be required to further optimize existing high-performance polymers to their intrinsic limits. In this Account, we highlight progress on the development and our understanding of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells. The DPP moiety is strongly electron withdrawing and its polar nature enhances the tendency of DPP-based polymers to crystallize. As a result, DPP-based conjugated polymers often exhibit an advantageously broad and tunable optical absorption, up to 1000 nm, and high mobilities for holes and electrons, which can result in high photocurrents and good fill factors in solar cells. Here we focus on the structural modifications applied to DPP polymers and rationalize and explain the relationships between chemical structure and organic photovoltaic performance. The DPP polymers can be tuned via their aromatic substituents, their alkyl side chains, and the nature of the π-conjugated segment linking the units along the polymer chain. We show that these building blocks work together in determining the molecular conformation, the optical properties, the charge carrier mobility, and the solubility of the polymer. We identify the latter as a decisive parameter for DPP-based organic solar cells because it regulates the diameter of the semicrystalline DPP polymer fibers that form in the photovoltaic blends with

  6. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The challenges associated with obtaining the desired nanomorphology of the active layer in polymer solar cells were addressed through preparation of conjugated polymer chains grown from the surface of seed nanoparticles with a well-defined size. Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) was thus polymerized......, a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...... from single cells to two, three, and eight serially connected cells. The power conversion efficiency for the polymer solar cell modules were in the range of 0.8%-1.2% with an active area of up to 120 cm....

  7. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...

  8. Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Wendy U; Dittmer, Janke J; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2002-03-29

    We demonstrate that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers. By controlling nanorod length, we can change the distance on which electrons are transported directly through the thin film device. Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7-nanometer by 60-nanometer CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 6.9% under 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter illumination at 515 nanometers. Under Air Mass (A.M.) 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  9. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Nelson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of solar cells made from a conjugated polymer blended with a fullerene derivative has risen from around 1 % to over 9 % in the last ten years, making organic photovoltaic technology a viable contender for commercialization. The efficiency increases have resulted from the development of new materials with lower optical gaps, new polymer:fullerene combinations with higher charge separated state energies, and new approaches to control the blend microstructure, all driven by a qualitative understanding of the principles governing organic solar cell operation. In parallel, a device physics framework has been developed that enables the rational design of device structures and materials for improved organic photovoltaic devices. We review developments in both materials science and device physics for organic photovoltaics.

  11. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  12. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Pablo; Pastorelli, Francesco; Mantilla-Pérez, Paola; Mariano, Marina; Martínez-Otero, Alberto; Elias, Xavier; Betancur, Rafael; Martorell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, progress in the organic photovoltaic field has resulted in some device features which make organic cells applicable in electricity generation configurations where the standard silicon-based technology is not suitable, for instance, when a semi-transparent photovoltaic panel is needed. When the thin film solar cell performance is evaluated in terms of the device's visible transparency and power conversion efficiency, organic solar cells offer the most promising solution. During the last three years, research in the field has consolidated several approaches for the fabrication of high performance semi-transparent organic solar cells. We have grouped these approaches under three categories: devices where the absorber layer includes near-infrared absorption polymers, devices incorporating one-dimensional photonic crystals, and devices with a metal cavity light trapping configuration. We herein review these approaches.

  13. All polymer photovoltaics: From small inverted devices to large roll-to-roll coated and printed solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Zhao, Xingang;

    2013-01-01

    Inverted all polymer solar cells based on a blend of a perylene diimide based polymer acceptor and a dithienosilole based polymer donor were fabricated from small area devices to roll-to-roll (R2R) coated and printed large area modules. The device performance was successfully optimized by using...... solution processibility and R2R coated and printed large area (4.2 cm 2) solar cells exhibited a PCE of 0.20%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) evolve in an exponential manner in the two key areas of efficiency and stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has in the last decade been increased by almost a factor of ten approaching 10%. A main concern has been the stability that was previously measured...

  15. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    of making the transition from the laboratory into the commercial market. One of the biggest challenges in this process is upscaling the production. The object of this thesis is to investigate the morphology of OPV devices produced from pilot scale roll to roll (R2R) coaters. OPV devices still struggle...... domain size to be studied, in the nanometer regime, and the poor contrast due to the similarity of the organic materials. The physical impact of the ink and the process of coating it, was investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, hard X-ray ptychography and soft X-ray transmission imaging......Organic electronic devices are an intense area of research. While some devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED) have matured and are found in a vast amount of consumer electronic devices, their energy producing counterpart, organic photovoltaics (OPV), are still in the process...

  16. Electrical characterization of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Cohick, Zane; Tzolov, Marian

    2013-03-01

    Polymer solar cell devices were fabricated using a mixture of the polymer PCPDTBT, PCBM, and 1,8-diiodooctane. The films were spin coated on ITO patterned substrates and covered with a hole injection layer. The film drying was performed at varied annealing temperatures and times. These devices were characterized utilizing current-voltage characteristics and the fill factor was determined. Devices were tested under dark and bright conditions using a xenon lamp. The current-voltage characteristics were modeled with an equivalent circuit yielding values for the shunt and series resistances. The variations in performance due to the changes in annealing temperatures and drying times were studied. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the dielectric constant of the active film.

  17. Using Light-Induced Thermocleavage in a Roll-to-Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Norrman, Kion

    2010-01-01

    We report on the use of intense visible light with a narrow spectral distribution matched to the region where the conjugated polymer material absorbs to selectively heat the active material and induce thermocleavage. We show a full roll-to-roll process, leading to complete large-area polymer solar...

  18. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  19. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-10-09

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  1. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R.

    2012-07-01

    high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

  2. Polymer Solar Cells : Solubility Controls Fiber Network Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Franeker, Jacobus J.; Heintges, Gael H. L.; Schaefer, Charley; Portale, Giuseppe; Li, Weiwei; Wienk, Martijn M.; van der Schoot, Paul; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The photoactive layer of polymer solar cells is commonly processed from a four-component solution, containing a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative dissolved in a solvent cosolvent mixture. The nanoscale dimensions of the polymer fullerene morphology that is formed upon drying determin

  3. The interplay of nanostructure and efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Chunhong

    2008-12-04

    The aim of this thesis is to achieve a deep understanding of the working mechanism of polymer based solar cells and to improve the device performance. Two types of the polymer based solar cells are studied here: the polymer-polymer solar cells, and the polymer-small molecule solar cell which has polymer as electron donor incorporating with organic small molecule as electron acceptor. For the polymer-polymer devices, I compared the photocurrent characteristics of bilayer and blend devices as well as the blend devices with different nano-morphology, which is fine tuned by applying solvents with different boiling points. The main conclusion based on the complementary measurements is that the performance-limiting step is the field-dependent generation of free charge carriers, while bimolecular recombination and charge extraction do not compromise device performance. Regarding polymer-small molecular hybrid solar cells I combined the hole-transporting polymer M3EH-PPV with a novel small molecule electron acceptor vinazene. This molecule can be either deposited from solution or by thermal evaporation, allowing for a large variety of layer architectures to be realized. I then demonstrated that the layer architecture has a large influence on the photovoltaic properties. Solar cells with very high fill factors of up to 57 % and an open circuit voltage of 1V without thermal treatment of the devices were achieved. In the past, fill factors of solar cells exceeding 50 % have only been observed when using fullerene-derivatives as the electron-acceptor. The finding that proper processing of polymer-vinazene devices leads to similar high values is a major step towards the design of efficient polymer-based solar cells. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of molecular organization and nanoscale morphology for high performance low bandgap polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Wang, Mengye; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-04-21

    Rational design and synthesis of low bandgap (LBG) polymers with judiciously tailored HOMO and LUMO levels have emerged as a viable route to high performance polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 10%. In addition to engineering the energy-level of LBG polymers, the photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells also relies on the device architecture, in particular the fine morphology of the photoactive layer. The nanoscale interpenetrating networks composed of nanostructured donor and acceptor phases are the key to providing a large donor-acceptor interfacial area for maximizing the exciton dissociation and offering a continuous pathway for charge transport. In this Review Article, we summarize recent strategies for tuning the molecular organization and nanoscale morphology toward an enhanced photovoltaic performance of LBG polymer-based solar cells.

  5. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    time of the cell is highly increased. An alternative approach is to increase the photo stability of the cell components, and especially the light absorbing conjugated polymer has been subject to extensive attention. The photo stability of conjugated polymers varies by orders of magnitude from type......The field of polymer solar cells has undergone an extensive development in recent years after the invention of semiconducting polymers in 1991. Efficiencies have gradually increased to above 10 %, and high throughput processing methods such as roll-to-roll coating allow for production of thousands...... of solar cells with low embedded time, material, and energy consumption as compared to silicon solar cells. Consequently, different demonstration products of small mobile gadgets based on polymer solar cells have been produced, which are fully competitive with conventional energy technologies, illustrating...

  6. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    . Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically...... and how this affects the PSC parameters are presented. It is generally found that it is possible to synthetically control the absorption spectrum of conjugated polymer systems. One way to alter the spectrum is by incorporating alternating donor-acceptor motifs, resulting in an additional optical......Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research...

  7. Investigation of Indoor Stability Testing of Polymer Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Kavak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated organic solar cell of a new low bandgap polymer poly[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-4,7-bis(2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5′,5′′-diyl] (PCPDTTBTT. We have investigated for the first time the stability tests, ISOS-L-1 and ISOS-D-3, of PCPDTTBTT solar cells. Thermal annealing of PCPDTTBTT solar cells at 80°C brought about an improvement of photocurrent generation, stability, and efficiency of the solar cells. T80 value of PCPDTTBTT solar cell is about 150 hours which is close to P3HT (235 h. PCPDTTBTT is very promising polymer for both polymer solar cell efficiency and stability.

  8. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Andrew J; Lilliedal, Mathilde R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Aarø, Dennis; Pakalski, Heinz; Fyenbo, Jan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-09-13

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm⁻², and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm². Panels were mounted on a tracking station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than a month, while R2R encapsulated cells showed around 50% degradation after 6 months but suffered from poor performance due to de-lamination during panel production. A third generation of panels with various barrier layers was produced to optimize the choice of barrier foil and it was found that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells.

  9. Effects of nanostructure geometry on polymer chain alignment and device performance in nanoimprinted polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Among the various organic photovoltaic devices, the conjugated polymer/fullerene approach has drawn the most research interest. The performance of these types of solar cells is greatly determined by the nanoscale morphology of the two components (donor/acceptor) and the molecular orientation/crystallinity in the photoactive layer. This article demonstrates our recent studies on the nanostructure geometry effects on the nanoimprint induced poly(3 hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) chain alignment and photovoltaic performance. Out-of-plane and in-plane grazing incident X-ray diffractions are employed to characterize the chain orientations in P3HT nanogratings with different widths and heights. It is found that nanoimprint procedure changes the initial edge-on alignment in non-imprinted P3HT thin film to a vertical orientation which favors the hole transport, with an organization height H≥ 170 nm and width in the range of 60 nmImprinted P3HT/[6,6]-penyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) solar cells show an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the decrease of nanostructure width, and with the increase of height and junction area. Devices with the highest PCE are made by the fully aligned and highest P3HT nanostructures (width w= 60 nm, height h= 170 nm), allowing for the most efficient charge separation, transport and light absorption. We believe this work will contribute to the optimal geometry design of nanoimprinted polymer solar cells.

  10. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn;

    2013-01-01

    in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly......Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  11. An isoindigo containing donor-acceptor polymer: synthesis and photovoltaic properties of all-solution-processed ITO- and vacuum-free large area roll-coated single junction and tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Yue, Wei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the design, synthesis, and characterization of a donor-acceptor polymer from dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole and isoindigo (i-ID) are presented. The synthesized polymer has been applied in large area ITO-free organic photovoltaics, both as spin coated and roll coated devices...

  12. Industrialization of Polymer Solar Cells – phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Bork, Jakob; Andersen, Rasmus B.

    Polymer solar cells have unique features such as low weight, slim outline, robustness against breakage and excellent adaptability of size, shape and curvature to the actual application. These features open, not only for cost- and energy effective application of the cell, but also for aesthetic...... into more refined products. Such refined products might be self-powered electronic devices designed for easy integration in the customer’s production or solar-powered products for the end-user. A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU’s basic polymer solar cell technology was started...... the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3’s homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of so-lar powered products. A range of conceptual...

  13. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...

  14. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Conducting Polymer Composites Based Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; R.Somani; M.Umeno

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Combination of carbon nanotubes (CN) with polymers is important for application towards value added composites,solar cells,fuel cells etc.Especially interesting is the combination of CN with π-conjugated polymers because of the potential interaction between the highly delocalized π-electrons of the CN and the π-electrons correlated with the lattice of polymer skeleton.Efficient exciton dissociation due to electron transfer from the photoexcited polymer to CN is of interest for photovoltaic app...

  16. Thiophene in Conducting Polymers: Synthesis of Poly(thiophene)s and Other Conjugated Polymers Containing Thiophenes, for Application in Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Bundgaard, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers based on thiophene are described. The polymers include poly(thiophene) with and without side-chains and other conjugated polymers in general, based on thiophene. The synthesis and characteristics of the polymers are described along with the application of these as light-absorbing...... materials in polymer solar cells....

  17. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sensfuss, S; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrä, G; Falk, F

    2011-08-05

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  18. Photochemical stability of π-conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells: a rule of thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Bundgaard, Eva; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2011-01-01

    A comparative photochemical stability study of a wide range of π-conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells is presented. The behavior of each material has been investigated under simulated sunlight (1 sun, 1000 W m−2, AM 1.5G) and ambient atmosphere. Degradation was monitored during...... ageing combining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. From the comparison of the collected data, the influence of the polymer chemical structure on its stability has been discussed. General rules relative to the polymer structure–stability relationship are proposed....

  19. Polymer Solar Cells: Solubility Controls Fiber Network Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Franeker, Jacobus J; Heintges, Gaël H L; Schaefer, Charley; Portale, Giuseppe; Li, Weiwei; Wienk, Martijn M; van der Schoot, Paul; Janssen, René A J

    2015-09-16

    The photoactive layer of polymer solar cells is commonly processed from a four-component solution, containing a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative dissolved in a solvent-cosolvent mixture. The nanoscale dimensions of the polymer-fullerene morphology that is formed upon drying determines the solar cell performance, but the fundamental processes that govern the size of the phase-separated polymer and fullerene domains are poorly understood. Here, we investigate morphology formation of an alternating copolymer of diketopyrrolopyrrole and a thiophene-phenyl-thiophene oligomer (PDPPTPT) with relatively long 2-decyltetradecyl (DT) side chains blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester. During solvent evaporation the polymer crystallizes into a fibrous network. The typical width of these fibers is analyzed by quantification of transmission electron microscopic images, and is mainly determined by the solubility of the polymer in the cosolvent and the molecular weight of the polymer. A higher molecular weight corresponds to a lower solubility and film processing results in a smaller fiber width. Surprisingly, the fiber width is not related to the drying rate or the amount of cosolvent. We have made solar cells with fiber widths ranging from 28 to 68 nm and found an inverse relation between fiber width and photocurrent. Finally, by mixing two cosolvents, we develop a ternary solvent system to tune the fiber width. We propose a model based on nucleation-and-growth which can explain these measurements. Our results show that the width of the semicrystalline polymer fibers is not the result of a frozen dynamical state, but determined by the nucleation induced by the polymer solubility.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Plasmonic Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Adam, Jost; Madsen, Morten

    The organic bulk hetero-junction solar cell has remarkable advantages such as low cost, mechanical flexibility and simple process techniques. Recently, low-band gap photoactive materials have obtained a significant attention due to their potential to absorb a wider range of the solar spectrum...... other approaches, be achieved by using nano- or micro-structures that trap light at specific wavelengths [2], or by using the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of metal nanoparticles in the devices. In this work, we theoretically studied planar polymer solar cell based on finite-difference time......-domain approach. Also, we have optimized reference polymer solar cells with PTB7:PC70BM as active layer, using two different electron transport layers. The aim is to integrate Gold nanoparticles in the reference devices, and support the integration theoretically....

  1. Large area modules based on low band gap polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The use of three low band gap polymers in large area roll-to-roll coated modules is demonstrated. The polymers were prepared by a Stille cross coupling polymerization and all had a band gap around 1.6 eV. The polymers were first tested in small area organic photovoltaic devices which showed...... efficiencies from 0.4 to 2 %. Then large area roll-to-roll coated modules were processed and these showed efficiencies up to 0.6 %. It is clear that further study is necessary before this type of polymer is competitive with P3HT in large area modules....

  2. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to determi

  4. Enhanced efficiency in double junction polymer: Fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D.J.D.; Bruyn, P. de; Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer solar cells based on the polyfluorene copolymer poly[9,9-didecanefluorene-alt-(bis-thienylene) benzothiadiazole] (PF10TBT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 4%. However, the optimum thickness of the photoac

  5. Ultimate performance of polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer:fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum

  6. Enhanced efficiency in double junction polymer : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D. J. D.; de Bruyn, P.; Kotlarski, J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer solar cells based on the polyfluorene copolymer poly[9,9-didecanefluorene-alt-(bis-thienylene) benzothiadiazole] (PF10TBT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 4%. However, the optimum thickness of the photo

  7. Water Splitting with Series-Connected Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiner, Serkan; van Eersel, Harm; van Pruissen, Gijs W P; Turbiez, Mathieu; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-10-12

    We investigate light-driven electrochemical water splitting with series-connected polymer solar cells using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The expected maximum solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (ηSTH) for light-driven water splitting is modeled for two, three, and four series-connected polymer solar cells. In the modeling, we assume an electrochemical water splitting potential of 1.50 V and a polymer solar cell for which the external quantum efficiency and fill factor are both 0.65. The minimum photon energy loss (Eloss), defined as the energy difference between the optical band gap (Eg) and the open-circuit voltage (Voc), is set to 0.8 eV, which we consider a realistic value for polymer solar cells. Within these approximations, two series-connected single junction cells with Eg = 1.73 eV or three series-connected cells with Eg = 1.44 eV are both expected to give an ηSTH of 6.9%. For four series-connected cells, the maximum ηSTH is slightly less at 6.2% at an optimal Eg = 1.33 eV. Water splitting was performed with series-connected polymer solar cells using polymers with different band gaps. PTPTIBDT-OD (Eg = 1.89 eV), PTB7-Th (Eg = 1.56 eV), and PDPP5T-2 (Eg = 1.44 eV) were blended with [70]PCBM as absorber layer for two, three, and four series-connected configurations, respectively, and provide ηSTH values of 4.1, 6.1, and 4.9% when using a retroreflective foil on top of the cell to enhance light absorption. The reasons for deviations with experiments are analyzed and found to be due to differences in Eg and Eloss. Light-driven electrochemical water splitting was also modeled for multijunction polymer solar cells with vertically stacked photoactive layers. Under identical assumptions, an ηSTH of 10.0% is predicted for multijunction cells.

  8. Single-junction polymer solar cells with high efficiency and photovoltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicai; Xiao, Biao; Liu, Feng; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Yali; Xiao, Steven; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P.; Cao, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Polymer solar cells are an exciting class of next-generation photovoltaics, because they hold promise for the realization of mechanically flexible, lightweight, large-area devices that can be fabricated by room-temperature solution processing. High power conversion efficiencies of ∼10% have already been reported in tandem polymer solar cells. Here, we report that similar efficiencies are achievable in single-junction devices by reducing the tail state density below the conduction band of the electron acceptor in a high-performance photoactive layer made from a newly developed semiconducting polymer with a deepened valence energy level. Control over band tailing is realized through changes in the composition of the active layer and the structure order of the blend, both of which are known to be important factors in cell operation. The approach yields cells with high power conversion efficiencies (∼9.94% certified) and enhanced photovoltage.

  9. All-Polymer Solar Cell Performance Optimized via Systematic Molecular Weight Tuning of Both Donor and Acceptor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Li, Ting I N G; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Guo, Peijun; Liao, Hsueh-Chung; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the number-average molecular weight (Mn) on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of all-polymer solar cells (APSCs) fabricated with the donor polymer poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-1,3-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-5,5-(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thiophene)] (PTPD3T) and acceptor polymer poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2); N2200) is systematically investigated. The Mn effect analysis of both PTPD3T and N2200 is enabled by implementing a polymerization strategy which produces conjugated polymers with tunable Mns. Experimental and coarse-grain modeling results reveal that systematic Mn variation greatly influences both intrachain and interchain interactions and ultimately the degree of phase separation and morphology evolution. Specifically, increasing Mn for both polymers shrinks blend film domain sizes and enhances donor-acceptor polymer-polymer interfacial areas, affording increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc). However, the greater disorder and intermixed feature proliferation accompanying increasing Mn promotes charge carrier recombination, reducing cell fill factors (FF). The optimized photoactive layers exhibit well-balanced exciton dissociation and charge transport characteristics, ultimately providing solar cells with a 2-fold PCE enhancement versus devices with nonoptimal Mns. Overall, it is shown that proper and precise tuning of both donor and acceptor polymer Mns is critical for optimizing APSC performance. In contrast to reports where maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are achieved for the highest Mns, the present two-dimensional Mn optimization matrix strategy locates a PCE "sweet spot" at intermediate Mns of both donor and acceptor polymers. This study provides synthetic methodologies to predictably access conjugated polymers with desired Mn and highlights the importance of optimizing Mn for both polymer

  10. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ~16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

  11. Aqueous Processing of Low-Band-Gap Polymer Solar Cells Using Roll-to-Roll Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    . This enabled slot-die coating of high quality films with a dry thickness of 126 ± 19, 500 ± 25, and 612 ± 22 nm P1, P2, and P3, respectively for polymer solar cells. Large area inverted polymer solar cells were thus prepared based on the aqueous inks. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached for each...... films. The aqueous dispersions were dialyzed to remove excess detergent and concentrated to a solid content of approximately 60 mg mL–1. The formation of films for solar cells using the aqueous dispersion required the addition of the nonionic detergent FSO-100 at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1...

  12. Comparison of the operation of polymer/fullerene, polymer/polymer, and polymer/nanocrystal solar cells: a transient photocurrent and photovoltage study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhe; Gao, Feng; Greenham, Neil C.; McNeill, Christopher R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Ave, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-22

    We utilize transient techniques to directly compare the operation of polymer/fullerene, polymer/nanocrystal, and polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. For all devices, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is used as the electron donating polymer, in combination with either the fullerene derivative phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in polymer/fullerene cells, CdSe nanoparticles in polymer/nanocrystal cells, or the polyfluorene copolymer poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2,2-diyl) (F8TBT) in polymer/polymer cells. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements are used to probe the dynamics of charge-separated carriers, with vastly different dynamic behavior observed for polymer/fullerene, polymer/polymer, and polymer/nanocrystal devices on the microsecond to millisecond timescale. Furthermore, by employing transient photocurrent analysis with different applied voltages we are also able to probe the dynamics behavior of these cells from short circuit to open circuit. P3HT/F8TBT and P3HT/CdSe devices are characterized by poor charge extraction of the long-lived carriers attributed to charge trapping. P3HT/PCBM devices, in contrast, show relatively trap-free operation with the variation in the photocurrent decay kinetics with applied bias at low intensity, consistent with the drift of free charges under a uniform electric field. Under solar conditions at the maximum power point, we see direct evidence of bimolecular recombination in the P3HT/PCBM device competing with charge extraction. Transient photovoltage measurements reveal that, at open circuit, photogenerated charges have similar lifetimes in all device types, and hence, the extraction of these long-lived charges is a limiting process in polymer/nanocrystal and polymer/polymer devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Alternating polyfluorenes collect solar light in polymer photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2009-11-17

    The effort to improve the energy conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells has led to the design of novel donor polymers. To improve open circuit photovoltages (OCVs) and the spectral coverage of the solar spectrum, researchers have looked for materials with high HOMO values, an easily modified electronic structure, and sufficient electronic transport within the polymers. One advance in design from our laboratories has been the development of a class of alternating polyfluorene copolymers (APFOs), which can be combined with fullerenes to make bulk heterojunction materials for photovoltaic conversion. This Account describes copolymers of fluorene that we designed to expand the range the optical absorption of solar cells to include wavelengths out to 1000 nm. In most cases, we combine these polymers with acceptors from the fullerene family, typically the phenyl C(61) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecule, to generate solar cell materials. The synthesis of alternating copolymers of fluorene with various donor-acceptor-donor elements provides the opportunity to shift both HOMO and LUMO, which we have followed by electrochemical spectroscopy. Moving the LUMO of the APFOs farther from the vacuum level eventually leads to a situation where the driving force for photo-induced charge transfer from polymer donor to fullerene acceptor goes to zero, resulting in inefficient charge generation. Moving the HOMO level closer to the vacuum level reduces the OCV of devices made from bulk heterojunction blends. As we move the bandgap toward lower energies and increase the overlap of optical absorption with the solar spectrum, both these events eventually occur. In devices based on these APFO/fullerene blends, the performance depends on the OCV, the photocurrent under solar illumination, and the fill factor. The fill factor is influenced by electrical transport and charge generation. Optimizing these parameters requires new solutions to the perennial conflict between optically

  14. Soiling and Cleaning of Polymer Film Solar Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sansom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the accelerated ageing of commercially available silvered polymer film by contact cleaning using brushes and water in the presence of soiling created by dust and sand particles. These conditions represent cleaning regimes in real concentrating solar power (CSP solar fields in arid environments, where contact cleaning using brushes and water is often required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of these established cleaning processes on the optical and visual characteristics of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. The experiments were repeated using different experimental equipment at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA in Spain and Cranfield University in the UK. The results highlight differences that are attributable to the experimental methods used. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection show that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water, used in a cleaning head with both linear and rotational motion, can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  15. Achieving 15% Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution A - Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT . Use agency-mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of...Photonics, Nature Communications etc. The achievements in Year 2 and 3 are describes below. 1 I. New polymer development, morphology and novel

  16. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    -most cost driving factor due to expensive raw materials and processing. Given the limited lifetime and stability of PSCs as compared with other mature technologies such as silicon-based solar cells, the technological future of PSCs beyond that of academic interests rests in reducing cost of production...

  17. EFRC: Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (stimulus)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is proposing an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) on Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy that will integrate the widely complementary experimental and theoretical expertise of 23 faculty at UMass-Amherst Departments with researchers from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania State University and Konarka Technologies, Inc. Collaborative efforts with researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Bayreuth, Seoul National University and Tohoku University will complement and expand the experimental efforts in the EFRC. Our primary research aim of this EFRC is the development of hybrid polymer-based devices with efficiencies more than twice the current organic-based devices, by combining expertise in the design and synthesis of photoactive polymers, the control and guidance of polymer-based assemblies, leadership in nanostructured polymeric materials, and the theory and modeling of non-equilibrium structures. A primary goal of this EFRC is to improve the collection and conversion efficiency of a broader spectral range of solar energy using the directed self-assembly of polymer-based materials so as to optimize the design and fabrication of inexpensive devices.

  18. Photoresponsive polymer design for solar concentrator self-steering heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jessica; Basnet, Amod; Bhaduri, Moinak; Burch, Caroline; Chow, Amenda; Li, Xue; Oates, William S.; Massad, Jordan E.; Smith, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Concentrating solar energy and transforming it into electricity is clean, economical and renewable. One design of solar power plants consists of an array of heliostats which redirects sunlight to a fixed receiver tower and the generated heat is converted into electricity. Currently, the angles of elevation of heliostats are controlled by motors and drives that are costly and require diverting power that can otherwise be used for producing electricity. We consider replacing the motor and drive system of the heliostat with a photosensitive polymer design that can tilt the mirror using the ability of the polymer to deform when subjected to light. The light causes the underlying molecular structure to change and subsequently, the polymer deforms. The deformation of the polymer is quantified in terms of photostrictive constitutive relations. A mathematical model is derived governing the behaviour of the angle of elevation as the photostrain varies. Photostrain depends on the composition of the polymer, intensity and temperature of light and angle of light polarization. Preliminary findings show a photomechanical rod structural design can provide 60° elevation for temperatures of about 40°C. A photomechanical beam structural design can generate more tilt at lower temperatures. The mathematical analysis illustrates that photostrains on the order of 1% to 10% are desired for both rod and beam designs to produce sufficient tilt under most heliostat field conditions.

  19. Polymer solar cells and infrared light emitting diodes : Dual function low bandgap polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winder, C.; Mühlbacher, D.; Neugebauer, H.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Brabec, C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Conjugated Polymers with a HOMO-LUMO transition <2eV, i.e. a low bandgap, respectively, have interesting and desired properties for some thin film optoelectronic devices like light emitting diodes and solar cells. In this contribution we present the implementation of the novel copolymer PTPTB, consi

  20. Thermo-cleavable solvents for printing conjugated polymers: Application in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hagemann, Ole; Alstrup, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a number of so-called thermo-cleavable solvents are described with their application in all-air, all-solution and all-screen-printed polymer solar cells. These solvents were developed to meet some requirements for printing techniques such as long “open time...

  1. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer....../fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may...

  2. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Gevorgyan, S.; Frausig, J.; Andersen, Rasmus B.; Krebs, F.C.

    2013-03-15

    The key results from the project are: a firmly anchoring of DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology, ProcessOne, at Mekoprint, improved documented operational lifetime for polymer solar modules, and optimized processing of such modules. Mekoprint has worked determinedly to stabilize their production of ProcessOne devices, to prepare for full scale production and to build a marked for polymer solar cells. Work has been invested in improvement of process tolerances, documentation of the production process, training of process operators and roll-to-roll characterization of the produced solar cells. The planned and conducted actions have been summed up in a SIPOC diagram. Mekoprint's communication with potential customers reveals that lowering the cost, increasing the efficiency and operational life time is important for reaching the commercial market. Activities aimed at penetrating the market for lighting products in 3{sup rd} world countries are intensified. A new solar cell laser pointer is developed and a series of 2000 has been produced for the purpose of creating a commercial focus on polymer solar cells. DTU has established a characterization laboratory for organic photovoltaics (CLOP). The laboratory allows for real-time - and accelerated lifetime testing of solar cells both indoor and outdoor, and thus for the development of reliable methods for predicting life-time from accelerated testing. An operational lifetime of 2 years has, by means of the method, been documented for polymer solar modules encapsulated in a food-packaging barrier. Preliminary accelerated measurements on an equivalent device encapsulated in the same barrier, but in two layers, show a five times improvement of the solar cell stability. On basis of this it is considered that five years operational lifetime is within reach. DTU has improved of their OPV production technology by replacing the purchased vacuum-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode by a roll-to-roll processed

  3. Polymer Substrates For Lightweight, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Substrates survive high deposition temperatures. High-temperature-resistant polymers candidate materials for use as substrates of lightweight, flexible, radiation-resistant solar photovoltaic cells. According to proposal, thin films of copper indium diselenide or cadmium telluride deposited on substrates to serve as active semiconductor layers of cells, parts of photovoltaic power arrays having exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios. Flexibility of cells exploited to make arrays rolled up for storage.

  4. Large area perovskite solar cell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longhua; Liang, Lusheng; Wu, Jifeng; Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Fan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of perovskite solar cells has triggered intense research worldwide. However, their practical development is hampered by poor stability and low PCE values with large areas devices. Here, we developed a gas-pumping method to avoid pinholes and eliminate local structural defects over large areas of perovskite film, even for 5 × 5 cm2 modules, the PCE reached 10.6% and no significant degradation was found after 140 days of outdoor testing. Our approach enables the realization of high performance large-area PSCs for practical application.

  5. Development of a Polymer-carbon Nanotubes based Economic Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S. I.; Kissick, John; Spence, Stephen; Boyle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A low cost solar collector was developed by using polymeric components as opposed to metal and glass components of traditional solar collectors. In order to utilize polymers for the absorber of the solar collector, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) has been added as a filler to improve the thermal conductivity and the solar absorptivity of polymers. The solar collector was designed as a multi-layer construction with considering the economic manufacturing. Through the mathematical heat transfer analysis,...

  6. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  7. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  8. METAL-POLYMER SOLAR COLLECTORS WITH MULTICHANNEL ABSORBER FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTIPURPOSE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New modification of liquid-metal-polymer solar collector for solar heating and for creation of multifunctional energy systems on its basis, particularly solar refrigeration systems was developed. A comparative study of several modifications of polymer collectors involving data of a set of foreign researchers was made and high efficiency of the new elaboration was proven.

  9. Highly efficient tandem polymer solar cells with a photovoltaic response in the visible light range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Maojie; Zhao, Kang; Ye, Long; Chen, Yu; Yang, Bei; Hou, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion -efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm.

  10. Split-second nanostructure control of a polymer:fullerene photoactive layer using intensely pulsed white light for highly efficient production of polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Yeon; Hong, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae Whan; Song, Yong-Won; Choi, Won Kook; Lim, Jung Ah

    2014-02-12

    Intensely pulsed white light (IPWL) treatment was tested as an ultrafast, large-area processable optical technique for the control of the nanostructure of a polymeric bulk-heterojunction photoactive layer to improve the efficiencies of polymer solar cells. Only 2 s of IPWL irradiation of a polymer:fullerene photoactive layer under ambient conditions was found to enhance significantly the power conversion efficiencies of the tested polymer solar cells to values approaching that of typical devices treated with thermal annealing. Consecutive white-light pulses from the xenon lamp induce the self-organization of the polymeric donor into an ordered structure and result in the optimized phase segregation of the polymeric donor and the fullerene acceptor in the photoactive layer, which enhances the light absorption and hole mobility and results in efficient photocurrent generation. The effects of varying the pulse conditions on device performance, including the irradiation fluence, pulse duration time, and number of pulses, were systematically investigated. Finally, it was successfully demonstrated that the IPWL treatment produces flexible polymer solar cells. The proposed IPWL process is suitable for the efficient industrial roll-to-roll production of polymer solar cells.

  11. Polymer-Polymer Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Significantly Boosts the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Bharti, Vishal; Kumar, Mahesh; Chand, Suresh; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-24

    Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer-polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells.

  12. Influence of Polymer Coatings on the Carrier Life Time in Solar Silicon Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Steblenko; A.O. Podolyan; O.O. Korotchenkov; L.M. Yashchenko; S.M. Naumenko; D.V. Kalinichenko; Yu.L. Kobzar; A.M. Kuryliuk; V.M. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Influence of polymer coatings on the photovoltage drop kinetics in solar Si crystals exposed to magnetic field action and X-ray irradiation is studied. The features found in the behavior of the electrophysical parameters suggest slowing down the photovoltage drop in the presence of polymer coatings at the surface of solar Si crystals. These features may be due to the influence of polymer coatings to reduce the concentration of recombination centers in crystals solar-Si.

  13. Influence of Polymer Coatings on the Carrier Life Time in Solar Silicon Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Steblenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of polymer coatings on the photovoltage drop kinetics in solar Si crystals exposed to magnetic field action and X-ray irradiation is studied. The features found in the behavior of the electrophysical parameters suggest slowing down the photovoltage drop in the presence of polymer coatings at the surface of solar Si crystals. These features may be due to the influence of polymer coatings to reduce the concentration of recombination centers in crystals solar-Si.

  14. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT), electro......We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT...

  15. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs.

  16. A comparative study of fluorine substituents for enhanced stability of flexible and ITO-free high-performance polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia;

    2014-01-01

    lifetime in flexible large area roll-coated bulk heterojunction solar cells. The two polymer series have different side chains on the BDT unit, namely 2-hexyldecyloxy (BDTHDO) (P1-P3) or 2-hexyldecylthiophene (BDT THD) (P4-P6). The photochemical stability clearly shows that the stability enhances along...... with the number of fluorine atoms incorporated on the polymer backbone. Fabrication of the polymer solar cells based on the materials was carried out in ambient atmosphere on a roll coating/printing machine employing flexible and indium-tin-oxide-free plastic substrates. Solar cells based on the P4-P6 series...

  17. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Charge carrier dissociation and recombination in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibel, Carsten [Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In polymer:fullerene solar cells, the origin of the losses in the field-dependent photocurrent is still controversially debated. We contribute to the ongoing discussion by performing photo-induced charge extraction measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester solar cells in order to investigate the processes ruling charge carrier decay. Calculating the drift length of photogenerated charges, we find that polaron recombination is not limiting the photocurrent for annealed devices. Additionally, we applied Monte Carlo simulations on blends of conjugated polymer chain donors with acceptor molecules in order to gain insight into the polaron pair dissociation. The dissociation yield turns out to be rather high, with only a weak field dependence. With this complementary view on dissociation and recombination, we stress the importance of accounting for polaron pair dissociation, polaron recombination as well as charge extraction when considering the loss mechanisms in organic solar cells. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Rapid flash annealing of thermally reactive copolymers in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2012-01-01

    ). The photonic sintering system was successfully implemented in a full roll-to-roll process on flexible PET substrates and large-area polymer solar cell modules were prepared by solution processing of five layers under ambient conditions using the photonic sintering system for thermocleaving of the active layer...

  20. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  1. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Gevorgyan, Suren; Frausig, Jesper

    of the OPV devices – targets that are import both for niche applications and bulk power production. Besides the work dedicated to solving these three key targets, two more activities have been included in the project; a pre-study on OPV solar parks and an evaluation of the business opportunities arising......The present report refers to the project “Industrialization of polymer solar cells – phase 2”. Both the project and this report build directly upon the prior phase 1 where the basic OPV technology, ProcessOne, was transferred to Mekoprint. This second phase focuses on an anchoring......-scale power production. The project represents thus a crossroad, where Mekoprint and DTU gradually differentiate themselves with respect to applications and therefore also their R&D priorities. The key targets of phase 2 relate to production cost, stabilization of the production and operational lifetime...

  2. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Feron, Krishna; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.

    2014-05-01

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ˜50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  3. Asymmetric Diketopyrrolopyrrole Conjugated Polymers for Field-Effect Transistors and Polymer Solar Cells Processed from a Nonchlorinated Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yunjing; Xiao, Chengyi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Jianqi; Li, Cheng; Wu, Yonggang; Wei, Zhixiang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Zhaohui; Janssen, René A J; Li, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    Newly designed asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated polymers with two different aromatic substituents possess a hole mobility of 12.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in field-effect transistors and a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% in polymer solar cells, when solution processed from a nonchlorinated toluene/diphenyl ether mixed solvent.

  4. The Influence of Conjugated Polymer Side Chain Manipulation on the Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckler, Ilona Maria; Kesters, Jurgen; Defour, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs) can be influenced by the introduction of particular moieties on the conjugated polymer side chains. In this study, two series of donor-acceptor copolymers, based on bis(thienyl)dialkoxybenzene donor and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BT) or thiazolo[5,4-d...

  5. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently transna

  6. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-24

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANNEALING TREATMENT AND POLYMER BLENDS ON I-V CHARACTERISTSICS OF POLYMER SOLAR CELL

    OpenAIRE

    Erlyta Septa Rosa; Shobih Shobih

    2014-01-01

    This research reports on a fabrication of polymer solar cells based on blends of two widely used polymeric semiconductors i.e. poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-para phenylene vinylene) (MDMO-PPV) and the soluble fullerene C60 derivative [6,6 phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] (PCBM). The devices were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. After cleaned and dried, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in H2O was spin coated ont...

  8. High-performance all-polymer solar cells via side-chain engineering of the polymer acceptor: the importance of the polymer packing structure and the nanoscale blend morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Wonho; Kim, Taesu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Woo, Han Young; Wang, Cheng; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-04-17

    The effectiveness of side-chain engineering is demonstrated to produce highly efficient all-polymer solar cells (efficiency of 5.96%) using a series of naphthalene diimide-based polymer acceptors with controlled side chains. The dramatic changes in the polymer packing, blend morphology, and electron mobility of all-polymer solar cells elucidate clear trends in the photovoltaic performances.

  9. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  10. Influence of Side Chain Position on the Electrical Properties of Organic Solar Cells Based on Dithienylbenzothiadiazole-alt-phenylene Conjugated Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Angmo, Dechan

    2015-01-01

    backbone for polymer solar cells. All the polymers were roll slot die coated under ambient conditions on flexible ITO-free plastic substrates to give inverted polymer solar cell devices with an upscaled active area of 1 cm2. The best characteristics were found for the polymer carrying alkoxy side chains...... on the benzene ring where power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.6% were achieved. All studied materials were prepared with an objective of low-cost starting materials, simple synthesis, and simple processing conditions which was most successful for the polymer P5. The polymer P7 containing fluorine atoms...... showed excellent performance under constant illumination and high temperature (exhibiting stable photovoltaic properties even after 670 h under conditions similar to ISOS-L-2 lifetime protocol). This makes P7 a good candidate for further upscaling and device optimization. The photovoltaic performance...

  11. Preparation of active layers in polymer solar cells by aerosol jet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhe; Zhou, Erjun; Miyanishi, Shoji; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Tajima, Keisuke

    2011-10-01

    Active layers of polymer solar cells were prepared by aerosol jet printing of organic inks. Various solvents and additives with high boiling points were screened for the preparation of high-quality polymer films. The effects on device performance of treating the films by thermal and solvent vapor annealing were also investigated. The components of the solvent were important for controlling the drying rate of the liquid films, reducing the number of particle-like protrusions on the film surface, and realizing high molecular ordering in the polymer phases. The optimized solar cell device with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and a C(60) derivative showed a high fill factor of 67% and power conversion efficiency of 2.53% without thermal annealing. The combination of poly[N-9-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-3,6-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,5-diethylhexyl-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-]pyrrole-1,4-dione] and a C(70) derivative led to power conversion efficiency of 3.92 and 3.14% for device areas of 0.03 and 1 cm(2), respectively.

  12. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-06-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied and the resultant performance analysed. Wider stripes give access to higher geometric fill factors and lower aperture loss while they also present larger sheet resistive losses. An optimum was found through preparation of serially connected stripes having widths of 9, 13 and 18 mm with nominal geometric fill factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated with a barrier material in a full roll-to-roll process using standard adhesives giving the devices excellent stability during storage and operation. The total area of processed polymer solar cell was around 60 m2 per run. The solar cells were characterised using a roll-to-roll system comprising a solar simulator and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell modules on this scale at an area cost of 89 euro m(-2) and an electricity cost of 8.1 euro Wp(-1). The cost analysis was separated into the manufacturing cost, materials cost and also the capital investment required for setting up a complete production plant on this scale. Even though the cost in euro Wp(-1) is comparable to the cost for electricity using existing technologies the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is expected to be significantly higher than the existing

  13. Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Duren, J.K.J.

    2004-03-08

    In 2000 polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells reached power conversion efficiencies of < 1%. Improving the performance, stability, and lifetime of bulk-heterojunction solar cells requires more insight in the preparation, and operation of these devices. This thesis discusses the preparation and the morphological and electrical characterization of devices made from MDMO-PPV (poly 2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene), PCBM (1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-methanofullerene), and their mixtures. The understanding of the influence of morphology on the device performance should aid in obtaining insight in the fundamental issues of the bulk-heterojunction concept. Furthermore, new materials are introduced in an attempt to improve performance. In chapter 2, it is shown that bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from MDMO-PPV and PCBM reach power conversion efficiencies of 2.5% under simulated solar light. It is shown for the first time that replacing the orange MDMO-PPV with a low-bandgap conjugated material results in a more red-shifted spectral response of these solar cells. Additionally, in an attempt to control the nanoscale morphology of the photoactive layer, the first example of a covalently linked donor polymer with pendant fullerenes incorporated in working solar cells is reported. The results indicated that more fundamental questions concerning the operation of the device and the influence of morphology must be addressed, before a rational improvement in device performance can be expected. Chapter 3 discusses the influence of morphology on transport in disordered organic semiconductors. Morphological investigations on films of PCBM and several PPVs are combined with the analysis of charge-carrier-mobility data. The morphological disorder observed in the PCBM films is in agreement with its charge-transport properties. Imaging individual conjugated polymer chains and aggregates on cast films with scanning force

  14. Photoconductive Cathode Interlayer for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Li; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhu, Na; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Wu, Hongbin; Würthner, Frank; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-06-10

    A highly photoconductive cathode interlayer was achieved by doping a 1 wt % light absorber, such as perylene bisimide, into a ZnO thin film, which absorbs a very small amount of light but shows highly increased conductivity of 4.50 × 10(-3) S/m under sunlight. Photovoltaic devices based on this kind of photoactive cathode interlayer exhibit significantly improved device performance, which is rather insensitive to the thickness of the cathode interlayer over a broad range. Moreover, a power conversion efficiency as high as 10.5% was obtained by incorporation of our photoconductive cathode interlayer with the PTB7-Th:PC71BM active layer, which is one of the best results for single-junction polymer solar cells.

  15. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the performance in terms of power conversion efficiency and operational stability for polymer and organic solar cells is rapidly approaching the key 10–10 targets (10 % efficiency and 10 years of stability the quest for efficient, scalable, and rational processing methods has begun. The 10–10 targets are being approached through consistent laboratory research efforts, which coupled with early commercial efforts have resulted in a fast moving research field and the dawning of a new industry. We review the roll-to-roll processing techniques required to bring the magnificent 10–10 targets into reality, using quick methods with low environmental impact and low cost. We also highlight some new targets related to processing speed, materials, and environmental impact.

  16. Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells Based on Liquid Crystal Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid crystal (LC reflectors on semitransparent polymer solar cells (PSCs were investigated in this paper. By improving the cathode, we manufactured semitransparent PSCs based on the conventional PSCs. We then incorporated the LC reflector into the semitransparent PSCs, which increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE from 2.11% to 2.71%. Subsequently adjusting the concentration and spinning speed of the active layer material changed its thickness. The maximum light absorption for the active layer was obtained using the optimum thickness, and the PCE eventually reached 3.01%. These results provide a reference for selecting LC reflectors that are suitable for different active layer materials to improve the PCE of semitransparent PSCs.

  17. Perovskite/polymer solar cells prepared using solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, E. S.; Shobih; Nursam, N. M.; Saputri, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    We report a simple solution-based process to fabricate a perovskite/polymer tandem solar cell using inorganic CH3NH3PM3 as an absorber and organic PCBM (6,6 phenyl C61- butyric acid methyl ester) as an electron transport layer. The absorber solution was prepared by mixing the CH3NH3I (methyl ammonium iodide) with PbI2 (lead iodide) in DMF (N,N- dimethyl formamide) solvent. The absorber and electron transport layer were deposited by spin coating method. The electrical characteristics generated from the cell under 50 mW/cm2 at 25 °C comprised of an open circuit voltage of 0.31 V, a short circuit current density of 2.53 mA/cm2, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.42%.

  18. Airbrush Spray Coating of Amorphous Titanium Dioxide for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca La Notte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main topics of organic photovoltaics manufacturing is the need for simple, low cost, and large area compatible techniques. Solution-based processes are the best candidates to achieve this aim. Among these, airbrush spray coating has successfully applied to deposit both active and PEDOT layers of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. However, this technique is not yet sufficiently studied for interfacial layers (electron and hole transporting layers or optical spacers. In this paper, we show that amorphous titanium dioxide ( films, obtained with an airbrush from a solution of titanium (IV isopropoxide diluted in isopropanol, are successfully deposited on glass and PET substrates. Good surface covering results from the coalescence of droplets after optimizing the spray coating system. Simple inverted polymer solar cells are fabricated using as electron transporting layer obtaining encouraging electrical performances (% on glass/FTO and 0.7% on PET/ITO substrates.

  19. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woosum [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Wook, E-mail: jlee@donga.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Gal, Yeong-Soon [Polymer Chemistry Lab, College of General Education, Kyungil University, Hayang 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Ra, E-mail: mrkim2@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Ho, E-mail: shjin@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I{sub 2}), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}, 10.75 mA cm{sup −2}) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte.

  20. Donor-acceptor conjugated polymers based on multifused ladder-type arenes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jhong-Sian; Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chain-Shu

    2015-03-07

    Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight flexible substrates by solution processing at a lower cost. PSCs based on the concept of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration where an active layer comprises a composite of a p-type (donor) and an n-type (acceptor) material represents the most useful strategy to maximize the internal donor-acceptor interfacial area allowing for efficient charge separation. Fullerene derivatives such as [6,6]-phenyl-C61 or 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the ideal n-type materials ubiquitously used for BHJ solar cells. The major effort to develop photoactive materials is numerously focused on the p-type conjugated polymers which are generally synthesized by polymerization of electron-rich donor and electron-deficient acceptor monomers. Compared to the development of electron-deficient comonomers (acceptor segments), the development of electron-rich donor materials is considerably flourishing. Forced planarization by covalently fastening adjacent aromatic and heteroaromatic subunits leads to the formation of ladder-type conjugated structures which are capable of elongating effective conjugation, reducing the optical bandgap, promoting intermolecular π-π interactions and enhancing intrinsic charge mobility. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the development of various well-defined new ladder-type conjugated materials. These materials serve as the superb donor monomers to prepare a range of donor-acceptor semi-ladder copolymers with sufficient solution-processability for solar cell applications.

  1. Hybrid solar cells of conjugated polymers metal-oxide nanocrystals blends; state of the art and future research challenges in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiar, Ayi

    2013-09-01

    Ever-increasing world energy demand, depleting non-renewable energy resources and disruptive climate change due to greenhouse gases has aroused much interest in alternative renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of the best available alternatives, for it is both abundant and clean. Solar cell is an effective device for converting solar energy into electricity. Indonesia is located on the equator where the sunlight is always available in abundance throughout the year; therefore solar cell would become the main source of electrical energy in Indonesia. However, the high cost of inorganic solar cells in spite of their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been a major constrain for their mass utilization in Indonesia. The only way to reduce the cost of production and installation is to find other materials which offer low-cost and easy processing into solar cells. Polymer solar cells have been intensively investigated for high performance and low-cost solar cells. Today, 9-11% power conversion efficiency (PCE) of small area polymer solar cells and 2-4% PCE of large area or module solar cells are already achieved. However, for practical application and mass production, 10% or higher PCE of module solar cells is highly required. The main strategic issue for improving the PCE is to use blend of conjugated polymer-metal oxide nanocrystals as active materials for hybrid solar cells, due to the good combination of the versatile solution processability of conjugated polymers and high charge carrier mobility of metal-oxide nanocrystals. In this paper, current development of hybrid solar cells worldwide and future research challenges in Indonesia will be discussed.

  2. Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Claire H.

    2010-11-10

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of the first examples of furan-containing low band-gap polymers, PDPP2FT and PDPP3F, with substantial power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells are reported. Inserting furan moieties in the backbone of the conjugated polymers enables the use of relatively small solubilizing side chains because of the significant contribution of the furan rings to overall polymer solubility in common organic solvents. Bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated from furan-containing polymers and PC71BM as the acceptor showed power conversion efficiencies reaching 5.0%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Parameter study for polymer solar modules based on various cell lengths and light intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Burgers, A.R.; Bende, E.E.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Veenstra, S.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, P63, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Polymer solar cells may be applied in portable electronic devices, where light intensity and spectral distribution of the illuminating source can be very different compared to outdoor applications. As the power output of solar cells depends on temperature, light intensity and spectrum, the design of the module must be optimized for the specific illumination conditions in the different applications. The interconnection area between cells in a module must be as narrow as possible to maximize the active area, also called geometrical fill factor, of the module. Laser scribing has the potential to realize this. The optimal width of the interconnection zone depends both on technological limitations, e.g. laser scribe width and the minimal distance between scribes, and electrical limitations like resistive losses. The latter depends on the generated current in the cell and thus also on illumination intensity. Besides that, also the type of junction, i.e. a single or tandem junction, will influence the optimal geometry. In this paper a calculation model is presented that can be used for electrical modeling of polymer cells and modules in order to optimize the performance for the specific illumination conditions.

  4. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers with Thienyl and Thiazolyl Linkers for Application in Field-Effect Transistors and Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yaping; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Andong; Li, Cheng; Tang, Zheng; Ma, Wei; Wu, Yonggang; Li, Weiwei

    2016-11-09

    Conjugated polymers consisting of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units have been successfully applied in field-effect transistors (FETs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs), while most of the DPP polymers were designed as symmetric structures containing identical aromatic linkers. In this manuscript, we design a new asymmetric DPP polymer with varied aromatic linkers in the backbone for application in FETs and PSCs. The designation provides the chance to finely adjust the energy levels of conjugated polymers so as to influence the device performance. The asymmetric polymer exhibits highly crystalline properties, high hole mobilities of 3.05 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in FETs, and a high efficiency of 5.9% in PSCs with spectra response from 300 to 850 nm. Morphology investigation demonstrates that the asymmetric polymer has a large crystal domain in blended thin films, indicating that the solar cell performance can be further enhanced by optimizing the microphase separation. The study reveals that the asymmetric design via adjusting the aromatic linkers in DPP polymers is a useful route toward flexible electronic devices.

  5. Thermocleavable Materials for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage-A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2009-01-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3......MHOCT) and unsubstituted polythiophene (PT) were used, the latter of which results from thermo cleaving the former at 310 °C. As reference, P3HT solar cells were built in parallel. As electron acceptors, either PCBM or bis-[60]PCBM were used. In excess of 300 solar cells were produced under as identical...

  6. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  7. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichko D. Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  8. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko

    2016-01-13

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  9. Mapping Polymer Donors toward High-Efficiency Fullerene Free Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuze; Zhao, Fuwen; Wu, Yang; Chen, Kai; Xia, Yuxin; Li, Guangwu; Prasad, Shyamal K K; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huo, Lijun; Bin, Haijun; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Sun, Yanming; Gao, Feng; Wei, Zhixiang; Ma, Wei; Wang, Chunru; Hodgkiss, Justin; Bo, Zhishan; Inganäs, Olle; Li, Yongfang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Five polymer donors with distinct chemical structures and different electronic properties are surveyed in a planar and narrow-bandgap fused-ring electron acceptor (IDIC)-based organic solar cells, which exhibit power conversion efficiencies of up to 11%.

  10. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  11. A Novel Thiophene Derivative-based Conjugated Polymer for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open-circuit Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌烈; 沈星星; 陈义旺

    2012-01-01

    A novel D-A alternative conjugated polymer PBDTDMCT containing benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and dimethyl thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate (DMCT), was designed and synthesized by Stille cross-coupling reaction. The copolymer exhibited excellent solubility and good thermal stability. The optical band gap determined from the onset of absorption of the polymer film was 2.10 eV. By incorporation of the ester groups into the polymer side chain, the HOMO level of polymer PBDTDMT was tuned to be deep-lying (--5.65 eV). Open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells constructed based on PBDTDMT and [6,6]-phenyl-CTwbutyric acid methyl ester (PCTIBM) can be tuned to achieve values as high as ca. 1.0 V.

  12. Aesthetically pleasing conjugated polymer:fullerene blends for blue-green solar cells via roll-to-roll processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amb, Chad M; Craig, Michael R; Koldemir, Unsal; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Gevorgyan, Suren A; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; So, Franky; Reynolds, John R

    2012-03-01

    The practical application of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells requires high throughput printing techniques in order to attain cells with an area large enough to provide useful amounts of power. However, in the laboratory screening of new materials for OPVs, spin-coating is used almost exclusively as a thin-film deposition technique due its convenience. We report on the significant differences between the spin-coating of laboratory solar cells and slot-die coating of a blue-green colored, low bandgap polymer (PGREEN). This is one of the first demonstrations of slot-die-coated polymer solar cells OPVs not utilizing poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends as a light absorbing layer. Through synthetic optimization, we show that strict protocols are necessary to yield polymers which achieve consistent photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated spin-coated laboratory scale OPV devices with PGREEN: PCBM blends as active light absorbing layers, and compare performance to slot die-coated individual solar cells, and slot-die-coated solar modules consisting of many cells connected in series. We find that the optimum ratio of polymer to PCBM varies significantly when changing from spin-coating of thinner active layer films to slot-die coating, which requires somewhat thicker films. We also demonstrate the detrimental impacts on power conversion efficiency of high series resistance imparted by large electrodes, illustrating the need for higher conductivity contacts, transparent electrodes, and high mobility active layer materials for large-area solar cell modules.

  13. Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Han, Mi-Young

    2009-08-03

    We present the results of a study of flat and uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layers that were produced by a simple pre-metered horizontal-dipping process for the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It is shown that this process can produce high quality and thin films by utilizing the downstream meniscus of the solution, which can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters of the gap height and the carrying speed. It is also shown that the produced PV film exhibits high power conversion efficiency of ca. 4.2% with a large active area. It was demonstrated that this pre-metered process for solution coating may be promising for achieving highly efficient, reliable, and large-area PSCs.

  14. New Insights Into Dye-sensitized Solar Cells With Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nei De Freitas J.; Nogueira A.F.; De Paoli M.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes or gel polymer electrolytes are interesting alternatives to substitute liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The interest in this research field is growing continuously, reflected in the increase in the number of papers published each year concerning these materials. This feature article presents a brief review of the history and development of polymer electrolytes aiming at applications in DSSC. Recent improvements achieved by modifications of the com...

  15. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  16. Donor polymer design enables efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengke; Jiang, Kui; Yang, Guofang; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Ma, Tingxuan; Zhao, Jingbo; Ma, Wei; Yan, He

    2016-10-01

    To achieve efficient organic solar cells, the design of suitable donor-acceptor couples is crucially important. State-of-the-art donor polymers used in fullerene cells may not perform well when they are combined with non-fullerene acceptors, thus new donor polymers need to be developed. Here we report non-fullerene organic solar cells with efficiencies up to 10.9%, enabled by a novel donor polymer that exhibits strong temperature-dependent aggregation but with intentionally reduced polymer crystallinity due to the introduction of a less symmetric monomer unit. Our comparative study shows that an analogue polymer with a C2 symmetric monomer unit yields highly crystalline polymer films but less efficient non-fullerene cells. Based on a monomer with a mirror symmetry, our best donor polymer exhibits reduced crystallinity, yet such a polymer matches better with small molecular acceptors. This study provides important insights to the design of donor polymers for non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  17. Donor polymer design enables efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengke; Jiang, Kui; Yang, Guofang; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Ma, Tingxuan; Zhao, Jingbo; Ma, Wei; Yan, He

    2016-10-26

    To achieve efficient organic solar cells, the design of suitable donor-acceptor couples is crucially important. State-of-the-art donor polymers used in fullerene cells may not perform well when they are combined with non-fullerene acceptors, thus new donor polymers need to be developed. Here we report non-fullerene organic solar cells with efficiencies up to 10.9%, enabled by a novel donor polymer that exhibits strong temperature-dependent aggregation but with intentionally reduced polymer crystallinity due to the introduction of a less symmetric monomer unit. Our comparative study shows that an analogue polymer with a C2 symmetric monomer unit yields highly crystalline polymer films but less efficient non-fullerene cells. Based on a monomer with a mirror symmetry, our best donor polymer exhibits reduced crystallinity, yet such a polymer matches better with small molecular acceptors. This study provides important insights to the design of donor polymers for non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  18. Conducting polymer coatings in electrochemical technology: part 2 – application areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce De Leon, Carlos; Campbell, Sheelagh; Smith, James; Walsh, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Conducting polymers can combine the electronic characteristics of metals with the engineering properties of polymers. Polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyaniline (PAni) are common examples of conducting polymers which can be electrodeposited from their respective heterocyclic monomers. The applications of these and other electrodeposited polymer materials are considered in this review. Application areas include electronic and optical materials, sensors, bioimplants, actuators and c...

  19. Describing the light intensity dependence of polymer : fullerene solar cells using an adapted Shockley diode model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L. H.; Veenstra, S. C.; Kroon, J. M.; Verhees, W.; Koster, L. J. A.; Galagan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells are generally optimised for operation under AM1.5 100 mW cm(-2) conditions. This is also typically done for polymer solar cells. However, one of the entry markets for this emerging technology is portable electronics. For this market, the spectral shape and intensity of typical illuminati

  20. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2015-08-10

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  2. Blade-coated sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide for inverted polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yan-Huei; Tsai, Pei-Ting; Chang, Chia-Ju; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Liu, Hung-Chuan; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Yeh, Han-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    The inverted organic solar cell was fabricated by using sol-gel indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) as the electron-transport layer. The IGZO precursor solution was deposited by blade coating with simultaneous substrate heating at 120 °C from the bottom and hot wind from above. Uniform IGZO film of around 30 nm was formed after annealing at 400 °C. Using the blend of low band-gap polymer poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b')dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt- (4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno [3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-C-T) and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) as the active layer for the inverted organic solar cell, an efficiency of 6.2% was achieved with a blade speed of 180 mm/s for the IGZO. The efficiency of the inverted organic solar cells was found to depend on the coating speed of the IGZO films, which was attributed to the change in the concentration of surface OH groups. Compared to organic solar cells of conventional structure using PBDTTT-C-T: [70]PCBM as active layer, the inverted organic solar cells showed significant improvement in thermal stability. In addition, the chemical composition, as well as the work function of the IGZO film at the surface and inside can be tuned by the blade speed, which may find applications in other areas like thin-film transistors.

  3. Low band gap polymers for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of copolymers based on thiophene, benzothiadiazole and benzo-bis-thiadiazole are described. The polymers were obtained by employing Stille cross coupling polymerization. The polymers were characterized by NMR, size exclusion chromatography, UV-vis and ultraviolet photoelectron...

  4. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    -chemical degradation of the active layer materials. The second part details the building of an automated setup for stability tests and presents results on thickness and absorbance dependence of the photo-chemical stability, acceptor stability, and the influence of intrinsic polymer parameters on stability......The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells...... will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand...

  5. `Inorganics-in-Organics': recent developments and outlook for 4G polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, K. D. G. Imalka; Rozanski, Lynn J.; Mills, Chris A.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Nismy, N. Aamina; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2013-08-01

    Recent developments in solution processable single junction polymer solar cells have led to a significant improvement in power conversion efficiencies from ~5% to beyond 9%. While much of the initial efficiency improvements were driven through judicious design of donor polymers, it is the engineering of device architectures through the incorporation of inorganic nanostructures and better processing that has continued the efficiency gains. Inorganic nano-components such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives, metal nanoparticles and metal oxides have played a central role in improving device performance and longevity beyond those achieved by conventional 3G polymer solar cells. The present work aims to summarise the diverse roles played by the nanosystems and features in state of the art next generation (4G) polymer solar cells. The challenges associated with the engineering of such devices for future deployment are also discussed.

  6. Structure-property relationships of small bandgap conjugated polymers for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Stefan; Zhang, Fengling; Inganäs, Olle; Andersson, Mats R

    2009-12-01

    Conjugated polymers as electron donors in solar cells based on donor/acceptor combinations are of great interest, partly due to the possibility of converting solar light with a low materials budget. Six small bandgap polymers with optical bandgap ranging from 1.0-1.9 eV are presented in this paper. All polymers utilize an electron donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) segment in the polymer backbone, creating a partial charge-transfer, to decrease the bandgap. The design, synthesis and the optical characteristics as well as the solar cell characteristics of the polymers are discussed. The positions of the energy levels of the conjugated polymer relative to the electron acceptor are of significant importance and determine not only the driving force for exciton dissociation but also the maximum open-circuit voltage. This work also focuses on investigating the redox behavior of the described conjugated polymers and electron acceptors using square wave voltammetry. Comparing the electrochemical data gives important information of the structure-property relationships of the polymers.

  7. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C K; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ∼90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANNEALING TREATMENT AND POLYMER BLENDS ON I-V CHARACTERISTSICS OF POLYMER SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research reports on a fabrication of polymer solar cells based on blends of two widely used polymeric semiconductors i.e. poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy-para phenylene vinylene (MDMO-PPV and the soluble fullerene C60 derivative [6,6 phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] (PCBM. The devices were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate. After cleaned and dried, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS in H2O was spin coated onto the freshly prepared substrate and then dried in a vacuum oven at 120°C for 60 minutes. A blend of MDMO-PPV and PCBM in chlorobenzene was spin coated on the top and dried in a nitrogen ambient at room temperature for 24 hours. The devices were transferred to a sputtering system where an aluminum was coated. Some of the devices then were annealed in a vacuum oven at 60°C for 60 minutes. Finally, the devices were encapsulated by placing a sealant between the back of the devices and glass slides and then cured in a vacuum oven at temperature 100°C for 10 minutes. For characterization, the devices were illuminated with a xenon lamp at the intensity of 27 mW/cm2 and the temperature at approximately 25°C. The influence of the annealing treatment and polymer blends on the photovoltaic performance of the devices was also discussed here. The best performance was obtained from the device with a blend ratio of 1:1 MDMO-PPV/PCBM without annealing treatment. The typical power efficiency was 0.01% with open circuit voltage of 0.347 V, short circuit current of 0.064 mA, and maximum power of 0.006 mW.

  9. Incorporation of ester groups into low band-gap diketopyrrolopyrrole containing polymers for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiaolian; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei

    2012-01-01

    To increase the open circuit voltage (VOC) of polymer solar cells based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) containing polymers, the weakly electron-withdrawing thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate unit was introduced into the polymer backbone. Two ester group functionalized DPP containing polymers, PCTDPP...... that regular PDCTDPP's HOMO energy level is 0.18 V lower than that of the corresponding random PCTDPP (−5.14 eV for PCTDPP and −5.32 eV for PDCTDPP). Preliminary photovoltaic properties of the copolymers blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as an electron acceptor were investigated...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of quinoxaline-based polymers for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathula, Chinna [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Eun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Instituted of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305–701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo-Hyung [Department of Chemistry, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420–743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaemin; Badgujar, Sachin; Koti, Rajesh [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In-Nam [Department of Chemistry, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420–743 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Won Suk [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Taek, E-mail: taekahn@ks.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kyungsung University, Busan 608–736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Cheol [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Jin, E-mail: moonsj@krict.re.kr [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kyu, E-mail: skyulee@krict.re.kr [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305–600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-30

    A series of quinoxaline (Qx)-based copolymers, poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dibenzosilole)-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P1), poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P2), and poly[4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]silole-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P3), were synthesized and characterized for use in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We describe the effects of the various donor segments on the optical, electrochemical, field-effect carrier mobilities, and photovoltaic characteristics of the resulting Qx-based copolymers. The results indicated that the donor units in the copolymers significantly influenced the band gap, electronic energy levels, carrier mobilities, and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers. The band gaps of the copolymers were 1.71–2.03 eV. Under optimized conditions, the Qx-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencies for the PSCs of 0.87–2.15% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). Among the studied Qx-based copolymers, P2, which contained a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene unit, showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.15% with a short circuit current of 7.06 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, and a fill factor of 0.46, under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). - Highlights: • A series of quinoxaline (Qx)-based copolymers were synthesized. • We described the effects of the donor segments on photovoltaic characteristics. • The Qx-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencys in the range 0.87–2.15%.

  11. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2012-01-01

    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...... included water, alcohols and chlorobenzene. Open-circuit voltages close to the expected sum of sub cell voltages were achieved, while the overall efficiency of the tandem cells was found to be limited by the low yielding back cell, which was processed from water based ink. Many of the challenges associated...... with upscaling the multilayer tandem cells were identified giving valuable information for future experiments and development....

  12. All-Solution-Processed, Ambient Method for ITO-Free, Roll-Coated Tandem Polymer Solar Cells using Solution- Processed Metal Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks;

    2014-01-01

    A solution-processed silver film is employed in the processing of top-illuminated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells in single- and double-junction (tandem) structures. The nontransparent silver film fully covers the substrate and serves as the bottom electrode whereas a PEDOT......-effective in comparison to other reported metal films applied in polymer solar cells. Such properties result in high fill factors exceeding 50% in both single and tandem structures on large-area devices (1 cm2) and the corresponding efficiencies exceed 2%....

  13. Perovskite Solar Cells with Large-Area CVD-Graphene for Tandem Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Felix; Gluba, Marc A; Albrecht, Steve; Rappich, Jörg; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Nickel, Norbert H

    2015-07-16

    Perovskite solar cells with transparent contacts may be used to compensate for thermalization losses of silicon solar cells in tandem devices. This offers a way to outreach stagnating efficiencies. However, perovskite top cells in tandem structures require contact layers with high electrical conductivity and optimal transparency. We address this challenge by implementing large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition as a highly transparent electrode in perovskite solar cells, leading to identical charge collection efficiencies. Electrical performance of solar cells with a graphene-based contact reached those of solar cells with standard gold contacts. The optical transmission by far exceeds that of reference devices and amounts to 64.3% below the perovskite band gap. Finally, we demonstrate a four-terminal tandem device combining a high band gap graphene-contacted perovskite top solar cell (Eg = 1.6 eV) with an amorphous/crystalline silicon bottom solar cell (Eg = 1.12 eV).

  14. Design Principles in Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Solar Cells: PBDTTPD as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-06-29

    Among Organic Electronics, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM.[1] In recent years, great headway has been made in the development of efficient polymer donors across the community, with published power conversion efficiencies (PCE) >8% in single cells and >10% in tandems. In most reports, these systems involve elaborate repeat unit and side chain patterns, and deviating from those patterns induces substantial drops in device PCE. While the range of polymer design parameters that impact BHJ solar cell performance remains a matter of some debate, our recent developments indicate that the combination of side-chain substituents appended to the main chain critically impacts polymer performance. For example, in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD), side-chain substituents of various size and branching impart distinct molecular packing distances (i.e., π–π stacking and lamellar spacing), varying degrees of nanostructural order in thin films, and preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate.[2-5] While these structural variations seem to correlate with BHJ solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 4% to 8.5%,[2,3] we believe that other contributing parameters – such as the local conformations between the polymer and the fullerene, and the domain distribution/composition across the BHJ (i.e., pure/mixed phases) – should also be taken into account.[6,7] Other discrete modifications of PBDTTPD’s molecular structure affect polymer performance in BHJ solar cells with PCBM, and our recent developments emphasize how systematic structure-property relationship studies impact the design of efficient polymer donors for BHJ solar cell applications.[8-10] It is important to further our understanding of these effects as we look to continue improving BHJ solar

  15. Polymer solar cells. Morphology-property-correlation; Polymere Solarzellen. Morphologie-Eigenschafts-Korrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, Tobias

    2008-09-22

    The aim of the presented dissertation is to clarify open questions concerning the development and control of the morphology in the active layer of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The new findings hereby derived shall modify the existing models of the active layer morphology as found in today's literature. The experimental investigations were performed by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition to those methods, light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were applied to investigate three chosen material systems: P3HT/PCBM-C{sub 60}, P3HT/MDHE-C{sub 60}, and P3HT/(MDHE){sub 2}-C{sub 60}. On the basis of experimental results a morphological model is developed, which is discussed in the context of existing literature. The solar cells were electrically characterised by current-voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. The structural model is set into relation with photovoltaic parameters of the polymer solar cell, such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency. This contributes to the explanation and analysis of the electrical properties of the organic solar cell as a device. In summary, this work yields morphology-property-relations that are able to explain the interaction between physical properties, such as light absorption, charge carrier generation, and transport, with the morphology present within the active layer. Finally, the three investigated systems are compared and evaluated with respect to their applicability in polymer solar cells. Further on, the morphology-propertyrelations are used to develop a strategy to estimate the suitability of new twocomponent polymer-fullerene donor-acceptor systems for polymer solar cells. Based on these findings it becomes possible to evaluate the optimization potential for new materials. In conclusion, this helps to develop polymer solar cells with increased power conversion

  16. Silver clusters insert into polymer solar cell for enhancing light absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Li; Hongyu Zhen; Zhuoyin Huang; Kan Li; Weidong Shen; Xu Liu

    2012-01-01

    As an employment of surface plasmonic effect,the consequence of insertion of a layer of Ag clusters into polymer solar cell on the enhancement of light absorption and power conversion efficiency is investigated.Optical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is performed with experiments to evaluate the effect of the interaction between the Ag clusters and incident light on light absorption in polymer solar cell Ag clusters modify the light wave vector and the electromagnetic field inside the device is redistributed and enhanced.As a result,polymer solar cells achieve an overall increase in absorption,short-circuit current density,and power conversion efficiency.

  17. Photocurrent enhancement from diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer solar cells through alkyl-chain branching point manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Iain; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Mollinger, Sonya; Schroeder, Bob C; Bronstein, Hugo; Beatrup, Daniel; Vezie, Michelle S; Kirchartz, Thomas; Salleo, Alberto; Nelson, Jenny; McCulloch, Iain

    2013-08-07

    Systematically moving the alkyl-chain branching position away from the polymer backbone afforded two new thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPPTT-T) polymers. When used as donor materials in polymer:fullerene solar cells, efficiencies exceeding 7% were achieved without the use of processing additives. The effect of the position of the alkyl-chain branching point on the thin-film morphology was investigated using X-ray scattering techniques and the effects on the photovoltaic and charge-transport properties were also studied. For both solar cell and transistor devices, moving the branching point further from the backbone was beneficial. This is the first time that this effect has been shown to improve solar cell performance. Strong evidence is presented for changes in microstructure across the series, which is most likely the cause for the photocurrent enhancement.

  18. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli, E-mail: tgl@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Lingyu [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian National Laboratory of Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jianzhang@guet.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  19. Unraveling the effect of polymer dots doping in inverted low bandgap organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; He, Yeyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Li, Hao; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-06-28

    In this study, molecular doping with polymer dots was designed to unravel its effect on the photoconductivity in organic solar cells. The photocurrent in organic solar cells exhibited a considerable increase under optimal doping concentration, leading to an ultimate enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 2.30% to 3.64%. This can be attributed primarily to the improvement of the initial boost in charge carriers due to the background carriers induced by the polymer dots and increased tail absorption by the active layer. Based on single carrier device and impedance measurements, polymer dopant can efficiently decrease charge recombination and improve charge carriers mobilities. The obtained achievements pave an approach of molecular doping in affecting the operation of organic solar cells.

  20. Applicability of X-ray reflectometry to studies of polymer solar cell degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Gevorgyan, Suren; Schleputz, C.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Although degradation of polymer solar cells is widely acknowledged, the cause, physical or chemical, has not been identified. The purpose of this work is to determine the applicability of X-ray reflectometry for in situ observation of physical degradation mechanisms. We find that the rough interf...... interfaces of the polymer solar cell constituent layers seriously obstruct the sensitivity of the technique, rendering it impossible to elucidate changes in the layer/interface structure at the sub-nanometer level. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Although degradation of polymer solar cells is widely acknowledged, the cause, physical or chemical, has not been identified. The purpose of this work is to determine the applicability of X-ray reflectometry for in situ observation of physical degradation mechanisms. We find that the rough...

  1. Optimization of polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Changneng; WANG Miao; ZHOU Xiaowen; LIN Yuan; FANG Shibi; LI Xueping; XIAO Xuri; CEN Kuang

    2004-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on polymer electrolytes consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with the additions of nano-TiO2 and ionic liquid of MPII (1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide) were studied. By using a composite polymer electrolyte of PEO:LiI:TiO2:MPII:I2 = 3:3:3:7:1 (in mol ratio), the solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.2% under 100 Mw·cm-2 was obtained, which was 8 times higher than that of the cell using polymer electrolyte without any additives. The effect of the additives was attributed to the increase of ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes.

  2. Bithiophene imide and benzodithiophene copolymers for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Li, Shiqiang; Chang, Robert P.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center, the Materials Research Center, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois, 60208 (United States); Guo, Xugang; Ortiz, Rocio Ponce; Zhang, Shiming; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J. [Department of Chemistry, the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois, 60208 (United States)

    2012-05-02

    Bithiophene imide (BTI) and benzodithiophene (BDT) copolymers are synthesized for application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The electron deficiency of the BTI units leads to polymers with a low-lying HOMOs ({proportional_to}-5.6 eV). Inverted solar cells are fabricated to investigate the OPV performance of the BTI-based polymers and achieve power conversion efficiencies up to 5.5%, with substantial V{sub oc}s above 0.9 V which are among the highest V{sub oc}s reported to date for polymer/PCBM solar cells. The results indicate that the BTI is a promising building block for constructing polymer donors for OPV applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Indium tin oxide nanopillar electrodes in polymer/fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, David A; Tucker, Ryan T; Worfolk, Brian J; Krause, Kathleen M; Lalany, Abeed; Brett, Michael J; Buriak, Jillian M; Harris, Kenneth D

    2011-02-25

    Using high surface area nanostructured electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is a route to enhanced power conversion efficiency. In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) and hybrid ITO/SiO(2) nanopillars are employed as three-dimensional high surface area transparent electrodes in OPVs. The nanopillar arrays are fabricated via glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and electrochemically modified with nanofibrous PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(p-styrenesulfonate)). The structures are found to have increased surface area as characterized by porosimetry. When applied as anodes in polymer/fullerene OPVs (architecture: commercial ITO/GLAD ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al, where P3HT is 2,5-diyl-poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM is [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester), the air-processed solar cells incorporating high surface area, PEDOT:PSS-modified ITO nanoelectrode arrays operate with improved performance relative to devices processed identically on unstructured, commercial ITO substrates. The resulting power conversion efficiency is 2.2% which is a third greater than for devices prepared on commercial ITO. To further refine the structure, insulating SiO(2) caps are added above the GLAD ITO nanopillars to produce a hybrid ITO/SiO(2) nanoelectrode. OPV devices based on this system show reduced electrical shorting and series resistance, and as a consequence, a further improved power conversion efficiency of 2.5% is recorded.

  4. Ultraflexible polymer solar cells using amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide transparent electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Buchholz, Donald B; Zhu, Guang; Yu, Xinge; Lin, Hui; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-02-01

    Polymer solar cells are fabricated on highly conductive, transparent amorphous zinc indium tin oxide (a-ZITO) electrodes. For two representative active layer donor polymers, P3HT and PTB7, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are comparable to reference devices using polycrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Benefitting from the amorphous character of a-ZITO, the new devices are highly flexible and can be repeatedly bent to a radius of 5 mm without significant PCE reduction.

  5. Anthracene-containing wide-band-gap conjugated polymers for high-open-circuit-voltage polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Li, Guangwu; Mei, Qiang; Fang, Tao; Bo, Zhishan

    2013-07-25

    The synthesis, characterization, and photophysical and photovoltaic properties of two anthracene-containing wide-band-gap donor and acceptor (D-A) alternating conjugated polymers (P1 and P2) are described. These two polymers absorb in the range of 300-600 nm with a band gap of about 2.12 eV. Polymer solar cells with P1:PC71 BM as the active layer demonstrate a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.23% with a high Voc of 0.96 V, a Jsc of 4.4 mA cm(-2) , and a comparable fill factor (FF) of 0.53 under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 G (100 mW cm(-2) ). In addition, P2:PC71 BM blend-based solar cells exhibit a PCE of 1.42% with a comparable Voc of 0.89 V, a Jsc of 3.0 mA cm(-2) , and an FF of 0.53.

  6. The Influence of Conjugated Polymer Side Chain Manipulation on the Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona M. Heckler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs can be influenced by the introduction of particular moieties on the conjugated polymer side chains. In this study, two series of donor-acceptor copolymers, based on bis(thienyldialkoxybenzene donor and benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BT or thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (TzTz acceptor units, were selected toward effective device scalability by roll-coating. The influence of the partial exchange (5% or 10% of the solubilizing 2-hexyldecyloxy by alternative 2-phenylethoxy groups on efficiency and stability was investigated. With an increasing 2-phenylethoxy ratio, a decrease in solar cell efficiency was observed for the BT-based series, whereas the efficiencies for the devices based on the TzTz polymers remained approximately the same. The photochemical degradation rate for PSCs based on the TzTz polymers decreased with an increasing 2-phenylethoxy ratio. Lifetime studies under constant sun irradiance showed a diminishing initial degradation rate for the BT-based devices upon including the alternative side chains, whereas the (more stable TzTz-based devices degraded at a faster rate from the start of the experiment upon partly exchanging the side chains. No clear trends in the degradation behavior, linked to the copolymer structural changes, could be established at this point, evidencing the complex interplay of events determining PSCs’ lifetime.

  7. Electron-collecting oxide layers in inverted polymer solar cells via oxidation of thermally evaporated titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, A.; Salamandra, L.; Brunetti, F.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Brown, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    A simple and intuitive deposition technique is discussed to obtain titanium oxide used as an electron collecting layer in polymer solar cells based on the thermal evaporation of pristine titanium and further thermal treatment to convert the metal in oxide. Since the degradation of indium-doped tin oxide at high temperatures is an issue, we demonstrate that the combination of glass/fluorine tin oxide and high temperatures represents a promising approach in the fabrication of inverted polymer solar cells with such a titanium oxide electron collecting layer.

  8. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass...... produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard...

  9. Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    -forming techniques such as slot-die coating, gravure coating, knife-over-edge coating, off-set coating, spray coating and printing techniques such as ink jet printing, pad printing and screen printing. The former are used almost exclusively and are not suited for high-volume production whereas the latter are highly...... suited, but little explored in the context of polymer solar cells. A further distinction is made between printing and coating when a film is formed. The entire process leading to polymer solar cells is broken down into the individual steps and the available techniques and materials for each step...

  10. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell - preparation and operation in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl......A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good...

  11. Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of reaction products in multilayer polymer solar cells induced by water and oxygen atmospheres was mapped and used to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms in an inverted polymer solar cell. The active material comprised a bulk heterojunction formed....... A comparison was made between the use of a humid (oxygen-free) atmosphere and a dry oxygen atmosphere during testing of devices that were kept in the dark and devices that were subjected to illumination under simulated sunlight. It was found that the reactions taking place at the interface between the active...

  12. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-06-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganic nanocrystal (NC) semiconductors have garnered considerable attention as a potential alternative to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high-efficiency solar energy in a cost-effective manner. The combination of advantageous characteristics of CPs and NCs enables the construction of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low-cost hybrid solar cells. However, it remains a grand challenge to control the film morphology and interfacial structure of such organic/inorganic semiconductor blends on the nanoscale. In this Perspective, we highlight the strategies of implementing close contact between CPs and NCs by tailoring the colloidal synthesis, the coordination reaction, and the chemical modification of CPs. As such, they offer promising opportunities for rationally controlling the phase separation between electron-donating CPs and electron-accepting NCs, increasing the interfacial areas between them, enhancing their electronic interaction, and thus substantially promoting the photovoltaic performance of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  13. Tandem solar cells made from amorphous silicon and polymer bulk heterojunction sub-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Heum; Shin, Insoo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Street, Robert; Roy, Anshuman; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-01-14

    A tandem solar cell based on a combination of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polymer solar cell (PSC) is demonstrated. As these tandem devices can be readily fabricated by low-cost methods, they require only a minor increase in the total manufacturing cost. Therefore, a combination of a-Si and PSC provides a compelling solution to reduce the cost of electricity produced by photovoltaics.

  14. Constructing Post-Permeation Method to Fabricate Polymer/Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells with PCE Exceeding 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaohang; Zeng, Qingsen; Jin, Gan; Liu, Fangyuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Yue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2017-01-11

    A post-permeation method is constructed for fabricating bulk-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Porous CdTe film is prepared by annealing the mixture solution of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, after which the post-permeation of polymer is employed. By this method, kinds of polymers can be applied regardless of the intermiscibility with the nanoparticles. The inorganic nanocrystals and the polymer can be treated under respective optimized annealing temperatures, which can facilitate the growth of nanocrystals without damaging the polymers. A high power conversion efficiency of 6.36% in the polymer/nanocrystals hybrid solar cells is obtained via systematical optimization.

  15. Synthesis and property characterization of two novel side-chain isoindigo copolymers for polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two novel side-chain conjugated polymers, PTBT-TID and PTBT-TTID, based on the new synthetic thiophene-benzne-thiophene (TBT unit, side-chain isoindigo (ID unit, and the introduced thiophene π-bridge, have been designed and synthesized. The photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the two polymers have been systematically investigated. The two polymers possess relatively good solubility as well as excellent thermal stability up to 380°C, and all of the polymer solar cell (PSC devices based on the two polymers obtain high open circuit voltage (Voc of about 0.8 V. The polymer solar cells based on the polymer PTBT-TID show relatively higher efficiencies than the PTBT-TTID-based ones, due to the broader absorption spectrum, a relatively higher hole mobility, a lower HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level, a stronger IPCE (the incident photon to current conversion efficiency response and a better microphase separation, Consequently, the device based on PTBT-TID:PC61BM (1:2, by weight gives the best power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.04%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc of 5.39 mA·cm–2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.83 V, and a fill factor (FF of 0.45.

  16. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer was expl......We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer...

  17. Efficient decommissioning and recycling of polymer solar cells: justification for use of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Large 100 m long polymer solar cell modules were installed in a solar park using fast installation (>100 m min−1) and operated for 5 months ensuring a meaningful energy return factor (ERF > 1) followed by fast de-installation (>200 m min−1) and end-of-life management. Focus was on recovery...... of silver that is an essential component of the two electrodes. We employed life cycle analysis as a tool to evaluate the most efficient silver extraction method as well as the impact on the overall life cycle of the solar cells. Silver from the electrodes could be recovered as silver chloride in 95% yield...

  18. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  19. High efficiency dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells based on ionic liquid polymer gel electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Exnar, Ivan; Grätzel, Michael

    2002-12-21

    An ionic liquid polymer gel containing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) has been employed as quasi-solid-state electrolyte in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells with an overall conversion efficiency of 5.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  20. Simple roll coater with variable coating and temperature control for printed polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    A simple and low cost thin film solution processing system comprising a single roll coating machine has been developed to allow direct investigation of variable parameter effects in roll-to-roll processing. We present roll coating of the active layers in polymer solar cells and validate...

  1. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  2. Ultrabroadband time-resolved THz spectroscopy of polymer-based solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    We have developed ultrabroadband THz spectroscopy in reflection mode for characterization of conductivity dynamics in conductive polymer samples used in organic solar cells. The spectrometer is designed to have a time resolution limited only by the duration of the optical pump pulse, thus enabling...

  3. Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Smits, ECP; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a numerical device model that consistently describes the current-voltage characteristics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. Bimolecular recombination and a temperature- and field-dependent generation mechanism of free charges are incorporated. It is demonstrated

  4. A diagram for defined flat plate solar collector area for solar floor heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuntop, N.; Tekin, Y. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In winters, one of the best ways to heat living areas by using the low- temperature - water obtained from flat-plate solar collectors is the floor heating. In floor heating, low temperature-water (30 + 60 deg C) can be used and heat can be stored in water when solar radiation is not possible. In this study, it is aimed to define collector surface needed to supply heat for floor heating. It is also aimed to define and explain the diagram developed for every heating months. The calculations about the sun geometry are used to define the amount of radiation coming in to the collectors. Formulations are made about the definition of solar radiation absorbed by the collectors, the total heat loss coefficient, and the collector plate surface temperature. These formulations are transformed in to the diagram. In addition, the studies, heat transfer calculations and design parameters about the floor of the heating areas are used. A combined collector floor heating diagram is obtained. This diagram is used to define collector surface area necessary to supply heat for floor heated places. In this diagram, the collector surface area is obtained by giving the heat capacity of the place area, floor surface temperature, approximate modulation distance of the floor, the elevation of city, collector slope angle, wind speed, sun shine lime and the amount of the solar radiation obtained from the solar radiation diagram. (authors)

  5. Pad printing as a film forming technique for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Pad printing as a technique for preparing the active layer in polymer solar cells is presented. The technique employs a silicone rubber stamp to pick up the motif from a gravure plate and transfer it to the substrate. The strengths and limitations of pad printing are discussed and polymer solar...... cells prepared by pad printing are presented. Devices were prepared on indium tin oxide substrates but in principle the entire photovoltaic device comprising front and back electrodes, barrier layers and active layer could be printed with no need for vacuum steps. The device geometry comprises a spin...... coated transparent zinc oxide front electrode, a pad printed active layer based on a bulk heterojunction of the thermocleavable polymer poly(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)thiophene-co-thiopene) (P3MHOCT) and zinc oxide nanoparticles, spin coated PEDOT:PSS and finally a manually cast thermally cured silver...

  6. Optical properties of a conjugated-polymer-sensitised solar cell: the effect of interfacial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumm, Daniel W; Bilic, A; Tachibana, Y; Miller, A; Russo, S P

    2015-06-14

    Dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) have sparked considerable interest over two decades. Recently, a method of polymer-wire sensitisation was demonstrated; the polymer is suggested to form a hole transport pathway (wire) following initial charge separation. We predict the optical properties of this polymer in various interfacial configurations, including the effects of chain length and attachment to {100} or {101} TiO2 facets. Contrary to most DSSCs, the {100} facet model best describes the experimental spectrum, predicting a relative thickness of 5.7 ± 0.2 μm, although {101} attachment, if implemented, may improve collection efficiency. Long chains are optimal, and stable attachment sites show minimal differences to absorbance in the major solar emission (visible) band. Combinations of {100}, {101}, and pseudo-bulk TiO2 models in three-parameter fits to experiment confirm the relative importance of the {100} facet.

  7. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Reis Benatto, Dos Gisele A.; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2016-01-01

    The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver and z

  8. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  9. Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Adrian; Buecheler, Stephan; Pianezzi, Fabian; Bloesch, Patrick; Gretener, Christina; Uhl, Alexander R; Fella, Carolin; Kranz, Lukas; Perrenoud, Julian; Seyrling, Sieghard; Verma, Rajneesh; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Bilger, Gerhard; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2011-09-18

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) absorber layers have yielded the highest conversion efficiency among all thin-film technologies, and the use of flexible polymer films as substrates offers several advantages in lowering manufacturing costs. However, given that conversion efficiency is crucial for cost-competitiveness, it is necessary to develop devices on flexible substrates that perform as well as those obtained on rigid substrates. Such comparable performance has not previously been achieved, primarily because polymer films require much lower substrate temperatures during absorber deposition, generally resulting in much lower efficiencies. Here we identify a strong composition gradient in the absorber layer as the main reason for inferior performance and show that, by adjusting it appropriately, very high efficiencies can be obtained. This implies that future manufacturing of highly efficient flexible solar cells could lower the cost of solar electricity and thus become a significant branch of the photovoltaic industry.

  10. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Upscaling of the manufacture of polymer solar cells is detailed with emphasis on cost analysis and practical approach. The device modules were prepared using both slot-die coating and screen printing the active layers in the form of stripes that were serially connected. The stripe width was varied...... factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated...... and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar cell...

  11. A stability study of polymer solar cells using conjugated polymers with different donor or acceptor side chain patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckler, Ilona Maria; Kesters, Jurgen; Defour, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of the power conversion efficiency and long term stability remains to be of crucial importance for the further development of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a donor-acceptor copolymer based on 4,8-di(thiophene-2′-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (DTBDT) and 4,7-di(thiophene-2′-y...... in an improved photochemical stability of the polymer film and a higher efficiency of 5.6% for the spin-coated PSC. The stability of roll-coated devices also slightly increases with the incorporation of 10% of either the 2-hydroxyethyl or 2-phenylethyl side chain....

  12. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...... of a small-signal electrical model. The model is able to predict the EQE spectrum of the non-ideal polymer tandem solar cell, using extracted values of shunt- and series resistance of the individual junction of the tandem cell. This finally enables LBIC mapping of the individual junctions of the tandem...... polymer solar cells, using a combination of light and voltage-biasing....

  13. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  14. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  15. High-Performance Non-Fullerene Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Pair of Donor-Acceptor Materials with Complementary Absorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haoran; Chen, Shangshang; Li, Zhengke; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Yang, Guofang; McAfee, Terry; Jiang, Kui; Li, Yunke; Liu, Yuhang; Hu, Huawei; Zhao, Jingbo; Ma, Wei; Ade, Harald; Yan, He

    2015-12-01

    A 7.3% efficiency non-fullerene polymer solar cell is realized by combining a large-bandgap polymer PffT2-FTAZ-2DT with a small-bandgap acceptor IEIC. The complementary absorption of donor polymer and small-molecule acceptor is responsible for the high-performance of the solar-cell device. This work provides important guidance to improve the performance of non-fullerene polymer solar cells.

  16. Large area solar power heliostat array for OSETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Corbin E.

    2001-08-01

    Current OSETI programs make use of optical telescopes with light collection areas on the order of 10 square meters or less. The small collection area limits the ultimate sensitivity achievable to low-intensity signals. However, solar power facilities such as the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) provide the potential for a much larger collecting area. The NSTTF is operated at by the Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories for research in solar power development and testing. The NSTTF site includes over 200 fully steerable mirrors (called heliostats) each providing 37 square meters of collecting area. This facility is currently being used at night for gamma-ray astronomy. The STACEE experiment makes use of 64 heliostats to detect nanosecond flashes of optical Cherenkov light associated with gamma-ray air showers from the top of the atmosphere. The STACEE experiment has been in operation since 1998 and has already detected gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula. In principle, the STACEE experiment can be operated with minor modifications to detect OSETI signals on the ground at a photon density of less than two optical photons per square meter per pulse. We summarize performance results from the STACEE experiment, and we discuss the sensitivity of a hypothetical future STACEE-OSETI experiment with particular attention to potential sources of background.

  17. Use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polymers in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturaif, Huda A; ALOthman, Zeid A; Shapter, Joseph G; Wabaidur, Saikh M

    2014-10-28

    There is a clear need to make energy cheap, readily accessible and green, while ensuring its production does not contribute to further climate change. Of all the options available, photovoltaics offer the highest probability of delivering a meaningful and sustainable change in the way society produces its energy. One approach to the development of such photovoltaics involves the use of polymers. These systems offer the advantages of cheap production, flexibility (and hence a range of deployment opportunities) and tunability of light absorption. However, there are issues with polymer-based photovoltaic systems and one significant effort to improve these systems has involved the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This review will focus on those efforts. CNTs have been used in virtually every component of the devices to help charge conduction, improve electrode flexibility and in some cases as active light absorbing materials.

  18. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs with Polymers in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda A. Alturaif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear need to make energy cheap, readily accessible and green, while ensuring its production does not contribute to further climate change. Of all the options available, photovoltaics offer the highest probability of delivering a meaningful and sustainable change in the way society produces its energy. One approach to the development of such photovoltaics involves the use of polymers. These systems offer the advantages of cheap production, flexibility (and hence a range of deployment opportunities and tunability of light absorption. However, there are issues with polymer-based photovoltaic systems and one significant effort to improve these systems has involved the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. This review will focus on those efforts. CNTs have been used in virtually every component of the devices to help charge conduction, improve electrode flexibility and in some cases as active light absorbing materials.

  19. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    electron-double-resonance spectroscopy, we find that the spin response of both spin-coated and printed P3HT/PCBM and spin-coated PCDTBT/PCBM solar cells at low temperatures is governed by bipolar polaron pair recombination and quantitatively determine the polaron-polaron coupling strength with double...

  20. A new multiscale modeling method for simulating the loss processes in polymer solar cell nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, Anton; Donets, Sergii; Baeurle, Stephan A.

    2012-05-01

    The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells is till now, compared to conventional inorganic solar cells, still relatively low with maximum values ranging from 7% to 8%. This essentially relates to the existence of exciton and charge carrier loss phenomena, reducing the performance of polymer solar cells significantly. In this paper we introduce a new computer simulation technique, which permits to explore the causes of the occurrence of such phenomena at the nanoscale and to design new photovoltaic materials with optimized opto-electronic properties. Our approach consists in coupling a mesoscopic field-theoretic method with a suitable dynamic Monte Carlo algorithm, to model the elementary photovoltaic processes. Using this algorithm, we investigate the influence of structural characteristics and different device conditions on the exciton generation and charge transport efficiencies in case of a novel nanostructured polymer blend. More specifically, we find that the disjunction of continuous percolation paths leads to the creation of dead ends, resulting in charge carrier losses through charge recombination. Moreover, we observe that defects are characterized by a low exciton dissociation efficiency due to a high charge accumulation, counteracting the charge generation process. From these observations, we conclude that both the charge carrier loss and the exciton loss phenomena lead to a dramatic decrease in the internal quantum efficiency. Finally, by analyzing the photovoltaic behavior of the nanostructures under different circuit conditions, we demonstrate that charge injection significantly determines the impact of the defects on the solar cell performance.

  1. Neat C₇₀-based bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with excellent acceptor dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Righi, Sara; Tinti, Francesca; Savoini, Alberto; Cominetti, Alessandra; Po, Riccardo; Camaioni, Nadia

    2014-12-10

    The replacement of common fullerene derivatives with neat-C70 could be an effective approach to restrain the costs of organic photovoltaics and increase their sustainability. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of neat-C70 and low energy-gap conjugated polymers, PTB7 and PCDTBT, are thoroughly investigated and compared. Upon replacing PC70BM with C70, the mobility of positive carriers in the donor phase is roughly reduced by 1 order of magnitude, while that of electrons is only slightly modified. It is shown that the main loss mechanism of the investigated neat-C70 solar cells is a low mobility-lifetime product. Nevertheless, PCDTBT:C70 devices undergo a limited loss of 7.5%, compared to the reference PCDTBT:PC70BM cells, reaching a record efficiency (4.44%) for polymer solar cells with unfunctionalized fullerenes. The moderate efficiency loss of PCDTBT:C70 devices, due to an unexpected excellent miscibility of PCDTBT:C70 blends, demonstrates that efficient solar cells made of neat-fullerene are possible. The efficient dispersion of C70 in the PCDTBT matrix is attributed to an interaction between fullerene and the carbazole unit of the polymer.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and transistor and solar cell applications of a naphthobisthiadiazole-based semiconducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; Shimawaki, Masafumi; Mori, Hiroki; Doi, Iori; Miyazaki, Eigo; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2012-02-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel donor-acceptor semiconducting polymer bearing naphthobisthiadiazole (NTz), a doubly benzothiadiazole (BTz)-fused ring, and its applications to organic field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells. With NTz's highly π-extended structure and strong electron affinity, the NTz-based polymer (PNTz4T) affords a smaller bandgap and a deeper HOMO level than the BTz-based polymer (PBTz4T). PNTz4T exhibits not only high field-effect mobilities of ~0.56 cm(2)/(V s) but also high photovoltaic properties with power conversion efficiencies of ~6.3%, both of which are significantly high compared to those for PBTz4T. This is most likely due to the more suitable electronic properties and, importantly, the more highly ordered structure of PNTz4T in the thin film than that of PBTz4T, which might originate in the different symmetry between the cores. NTz, with centrosymmetry, can lead to a more linear backbone in the present polymer system than BTz with axisymmetry, which might be favorable for better molecular ordering. These results demonstrate great promise for using NTz as a bulding unit for high-performance semiconducting polymers for both transistors and solar cells.

  3. 25th anniversary article: isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules for bulk heterojunction solar cells and field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ergang; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Andersson, Mats R

    2014-03-26

    Driven by the potential advantages and promising applications of organic solar cells, donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have been intensively investigated in the past years. One of the strong electron-withdrawing groups that were widely used as acceptors for the construction of D-A polymers for applications in polymer solar cells and FETs is isoindigo. The isoindigo-based polymer solar cells have reached efficiencies up to ∼7% and hole mobilities as high as 3.62 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been realized by FETs based on isoindigo polymers. Over one hundred isoindigo-based small molecules and polymers have been developed in only three years. This review is an attempt to summarize the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules that have been reported in the literature since their inception in 2010. Focus has been given only to the syntheses and device performances of those polymers and small molecules that were designed for use in solar cells and FETs. Attempt has been made to deduce structure-property relationships that would guide the design of isoindigo-based materials. It is expected that this review will present useful guidelines for the design of efficient isoindigo-based materials for applications in solar cells and FETs.

  4. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, K.

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  6. Analysis of diverse direct arylation polymerization (DArP) conditions toward the efficient synthesis of polymers converging with stille polymers in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Gobalasingham, Nemal S.; Thompson, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of direct arylation polymerization (DArP) as an alternative method to traditional cross-coupling routes like Stille polymerization, the exploration of DArP polymers in practical applications like polymer solar cells (PSCs) is limited. DArP polymers tend to have a reputation ...... was synthesized in superheated THF with Cs2CO3, neodecanoic acid, and P(o-anisyl)3, it generated polymers of exceptional quality that performed comparably to Stille counterparts in both roll coated ITO-free and spin-coated ITO devices....

  7. Analysis of charge photogeneration as a key determinant of photocurrent density in polymer: fullerene solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Tracey M.; Shoaee, Safa; Soon, Ying W.; Durrant, James R. [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Amy; Nelson, Jenny [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Duffy, Warren; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Merck Chemicals, Chilworth Science Park, Southampton SO16 7QD (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-07

    Charge photogeneration: The correlation between the efficiency of photogeneration of dissociated polarons and photocurrent densities for organic solar cells based on polymer:fullerene blend films is investigated. Optical assays of polaron yield measured in films without electrodes show a remarkably clear correlation with short circuit density and quantum yield measured in complete devices. For the blend films studied herein, the primary determinant of photocurrent generation is the efficiency of dissociation of photogenerated charges away from the polymer/fullerene interface and the primary loss pathway is geminate recombination. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Development of Efficient Charge-Selective Materials for Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    high-efficiency PSCs and PVSCs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nanocomposites, Polymer Composites, Organic Photovoltaic Cells, Polymer Solar Cells 16...activation process. FPI can also serve as a dopant to dope PC61BM to achieve high conductivity (3.2 x 10-2 S/cm) in thin film as well. Thereby, the...Perovskite Thin Films ” ACS Nano 2014, 8, 10640-10654. 11. L. J. Zuo, C. C. Chueh, Y. X. Xu, K. S. Chen, Y. Zang, C. Z. Li, H. Z. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen

  9. All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Ole; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer tandem polymer solar cells were prepared by solution processing using thermocleavable polymer materials that allow for conversion to an insoluble state through a short thermal treatment. The problems associated with solubility during application of subsequent layers in the stack were...... efficiently solved. Devices comprised a transparent front cathode based on solution processed zinc oxide nanoparticles, a large band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS processed from water. The second cell...

  10. Solution-processed cathode interfacial layer materials for high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer solar cells (PSCs are a new type of renewable energy source currently being extensively investigated due to perceived advantages; such as being lightweight, low-cost and because of the unlimited materials resource. The power conversion efficiency of state-of-the-art PSCs has increased dramatically in the past few years, obtained mainly through the development of new electron donor polymers, acceptors, and novel device structures through the use of various electrode interfacial materials. In this short review, recent progress in solution-processed cathode interfacial layers that could significantly improve device performances is summarized and highlighted.

  11. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) aim to produce clean energy that is cost-competitive to energy produced by fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. From an environmental perspective, PSCs already compares favorably to other solar cell technologies in terms of fewer emissions of greenhouse gases......-cost solar cells as the laboratory solar cells are mostly focused on increasing the power conversion efficiency through materials design with little emphasis on the choice of materials, operational stability and large-scale processing. Indium-tinoxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor......, represents majority of the share of cost and energy footprint in terms of materials and processing in a conventional PSC module. Furthermore, the scarcity of indium is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning PSC industry and its brittle nature is an obstacle for fast processing of PSCs on flexible...

  12. Aesthetically Pleasing Conjugated Polymer: Fullerene Blends for Blue-Green Solar Cells Via Roll-to-Roll Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amb, Chad M.; Craig, Michael R.; Koldemir, Unsal

    2012-01-01

    not utilizing poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends as a light absorbing layer. Through synthetic optimization, we show that strict protocols are necessary to yield polymers which achieve consistent photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated spin-coated laboratory scale OPV...... as a thin-film deposition technique due its convenience. We report on the significant differences between the spin-coating of laboratory solar cells and slot-die coating of a blue-green colored, low bandgap polymer (PGREEN). This is one of the first demonstrations of slot-die-coated polymer solar cells OPVs...... devices with PGREEN: PCBM blends as active light absorbing layers, and compare performance to slot die-coated individual solar cells, and slot-die-coated solar modules consisting of many cells connected in series. We find that the optimum ratio of polymer to PCBM varies significantly when changing from...

  13. Efficient Colorful Perovskite Solar Cells Using a Top Polymer Electrode Simultaneously as Spectrally Selective Antireflection Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youyu; Luo, Bangwu; Jiang, Fangyuan; Jiang, Fuben; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Liu, Tiefeng; Mao, Lin; Xiong, Sixing; Li, Zaifang; Wang, Tao; Kippelen, Bernard; Zhou, Yinhua

    2016-12-14

    Organometal halide perovskites have shown excellent optoelectronic properties and have been used to demonstrate a variety of semiconductor devices. Colorful solar cells are desirable for photovoltaic integration in buildings and other aesthetically appealing applications. However, the realization of colorful perovskite solar cells is challenging because of their broad and large absorption coefficient that commonly leads to cells with dark-brown colors. Herein, for the first time, we report a simple and efficient strategy to achieve colorful perovskite solar cells by using the transparent conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS) as a top electrode and simultaneously as an spectrally selective antireflection coating. Vivid colors across the visible spectrum are attained by engineering optical interference effects among the transparent PEDOT:PSS polymer electrode, the hole-transporting layer and the perovskite layer. The colored perovskite solar cells display power conversion efficiency values from 12.8 to 15.1% (from red to blue) when illuminated from the FTO glass side and from 11.6 to 13.8% (from red to blue) when illuminated from the PEDOT:PSS side. The new approach provides an advanced solution for fabricating colorful perovskite solar cells with easy processing and high efficiency.

  14. Small bandgap polymers for organic solar cells (polymer material development in the last 5 years)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Renee; Lenes, Martijn; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.; Boer, Bert de

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade the field of polymer photovoltaics has seen a tremendous improvement in both device efficiency and understanding of the underlying physical processes. One has come to a point in which the prototypical large bandgap material system P3HT:PCBM is nearing optimal device performanc

  15. Magnetically aligned polymer-nanowire composites for solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Pawel; Pelligra, Candice; Osuji, Chinedum

    2013-03-01

    We present a solution-based approach of producing aligned arrays of ZnO nanowire-polythiophene composites for photovoltaic applications. We employ a two-step hierarchical self-assembly to maximize the efficiency of electron and hole transport in the system. First, we coat the wires with the polymer utilizing nanowire surface-directed crystallization and alignment of the polymer backbones along the long axes of the wires, then we employ magnetic fields to direct the assembly of the composites into the ordered arrays. We present quantitative SAXS data taken in-situ during the alignment process addressing the influence of paramagnetic doping level of ZnO and the magnetic field strength on the quality of the alignment. We compare the electrical conductivity of the aligned arrays of the composites to non-aligned ones and discuss the possible degree of conductivity enhancement upon the alignment in this and in analogous systems. This work is funded by the NSF under DMR-0847534 and DMR-0934520

  16. Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells withVOC>1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2016-03-06

    Efficient homo-tandem and triple-junction polymer solar cells are constructed by stacking identical subcells composed of the wide-bandgap polymer PBDTTPD, achieving power conversion efficiencies >8% paralleled by open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The high-voltage homo-tandem is used to demonstrate PV-driven electrochemical water splitting with an estimated solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ≈6%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  17. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  18. Solar water disinfection by singlet oxygen photogenerated with polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Hernandez, M. Emilia; Manjon, Francisco; Garcia-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo [Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as model microorganisms, water disinfection has been demonstrated with singlet molecular oxygen (a reactive oxygen species) photogenerated by polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers and solar light. Both laboratory and sunlight tests were performed. The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex and its insoluble support have been optimized to provide maximum efficiency of singlet oxygen production and contact with the microorganism. (author)

  19. A polythiophene derivative with superior properties for practical application in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Ma, Wei; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-09-03

    A polythiophene derivative called PDCBT, which has a backbone of thiophene units and just carboxylate functional groups to modulate its properties, exhibits properties superior to those of poly(3-hexylthiophene), the classic polythiophene derivative, when used as an electron donor in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The best device, based on PDCBT/PC71BM (1:1), develops a good power conversion efficiency of 7.2%.

  20. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-10-11

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The mechanism of burn-in loss in a high efficiency polymer solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Craig H.; Sachs-Quintana, I.T.; Mateker, William R.; Heumueller, Thomas; Rivnay, Jonathan; Beiley, Zach M.; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States); Noriega, Rodigo; Hoke, Eric T. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  3. Comparative studies of photochemical cross-linking methods for stabilizing the bulk hetero-junction morphology in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta; Tromholt, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    -light illumination to give solvent resistant films and reduced phase separation and growth of PCBM crystallites in polymer:PCBM films. The stability of solar cells based on the cross-linked polymers was tested under various conditions. This study showed that cross-linking can improve morphological stability...

  4. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zaifei; Sun, Wenjun; Himmelberger, Scott;

    2014-01-01

    for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal......) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer–fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force...... interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure–property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing...

  5. Characterization of polymer solar cells by TOF-SIMS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Gennip, W.J.H. van; Duren, J.K.J. van; Jonkheijm, P.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W

    2003-01-15

    Solar cells consisting of polymer layers sandwiched between a transparent electrode on glass and a metal top electrode are studied using dynamic time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in dual-beam mode. Because depth profiling of polymers and polymer-metal stacks is a relatively new field the craters were thoroughly investigated by environmental SEM (ESEM), interferometry, surface profilometry and tapping mode AFM. A huge increase in crater bottom roughness was observed when starting from the aluminum top layer going in depth, resulting in a loss of depth resolution. It is shown that layer-to-layer diffusion and contaminants at buried interfaces can be extracted from the depth profiles when taking into account the loss of depth resolution.

  6. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  7. Solution-Processed p-Dopant as Interlayer in Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillain, F; Endres, J; Bourgeois, L; Kahn, A; Vignau, L; Wantz, G

    2016-04-13

    We report here an original approach to dope the semiconducting polymer-metal interface in an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell. Solution-processed 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), is deposited on top of a P3HT:PC61BM layer before deposition of the top electrode. Doping of P3HT by F4-TCNQ occurs after thermally induced diffusion at 100 °C of the latter into the BHJ. Diffusion and doping are evidenced by XPS and UV-vis-NIR absorption. XPS highlights the decrease in Fluorine concentration on top of the BHJ after annealing. In the same time, a charge transfer band attributed to doping is observed in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. Inverted polymer solar cells using solution-processed F4-TCNQ exhibit power conversion efficiency of nearly 3.5% after annealing. This simple and efficient approach, together with the low annealing temperature required to allow diffusion and doping, leads to standard efficiency P3HT:PC61BM polymer solar cells, which are suitable for printing on plastic flexible substrate.

  8. Roll-to-roll embossing of optical linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XinQuan; Liu, Kui; Shan, Xuechuan; Liu, Yuchan

    2014-12-15

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing has been proven to be a high-throughput and low-cost technology for continuous fabrication of functional optical polymer films. In this paper, we have firstly studied a complete manufacturing cycle of linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration in the aspects of ultra-precision diamond machining of metal roller mold, roll-to-roll embossing, and measurement on film profile and functionality. A metal roller mold patterned with linear Fresnel lenses is obtained using single point diamond turning technique. The roller mold is installed onto a self-developed roll-to-roll UV embossing system to realize continuous manufacturing of linear Fresnel lens film. Profile measurement of the machined roller mold and the embossed polymer film, which is conducted using a stylus profilometer, shows good agreement between measured facet angles with designed ones. Functionality test is conducted on a solar simulation system with a reference solar cell, and results show that strong light concentration is realized.

  9. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-02-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C;

    2012-01-01

    varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture......The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We...... demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy...

  11. Passive options for solar cooling of buildings in arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Emad H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menofiya University, Gamal Abdul Nasser St., Shebin El-kom, Menofiya (Egypt)

    2006-07-15

    The major heat load of buildings and workshops, made of metal structures, is the solar energy supplied through the roof. Several passive modifications have been introduced to the roof in order to reduce the temperature of indoor air in arid areas. An experimental investigation, employing passive modifications, has been carried out to study the reduction in air temperature. The results show that the inside air temperature falls to within 6 and 3{sup o}C, respectively, from the ambient temperature when the ceiling is painted white, or provided with a layer of thermal insulation. Using evaporative cooling or a solar chimney leads to an inside temperature within 1{sup o}C of the ambient temperature. (author)

  12. Using Polar Coronal Hole Area Measurements to Determine the Solar Polar Magnetic Field Reversal in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, N.; Webber, S.A. Hess; Pesnell, W.D.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of solar polar coronal hole (PCH) areas since the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) shows how the polar regions have evolved during Solar Cycle 24. We present PCH areas from mid-2010 through 2013 using data from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments onboard SDO. Our analysis shows that both the northern and southern PCH areas have decreased significantly in size since 2010. Linear fits to the areas derived from the magnetic-field properties indicate that, although the northern hemisphere went through polar-field reversal and reached solar-maximum conditions in mid-2012, the southern hemisphere had not reached solar-maximum conditions in the polar regions by the end of 2013. Our results show that solar-maximum conditions in each hemisphere, as measured by the area of the polar coronal holes and polar magnetic field, will be offset in time.

  13. Conformal Electroplating of Azobenzene-Based Solar Thermal Fuels onto Large-Area and Fiber Geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitomirsky, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-10-05

    There is tremendous growth in fields where small functional molecules and colloidal nanomaterials are integrated into thin films for solid-state device applications. Many of these materials are synthesized in solution and there often exists a significant barrier to transition them into the solid state in an efficient manner. Here, we develop a methodology employing an electrodepositable copolymer consisting of small functional molecules for applications in solar energy harvesting and storage. We employ azobenzene solar thermal fuel polymers and functionalize them to enable deposition from low concentration solutions in methanol, resulting in uniform and large-area thin films. This approach enables conformal deposition on a variety of conducting substrates that can be either flat or structured depending on the application. Our approach further enables control over film growth via electrodepsition conditions and results in highly uniform films of hundreds of nanometers to microns in thickness. We demonstrate that this method enables superior retention of solar thermal fuel properties, with energy densities of ∼90 J/g, chargeability in the solid state, and exceptional materials utilization compared to other solid-state processing approaches. This novel approach is applicable to systems such as photon upconversion, photovoltaics, photosensing, light emission, and beyond, where small functional molecules enable solid-state applications.

  14. High Efficiency Tandem Thin-Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells with a Graded Recombination Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Renna, Lawrence A; Bag, Monojit; Page, Zachariah A; Kim, Paul; Choi, Jaewon; Emrick, Todd; Venkataraman, D; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-03-23

    Perovskite-containing tandem solar cells are attracting attention for their potential to achieve high efficiencies. We demonstrate a series connection of a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite front subcell and a ∼ 100 nm thick polymer:fullerene blend back subcell that benefits from an efficient graded recombination layer containing a zwitterionic fullerene, silver (Ag), and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). This methodology eliminates the adverse effects of thermal annealing or chemical treatment that occurs during perovskite fabrication on polymer-based front subcells. The record tandem perovskite/polymer solar cell efficiency of 16.0%, with low hysteresis, is 75% greater than that of the corresponding ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite single-junction device and 65% greater than that of the polymer single-junction device. The high efficiency of this hybrid tandem device, achieved using only a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite layer, provides an opportunity to substantially reduce the lead content in the device, while maintaining the high performance derived from perovskites.

  15. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zaifei

    2014-01-01

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. 纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池%Nanocrystal/Polymer Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付红红; 栾伟玲; 袁斌霞; 涂善东

    2012-01-01

    纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池作为一种新型光伏器件成为近年来的研究热点。通过改变纳米晶的形貌及尺寸来调节材料本身的带隙从而改善光吸收特性,并且无机半导体材料本身具有高的电子迁移率和良好的热稳定性,以上特性使该类电池具有巨大的发展潜力。本文从纳米晶的种类、形状和尺寸、表面配体及纳米晶与聚合物界面性能等方面综述了纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池的研究现状。纳米晶形貌、太阳光利用率和载流子传输效率是影响电池效率的主要因素。文中指出开展窄带隙纳米晶的合成、优化纳米晶/聚合物电池结构、解析纳米晶与聚合物界面激子传输机理等改善该类电池性能的途径,旨在为提高纳米晶/聚合物太阳能电池的效率提供借鉴经验。%Hybrid solar cells based on nanocrystals and conjugated polymer are emerging as a suitable alternative to classical solar cells. This kind of solar cell has attracted great attentions, because of the absorption spectra tunable by the size, shape and composition of nanocrystals, and their higher electron transfer velocity than that of polymer. This article reviews the status of the nanocrystal/ polymer hybrid solar cells. The factors affecting the solar cell performance are critically examined including the size and morphology of nanocrystals, the capping ligand, and the interfacial charge transportations between nanocrystals and polymer. Several strategies for increasing the overall efficiency of this hybrid solar cell are discussed. Narrow band gap nanocrystals, structure optimizations and analysis of the mechanism of charge transportations are expected as the routes for future development of this solar cell.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas, E-mail: abehjat@yazd.ac.ir; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm{sup 2} have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance.

  18. Thiophene-rich fused-aromatic thienopyrazine acceptor for donor–acceptor low band-gap polymers for OTFT and polymer solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Thiophene enriched fused-aromatic thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine systems were designed and employed to produce low band gap polymers (Eg = 1.0-1.4 eV) when copolymerized with fluorene and cyclopentadithiophene. The copolymers are mainly investigated for organic thin film transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. Molecular packing in the thin films of these polymers was investigated using Grazing incidence X-ray Scattering. Although both fluorene and cyclopentadithiophene polymers follow similar face to face π-π stacking, the latter polymers show much smaller lamellar d-spacings due to side-chain interdigitation between the lamellae. This lead to the higher charge carrier mobilities in cyclopentadithiophene polymers (up to 0.044 cm2/V.s) compared to fluorene polymers (up to 8.1 × 10-3 cm2/V.s). Power conversion efficiency of 1.4% was achieved using fluorene copolymer in solar cells with a fullerene derivative as an acceptor. Although the cyclopentadithiophene polymers show lower band gaps with higher absorption coefficients compared to fluorene copolymers, but the power conversion efficiencies in solar cells of these polymers are low due to their low ionization potentials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  19. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven Aaron

    My thesis focuses on improving and understanding a relatively new type of solar cell materials system: polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) blends. These mixtures have drawn significant interest because they are made from low-cost organic molecules that can be cast from solution, which makes them a potential cheap alternative to traditional solar cell materials like silicon. The drawback, though, is that they are not as efficient at converting sunlight into electricity. My thesis focuses on this issue, and examines the loss processes holding back the efficiency in polymer:fullerene blends as well as investigates new processing methods for overcoming the efficiency limitations. The first chapter introduces the subject of solar cells, and polymer:fullerene solar cells in particular. The second chapter presents a case study on recombination in the high-performance PBDTTT polymer family, wherein we discovered that nongeminate recombination of an anti-Langevin origin was the dominant loss process that ultimately limited the cell efficiency. Electroluminescence measurements revealed that an electron back-transfer process was prevalent in active layers with insufficient PC71BM content. This work ultimately made strong headway in understanding what factors limited the relatively unexplored but highly efficient PBDTTT family of polymers. In the next chapter, I further explore the recombination mechanisms in polymer:fullerene BHJs by examining the dark diode ideality factor as a function of temperature in several polymer:fullerene materials systems. By re-deriving the diode law for a polymer:fullerene device with Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, we were able to confirm that trap-assisted recombination through an exponential band-tail of localized states is the dominant recombination process in many polymer:fullerene active layers. In the third chapter, I present a generalized theoretical framework for understanding current transients in planar semiconductor devices

  20. Describing the light intensity dependence of polymer:fullerene solar cells using an adapted Shockley diode model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Verhees, W.; Koster, L.J.A.; Galagan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells are generally optimised for operation under AM1.5 100 mW cm-2 conditions. This is also typically done for polymer solar cells. However, one of the entry markets for this emerging technology is portable electronics. For this market, the spectral shape and intensity of typical illumination

  1. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer:fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO3 transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted structur

  2. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, P.; Moet, D. J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer: fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO(3) transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted struc

  3. Fullerene derivative-doped zinc oxide nanofilm as the cathode of inverted polymer solar cells with low-bandgap polymer (PTB7-Th) for high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Chen, Show-An

    2013-09-14

    Modification of a ZnO cathode by doping it with a hydroxyl-containing derivative - giving a ZnO-C60 cathode - provides a fullerene-derivative-rich surface and enhanced electron conduction. Inverted polymer solar cells with the ZnO-C60 cathode display markedly improved power conversion efficiency compared to those with a pristine ZnO cathode, especially when the active layer includes the low-bandgap polymer PTB7-Th.

  4. A comprehensive review of the application of chalcogenide nanoparticles in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Jilian N; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Nogueira, Ana F

    2014-06-21

    In this review the use of solution-processed chalcogenide quantum dots (CdS, CdSe, PbS, etc.) in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells is explored. Such devices are known as potential candidates for low-cost and efficient solar energy conversion, and compose the so-called third generation solar cells. The incorporation of oxides and metal nanoparticles has also been successfully achieved in this new class of photovoltaic devices; however, we choose to explore here chalcogenide quantum dots in light of their particularly attractive optical and electronic properties. We address herein a comprehensive review of the historical background and state-of-the-art comprising the incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymer matrices. Later strategies for surface chemistry manipulation, in situ synthesis of nanoparticles, use of continuous 3D nanoparticles network (aerogels) and ternary systems are also reviewed.

  5. A comprehensive review of the application of chalcogenide nanoparticles in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Jilian N.; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

    2014-05-01

    In this review the use of solution-processed chalcogenide quantum dots (CdS, CdSe, PbS, etc.) in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells is explored. Such devices are known as potential candidates for low-cost and efficient solar energy conversion, and compose the so-called third generation solar cells. The incorporation of oxides and metal nanoparticles has also been successfully achieved in this new class of photovoltaic devices; however, we choose to explore here chalcogenide quantum dots in light of their particularly attractive optical and electronic properties. We address herein a comprehensive review of the historical background and state-of-the-art comprising the incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymer matrices. Later strategies for surface chemistry manipulation, in situ synthesis of nanoparticles, use of continuous 3D nanoparticles network (aerogels) and ternary systems are also reviewed.

  6. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang-Yen, E-mail: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chien, Wen-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Ko, Yu-Hsin [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Ping [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Ching [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained.

  7. Modeling of polymer photodegradation for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somersall, A. C.; Guillet, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was shown that many of the experimental observations in the photooxidation of hydrocarbon polymers can be accounted for with a computer simulation using an elementary mechanistic model with corresponding rate constants for each reaction. For outdoor applications, however, such as in photovoltaics, the variation of temperature must have important effects on the useful lifetimes of such materials. The data bank necessary to replace the isothermal rate constant values with Arrhenius activation parameters: A (the pre-exponential factor) and E (the activation energy) was searched. The best collection of data assembled to data is summarized. Note, however, that the problem is now considerably enlarged since from a theoretical point of view, with 51 of the input variables replaced with 102 parameters. The sensitivity of the overall scheme is such that even after many computer simulations, a successful photooxidation simulation with the expanded variable set was not completed. Many of the species in the complex process undergo a number of competitive pathways, the relative importance of each being often sensitive to small changes in the calculated rate constant values.

  8. The role of electron affinity in determining whether fullerenes catalyze or inhibit photooxidation of polymers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Eric T.; Sachs-Quintana, I.T.; Kauvar, Isaac; Mateker, William R.; Peters, Craig H.; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lloyd, Matthew T.; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Kopidakis, Nikos [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the stability and degradation mechanisms of organic solar materials is critically important to achieving long device lifetimes. Here, an investigation of the photodegradation of polymer:fullerene blend films exposed to ambient conditions for a variety of polymer and fullerene derivative combinations is presented. Despite the wide range in polymer stabilities to photodegradation, the rate of irreversible polymer photobleaching in blend films is found to consistently and dramatically increase with decreasing electron affinity of the fullerene derivative. Furthermore, blends containing fullerenes with the smallest electron affinities photobleached at a faster rate than films of the pure polymer. These observations can be explained by a mechanism where both the polymer and fullerene donate photogenerated electrons to diatomic oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion which degrades the polymer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The Role of Electron Affinity in Determining Whether Fullerenes Catalyze or Inhibit Photooxidation of Polymers for Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-05-21

    Understanding the stability and degradation mechanisms of organic solar materials is critically important to achieving long device lifetimes. Here, an investigation of the photodegradation of polymer:fullerene blend fi lms exposed to ambient conditions for a variety of polymer and fullerene derivative combinations is presented. Despite the wide range in polymer stabilities to photodegradation, the rate of irreversible polymer photobleaching in blend fi lms is found to consistently and dramatically increase with decreasing electron affi nity of the fullerene derivative. Furthermore, blends containing fullerenes with the smallest electron affi nities photobleached at a faster rate than fi lms of the pure polymer. These observations can be explained by a mechanism where both the polymer and fullerene donate photogenerated electrons to diatomic oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion which degrades the polymer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  10. Highly Crystalline and Low Bandgap Donor Polymers for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 539 www.advmat.de www.MaterialsViews.com C O M M U N IC A TIO N wileyonlinelibrary.com© 2012 WILEY-VCH...on the π–π packing of the main chains in EI-PFDTBT, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic measurements...Figure 2a reproduces the XRD profile for a EI-PFDTBT powder. The strong diffraction peak at 21.3° indicates the 4.1 Å π-stacking spacing between polymer

  11. Non-Vacuum Processed Polymer Composite Antireflection Coating Films for Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-vacuum processing method for preparing polymer-based ZrO2/TiO2 multilayer structure antireflection coating (ARC films for crystalline silicon solar cells by spin coating is introduced. Initially, ZrO2, TiO2 and surface deactivated-TiO2 (SD-TiO2 based films were examined separately and the effect of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 film on the reflectivity on silicon surface was investigated. Degradation of the reflectance performance with increasing reflectivity of up to 2% in the ultraviolet region was confirmed. No significant change of the reflectance was observed when utilizing SD-TiO2 and ZrO2 films. Average reflectance (between 300 nm–1100 nm of the silicon surface coated with optimized polymer-based ZrO2 single or ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer composite films was decreased down to 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Improvement of photocurrent density (Jsc and conversion efficiency (η of fabricated silicon solar cells owing to the ZrO2/SD-TiO2 multilayer ARC could be confirmed. The photovoltaic properties of Jsc, the open-circuit photo voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the η were 31.42 mA cm−2, 575 mV, 71.5% and 12.91%. Efficiency of the solar cells was improved by the ZrO2-polymer/SD-TiO2 polymer ARC composite layer by a factor of 0.8% with an increase of Jsc (2.07 mA cm−2 compared to those of fabricated without the ARC.

  12. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials.

  13. High-performance inverted polymer solar cells: device characterization, optical modeling, and hole-transporting modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jingyu; Yip, Hin-Lap; Zhang, Yong; Chien, Shang-Chieh; Chueh, Chu-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Gao, Yan; Chen, Hongzheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); O' Malley, Kevin; Jen, Alex K.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-10

    Although high power conversion efficiencies (PCE) have already been demonstrated in conventional structure polymer solar cells (PSCs), the development of high performance inverted structure polymer solar cells is still lagging behind despite their demonstrated superior stability and feasibility for roll-to-roll processing. To address this challenge, a detailed study of solution-processed, inverted-structure PSCs based on the blends of a low bandgap polymer, poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phananthrene-quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) as the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is carried out. Comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of the resulting devices is performed to understand the effect of device geometry on photovoltaic performance. Excellent device performance can be achieved by optimizing the optical field distribution and spatial profiles of excitons generation within the active layer in different device configurations. In the inverted structure, because the peak of the excitons generation is located farther away from the electron-collecting electrode, a higher blending ratio of fullerene is required to provide higher electron mobility in the BHJ for achieving good device performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sungho, E-mail: shwoo@dgist.ac.kr [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Hoon Jeong, Jae [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kun Lyu, Hong; Jeong, Seonju; Hyoung Sim, Jun; Hyun Kim, Wook [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Han, Yoon [Department of Advanced Energy Material Science and Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

  15. Tandem polymer solar cells: simulation and optimization through a multiscale scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fanan; Yao, Ligang; Lan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, polymer solar cells with a tandem structure were investigated and optimized using a multiscale simulation scheme. In the proposed multiscale simulation, multiple aspects – optical calculation, mesoscale simulation, device scale simulation and optimal power conversion efficiency searching modules – were studied together to give an optimal result. Through the simulation work, dependencies of device performance on the tandem structures were clarified by tuning the thickness, donor/acceptor weight ratio as well as the donor–acceptor distribution in both active layers of the two sub-cells. Finally, employing searching algorithms, we optimized the power conversion efficiency of the tandem polymer solar cells and located the optimal device structure parameters. With the proposed multiscale simulation strategy, poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)])/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based tandem solar cells were simulated and optimized as an example. Two configurations with different sub-cell sequences in the tandem photovoltaic device were tested and compared. The comparison of the simulation results between the two configurations demonstrated that the balance between the two sub-cells is of critical importance for tandem organic photovoltaics to achieve high performance. Consistency between the optimization results and the reported experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed simulation scheme. PMID:28144571

  16. Tandem polymer solar cells: simulation and optimization through a multiscale scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fanan; Yao, Ligang; Lan, Fei; Li, Guangyong; Liu, Lianqing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, polymer solar cells with a tandem structure were investigated and optimized using a multiscale simulation scheme. In the proposed multiscale simulation, multiple aspects - optical calculation, mesoscale simulation, device scale simulation and optimal power conversion efficiency searching modules - were studied together to give an optimal result. Through the simulation work, dependencies of device performance on the tandem structures were clarified by tuning the thickness, donor/acceptor weight ratio as well as the donor-acceptor distribution in both active layers of the two sub-cells. Finally, employing searching algorithms, we optimized the power conversion efficiency of the tandem polymer solar cells and located the optimal device structure parameters. With the proposed multiscale simulation strategy, poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)])/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based tandem solar cells were simulated and optimized as an example. Two configurations with different sub-cell sequences in the tandem photovoltaic device were tested and compared. The comparison of the simulation results between the two configurations demonstrated that the balance between the two sub-cells is of critical importance for tandem organic photovoltaics to achieve high performance. Consistency between the optimization results and the reported experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed simulation scheme.

  17. Progress in Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated by Inkjet Printing%喷墨打印技术制备聚合物太阳能电池的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建波; 朱谱新

    2011-01-01

    Polymer solar cells have been a subject of great interests,because of their advantages such as low cost,light weight and ease of large-area processing.Being a technique of depositing polymer film,inkjet printing has advantages of low wastage,high efficiency and flexible patterning process and has been used to fabricate polymer solar cells with great potential.The research progress of the polymer solar cells,inkjet printing and polymer solar cells fabricated by inkjet printing is reviewed.Meanwhile,the research trends and perspective of polymer solar cells,inkjet printing and polymer solar cells fabricated by inkjet printing are proposed.%聚合物太阳能电池具有成本低、质量轻、容易制备大尺寸器件等优势,是太阳能电池研究中最为活跃的领域之一。喷墨打印技术作为新的成膜技术,具有材料利用率高、快速、可柔性加工等优点,已被用于聚合物太阳能电池的制备,发展潜力巨大。综述了聚合物太阳能电池、喷墨打印技术和喷墨打印技术制备聚合物太阳能电池的研究进展,同时对聚合物太阳能电池和喷墨打印技术制备聚合物太阳能电池的研究方向进行了展望。

  18. Origin and impact of recombination via charge transfer excitons in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallermann, Markus; da Como, Enrico; Feldmann, Jochen

    2010-03-01

    To further advance the performances of organic photovoltaic cells a thorough understanding of loss mechanisms in polymer/fullerene blends is mandatory. Recombination via charge transfer excitons (CTEs) appears to be a fundamental loss, potentially impacting the open circuit voltage (VOC) and the short circuit current (ISC) of cells. We unravel the origin of CTEs forming in polymer/fullerene blends and discuss their importance in recombination processes considering binding energy [1], polymer conformation [2], and energetic position. CTE photoluminescence (PL) is observed in material combinations such as P3HT and PPV blended with fullerene acceptors. By combining electron microscopy and PL spectroscopy, we show that CTE recombination is only slightly influenced by the mesoscopic morphology, whereas strongly by the polymer chain conformation [2]. By shifting the orbital energies of the fullerene, we tune the CTE PL characteristics. High energy CTE emission results in cells with a beneficial increase in VOC. On the other hand, high energy CTE emission leads to a more efficient recombination impacting directly the ISC. The results highlight a fundamental limit in the efficiency of organic solar cells with CTE recombination. [1] Hallermann et al. APL 2008 [2] Hallermann et al. AFM 2009

  19. Morphology control of polymer: Fullerene solar cells by nanoparticle self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan

    During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based solar cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer solar cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on control of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer solar cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) solar cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was

  20. Improving the performance of polymer solar cells by adjusting the crystallinity and nanoscale phase separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Bing; Xu Zong-Xiang; Li Kai; Chui Stephen Sin-Yin; Roy V.A.L.; Lai Pui-To; Che Chi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we report a high-performance P3HT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 4.85% fabricated by adjusting the polymer crystallinity and nanoscale phase separation using an ultrasonic irradiation mixing approach for the polymer.The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction,UV/Vis spectroscopic,and atomic force microscopic measurement results for the P3HT/PCBM blend films reveal that the P3HT/PCBM film fabricated by ultrasonic irradiation mixing of the P3HT and PCBM solutions for 10 min has a higher degree of cryetallinity,a higher absorption efficiency,and better phase separation,which together account for the higher charge transport properties and photovoltaic cell performance.

  1. Bis(thienothiophenyl) diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers with various branched alkyl side chains and their applications in thin-film transistors and polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jicheol; Park, Gi Eun; Lee, Dae Hee; Um, Hyun Ah; Lee, Tae Wan; Cho, Min Ju; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2015-02-11

    New thienothiophene-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole and thiophene-containing π-extended conjugated polymers with various branched alkyl side-chains were successfully synthesized. 2-Octyldodecyl, 2-decyltetradecyl, 2-tetradecylhexadecyl, 2-hexadecyloctadecyl, and 2-octadecyldocosyl groups were selected as the side-chain moieties and were anchored to the N-positions of the thienothiophene-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole unit. All five polymers were found to be soluble owing to the bulkiness of the side chains. The thin-film transistor based on the 2-tetradecylhexadecyl-substituted polymer showed the highest hole mobility of 1.92 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) due to it having the smallest π-π stacking distance between the polymer chains, which was determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells incorporating [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the n-type molecule and the additive 1,8-diiodooctane (1 vol %) were also constructed from the synthesized polymers without thermal annealing; the device containing the 2-octyldodecyl-substituted polymer exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.8%. Although all the polymers showed similar physical properties, their device performance was clearly influenced by the sizes of the branched alkyl side-chain groups.

  2. Recent advances in polymer solar cells: realization of high device performance by incorporating water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers as electrode buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicai; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2014-02-01

    This Progress Report highlights recent advances in polymer solar cells with special attention focused on the recent rapid-growing progress in methods that use a thin layer of alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymers as key component to obtain optimized device performance, but also discusses novel materials and device architectures made by major prestigious institutions in this field. We anticipate that due to drastic improvements in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens up new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency, and many novel device structures will emerge as suitable architectures for developing the ideal roll-to-roll type processing of polymer-based solar cells.

  3. Semitransparent polymer-based solar cells with aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Sebastian; Wilkens, Verena; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; von Maydell, Karsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-01-14

    With the use of two transparent electrodes, organic polymer-fullerene solar cells are semitransparent and may be combined to parallel-connected multijunction devices or used for innovative applications like power-generating windows. A challenging issue is the optimization of the electrodes, to combine high transparency with adequate electric properties. In the present work, we study the potential of sputter-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide as an alternative to the widely used but relatively expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as cathode material in semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells. Concerning the anode, we utilized an insulator-metal-insulator structure based on ultrathin Au films embedded between two evaporated MoO3 layers, with the outer MoO3 film (capping layer) serving as a light coupling layer. The performance of the ITO-free semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells was systematically studied as dependent on the thickness of the capping layer and the active layer as well as the illumination direction. These variations were found to have strong impact on the obtained photocurrent densities. We performed optical simulations of the electric field distribution within the devices using the transfer-matrix method, to analyze the origin of the current density variations in detail and provide deep insight into the device physics. With the conventional absorber materials studied here, optimized ITO-free and semitransparent devices reached 2.0% power conversion efficiency and a maximum optical transmission of 60%, with the device concept being potentially transferable to other absorber materials.

  4. Hydrophilic Conjugated Polymers with Large Bandgaps and Deep-Lying HOMO Levels as an Efficient Cathode Interlayer in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhulin; Zhang, Lianjie; Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Two hydrophilic conjugated polymers, PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH, with polar diethanol-amine on the side chains and main chain structures of poly(meta-phenylene) and poly(meta-phenylene-alt-3,6-fluorene), respectively, are successfully synthesized. The films of PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH show absorption edges at 340 and 343 nm, respectively. The calculated optical bandgaps of the two polymers are 3.65 and 3.62 eV, respectively, the largest ones so far reported for hydrophilic conjugated polymers. PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH also possess deep-lying highest occupied molecular orbital levels of -6.19 and -6.15 eV, respectively. Inserting PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH as a cathode interlayer in inverted polymer solar cells with a PTB7/PC71 BM blend as the active layer, high power conversion efficiencies of 8.58% and 8.33%, respectively, are achieved, demonstrating that the two hydrophilic polymers are excellent interlayers for efficient inverted polymer solar cells.

  5. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  6. An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Medford, Andrew James; Bundgaard, Eva

    2011-01-01

    O (nanoparticulate, thin film) were employed as electron transport layers. The devices were all tested at Risø DTU and the functional devices were subjected to an inter-laboratory study involving the performance and the stability of modules over time in the dark, under light soaking and outdoor conditions. 24......A large number of flexible polymer solar modules comprising 16 serially connected individual cells was prepared at the experimental workshop at Risø DTU. The photoactive layer was prepared from several varieties of P3HT (Merck, Plextronics, BASF and Risø DTU) and two varieties of Zn...

  7. Enabling Flexible Polymer Tandem Solar Cells by 3D Ptychographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind

    2015-01-01

    one after the other by wet processing leaves plenty of room for error and the process development calls for an analytical technique that enables 3D reconstruction of the layer stack with the possibility to probe thickness, density, and chemistry of the individual layers in the stack. The use......The realization of a complete tandem polymer solar cell under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods on a flexible substrate results in a fully scalable process but also requires accurate control during layer formation to succeed. The serial process where the layers are added...

  8. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  9. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis;

    2016-01-01

    and zinc to the environment through precipitated water for damaged solar cells, and also observed failure and emission from an initially undamaged device in an experiment that endured for 6 months. In the case of the damaged cells, we found that the drinking water limits for Ag were only exceeded on a few......The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver...

  10. Solution-processed parallel tandem polymer solar cells using silver nanowires as intermediate electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Li, Ning; Przybilla, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard; Stubhan, Tobias; Ameri, Tayebeh; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J

    2014-12-23

    Tandem architecture is the most relevant concept to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction photovoltaic solar cells. Series-connected tandem polymer solar cells (PSCs) have advanced rapidly during the past decade. In contrast, the development of parallel-connected tandem cells is lagging far behind due to the big challenge in establishing an efficient interlayer with high transparency and high in-plane conductivity. Here, we report all-solution fabrication of parallel tandem PSCs using silver nanowires as intermediate charge collecting electrode. Through a rational interface design, a robust interlayer is established, enabling the efficient extraction and transport of electrons from subcells. The resulting parallel tandem cells exhibit high fill factors of ∼60% and enhanced current densities which are identical to the sum of the current densities of the subcells. These results suggest that solution-processed parallel tandem configuration provides an alternative avenue toward high performance photovoltaic devices.

  11. Al-doping effects on the photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuan; Shi, Ya-feng; Yu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Jian-jun; Ge, Ya-ming; Chen, Li-qiao; Pan, Hong-jun

    2016-03-01

    The properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) play an important role in the photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs), which is used as electron transport and hole blocking buffer layers. In this work, we study the effects of Al-doping level in AZO on device performance in detail. Results indicate that the device performance intensely depends on the Al-doping level. The AZO thin films with Al-doping atomic percentage of 1.0% possess the best conductivity. The resulting solar cells show the enhanced short current density and the fill factor ( FF) simultaneously, and the power conversion efficiency ( PCE) is improved by 74%, which are attributed to the reduced carrier recombination and the optimized charge transport and extraction between AZO and the active layer.

  12. Visualization of Hierarchical Nanodomains in Polymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J.; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, L; Darling, Seth B.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2014-10-01

    raditional electron microscopy techniques such as bright-field imaging provide poor contrast for organic films and identification of structures in amorphous material can be problematic, particularly in high- performance organic solar cells. By combining energy-filtered corrected transmission electron microscopy, together with electron energy loss and X-ray energy-dispersive hyperspectral imaging, we have imaged PTB7/ PC61BM blended polymer optical photovoltaic films, and were able to identify domains ranging in size from several hundred nanometers to several nanometers in extent. This work verifies that microstructural domains exist in bulk heterojunctions in PTB7/PC61BM polymeric solar cells at multiple length scales and expands our understanding of optimal device performance providing insight for the design of even higher performance cells.

  13. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in fits and the most reasonable fitting parameters.

  14. Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-02-04

    We propose two-dimensional periodic conical micrograting structured (MGS) polymer films as a multifunctional layer (i.e., light harvesting and self-cleaning) at the surface of outer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cover-substrates for boosting the solar power generation in silicon (Si)-based photovoltaic (PV) modules. The surface of ultraviolet-curable NOA63 MGS polymer films fabricated by the soft imprint lithography exhibits a hydrophobic property with water contact angle of ∼121° at no inclination and dynamic advancing/receding water contact angles of ∼132°/111° at the inclination angle of 40°, respectively, which can remove dust particles or contaminants on the surface of PV modules in real outdoor environments (i.e., self-cleaning). The NOA63 MGS film coated on the bare PET leads to the reduction of reflection as well as the enhancement of both the total and diffuse transmissions at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, indicating lower solar weighted reflectance (RSW) of ∼8.2%, higher solar weighted transmittance (TSW) of ∼93.1%, and considerably improved average haze ratio (HAvg) of ∼88.3% as compared to the bare PET (i.e., RSW ≈ 13.5%, TSW ≈ 86.9%, and HAvg ≈ 9.1%), respectively. Additionally, it shows a relatively good durability at temperatures of ≤160 °C. The resulting Si PV module with the NOA63 MGS/PET has an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.26% (cf., PCE = 12.55% for the reference PV module with the bare PET) due to the mainly improved short circuit current from 49.35 to 52.01 mA, exhibiting the PCE increment percentage of ∼5.7%. For light incident angle-dependent PV module current-voltage characteristics, superior solar energy conversion properties are also obtained in a broad angle range of 10-80°.

  15. Understanding polycarbazole-based polymer:CdSe hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Jun Yan; Lam, Yeng Ming; Niziol, Jacek; Marzec, Mateusz

    2012-08-10

    We report for the first time the fabrication and characterization of organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells made of poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and pyridine-capped CdSe nanorods. By optimizing both CdSe loading and active layer film thickness, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PCDTBT:CdSe hybrid solar cells were able to reach 2%, with PCDTBT:CdSe devices displaying an open-circuit voltage (V(OC )) that is 35% higher than P3HT:CdSe devices due to the deeper HOMO level of PCDTBT polymer. The performance of PCDTBT:CdSe devices is limited by its morphology and also its lower LUMO energy offset compared to P3HT:CdSe devices. Hence, the performance of PCDTBT:CdSe solar cells could be further improved by modifying the morphology of the films and also by including an interlayer to generate a built-in voltage to encourage exciton dissociation. Our results suggest that PCDTBT could be a viable alternative to P3HT as an electron donor in hybrid BHJ solar cells for high photovoltage application.

  16. Tuning perovskite morphology by polymer additive for high efficiency solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Chu, Cheng-Ya; Huang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Shuang-Yuan; Chen, Chien-An; Chao, Chi-Yang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2015-03-04

    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is a very promising new technology for low cost renewable energy. One of the most common cell structures is FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The main issues of this type of solar cell are the poor coverage and morphology control of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film on TiO2. For the first time, we demonstrate that the problems can be easily resolved by using a polymer additive in perovskite precursor solution during the film formation process. A 25% increase in power conversion efficiency at a value of 13.2% is achieved by adding 1 wt % of poly(ethylene glycol) in the perovskite layer using a 150 °C processed TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The morphology of this new perovskite was carefully studied by SEM, XRD, and AFM. The results reveal that the additive controls the size and aggregation of perovskite crystals and helps the formation of smooth film over TiO2 completely. Thus, the Voc and Jsc are greatly increased for a high efficiency solar cell. The amount of additive is optimized at 1 wt % due to its insulating characteristics. This research provides a facile way to fabricate a high efficiency perovskite solar cell by the low temperature solution process (TiO2 compact layer device.

  17. Embedded surface relief gratings by a simple method to improve absorption and electrical properties of polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Zhen, Hongyu; Huang, Zhuoyin; Li, Guolong; Liu, Xu

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate a simple rubbing hole injection layer (HIL) to form surface relief gratings (SRGs) on the functional layers of polymer solar cells (PSCs). PSCs studied in this work consist of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS(HIL)/P3HT:PCBM(photoactive layer)/LiF/Al structure. SRGs are successfully formed on HIL in an effective rubbing process, and are over printed on the photoactive layer and cathode consequently. These triplet SRGs change the morphologies of interfaces of PSCs, which can increase optical path lengths, interaction between HIL and P3HT chains, and interface areas between electrode and photoactive layer. Both light trapping and electrical improvement are confirmed by theory and experiments, which lead to overall increase in short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs. An average PCE of 3.8% is achieved from PSCs with SRGs without thermal annealing. Different from the directly rubbing the donor polymer film, a suitable degree of orientation of P3HT presents a lower dichroic ratio and higher photovoltaic response in our work.

  18. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... of all the polymers corresponding to all combinations of donor and acceptor units is followed by characterization of all the materials with respect to molecular weight, electrochemical energy levels, band gaps, photochemical stability, carrier mobility, and photovoltaic parameters. The photovoltaic...... included in the merit factor, it is found that 13 out of the 104 synthesized polymers outperformed poly(3-hexylthiophene) under the chosen processing conditions and thus can be suitable for further development....

  19. Effect of acceptor strength on optical and electronic properties in conjugated polymers for solar applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasegun O; Jung, In Hwan; Orr, Meghan; Yu, Luping; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-05-06

    Four new low-bandgap electron-accepting polymers-poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(2-(2-ethylhexyl)-1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]isothiazol-4-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H-dione) (PNSW); poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4,6-dioxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione) (PNTPD); poly(5-(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-5,11-dioxo-4,5,10,11-tetrahydrothieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinolin-2-yl)-2,9-bis(2-decyldodecyl)anthra[2,1,9-def:6,5,10-d'e'f']diisoquinoline-1,3,8,10(2H,9H)-tetraone) (PNPDI); and poly(9,9-bis(2-butyloctyl)-9H-fluorene-bis((1,10:5,6)2-(5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-4-ylidene)malonitrile)-2-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine)) (PECN)-containing thieno[2',3':5',6']pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione and fluorenedicyclopentathiophene dimalononitrile, were investigated to probe their structure-function relationships for solar cell applications. PTB7 was also investigated for comparison with the new low-bandgap polymers. The steady-state, ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical properties of all the organic polymers were probed. All the polymers showed broad absorption in the visible region, with the absorption of PNPDI and PECN extending into the near-IR region. The polymers had HOMO levels ranging from -5.73 to -5.15 eV and low bandgaps of 1.47-2.45 eV. Fluorescence upconversion studies on the polymers showed long lifetimes of 1.6 and 2.4 ns for PNSW and PNTPD, respectively, while PNPDI and PECN showed very fast decays within 353 and 110 fs. PECN exhibited a very high two-photon absorption cross section. The electronic structure calculations of the repeating units of the polymers indicated the localization of the molecular orbitals in different co-monomers. As the difference between the electron affinities of the co-monomers in the repeating units decreases, the highest

  20. A Challenge Beyond Bottom Cells: Top-Illuminated Flexible Organic Solar Cells with Nanostructured Dielectric/Metal/Polymer (DMP) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Juyoung; Dong, Wan Jae; Park, Jae Yong; Yoo, Chul Jong; Lee, Illhwan; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2015-07-15

    Top-illuminated flexible organic solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency (≈6.75%) are fabricated using a dielectric/metal/polymer (DMP) electrode. Employing a polymer layer (n = 1.49) makes it possible to show the high transmittance, which is insensitive to film thickness, and the excellent haze induced by well-ordered nanopatterns on the DMP electrode, leading to a 28% of enhancement in efficiency compared to bottom cells.

  1. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Nieves Espinosa; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full...

  2. The Influence of Nanofilled Polymer Coatings and Magnetic Field on the Decay Kinetics of Photovoltage in Silicon Crystals Used in Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Steblenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a weak stationary magnetic field on the kinetics of photovoltage decay in "solar" silicon crystals (solar-Si with nanofilled polymer coatings is studied. The characteristic features of magnetostimulated change of carrier lifetime depending on the concentration and the method of forming the nanofillers in the polymer matrix are established.

  3. Nanostructured Conjugated Polymers for Energy-Related Applications beyond Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Zhao, Cui-E; Lin, Zong-Qiong; Gu, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-05-20

    To meet the ever-increasing requirements for the next generation of sustainable and versatile energy-related devices, conjugated polymers, which have potential advantages over small molecules and inorganic materials, are among the most promising types of green candidates. The properties of conjugated polymers can be tuned through modification of the structure and incorporation of different functional moieties. In addition, superior performances can be achieved as a result of the advantages of nanostructures, such as their large surface areas and the shortened pathways for charge transfer. Therefore, nanostructured conjugated polymers with different properties can be obtained to be applied in different energy-related organic devices. This review focuses on the application and performance of the recently reported nanostructured conjugated polymers for high-performance devices, including rechargeable lithium batteries, microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thermoelectric generators, and photocatalytic systems. The design strategies, reaction mechanisms, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conjugated polymers are further discussed in each section. Finally, possible routes to improve the performances of the current systems are also included in the conclusion.

  4. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  5. Effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, K.D.G.I.; Amarasinghe, K.M.P.; Nismy, N.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mills, C.A. [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Advanced Coatings Group, Surface Engineering Department, Tata Steel Research Development and Technology, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham, S60 3AR (United Kingdom); Silva, S.R.P., E-mail: s.silva@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Polymer solar cells are fast gaining momentum as a potential solution towards low cost sustainable energy generation. However, the performance of architectures is known to be limited by the thin film nature of the active layer which, although required due to low charge carrier mobilities, limits the optical coupling to the active layer. The formation of periodic backgratings has been proposed as a solution to this problem. Here, we investigate the effect of solution processed and thermally evaporated interlayers on the performance of backgrated polymer solar cells. Analysis of device performance under standard conditions indicates higher power conversion efficiencies with the incorporation of the evaporated interlayer (5.7%) over a sol–gel processed interlayer (4.9%). This is driven by a more conformal coating as evidenced through two orders of magnitude higher electron mobilities (10{sup −5} versus 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) as well as the balanced electron and hole transport observed for the former architecture. It is believed that these results will catalyse further development of such device engineering concepts for improved optical coupling in thin film photovoltaics. - Highlights: • Effect of interlayers on backgrated photovoltaic devices is tested. • Evaporated interlayers lead to better device performance. • Better charge extraction is observed for evaporated interlayers.

  6. Influence of nanoparticle shape on charge transport and recombination in polymer/nanocrystal solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Weiyuan; Greenham, Neil C; McNeill, Christopher R

    2014-12-21

    A key consideration for the efficient operation of hybrid solar cells based upon conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals is charge transport in the nanocrystal phase. Here we report the results of a study into the charge transport kinetics of polymer/nanocrystal solar cells based on blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with either CdSe nano-dots or CdSe nano-tetrapods. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal significant differences in the charge transport kinetics of nano-dot and nano-tetrapod hybrid cells, with the charge collection of the P3HT/CdSe nano-dot device severely limited by charge trapping. In comparison the nano-tetrapod cell exhibits significantly reduced charge trapping compared to the nano-dot cell accounting for the improved fill-factor and overall device efficiency. Transient photovoltage measurements have also been employed that demonstrate slower recombination rates in the P3HT/CdSe tetrapod device compared to the P3HT/CdSe dot device. These observations directly identify nanoparticle shape as a critical factor influencing the charge transport and hence recombination in this benchmark hybrid system, confirming the hypothesis that the use of tetrapods improves device performance through an improvement in electron transport in the nanocrystal phase.

  7. Panchromatic "Dye-Doped" Polymer Solar Cells: From Femtosecond Energy Relays to Enhanced Photo-Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Sai Santosh Kumar, R; Maiuri, Margherita; Fang, Junfeng; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Alcocer, Marcelo J P; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry J

    2013-02-07

    There has been phenomenal effort synthesizing new low-band gap polymer hole-conductors which absorb into the near-infrared (NIR), leading to >10% efficient all-organic solar cells. However, organic light absorbers have relatively narrow bandwidths, making it challenging to obtain panchromatic absorption in a single organic semiconductor. Here, we demonstrate that (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b0]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadia-zole)] (PCPDTBT) can be "photo-sensitized" across the whole visible spectrum by "doping" with a visible absorbing dye, the (2,2,7,7-tetrakis(3-hexyl-5-(7-(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene) (spiro-TBT). Through a comprehensive sub-12 femtosecond-nanosecond spectroscopic study, we demonstrate that extremely efficient and fast energy transfer occurs from the photoexcited spiro-TBT to the PCPDTBT, and ultrafast charge injection happens when the system is interfaced with ZnO as a prototypal electron-acceptor compound. The visible photosensitization can be effectively exploited and gives panchromatic photoresponse in prototype polymer/oxide bilayer photovoltaic diodes. This concept can be successfully adopted for tuning and optimizing the light absorption and photoresponse in a broad range of polymeric and hybrid solar cells.

  8. Role of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Device Properties of Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-02-11

    For semiconducting polymers, such as regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) (rr-P3HT), the molecular weight has been correlated to charge carrier field-effect mobilities, surface morphology, and gelation rates in solution and therefore has important implications for long-Term reliability, manufacturing, and future applications of electronic organic thin films. In this work, we show that the molecular weight rr-P3HT in organic solar cells can also significantly change the internal cohesion of the photoactive layer using micromechanical testing techniques. Cohesive values ranged from ∼0.5 to ∼17 J m -2, following the general trend of greater cohesion with increasing molecular weight. Using nanodynamic mechanical analysis, we attribute the increase in cohesion to increased plasticity which helps dissipate the applied energy. Finally, we correlate photovoltaic efficiency with cohesion to assess the device physics pertinent to optimizing device reliability. This research elucidates the fundamental parameters which affect both the mechanical stability and efficiency of polymer solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  10. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  11. Sequential deposition: optimization of solvent swelling for high-performance polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hsin-Wei; Nordlund, Dennis; Sun, Zhiwei; Ferdous, Sunzida; Russell, Thomas P

    2015-01-14

    Organic solar cells based on a typical DPP polymer were systematically optimized by a solvent swelling assisted sequential deposition process. We investigated the influence of solvent swelling on the morphology and structure order of the swollen film and the resultant device performance. Morphological and structural characterization confirmed the realization of ideal bulk heterojunctions using a suitable swelling solvent. A trilayered morphology was also found with the conjugated polymer concentrated bottom layer, PC71BM concentrated top layer, and interpenetrated networks of donor and acceptor in the middle by solvent swelling instead of thermal annealing in the sequential solution processing method. We proposed a simple strategy to optimize the sequential deposition fabricated devices by tuning the concentration of the PC71BM solution instead of thermal annealing. The best device showed a PCE of 7.59% with a Voc of 0.61 V, Jsc of 17.95 mA/cm(2), and FF of 69.6%, which is the highest reported efficiency for devices fabricated by a sequential processing method and among the best results for DPP polymers.

  12. Versatile dual organic interface layer for performance enhancement of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Liu; Zhang, Xinyuan; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-11-01

    The electron transport layer plays a crucial role on determining electron injection and extraction, resulting from the effect of balancing charge transport and reducing the interfacial energy barrier. Decreasing the inherent incompatibility and enhancing electrical contact via employing appropriate buffer layer at the surface of hydrophobic organic active layer and hydrophilic inorganic electrode are also essential for charge collection. Herein, we demonstrate that an efficient dual polyelectrolytes interfacial layer composed of polyethylenimine (PEI) and conducting poly(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PDHFD) is incorporated to investigate the interface energetics and electron transport in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The composited PEI/PDHFD interface layer (PPIL) overcomed the low conductivity of bare PEI polymer, which decreased series resistance and facilitated electron extraction at the ITO/PPIL-active layer interface. The introduction of the interface energy state of the PPIL reduced the work function of ITO so that it can mate the top of the valence band of the photoactive materials and promoted the formation of ohmic contact at ITO electrode interface. As a result, the composited PPIL tuned energy alignment and accelerated the electron transfer, leading to significantly increased photocurrent and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices based on various representative polymer:fullerene systems.

  13. Photoelectrochemical reaction in conducting polymers for solar energy harvesting and charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Tevi, Tete; Takshi, Arash

    2016-09-01

    Energy storage is an essential ground for solar energy systems, particularly for the off-grid applications. Concurrent energy harvesting and charge storage in a photoactive supercapacitor has already been demonstrated. The key element in such a device is a conducting polymer which stores the charge via change in its redox states. In this work, we have studied the photoelectrochemical reactions in composites of polyaniline (PANI). We used the electrochemical deposition method for the polymer growth. The results of the current study indicate that the photo-reactivity of the materials largely depends on the electrolyte and the type of the dye molecule. Among different synthetic dyes, methylene blue has shown the strongest photoelectrochemical reaction in an HCl electrolyte. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that the amplitude of the redox peaks changes significantly upon illumination. The amount of stored charges in the polymer was estimated from the CV results. The results encourage the application of PANI for charge storage in a photoactive supercapacitor.

  14. Elucidating double aggregation mechanisms in the morphology optimization of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based narrow bandgap polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Wei; Dou, Letian; Chen, Chun-Chao; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-21

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a DPP-based polymer solar cell is significantly improved by using DIO or DCB as processing additives. The discovery that DCB outperforms DIO with a significantly wider solvent mixture operation window suggests different optimization mechanisms. Although both solvent mixture systems involve double aggregation processes, including a similar solution-to-film aggregation, however, two distinct solution-stage aggregations are observed: relatively amorphous polymer aggregates form in the CF-DIO solution, while more crystalline polymer aggregates form in CF-DCB solution.

  15. Nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrode with ionic liquid impregnated solid polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod K; Kim, Kang-Wook; Kim, Ki-Il; Park, Nam-Gyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2008-10-01

    This communication reports the detailed fabrication of electrodes and solid polymer electrolyte with ionic liquid (IL) as an electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Thick porous TiO2 film has been obtained by spreading and sintering TiO2 colloidal paste using "doctor blade" and characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. The polymer electrolyte was PEO:KI/I2 incorporated with 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMImSCN) as IL. Dispersal of IL in the polymer electrolyte improved the ionic conductivity and cell efficiency.

  16. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 μm thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  17. Factors Governing Intercalation of Fullerenes and Other Small Molecules Between the Side Chains of Semiconducting Polymers Used in Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Nichole Cates

    2012-08-22

    While recent reports have established signifi cant miscibility in polymer:fullerene blends used in organic solar cells, little is actually known about why polymers and fullerenes mix and how their mixing can be controlled. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular simulations are used to study mixing in a variety of polymer:molecule blends by systematically varying the polymer and smallmolecule properties. It is found that a variety of polymer:fullerene blends mix by forming bimolecular crystals provided there is suffi cient space between the polymer side chains to accommodate a fullerene. Polymer:tetrafl uoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) bimolecular crystals were also observed, although bimolecular crystals did not form in the other studied polymer:nonfullerene blends, including those with both conjugated and non-conjugated small molecules. DSC and molecular simulations demonstrate that strong polymer-fullerene interactions can exist, and the calculations point to van der Waals interactions as a signifi cant driving force for molecular mixing. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Controlling solution-phase polymer aggregation with molecular weight and solvent additives to optimize polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2014-03-20

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell performance of many polymers depends on the polymer molecular weight (M n) and the solvent additive(s) used for solution processing. However, the mechanism that causes these dependencies is not well understood. This work determines how M n and solvent additives affect the performance of BHJ solar cells made with the polymer poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co- octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD). Low M n PBDTTPD devices have exceedingly large fullerene-rich domains, which cause extensive charge-carrier recombination. Increasing the M n of PBDTTPD decreases the size of these domains and significantly improves device performance. PBDTTPD aggregation in solution affects the size of the fullerene-rich domains and this effect is linked to the dependency of PBDTTPD solubility on M n. Due to its poor solubility high M n PBDTTPD quickly forms a fibrillar polymer network during spin-casting and this network acts as a template that prevents large-scale phase separation. Furthermore, processing low M n PBDTTPD devices with a solvent additive improves device performance by inducing polymer aggregation in solution and preventing large fullerene-rich domains from forming. These findings highlight that polymer aggregation in solution plays a significant role in determining the morphology and performance of BHJ solar cells. The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy) benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of selenophene and thienothiophene incorporation into pentacyclic lactam-based conjugated polymers for organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kroon, Renee

    2015-09-08

    In this work, we compare the effect of incorporating selenophene versus thienothiophene spacers into pentacyclic lactam-based conjugated polymers for organic solar cells. The two cyclic lactam-based copolymers were obtained via a new synthetic method for the lactam moiety. Selenophene incorporation results in a broader and red-shifted optical absorption while retaining a deep highest occupied molecular orbital level, whereas thienothienophene incorporation results in a blue-shifted optical absorption. Additionally, grazing-incidence wide angle X-ray scattering data indicates edge- and face-on solid state order for the selenophene-based polymer as compared to the thienothiophene-based polymer, which orders predominantly edge-on with respect to the substrate. In polymer:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells both materials show a similar open-circuit voltage of ∼0.80-0.84 V, however the selenophene-based polymer displays a higher fill factor of ∼0.70 vs. ∼0.65. This is due to the partial face-on backbone orientation of the selenophene-based polymer, leading to a higher hole mobility, as confirmed by single-carrier diode measurements, and a concomitantly higher fill factor. Combined with improved spectral coverage of the selenophene-based polymer, as confirmed by quantum efficiency experiments, it offers a larger short-circuit current density of ∼12 mA cm. Despite the relatively low molecular weight of both materials, a very robust power conversion efficiency ∼7% is achieved for the selenophene-based polymer, while the thienothiophene-based polymer demonstrates only a moderate maximum PCE of ∼5.5%. Hence, the favorable effects of selenophene incorporation on the photovoltaic performance of pentacyclic lactam-based conjugated polymers are clearly demonstrated.

  20. The importance of fullerene percolation in the mixed regions of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2012-10-26

    Most optimized donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have active layers too thin to absorb greater than - 80% of incident photons with energies above the polymer\\'s band gap. If the thickness of these devices could be increased without sacrifi cing internal quantum effi ciency, the device power conversion effi ciency (PCE) could be signifi cantly enhanced. We examine the device characteristics of BHJ solar cells based on poly(di(2- ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2- b :4,5- b \\' ]dithiophene- co -octylthieno[3,4- c ]pyrrole-4,6- dione) (PBDTTPD) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with 7.3% PCE and fi nd that bimolecular recombination limits the active layer thickness of these devices. Thermal annealing does not mitigate these bimolecular recombination losses and drastically decreases the PCE of PBDTTPD BHJ solar cells. We characterize the morphology of these BHJs before and after thermal annealing and determine that thermal annealing drastically reduces the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions, which consist of PCBM dispersed in the amorphous portions of PBDTTPD. Decreasing the concentration of PCBM may reduce the number of percolating electron transport pathways within these mixed regions and create morphological electron traps that enhance charge-carrier recombination and limit device quantum effi ciency. These fi ndings suggest that (i) the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions of polymer BHJs must be above the PCBM percolation threshold in order to attain high solar cell internal quantum effi ciency, and (ii) novel processing techniques, which improve polymer hole mobility while maintaining PCBM percolation within the mixed regions, should be developed in order to limit bimolecular recombination losses in optically thick devices and maximize the PCE of polymer BHJ solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  1. Performance Investigation of a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer for Different Inlet Areas with a Fixed Outlet Area

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Afriyie; Bart - Plange, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of a direct-mode solar crop dryer with a solar chimney. Tests were performed for three differently inclined drying-chamber roofs, each with three inlet areas for a given exit area. Cassava was used as the test crop. The results show that the increase in the inlet area for a given exit area can improve the ventilation in the dryer. However, this does not necessarily improve the drying performance of the direct-mode dryer. A wide inlet area for a given exit a...

  2. Influence of the polymer matrix on the efficiency of hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux: Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres: IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux: Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres: IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, 34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between the polymer matrices and SiNWs has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effect of the polymer matrix on the photovoltaic characteristics. - Abstract: Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK):SiNWs and poly (2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenyl vinylene) (MEH-PPV):SiNWs bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) have been elaborated from blends of SiNWs and the polymer in solution from a common solvent. Optical properties of these nanocomposites have been investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectral measurements. We have studied the charge transfer between SiNWs and the two polymers using the photoluminescence quenching of PVK and MEH-PPV which is a convenient signature of the reduced radiative recombination of the generated charge pairs upon exciton dissociation. We found that PVK and SiNWs constitutes the better donor-acceptor system. In order to understand the difference between PVK:SiNWs or MEH-PPV:SiNWs behaviours, photoluminescence responses were correlated with the topography (SEM) of the thin films. The photovoltaic effect of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SiNWs:PVK/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SiNWs:MEH-PPV/Al structures was studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements in dark and under illumination and interpreted on the basis of the charge transfer differences resulting from the morphologies.

  3. Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in High Performance Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2011-06-28

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9″-hepta- decanyl-2,7-carbazole- alt -5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than ∼70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fi ll factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We fi nd that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the "fruit-fl y" P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the π-π stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBTbased BHJs. These fi ndings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Morphology-dependent trap formation in high performance polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiley, Zach M.; Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hoke, Eric T.; Noriega, Rodrigo; Burkhard, George F. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dacuna, Javier [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Toney, Michael F. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9''-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than {proportional_to}70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fill factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We find that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the ''fruit-fly'' P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the {pi}-{pi} stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBT-based BHJs. These findings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Efficient organometal trihalide perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells on flexible polymer substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Ball, James M; Darwich, Mariam; Eperon, Giles E; Snaith, Henry J

    2013-01-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells offer the promise of a low-cost easily manufacturable solar technology, compatible with large-scale low-temperature solution processing. Within 1 year of development, solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiencies have risen to over 15%, and further imminent improvements are expected. Here we show that this technology can be successfully made compatible with electron acceptor and donor materials generally used in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate that a single thin film of the low-temperature solution-processed organometal trihalide perovskite absorber CH3NH3PbI3-xClx, sandwiched between organic contacts can exhibit devices with power-conversion efficiency of up to 10% on glass substrates and over 6% on flexible polymer substrates. This work represents an important step forward, as it removes most barriers to adoption of the perovskite technology by the organic photovoltaic community, and can thus utilize the extensive existing knowledge of hybrid interfaces for further device improvements and flexible processing platforms.

  6. Statistical mechanical properties of polymer configurations which enclose a constant area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandekar, D.C.; Wiegel, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical mechanical properties of plane polymer loops enclosing a constant area are investigated, using a continuous model from the start. For this purpose an analytic expression for the generating functional is obtained, which in turn is used to derive (1) the distribution function for the e

  7. Roll coated large area ITO- and vacuum-free all organic solar cells from diketopyrrolopyrrole based non-fullerene acceptors with molecular geometry effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbaek; Zhang, Fei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate three diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based small molecular non-fullerene acceptors, namely Ph(DPP)3, Ph(DPP)2, and PhDMe(DPP)2, focusing on molecular geometry effects on the frontier orbital level, light absorption, molecular configuration, electron mobility, thin film...... morphology, and photovoltaic performance of both spin-coated ITO based and roll coated large area, ITO- and vacuum-free organic solar cells (OSCs). For spin-coated devices based on P3HT as the donor polymer the solar cells gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the following order for (P3HT:PhDMe(DPP)2...

  8. Investigation of optical spacer layers from solution based precursors for polymer solar cells using X-ray reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Skårhøj, Jakob; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    Optical spacer layers based on titaniumalkoxide precursor solutions were prepared by spin-coating on top of bulk heterojunction layers based on poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Models and experiment have shown that the performance of polymer solar cells...

  9. Water-Induced Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells Studied by (H2O)-O-18 Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Water-induced degradation of polymer photovoltaics based on the active materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) was studied. The solar cell devices comprised a bulk heterojunction formed by the active material and [6,6]-phenyl...

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The...

  12. π-Conjugated Organometallic Isoindigo Oligomer and Polymer Chromophores: Singlet and Triplet Excited State Dynamics and Application in Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Subhadip; Gish, Melissa K; Wang, Jiliang; Winkel, Russell W; Papanikolas, John M; Schanze, Kirk S

    2015-12-01

    An isoindigo based π-conjugated oligomer and polymer that contain cyclometalated platinum(II) "auxochrome" units were subjected to photophysical characterization, and application of the polymer in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with PCBM acceptor was examined. The objective of the study was to explore the effect of the heavy metal centers on the excited state properties, in particular, intersystem crossing to a triplet (exciton) state, and further how this would influence the performance of the organometallic polymer in solar cells. The materials were characterized by electrochemistry, ground state absorption, emission, and picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the cyclometalated units have a significant impact on the HOMO energy level of the chromophores, but little effect on the LUMO, which is consistent with localization of the LUMO on the isoindigo acceptor unit. Picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals a transient with ∼100 ns lifetime that is assigned to a triplet excited state that is produced by intersystem crossing from a singlet state on a time scale of ∼130 ps. This is the first time that a triplet state has been observed for isoindigo π-conjugated chromophores. The performance of the polymer in bulk heterojunction solar cells was explored with PC61BM as an acceptor. The performance of the cells was optimum at a relatively high PCBM loading (1:6, polymer:PCBM), but the overall efficiency was relatively low with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.22%. Atomic force microscopy of blend films reveals that the length scale of the phase separation decreases with increasing PCBM content, suggesting a reason for the increase in PCE with acceptor loading. Energetic considerations show that the triplet state in the polymer is too low in energy to undergo charge separation with PCBM. Further, due to the relatively low LUMO energy of the polymer, charge transfer

  13. Non-Fullerene Polymer Solar Cells Based on Alkylthio and Fluorine Substituted 2D-Conjugated Polymers Reach 9.5% Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Haijun; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Liang; Chen, Shanshan; Zhong, Lian; Xue, Lingwei; Yang, Changduk; Li, Yongfang

    2016-04-06

    Non-fullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) with solution-processable n-type organic semiconductor (n-OS) as acceptor have seen rapid progress recently owing to the synthesis of new low bandgap n-OS, such as ITIC. To further increase power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices, it is of a great challenge to develop suitable polymer donor material that matches well with the low bandgap n-OS acceptors thus providing complementary absorption and nanoscaled blend morphology, as well as suppressed recombination and minimized energy loss. To address this challenge, we synthesized three medium bandgap 2D-conjugated bithienyl-benzodithiophene-alt-fluorobenzotriazole copolymers J52, J60, and J61 for the application as donor in the PSCs with low bandgap n-OS ITIC as acceptor. The three polymers were designed with branched alkyl (J52), branched alkylthio (J60), and linear alkylthio (J61) substituent on the thiophene conjugated side chain of the benzodithiophene (BDT) units for studying effect of the substituents on the photovoltaic performance of the polymers. The alkylthio side chain, red-shifted absorption down-shifted the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and improved crystallinity of the 2D conjugated polymers. With linear alkylthio side chain, the tailored polymer J61 exhibits an enhanced JSC of 17.43 mA/cm(2), a high VOC of 0.89 V, and a PCE of 9.53% in the best non-fullerene PSCs with the polymer as donor and ITIC as acceptor. To the best of our knowledge, the PCE of 9.53% is one of the highest values reported in literature to date for the non-fullerene PSCs. The results indicate that J61 is a promising medium bandgap polymer donor in non-fullerene PSCs.

  14. Overview of Space Station attached payloads in the areas of solar physics, solar terrestrial physics, and plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Kropp, J.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the currently planned utilization of the Space Station to perform investigations in solar physics, solar terrestrial physics, and plasma physics. The investigations and instrumentation planned for the Solar Terrestrial Observatory (STO) and its associated Space Station accommodation requirements are discussed as well as the planned placement of the STO instruments and typical operational scenarios. In the area of plasma physics, some preliminary plans for scientific investigations and for the accommodation of a plasma physics facility attached to the Space Station are outlined. These preliminary experiment concepts use the space environment around the Space Station as an unconfined plasma laboratory. In solar physics, the initial instrument complement and associated accommodation requirements of the Advanced Solar Observatory are described. The planned evolutionary development of this observatory is outlined, making use of the Space Station capabilities for servicing and instrument reconfiguration.

  15. A Quantum Chemical Study on Polythiophenes Derivatives as Donor Materials in Bulk-heterojunction Polymer Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Mohamed Omer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the optimum design of the donor and acceptor materials in polymer solar cells, it is very important to do a theoretical calculation for the energy levels and energy gaps. In this work we used the semiempirical method Austin Model1 (AM1 to investigate the Higher Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO and Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO of polythiophenes derivatives/fullerenes combination (bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The overestimation on the HOMO and LUMO values was corrected by using experimental data from literature as criteria of correctness. Using our correction method, a reasonable linear relationship between the computed energy band gaps of polythiophenes derivatives and the experimental band gaps were found. The corrected HOMO and LUMO energies of polythiophenes derivatives match well with the experimental one. This method can serve as a road map inorder to design and synthesis appropriate combination of polythiophenes derivatives/fullerenes for bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  16. Slot-die Coating of a High Performance Copolymer in a Readily Scalable Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Copolymers based on dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole (DTS) and dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (TTz) are synthesized and tested in an all-solution roll process for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Fabrication of polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solar cells is done on a previously...... above 200 nm. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% can be reached with the roll-coated PDTSTTz-4:PCBM solar cells that, together with good process control and high device yield, designate PDTSTTz-4 as a convincing candidate for high-throughput roll-to-roll production of PSCs....

  17. Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; 10.1016/j.cma.2010.01.018

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial...

  18. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  19. Morphology and interdiffusion control to improve adhesion and cohesion properties in inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The role of pre-electrode deposition annealing on the morphology and the fracture properties of polymer solar cells is discussed. We found an increase in adhesion at the weak P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface with annealing temperature, caused by increased interdiffusion between the organic layers. The formation of micrometer sized PCBM crystallites, which occurs with annealing above the crystallization temperature of PCBM, initially weakened the P3HT:PCBM layer itself. Further annealing improved the cohesion, due to a pull-out toughening mechanism of the growing PCBM clusters. Understanding how the morphology, tuned by annealing, affects the adhesive and cohesive properties in these organic films is essential for the mechanical integrity of OPV devices.

  20. Low-Work-Function, ITO-Free Transparent Cathodes for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Lv, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2015-09-16

    A low-work-function, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free transparent cathode having a tin oxide (SnOX)/Ag/SnOX/bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) (SASB) structure is developed without using annealing treatment. This represents the first time that Bi2O3 has been introduced to lower the work function of transparent electrodes. The SASB transparent cathode exhibits excellent photoelectric properties with a maximum transmittance of ∼88%, a low sheet resistance of ∼9.0 Ω·sq(-1), and a suitable work function of 4.22 eV that matches the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the acceptor for exacting electrons efficiently. The power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cell with the SASB electrode is 6.21%, which is comparable to that of ITO-based devices. The results indicate that SASB is a good alternative to ITO as transparent cathodes in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Effects of magnetic nanoparticles and external magnetostatic field on the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun polymer blends as electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Hae; Choi, Hyung-Ju; Hwang, Won-Pil; Kim, Jung-Heon; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Du-Hyun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Solchem Co., Ltd., Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung-il [Solchem Co., Ltd., Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Un [EAGUN WINDOW and DOOR SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Incheon 967-3 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We prepared electrospun polymer nanofibers by the electrospinning method and investigated about their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and PVDF-HFP/polystyrene (PS) blend nanofibers were prepared and examined the uptake, the ionic conductivity, and the porosity by impedance measurement and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The best results of V{sub oc}, J{sub sc}, FF, and efficiency of the DSSC devices using the electrospun PVDF-HFP/PS(3:1) blend nanofibers were 0.76 V, 11.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.66, and 5.75% under AM 1.5. (author)

  3. Solar Thermal Radiant Heating at Pohakuloa Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Solar collector panels. • Sizing the array: Using thermal storage of 256,000 BTU/day and 4’ x 10’ flat panel collectors with output of...be arranged side-by-side on the south- facing pitch of roof. – Racked at 30 angle to maximize winter sun. Flat plate solar collectors E2S2– June 2010...radiant heat flooring project will combine solar thermal hot water system with in-floor radiant heating. – Flooring heat only; no domestic water. – Flat

  4. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology...... when judging by the number of scientific publications whereas the application of polymer and organic solar cells in real products is completely lacking. This aspect is viewed as a sign of the polymer and organic solar cell field as being more complex and less mature and it raises the question...... of whether an organic analog to a successful inorganic technology is forcibly needed and indeed whether it is at all worth exploring beyond academia....

  5. Solar Energy Potential Assessment in the Algerian South Area: Case of Ghardaïa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacem Gairaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position in the solar belt, Algeria is blessed with an abundance of solar energy and has the opportunity to utilize this bounty of natural energy effectively, promoting a clean environment and developing renewable energy technologies in the region. This paper assesses and analyses the solar energy potential in Ghardaïa area (south Algeria to help users for solar energy applications. A database of solar radiation components has been employed for this purpose. The data presented in the paper are compared with other data supplied by renowned regional and international establishments, such as the solar atlas for the Mediterranean and the NASA. The frequency and the hourly distribution of solar radiation components indicate that the region is considered as an economical area and favorable for solar applications, such as the photovoltaic and the concentrating solar power (CSP technologies. In addition to solar radiation, data of two functions, namely, clearness index and sunshine fraction have been examined; their results specify that the site has a clear sky conditions in most time of the year. In general, the obtained results illustrate that the site under consideration can use solar energy as a promising solution to conventional energy.

  6. Performance improvement in flexible polymer solar cells based on modified silver nanowire electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danbei; Zhou, Weixin; Liu, Huan; Ma, Yanwen; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an efficient flexible polymer solar cell was achieved by controlling the UV-ozone treatment time of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) used in the electrode and combined with other modification materials. Through optimizing the time of UV-ozone treatment, it is shown that Ag NWs electrode treated by UV-ozone for 10 s improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) from 0.76% to 1.34%. After treatment by UV-ozone, Ag NWs electrodes exhibit several promising characteristics, including high optical transparency, low sheet resistance and superior surface work function. As a consequence, the performance of devices utilizing 10 s UV-ozone-treated Ag NWs with PEDOT:PSS or MoO3 as composite anode showed higher PCEs of 2.77% (2.73%) compared with that for Ag NW electrodes without UV-ozone treatment. In addition, a PCE of 5.97% in flexible polymer solar cells based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl](PBDTTT-EFT):[6, 6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as a photoactive layer was obtained.

  7. Ruthenium based metallopolymer grafted reduced graphene oxide as a new hybrid solar light harvester in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, R.; Babu, S. Ganesh; Bharti, Vishal; Gupta, V.; Navaneethan, M.; Bhat, S. Venkataprasad; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Sharma, Chhavi; Aswal, Dinesh K.; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Neppolian, B.

    2017-01-01

    A new class of pyridyl benzimdazole based Ru complex decorated polyaniline assembly (PANI-Ru) was covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) via covalent functionalization approach. The covalent attachment of PANI-Ru with rGO was confirmed from XPS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical bonding between PANI-Ru and rGO induced the electron transfer from Ru complex to rGO via backbone of the conjugated PANI chain. The resultant hybrid metallopolymer assembly was successfully demonstrated as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). A PSC device fabricated with rGO/PANI-Ru showed an utmost ~6 fold and 2 fold enhancement in open circuit potential (Voc) and short circuit current density (Jsc) with respect to the standard device made with PANI-Ru (i.e., without rGO) under the illumination of AM 1.5 G. The excellent electronic properties of rGO significantly improved the electron injection from PANI-Ru to PCBM and in turn the overall performance of the PSC device was enhanced. The ultrafast excited state charge separation and electron transfer role of rGO sheet in hybrid metallopolymer was confirmed from ultrafast spectroscopy measurements. This covalent modification of rGO with metallopolymer assembly may open a new strategy for the development of new hybrid nanomaterials for light harvesting applications. PMID:28225039

  8. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations.

  9. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peiwen; Chen, Shan-Ci; Zheng, Qingdong; Huang, Feng, E-mail: fhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn; Ding, Kai [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou Fujian, 350002 (China)

    2015-04-20

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of J{sub SC}, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance.

  10. Challenges Found When Patterning Semiconducting Polymers with Electric Fields for Organic Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A material-independent, contactless structuring method of semiconducting organic materials for the fabrication of interface-enhanced bilayer solar cells is not available so far. Patterning of thin films using electrohydrodynamic instabilities possesses many desired characteristics and has convincingly been used as a simple method to structure and replicate patterns of nonconducting polymers on submicrometer length scales. However, the applicability of this technique to a wider range of materials has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report attempts to structure poly(p-phenylene vinylene in a similar way. We found that thin films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyl-oxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MEH-PPV and poly(2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MDMO-PPV could not be destabilized at all in the limited accessible range of the experimental parameters set by the delicate chemical nature of these materials. We discuss failure origins and present possible loopholes for the patterning of semiconducting polymers using electric fields.

  11. Inverted polymer solar cells with employing of electrochemical-anodizing synthesized TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi, Dafeh; Hamed, Fatehy

    2016-04-01

    An inverted structure of polymer solar cells based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with using thin films of TiO2 nanotubes and nanoparticles as an efficient cathode buffer layer is developed. A total of three cells employing TiO2 thin films with different thickness values are fabricated. Two cells use layers of TiO2 nanotubes prepared via self-organized electrochemical-anodizing leading to thickness values of 203 and 423.7 nm, while the other cell uses only a simple sol-gel synthesized TiO2 thin film of nanoparticles with a thickness of 100 nm as electron transport layer. Experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 nanotubes with these thickness values are inefficient as the power conversion efficiency of the cell using 100-nm TiO2 thin film is 1.55%, which is more than the best power conversion efficiency of other cells. This can be a result of the weakness of the electrochemical anodizing method to grow nanotubes with lower thickness values. In fact as the TiO2 nanotubes grow in length the series resistance (R s) between the active polymer layer and electron transport layer increases, meanwhile the fill factor of cells falls dramatically which finally downgrades the power conversion efficiency of the cells as the fill factor falls.

  12. Organic dopant added polyvinylidene fluoride based solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of phenothiazine (PTZ) as dopant on PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was studied for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The different weight percentage (wt%) ratios (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting method using DMF as a solvent. The following techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and AC-impedance analysis have been employed to characterize the prepared polymer electrolyte films. The FT-IR studies revealed the complex formation between PVDF/KI/I2 and PTZ. The crystalline and amorphous nature of polymer electrolytes were confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis respectively. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolyte films were calculated from the AC-impedance analysis. The undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity of 4.68×10-6 S cm-1 and this value was increased to 7.43×10-5 S cm-1 when PTZ was added to PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. On comparison with different wt% ratios, the maximum ionic conductivity was observed for 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. A DSSC assembled with the optimized wt % of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.92%, than the undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte (1.41%) at similar conditions. Hence, the 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was found to be optimal for DSSC applications.

  13. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  14. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  15. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  16. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  17. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  18. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  19. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  20. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-06-01

    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  1. Ultrafast decoherence dynamics govern photocarrier generation efficiencies in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Eleonora; Li, Hao; Grégoire, Pascal; Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Bazán, Claudia M.; Nelson, Jenny; Silva-Acuña, Carlos; Bittner, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    All-organic-based photovoltaic solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their low-cost processing and short energy payback time. In such systems the primary dissociation of an optical excitation into a pair of photocarriers has been recently shown to be extremely rapid and efficient, but the physical reason for this remains unclear. Here, two-dimensional photocurrent excitation spectroscopy, a novel non-linear optical spectroscopy, is used to probe the ultrafast coherent decay of photoexcitations into charge-producing states in a polymer:fullerene based solar cell. The two-dimensional photocurrent spectra are interpreted by introducing a theoretical model for the description of the coupling of the electronic states of the system to an external environment and to the applied laser fields. The experimental data show no cross-peaks in the twodimensional photocurrent spectra, as predicted by the model for coherence times between the exciton and the photocurrent producing states of 20 fs or less.

  2. Ultrafast decoherence dynamics govern photocarrier generation efficiencies in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Eleonora; Li, Hao; Grégoire, Pascal; Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Bazán, Claudia M.; Nelson, Jenny; Silva-Acuña, Carlos; Bittner, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    All-organic-based photovoltaic solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their low-cost processing and short energy payback time. In such systems the primary dissociation of an optical excitation into a pair of photocarriers has been recently shown to be extremely rapid and efficient, but the physical reason for this remains unclear. Here, two-dimensional photocurrent excitation spectroscopy, a novel non-linear optical spectroscopy, is used to probe the ultrafast coherent decay of photoexcitations into charge-producing states in a polymer:fullerene based solar cell. The two-dimensional photocurrent spectra are interpreted by introducing a theoretical model for the description of the coupling of the electronic states of the system to an external environment and to the applied laser fields. The experimental data show no cross-peaks in the twodimensional photocurrent spectra, as predicted by the model for coherence times between the exciton and the photocurrent producing states of 20 fs or less. PMID:27412119

  3. Fabrication of highly reproducible polymer solar cells using ultrasonic substrate vibration posttreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zabihi, Fatemeh; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-10-01

    Organic solar cells are usually nonreproducible due to the presence of defects in the structure of their constituting thin films. To minimize the density of pinholes and defects in PEDOT:PSS, which is the hole transporting layer of a standard polymer solar cell, i.e., glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al, and to reduce scattering in device performance, wet spun-on PEDOT:PSS films are subjected to imposed ultrasonic substrate vibration posttreatment (SVPT). The imposed vibration improves the mixing and homogeneity of the wet spun-on films, and consequently the nanostructure of the ensuing thin solid films. For instance, our results show that by using the SVPT, which is a mechanical, single-step and low-cost process, the average power conversion efficiency of 14 identical cells increases by 25% and the standard deviation decreases by 22% indicating that the device photovoltaic performance becomes more consistent and significantly improved. This eliminates several tedious and expensive chemical and thermal treatments currently performed to improve the cell reproducibility.

  4. Stability Comparison of Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Zinc Oxide and Titania on Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhissi, Yasmina; Meyer, Steffen; Chen, Dehong; Weerasinghe, Hasitha C; Spiccia, Leone; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-04-07

    Device scale-up and long-term stability constitute two major hurdles that the emerging perovskite solar technology will have to overcome before commercialization. Here, a comparative study was performed between ZnO and TiO2 electron-selective layers, two materials that allow the low-temperature processing of perovskite solar cells on polymer substrates. Although the use of TiO2 is well established on glass substrates, ZnO was chosen because it can be readily printed at low temperature and offers the potential for the large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible photovoltaics at a low cost. However, a rapid degradation of CH3 NH3 PbI3 was observed if it was deposited on ZnO, therefore, the influence of the perovskite film preparation conditions on its morphology and degradation kinetics was investigated. This study showed that CH3 NH3 PbI3 could withstand a higher temperature on TiO2 than ZnO and that TiO2-based perovskite devices were more stable than their ZnO analogues.

  5. Metal Evaporation-Induced Degradation of Fullerene Acceptors in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Thomsen, Lars; Tadich, Anton; Cheng, Yi-Bing; McNeill, Christopher R

    2016-01-27

    Surface-sensitive NEXAFS spectroscopy is used to probe the interaction between low work function metal electrodes and fullerene derivatives in organic solar cells. Evaporation of either Ca or Al electrodes onto films of the fullerene derivatives (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) leads to a dramatic change in the observed NEXAFS spectrum. The observed changes cannot be explained only in terms of interfacial electronic doping or charge transfer, but rather point to the formation of new chemical bonds that destroy the extensive electron delocalization on the C60 cage. A combination of ex situ and in situ ultrahigh vacuum measurements indicates that metal evaporation results in a change in the electronic structure of PCBM that then facilitates chemical degradation and oxidation in the presence of oxygen. To investigate the effect of this chemical interaction on device performance, a unique transfer method to laminate the Al electrode to the top of polymer blend is used, in which case, the chemical degradation of the fullerene is not observed. Device performance of P3HT/PCBM blend solar cells in which the top metal electrode has either been thermally evaporated or transferred is then compared. These results highlight that chemical, as well as electronic, interactions between metals and organic semiconductors must be considered.

  6. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  7. Effect of Sheet Resistance and Morphology of ITO Thin Films on Polymer Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Narayan Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell fabrication on flexible thin plastic sheets needs deposition of transparent conducting anode layers at low temperatures. ITO thin films are deposited on glass by RF sputtering at substrate temperature of 70∘C and compare their phase, morphology, optical, and electrical properties with commercial ITO. The films contain smaller nanocrystallites in (222 preferred orientation and exhibit comparable optical transmittance (~95% in the wavelength range of 550–650 nm, but high sheet resistance of ~103 Ω/□ (the value being ~36 Ω/□ for commercial ITO.The polymer solar cells with PEDOT: PSS and P3HT: PCBM layers realized on RF sputtered vis-a-vis commercial ITO thin films are shown to display a marginal difference in power conversion efficiency, low fill factor, and low open-circuit voltage but increased short-circuit current density. The decrease in fill factor, open-circuit voltage is compensated by increased short-circuit current. Detailed study is made of increased short-circuit current density.

  8. Application of Nanostructured Materials and Multi-junction Structure in Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-12-09

    With power conversion efficiency surpassing the 10% milestone for commercialization, photovoltaic technology based on solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs) provides a promising route towards a cost-efficient strategy to address the ever-increasing worldwide energy demands. However, to make PSCs successful, challenges such as insufficient light absorption, high maintenance costs, and relatively high production costs must be addressed. As solutions to some of these problems, the unique properties of nanostructured materials and complimentary light absorption in multi-junction device structure could prove to be highly beneficial. As a starting point, integrating nanostructure-based transparent self-cleaning surfaces in PSCs was investigated first. By controlling the length of the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods and covering their surface with a thin layer of chemical vapor-deposited SiO2, a highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic surface was constructed. Integrating the transparent superhydrophobic surface in a PSC shows minimal impact on the figure of merit of the PSC. To address the low mechanical durability of the transparent superhydrophobic surface based on SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods, a novel method inspired by the water condensation process was developed. This method involved directly growing hollow silica half-nanospheres on the substrate through the condensation of water in the presence of a silica precursor. Benefit from the decreased back scattering efficiency and increased light transport mean free path arise from the hollow nature, a transparent superhydrophobic surface was realized using submicrometer sized silica half-nanospheres. The decent mechanical property of silica and the “direct-grown” protocol are expected to impart improved mechanical durability to the transparent superhydrophobic surface. Regarding the application of multi-junction device structure in PSCs, homo multi-junction PSCs were constructed from an identical

  9. Enhanced Lifetime of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface Passivation of Metal Oxide Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-07-29

    The role of electron selective interfaces on the performance and lifetime of polymer solar cells were compared and analyzed. Bilayer interfaces consisting of metal oxide films with cationic polymer modification namely poly ethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) were found to enhance device lifetime compared to bare metal oxide films when used as an electron selective cathode interface. Devices utilizing surface-modified metal oxide layers showed enhanced lifetimes, retaining up to 85% of their original efficiency when stored in ambient atmosphere for 180 days without any encapsulation. The work function and surface potential of zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO/PEIE interlayers were evaluated using Kelvin probe and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) respectively. Kelvin probe measurements showed a smaller reduction in work function of ZnO/PEIE films compared to bare ZnO films when aged in atmospheric conditions. KPFM measurements showed that the surface potential of the ZnO surface drastically reduces when stored in ambient air for 7 days because of surface oxidation. Surface oxidation of the interface led to a substantial decrease in the performance in aged devices. The enhancement in the lifetime of devices with a bilayer interface was correlated to the suppressed surface oxidation of the metal oxide layers. The PEIE passivated surface retained a lower Fermi level when aged, which led to lower trap-assisted recombination at the polymer-cathode interface. Further photocharge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV) measurements were performed on fresh and aged samples to evaluate the field required to extract maximum charges. Fresh devices with a bare ZnO cathode interlayer required a lower field than devices with ZnO/PEIE cathode interface. However, aged devices with ZnO required a much higher field to extract charges while aged devices with ZnO/PEIE showed a minor increase compared to the fresh devices. Results indicate that surface modification can act as a

  10. Thermocleavable π‐Conjugated Polymers – Synthesis and photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    Polymer solar cells (plastic solar cells) have seen remarkable improvements in recent years where power conversion efficiencies of up to 6% have been reported for small area devices. However in terms of stability polymer solar cells degrade during illumination and in the dark leading to operational...... (>20000 hours). This Ph.D. thesis describes the synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic applications of these novel polymer materials. A key feature of these materials is that solubilizing thermocleavable alkyl ester side chains are introduced on the polymer backbone. The side chains make the polymer...... level processing and improved stability in a solar cell device....

  11. Optimizing the fabrication process and interplay of device components of polymer solar cells using a field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, Sergii; Pershin, Anton; Baeurle, Stephan A.

    2015-05-01

    Both the device composition and fabrication process are well-known to crucially affect the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells. Major advances have recently been achieved through the development of novel device materials and inkjet printing technologies, which permit to improve their durability and performance considerably. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm to investigate the influence of the material characteristics, like, e.g., electrode surfaces, polymer architectures, and impurities in the active layer, as well as post-production treatments, like, e.g., electric field alignment, on the photovoltaic performance of block-copolymer solar-cell devices. Our study reveals that a short exposition time of the polymer bulk heterojunction to the action of an external electric field can lead to a low photovoltaic performance due to an incomplete alignment process, leading to undulated or disrupted nanophases. With increasing exposition time, the nanophases align in direction to the electric field lines, resulting in an increase of the number of continuous percolation paths and, ultimately, in a reduction of the number of exciton and charge-carrier losses. Moreover, we conclude by modifying the interaction strengths between the electrode surfaces and active layer components that a too low or too high affinity of an electrode surface to one of the components can lead to defective contacts, causing a deterioration of the device performance. Finally, we infer from the study of block-copolymer nanoparticle systems that particle impurities can significantly affect the nanostructure of the polymer matrix and reduce the photovoltaic performance of the active layer. For a critical volume fraction and size of the nanoparticles, we observe a complete phase transformation of the polymer nanomorphology, leading to a drop of the internal quantum efficiency. For other particle-numbers and -sizes

  12. n-Type semiconducting naphthalene diimide-perylene diimide copolymers: controlling crystallinity, blend morphology, and compatibility toward high-performance all-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ye-Jin; Earmme, Taeshik; Courtright, Brett A E; Eberle, Frank N; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2015-04-08

    Knowledge of the critical factors that determine compatibility, blend morphology, and performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of an electron-accepting polymer and an electron-donating polymer remains limited. To test the idea that bulk crystallinity is such a critical factor, we have designed a series of new semiconducting naphthalene diimide (NDI)-selenophene/perylene diimide (PDI)-selenophene random copolymers, xPDI (10PDI, 30PDI, 50PDI), whose crystallinity varies with composition, and investigated them as electron acceptors in BHJ solar cells. Pairing of the reference crystalline (crystalline domain size Lc = 10.22 nm) NDI-selenophene copolymer (PNDIS-HD) with crystalline (Lc = 9.15 nm) benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene copolymer (PBDTTT-CT) donor yields incompatible blends, whose BHJ solar cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.4%. However, pairing of the new 30PDI with optimal crystallinity (Lc = 5.11 nm) as acceptor with the same PBDTTT-CT donor yields compatible blends and all-polymer solar cells with enhanced performance (PCE = 6.3%, Jsc = 18.6 mA/cm(2), external quantum efficiency = 91%). These photovoltaic parameters observed in 30PDI:PBDTTT-CT devices are the best so far for all-polymer solar cells, while the short-circuit current (Jsc) and external quantum efficiency are even higher than reported values for [70]-fullerene:PBDTTT-CT solar cells. The morphology and bulk carrier mobilities of the polymer/polymer blends varied substantially with crystallinity of the acceptor polymer component and thus with the NDI/PDI copolymer composition. These results demonstrate that the crystallinity of a polymer component and thus compatibility, blend morphology, and efficiency of polymer/polymer blend solar cells can be controlled by molecular design.

  13. A real-time study of the benefits of co-solvents in polymer solar cell processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Franeker, Jacobus J; Turbiez, Mathieu; Li, Weiwei; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2015-02-06

    The photoactive layer of organic solar cells consists of a nanoscale blend of electron-donating and electron-accepting organic semiconductors. Controlling the degree of phase separation between these components is crucial to reach efficient solar cells. In solution-processed polymer-fullerene solar cells, small amounts of co-solvents are commonly used to avoid the formation of undesired large fullerene domains that reduce performance. There is an ongoing discussion about the origin of this effect. To clarify the role of co-solvents, we combine three optical measurements to investigate layer thickness, phase separation and polymer aggregation in real time during solvent evaporation under realistic processing conditions. Without co-solvent, large fullerene-rich domains form via liquid-liquid phase separation at ~20 vol% solid content. Under such supersaturated conditions, co-solvents induce polymer aggregation below 20 vol% solids and prevent the formation of large domains. This rationalizes the formation of intimately mixed films that give high-efficient solar cells for the materials studied.

  14. Impact of Fullerene Mixing Behavior on the Microstructure, Photophysics, and Device Performance of Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenchao; Chandrasekaran, Naresh; Prasad, Shyamal K K; Gann, Eliot; Thomsen, Lars; Kabra, Dinesh; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Cheng, Yi-Bing; McNeill, Christopher R

    2016-11-02

    Here, a comprehensive study of the influence of polymer:fullerene mixing behavior on the performance, thin-film microstructure, photophysics, and device physics of polymer solar cells is presented. In particular, blends of the donor polymer PBDTTT-EFT with the acceptor PC71BM that exhibit power conversion efficiencies over 9% are investigated. Through tuning of the fullerene concentration in PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM blends, the impact of fullerene mixing behavior is systematically investigated via a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques. The impact of fullerene loading on photophysics and device physics is further explored with steady-state photoluminescence measurements, ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, and transient photovoltage measurements. In the low fullerene concentration regime (70 wt %), large fullerene domains result in incomplete PC71BM exciton harvesting with the presence of fullerene molecules also disrupting the molecular packing of polymer crystallites. The optimum fullerene concentration of ∼60-67 wt % balances the requirements of charge generation and charge collection. These findings demonstrate that controlling the fullerene concentration in the mixed phase and optimizing the balance between pure and mixed phases are critical for maximizing the efficiency of highly mixed polymer/fullerene solar cells.

  15. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated....... By comparing distance tuning of the cavity with wavelength tuning, an effective electro-optic coefficient of -7pm/V is measured....

  16. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  17. Cacao roasting in rural areas of Peru using concentrated solar thermal energy: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veynandt François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar food processing is gaining interest for income generation. Our solar cacao roaster, designed for rural areas, consists in a horizontal rotating drum, opened at one end to collect solar radiation from Scheffler concentrators of 2.7 or 8 m2. The experimental results presented bring knowledge on the system's behavior and optimal operation. The influence of the most significant parameters is studied: quantity of cacao, absorptivity of drum's coating, thermal insulation, inclination and rotational speed of the drum. Cacao temperature and direct solar irradiance are monitored to evaluate the performance in roasting time per kilogram of cacao.

  18. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Samsudin, Adel, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  19. Novel Terthiophene-Substituted Fullerene Derivatives as Easily Accessible Acceptor Molecules for Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Nisic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fulleropyrrolidines and methanofullerenes, bearing one or two terthiophene moieties, have been prepared in a convenient way and well characterized. These novel fullerene derivatives are characterized by good solubility and by better harvesting of the solar radiation with respect to traditional PCBM. In addition, they have a relatively high LUMO level and a low band gap that can be easily tuned by an adequate design of the link between the fullerene and the terthiophene. Preliminary results show that they are potential acceptors for the creation of efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on donor polymers containing thiophene units.

  20. Predicting the ageing and the long-term durability of organic polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Rivaton, Agnès; Thérias, Sandrine; Chambon, Sylvain; Manceau, Matthieu; Gaume, Julien

    2010-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on conductive polymers exhibit a unique combination of properties which include low cost, flexibility and large surface processability. Organic photovoltaic could then prevail for some applications alongside silicon, such as nomad or indoor. To achieve this objective, the sustainability of the initial properties in conditions of use of the cell is required, since it could be a lock to the emergence of these devices in the market. The polymers used in solar cells are indeed known to exhibit low resistance to environmental constraints, in particular to the combined action of sunlight, oxygen and water. We present recent results on both the accelerated artificial and the natural outdoors ageing of MDMO-PPV (Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-Phenylenevinylene) and P3HT/PCBM blends poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) (methano-fullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) ([60] PCBM). The influence of various parameters such as the temperature and the presence of oxygen were studied. The modifications of the chemical structure of both the components of the blend were monitored by spectroscopic analysis (infrared, UV-visible), the morphology of the blends was analysed by AFM and XRD and the photovoltaic performances all along the exposure were recorded. Two important results have been pointed out: on one hand, the Achilles heel of the chemical structure of MDMO-PPV and P3HT under the impact of light has been evidenced. On the other hand, it has been shown that P3HT:PCBM blends are much more stable than MDMO:PCBM blends whatever the conditions of ageing are. Results show that a convenient encapsulation can ensure a promising lifetime of P3HT/PCBM blends in real conditions of use. This work also focuses on this last point and proposes to study and try to understand the behavior of the materials used in the active layer when submitted to photoaging and thermal aging in the absence of oxygen. To fulfil very good encapsulation, glass

  1. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dyer-Smith, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–alt–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymer donors with linear side-chains yield bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 4% with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor, while a PBDTTPD polymer with a combination of branched and linear substituents yields a doubling of the PCE to 8%. Using transient optical spectroscopy it is shown that while the exciton dissociation and ultrafast charge generation steps are not strongly affected by the side chain modifications, the polymer with branched side chains exhibits a decreased rate of nongeminate recombination and a lower fraction of sub-nanosecond geminate recombination. In turn the yield of long-lived charge carriers increases, resulting in a 33% increase in short circuit current (J sc). In parallel, the two polymers show distinct grazing incidence X-ray scattering spectra indicative of the presence of stacks with different orientation patterns in optimized thin-film BHJ devices. Independent of the packing pattern the spectroscopic data also reveals the existence of polymer aggregates in the pristine polymer films as well as in both blends which trap excitons and hinder their dissociation.

  2. Study on geomagnetic effects of the March 9, 1997 solar eclipse in Mohe area, China*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯忠孝; 高金田; 任熙宪

    2002-01-01

    The geomagnetic effects of the total solar eclipse in Mohe area and the partial eclipse occurred on March 9, 1997 in China are analyzed in this paper. The geomagnetic effects of the eclipse widely distributed in China are obtained, which show H component decreases obviously and is symmetric along the latitude with a center near 33(N during the eclipse time. These results of solar eclipse geomagnetic effects are the newest in recent years obtained in the largest area in China.

  3. 4-Alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl-Substituted Benzodithiophene-Based Wide Band Gap Polymers for High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Jicheng; Liu, Yahui; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Cuihong; Bo, Zhishan

    2016-02-17

    Two novel polymers PTFBDT-BZS and PTFBDT-BZO with 4-alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl substituted benzodithiophene as the donor unit, benzothiadiazole or benzooxadiazole as the acceptor unit, and thiophene as the spacer have been synthesized and used as donor materials for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These two polymers exhibited wide optical band gaps of about 1.8 eV. PSCs with the blend of PTFBDT-BZS:PC71BM (1:2, by weight) as the active layer fabricated without using any processing additive and any postannealing treatment showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.24% with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short circuit current (Jsc) of 12.67 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 0.73 under AM 1.5G illumination, indicating that PTFBDT-BZS is a very promising donor polymer for PSCs. The blend of PTFBDT-BZO:PC71BM showed a lower PCE of 5.67% with a Voc of 0.96 V, a Jsc of 9.24 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 0.64. One reason for the lower PCE is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a smaller LUMO offset with PC71BM, which cannot provide enough driving force for charge separation. And another reason is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a lower hole mobility in comparison with PTFBDT-BZS.

  4. Donor/Acceptor Molecular Orientation-Dependent Photovoltaic Performance in All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jiangang; Li, Mingguang; Yu, Xinhong; Xing, Rubo; Han, Yanchun

    2015-11-18

    The correlated donor/acceptor (D/A) molecular orientation plays a crucial role in solution-processed all-polymer solar cells in term of photovoltaic performance. For the conjugated polymers PTB7-th and P(NDI2OD-T2), the preferential molecular orientation of neat PTB7-th films kept face-on regardless of the properties of processing solvents. However, an increasing content of face-on molecular orientation in the neat P(NDI2OD-T2) films could be found by changing processing solvents from chloronaphthalene (CN) and o-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) to chlorobenzene (CB). Besides, the neat P(NDI2OD-T2) films also exhibited a transformation of preferential molecular orientation from face-on to edge-on when extending film drying time by casting in the same solution. Consequently, a distribution diagram of molecular orientation for P(NDI2OD-T2) films was depicted and the same trend could be observed for the PTB7-th/P(NDI2OD-T2) blend films. By manufacture of photovoltaic devices with blend films, the relationship between the correlated D/A molecular orientation and device performance was established. The short-circuit current (Jsc) of devices processed by CN, oDCB, and CB enhanced gradually from 1.24 to 8.86 mA/cm(2) with the correlated D/A molecular orientation changing from face-on/edge-on to face-on/face-on, which could be attributed to facile exciton dissociation at D/A interface with the same molecular orientation. Therefore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices processed by CN, oDCB, and CB improved from 0.53% to 3.52% ultimately.

  5. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  6. High-Efficiency Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cell Enabling by Integration of Film-Morphology Optimization, Donor Selection, and Interfacial Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Weiping; Yao, Jiannian; Zhan, Chuanlang

    2016-06-22

    Carrier mobility is a vital factor determining the electrical performance of organic solar cells. In this paper we report that a high-efficiency nonfullerene organic solar cell (NF-OSC) with a power conversion efficiency of 6.94 ± 0.27% was obtained by optimizing the hole and electron transportations via following judicious selection of polymer donor and engineering of film-morphology and cathode interlayers: (1) a combination of solvent annealing and solvent vapor annealing optimizes the film morphology and hence both hole and electron mobilities, leading to a trade-off of fill factor and short-circuit current density (Jsc); (2) the judicious selection of polymer donor affords a higher hole and electron mobility, giving a higher Jsc; and (3) engineering the cathode interlayer affords a higher electron mobility, which leads to a significant increase in electrical current generation and ultimately the power conversion efficiency (PCE).

  7. Quinoxaline-based π-conjugated donor polymer for highly efficient organic thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Daisuke; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Tsukamoto, Jun

    2009-08-01

    A quinoxaline-based π-conjugated donor polymer, poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(5',8'-di-2-thienyl-2',3'-diphenylquinoxaline)] (N-P7), was synthesized to achieve a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction (BHJ)-based solar cells. The optical band-gap and highest occupied molecular orbital level of N-P7 were 1.95 and -5.37 eV, respectively. BHJ-based solar cells using N-P7 as a donor and phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor gave a PCE as high as 5.5% under AM 1.5G 100 mW/cm2 illumination. We also investigated the effects of substituent groups of quinoxaline-based polymers on the morphology of the BHJ layer.

  8. Tailorable PC71 BM Isomers: Using the Most Prevalent Electron Acceptor to Obtain High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xin-Xing; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Si-Min; Li, Shu-Hui; Lu, Xu-Zhai; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-12-23

    Despite being widely used as electron acceptor in polymer solar cells, commercially available PC71 BM (phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl ester) usually has a "random" composition of mixed regioisomers or stereoisomers. Here PC71 BM has been isolated into three typical isomers, α-, β1 - and β2 -PC71 BM, to establish the isomer-dependent photovoltaic performance on changing the ternary composition of α-, β1 - and β2 -PC71 BM. Mixing the isomers in a ratio of α/β1 /β2 =8:1:1 resulted in the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.67 % for the polymer solar cells with PTB7:PC71 BM as photoactive layer (PTB7=poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  9. Role of ITO and PEDOT:PSS in stability/degradation of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girtan, M. [Laboratoire POMA, FRE CNRS 2988, Angers University, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Rusu, M. [Al. I. Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I No. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2010-03-15

    Two polymers:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells: [(I) poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)]-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MDMO-PPV): methanofullerene phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric-acid-methyl-ester ([60]PCBM) and (II) poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), highly regioregular (P3HT): [60]PCBM] were studied. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and/or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were/was used as transparent electrode, and lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as buffer layer for aluminium cathode. The role of ITO and PEDOT:PSS on the current-tension characteristics, on open circuit voltage V{sub oc}, and on density of short-circuit current J{sub sc} was investigated for the two polymers:PCBM blend solar cells as deposited and after 40 days ageing. (author)

  10. A life cycle analysis of polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Urbina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis was performed on a full roll-to-roll coating procedure used for the manufacture of flexible polymer solar cell modules. The process known as ProcessOne employs a polyester substrate with a sputtered layer of the transparent conductor indium-tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO film...... was processed into the required pattern using a full roll-to-roll process, employing screen printing of an etch resist and then applying etching, stripping, washing and drying procedures. The three subsequent layers; ZnO, P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS were slot-die coated and the silver back electrode was screen...... printed. Finally the polymer solar modules were encapsulated, using a polyester barrier material. All operations except the application of ITO were carried out under ambient conditions. The life cycle analysis delivered a material inventory of the full process for a module production...

  11. An Estimate of Solar Wind Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and Coronal Streamer Area (6-40R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Using the total electron content data obtained by the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment during the first solar conjunction in summer 1991 (Bird et al., 1994), an estimate is presented of solar wind velocity profiles in a coronal hole and a coronal streamer area in the range between 6 and 40 solar radii.

  12. Relation Between Coronal Hole Areas and Solar Wind Speeds Derived from Interplanetary Scintillation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Satonaka, Daiki; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Hayashi, Keiji; Hakamada, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the relation between coronal hole (CH) areas and solar wind speeds during 1995 - 2011 using the potential field (PF) model analysis of magnetograph observations and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (formerly Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory) of Nagoya University. We obtained a significant positive correlation between the CH areas (A) derived from the PF model calculations and solar wind speeds (V) derived from the IPS observations. The correlation coefficients between them are usually high, but they drop significantly in solar maxima. The slopes of the A - V relation are roughly constant except for the period around solar maximum, when flatter or steeper slopes are observed. The excursion of the correlation coefficients and slopes at solar maxima is ascribed partly to the effect of rapid structural changes in the coronal magnetic field and solar wind, and partly to the predominance of small CHs. It is also demonstrated that V is inversely related to the flux expansion factor (f) and that f is closely related to A^{-1/2}; hence, V ∝ A^{1/2}. A better correlation coefficient is obtained from the A^{1/2} - V relation, and this fact is useful for improving space weather predictions. We compare the CH areas derived from the PF model calculations with He i 1083 nm observations and show that the PF model calculations provide reliable estimates of the CH area, particularly for large A.

  13. Influence of D/A ratio on photovoltaic performance of a highly efficient polymer solar cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Tan, Jiahui; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Hu, Wenping; Li, Yongfang; Hou, Jianhui

    2012-12-18

    A new copolymer PIDTDTQx based on indacenodithiophene and quinoxaline is synthesized and characterized. The correlation between the D/A ratio, mobility, and photovoltaic properties, as well as morphology of the D/A blend based on a PIDTDTQx:PC(70) BM system is investigated. The power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cells based on PIDTDTQx/PC(70) BM (1:4, w/w) reaches 7.51%.

  14. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Blends of Conjugated Polymers with II–VI and IV–VI Inorganic Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kisslinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of quantum dots and conjugated polymers are a promising configuration for obtaining high-efficiency, cheaply fabricated solution-processed photovoltaic devices. Such devices are of significant interest as they have the potential to leverage the advantages of both types of materials, such as the high mobility, band gap tunability and possibility of multiple exciton generation in quantum dots together with the high mechanical flexibility and large molar extinction coefficient of conjugated polymers. Despite these advantages, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of these hybrid devices has remained relatively low at around 6%, well behind that of all-organic or all-inorganic solar cells. This is attributed to major challenges that still need to be overcome before conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends can be considered viable for commercial application, such as controlling the film morphology and interfacial structure to ensure efficient charge transfer and charge transport. In this work, we present our findings with respect to the recent development of bulk heterojunctions made from conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends, list the ongoing strategies being attempted to improve performance, and highlight the key areas of research that need to be pursued to further develop this technology.

  15. Electrical and optical design and characterisation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl)/fullerene-based heterojunction polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirvase, D; Chiguvare, Z; Knipper, A; Parisi, J; Dyakonov, [No Value; Hummelen, JC; Knipper, M.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl) (P3HT-2,5diyl) used as the main component in a bulk heterojunction polymer/fullerene solar cell were investigated. The HOMO level of the polymer was estimated at about 4.7-5.1 eV, from the observed space charge limited current (SCLC

  16. Recombination in polymer:Fullerene solar cells with open-circuit voltages approaching and exceeding 1.0 V

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-09-14

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells are demonstrated with power conversion efficiencies over 7% with blends of PBDTTPD and PC 61 BM. These devices achieve open-circuit voltages ( V oc ) of 0.945 V and internal quantum efficiencies of 88%, making them an ideal candidate for the large bandgap junction in tandem solar cells. V oc \\'s above 1.0 V are obtained when the polymer is blended with multiadduct fullerenes; however, the photocurrent and fill factor are greatly reduced. In PBDTTPD blends with multiadduct fullerene ICBA, fullerene emission is observed in the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra, indicating that excitons are recombining on ICBA. Voltage-dependent, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that energy transfer occurs from PBDTTPD to ICBA and that back hole transfer from ICBA to PBDTTPD is inefficient. By analyzing the absorption and emission spectra from fullerene and charge transfer excitons, we estimate a driving free energy of -0.14 ± 0.06 eV is required for efficient hole transfer. These results suggest that the driving force for hole transfer may be too small for efficient current generation in polymer:fullerene solar cells with V oc values above 1.0 V and that non-fullerene acceptor materials with large optical gaps ( > 1.7 eV) may be required to achieve both near unity internal quantum efficiencies and values of V oc exceeding 1.0 V. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.

  17. Thermally reactive Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based copolymers for high photochemical stability in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    New thermally reactive copolymers based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) have been synthesized and explored in bulk heterojunction solar cells as mixtures with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps...... in the range of 1.64-1.80 eV. For solubility the polymers have incorporated alkyl groups on the SDT unit and thermally removable ester groups on the DTZ unit that can be eliminated around 200 °C for improved photochemical stability in thin films. The bulkiness of the alkyl chains on the SDT unit proved...... to be very significant in terms of photovoltaic performance of the polymer:PCBM solar cells. Polymers based on 4,4-dihexyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene reached power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.45% but changing the alkyl groups to more bulky ethylhexyl chains reduced the PCE to 1.17%. More...

  18. Atomic layer deposition of NiO hole-transporting layers for polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Chen; Su, Heng-Wei; Hou, Cheng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-09-25

    NiO is an attractive hole-transporting material for polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to its excellent stability and electrical/optical properties. This study demonstrates, for the first time, fabrication of uniform, defect-free, and conformal NiO ultra-thin films for use as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in PSCs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through optimization of the ALD processing parameters. The morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ALD NiO films were determined to be favorable for their HTL application. As a result, PSCs containing an ALD NiO HTL with an optimized thickness of 4 nm achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.4%, which was comparable to that of a control device with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) HTL. The high quality and manufacturing scalability of ALD NiO films demonstrated here will facilitate the adoption of NiO HTLs in PSCs.

  19. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells fabricated in air at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaofan; Kusumi, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-08-01

    A series of modified indium tin oxide (ITO) materials, including sol-gel zinc-oxide-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO), ZnO nanoparticle-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO-NP), 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP)-modified ITO, and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)-modified ITO, were used for electron-collection electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified ITO electrodes were prepared in air at temperatures below 100 °C, using various ITO films on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates (PET-ITO) with sheet resistances ranging from 12 to 60 Ω sq-1. The PET-ITO (12 Ω sq-1)/ZnO-NP PSC exhibited an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) (2.93%), and this PCE was ˜90% of that observed for a cell using glass-ITO/ZnO-NP (sheet resistance = 10 Ω sq-1 PCE = 3.28%). Additionally, we fabricated a flexible inverted ZnO-NP PSC using an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as the acceptor material in place of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and obtained a PCE of 4.18%.

  20. ZnTe Semiconductor-Polymer Gel Composited Electrolyte for Conversion of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchai Promnopas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured cubic p-type ZnTe for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was synthesized from 1 : 1 molar ratio of Zn : Te by 600 W and 900 W microwave plasma for 30 min. In this research, their green emissions were detected at the same wavelengths of 563 nm, the energy gap (Eg at 2.24 eV, and three Raman shifts at 205, 410, and 620 cm−1. The nanocomposited electrolyte of quasisolid state ZnO-DSSCs was in correlation with the increase in the JSC, VOC, fill factor (ff, and efficiency (η by increasing the wt% of ZnTe-GPE (gel polymer electrolyte to an optimum value and decreased afterwards. The optimal ZnO-DSSC performance was achieved for 0.20 wt% ZnTe-GPE with the highest photoelectronic energy conversion efficiency at 174.7% with respect to that of the GPE without doping of p-type ZnTe.

  1. Effect of Doping Phosphorescent Material and Annealing Treatment on the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polymer solar cells (PSCs with P3HT:PCBM or P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 blend films as the active layer were fabricated under the same conditions. Effects of phosphorescent material Ir(btpy3 doping concentration and annealing temperature on the performance of PSCs were investigated. The short-circuit current density (Jsc and open-circuit voltage (Voc are increased by adopting P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 blend films as the active layer when the cells do not undergo annealing treatment. The increased Jsc should be attributed to the increase of photon harvesting induced by doping phosphorescent material Ir(btpy3 and the effective energy transfer from Ir(btpy3 to P3HT. The effective energy transfer from Ir(btpy3 to P3HT was demonstrated by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL spectra. The increased Voc is due to the photovoltaic effect between Ir(btpy3 and PCBM. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of PSCs with P3HT:PCBM as the active layer is increased from 0.19% to 1.49% by annealing treatment at 140°C for 10 minutes. The PCE of PSCs with P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 as the active layer is increased from 0.49% to 0.95% by annealing treatment at lower temperature at 100°C for 10 minutes.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of NiO hole-transporting layers for polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Chen; Su, Heng-Wei; Hou, Cheng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-09-01

    NiO is an attractive hole-transporting material for polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to its excellent stability and electrical/optical properties. This study demonstrates, for the first time, fabrication of uniform, defect-free, and conformal NiO ultra-thin films for use as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in PSCs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through optimization of the ALD processing parameters. The morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ALD NiO films were determined to be favorable for their HTL application. As a result, PSCs containing an ALD NiO HTL with an optimized thickness of 4 nm achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.4%, which was comparable to that of a control device with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) HTL. The high quality and manufacturing scalability of ALD NiO films demonstrated here will facilitate the adoption of NiO HTLs in PSCs.

  3. A MULTISCALE APPROACH TO THE REPRESENTATION OF 3D IMAGES, WITH APPLICATION TO POLYMER SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiedmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiscale approach to the description of geometrically complex 3D image data is proposed which distinguishes between morphological features on a ‘macro-scale’ and a ‘micro-scale’. Since our method is mainly tailored to nanostructures observed in composite materials consisting of two different phases, an appropriate binarization of grayscale images is required first. Then, a morphological smoothing is applied to extract the structural information from binarized image data on the ‘macro-scale’. A stochastic algorithm is developed for the morphologically smoothed images whose goal is to find a suitable representation of the macro-scale structure by unions of overlapping spheres. Such representations can be interpreted as marked point patterns. They lead to an enormous reduction of data and allow the application of well-known tools from point-process theory for their analysis and structural modeling. All those voxels which have been ‘misspecified’ by the morphological smoothing and subsequent representation by unions of overlapping spheres are interpreted as ‘micro-scale’ structure. The exemplary data sets considered in this paper are 3D grayscale images of photoactive layers in hybrid solar cells gained by electron tomography. These composite materials consist of two phases: a polymer phase and a zinc oxide phase. The macro-scale structure of the latter is represented by unions of overlapping spheres.

  4. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  5. Water-based thixotropic polymer gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Jeong; Yoo, Kichoen; Kim, Jae-Yup; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Honggon; Kim, Jong Hak; Cho, Jinhan; Ko, Min Jae

    2013-05-28

    For the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is important to replace the conventional organic solvents based electrolyte with environmentally friendly and stable ones, due to the toxicity and leakage problems. Here we report a noble water-based thixotropic polymer gel electrolyte containing xanthan gum, which satisfies both the environmentally friendliness and stability against leakage and water intrusion. For application in DSSCs, it was possible to infiltrate the prepared electrolyte into the mesoporous TiO2 electrode at the fluidic state, resulting in sufficient penetration. As a result, this electrolyte exhibited similar conversion efficiency (4.78% at 100 mW cm(-2)) and an enhanced long-term stability compared to a water-based liquid electrolyte. The effects of water on the photovoltaic properties were examined elaborately from the cyclic voltammetry curves and impedance spectra. Despite the positive shift in the conduction band potential of the TiO2 electrode, the open-circuit voltage was enhanced by addition of water in the electrolyte due to the greater positive shift in the I(-)/I3(-) redox potential. However, due to the dye desorption and decreased diffusion coefficient caused by the water content, the short-circuit photocurrent density was reduced. These results will provide great insight into the development of efficient and stable water-based electrolytes.

  6. Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthaloylchitosan-based gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with tetrapropylammonium iodide, Pr4NI, as the salt and optimized for conductivity. The electrolyte with the composition of 15.7 wt.% phthaloylchitosan, 31.7 wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC, 3.17 wt.% propylene carbonate (PC, 19.0 wt.% of Pr4NI, and 1.9 wt.% iodine exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.27 × 10−3 S cm−1. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC fabricated with this electrolyte exhibits an efficiency of 3.5% with JSC of 7.38 mA cm−2, VOC of 0.72 V, and fill factor of 0.66. When various amounts of lithium iodide (LiI were added to the optimized gel electrolyte, the overall conductivity is observed to decrease. However, the efficiency of the DSSC increases to a maximum value of 3.71% when salt ratio of Pr4NI : LiI is 2 : 1. This cell has JSC, VOC and fill factor of 7.25 mA cm−2, 0.77 V and 0.67, respectively.

  7. Wavelength-Scale Structures as Extremely High Haze Films for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Juyoung; Dong, Wan Jae; Jung, Gwan Ho; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-scale inverted pyramid structures with low reflectance and excellent haze have been designed for application to polymer solar cells (PSCs). The wavelength-scale structured haze films are fabricated on the back surface of glass without damages to organic active layer by using a soft lithographic technique with etched GaN molds. With a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of optical modeling, we find the shift of resonance peaks with the increase of pattern's diameter. Wavelength-scale structures could provide the number of resonances at the long wavelength spectrum (λ = 650-800 nm), yielding enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the PSCs. Compared with a flat device (PCE = 7.12%, Jsc = 15.6 mA/cm(2)), improved PCE of 8.41% is achieved in a haze film, which is mainly due to the increased short circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.5 mA/cm(2). Hence, it opens up exciting opportunities for a variety of PSCs with wavelength-scale structures to further improve performance, simplify complicated process, and reduce costs.

  8. Alcohol-soluble interfacial fluorenes for inverted polymer solar cells: sequence induced spatial conformation dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie; Liu, Xiangfu; Wei, Yingkai; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-01-21

    Three fluorene-based alcohol-soluble organic small molecule electrolytes (SMEs) with different conjugated backbones, namely, TFTN-Br, FTFN-Br and FTTFN-Br, were designed as cathode interfacial layers for inverted polymer solar cells (i-PSCs). The insertion of SMEs to the ITO/active layer interfaces effectively lowered the energy barrier for electron transport and improved the inherent compatibility between the hydrophilic ITO and hydrophobic active layers. Due to these advantages, the device based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) with TFTN-Br as the cathode interfacial layer achieved an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8%, which is a 26% improvement when compared to the standard device comprising ZnO cathode interfacial layers (PCE = 3.0%). Devices with FTFN-Br and FTTFN-Br also showed an improved PCE of 3.1% and 3.5%, respectively. The variation in device performance enhancement was found to be primarily correlated with the different conformation of their assembly onto the electrode caused by the joint sequence of the polar group of the SMEs, consequently impacting the dipole moment and interface morphology. In addition, introducing SMEs as the cathode interfacial layer also produced devices with long-term stability.

  9. Polymers as solar cell encapsulate materials for application in photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Stefan H.; Ehrich, C.; Ebert, M.; Bagdahn, J. [Fraunhofer-Center for Silicon-Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Klausing, S. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to illustrate the influence of different polymer material classes and types on the resulting mechanical properties of laminated solar modules. As materials a standard, covalently cross linked Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) Etimex 496.10, a physically cross linked Thermoplastic Silicon Elastomer (TPSE) Geniomer 145 and an amorphous Polyvinyl-Butyral (PVB) Trosifol R40 have been used. All materials have been analyzed due to temperature-depended creep properties on a Thermomechanical Analyzer (TMA) Shimadzu TMA60. Results show that elastomeric materials such as chemically cross linked EVA exhibit lowest creep along a temperature scale between -20 C to 20 C. At the same time, thermoplastic TPSE and PVB materials tend to creep sronger under constant mechanical load. Creep master curves of all three materials have been developed by means of timetemperature superposition (TTS) to estimate the deformation behaviour under constant load for different temperatures, loads and times. Additionally, Dynamic-Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was carried out using a Haake MARS I rotational rheometer to identify glass transition temperature and softening ranges of these encapsulate materials. Results show that viscoelastic properties of TPSE material remain nearly constant, whereby properties of PVB are strongly temperature depended in the temperature range between -20 C to 20 C. (orig.)

  10. A lightweight polymer solar cell textile that functions when illuminated from either side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Li, Xueyi; Guan, Guozhen; Pan, Shaowu; Zhu, Zhengju; Ren, Dayong; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-10-20

    An all-solid-state, lightweight, flexible, and wearable polymer solar cell (PSC) textile with reasonable photovoltaic performance has been developed. A metal textile electrode made from micrometer-sized metal wires is used as the cathode, and the surfaces of the metal wires are dip-coated with the photoactive layers. Two ultrathin, transparent, and aligned carbon nanotube sheets that exhibit remarkable electronic and mechanical properties were coated onto the modified metal textile at both sides as the anode to produce the desired PSC textile. Because of the designed sandwich structure, the PSC textile displays the same energy conversion efficiencies regardless of which side it is irradiated from. As expected, the PSC textiles are highly flexible, and their energy conversion efficiencies varied by less than 3% after bending for more than 200 cycles. The PSC textile shows an areal density (5.9 mg cm(-2)) that is lower than that of flexible film-based PSCs (31.3 mg cm(-2)).

  11. Energy level alignment in TiO2/metal sulfide/polymer interfaces for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Rebecka; Cappel, Ute B; O'Mahony, Flannan T F; Siegbahn, Hans; Johansson, Erik M J; Haque, Saif A; Rensmo, Håkan

    2014-08-28

    Semiconductor sensitized solar cell interfaces have been studied with photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the interfacial electronic structures. In particular, the experimental energy level alignment has been determined for complete TiO2/metal sulfide/polymer interfaces. For the metal sulfides CdS, Sb2S3 and Bi2S3 deposited from single source metal xanthate precursors, it was shown that both driving forces for electron injection into TiO2 and hole transfer to the polymer decrease for narrower bandgaps. The energy level alignment results were used in the discussion of the function of solar cells with the same metal sulfides as light absorbers. For example Sb2S3 showed the most favourable energy level alignment with 0.3 eV driving force for electron injection and 0.4 eV driving force for hole transfer and also the most efficient solar cells due to high photocurrent generation. The energy level alignment of the TiO2/Bi2S3 interface on the other hand showed no driving force for electron injection to TiO2, and the performance of the corresponding solar cell was very low.

  12. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...

  13. The effect of anneal, solar irradiation and humidity on the adhesion/cohesion properties of P3HT:PCBM based inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-06-01

    We use a thin-film adhesion technique that enables us to precisely measure the energy required to separate adjacent layers in OPV cells. We demonstrate the presence of weak interfaces in prototypical inverted polymer solar cells, either prepared by spin, spray or slot-die coating, including flexible and non flexible solar cells. In all cases, we observed adhesive failure at P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface, indicating the intrinsic material dependence of this mechanism. The impact of temperature, solar irradiation and humidity on the adhesion and cohesion properties of this particular interface is discussed. First, we have found that post-deposition annealing increases the adhesion significantly. Annealing changes the morphology in the photoactive layer and consequently alters the chemical properties at the interface. Second, solar irradiation on fully encapsulated solar cells has no damaging but in contrast an enhancing effect on the adhesion properties, due to the heat generated from IR radiation. Finally, the synergetic effect of stress and an environmental species like moisture greatly accelerates the decohesion rate in the weak hygroscopic PEDOT:PSS layer. This results in a loss of mechanical integrity and device performance. The insight into the mechanisms of delamination and decohesion yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, Geert; Kesters, Jurgen; Verstappen, Pieter; Govaerts, Sanne; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter

    2015-10-12

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have attracted great interest as a solar cell technology with appealing mechanical, aesthetical, and economies-of-scale features. To drive OPV toward economic viability, low-cost, large-scale module production has to be realized in combination with increased top-quality material availability and minimal batch-to-batch variation. To this extent, continuous flow chemistry can serve as a powerful tool. In this contribution, a flow protocol is optimized for the high performance benzodithiophene-thienopyrroledione copolymer PBDTTPD and the material quality is probed through systematic solar-cell evaluation. A stepwise approach is adopted to turn the batch process into a reproducible and scalable continuous flow procedure. Solar cell devices fabricated using the obtained polymer batches deliver an average power conversion efficiency of 7.2 %. Upon incorporation of an ionic polythiophene-based cathodic interlayer, the photovoltaic performance could be enhanced to a maximum efficiency of 9.1 %.

  15. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells. PMID:28224984

  16. Unsubstituted Benzodithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers for High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichao; Xiao, Manjun; Han, Liangliang; Zhang, Jidong; Jiang, Huanxiang; Gu, Chuantao; Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Renqiang

    2016-08-03

    Unsubstituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) was used to construct a high-performance conjugated polymer with 5,6-difluoro-4,7-bis[4-(2-octyldodecyl)thiophene-2-yl]benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazole (DTFFBT), named PBDT-DTFFBT. The polymer shows the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level (-5.40 eV) and a broad absorption spectra with strong vibronic absorption peak. Pure polymer films exhibit good crystallinity and edge-on orientation, partially attributed to the BDT units without any side chains, and as a result, the corresponding thin-film transistor showed excellent hole mobility over 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, a well-distributed nanofibrillar polymer aggregation with face-on orientation was obviously formed when blending with PC71BM, which was in favor of the charge transportation. Consequently, the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on the blends showed high power conversion efficiency of 9.29% with large short-current density (14.56 mA cm(-2)) and high fill factor (0.751) without any process additives or thermal annealing.

  17. Nature of the Binding Interactions between Conjugated Polymer Chains and Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ravva, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-10-24

    Blends of π-conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives are ubiquitous as the active layers of organic solar cells. However, a detailed understanding of the weak noncovalent interactions at the molecular level between the polymer chains and fullerenes is still lacking and could help in the design of more efficient photoactive layers. Here, using a combination of long-range corrected density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamic simulations, we report a thorough characterization of the nature of binding between fullerenes (C60 and PC61BM) and poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) chains. We illustrate the variations in binding strength when the fullerenes dock on the electron-rich vs electron-poor units of the polymer as well as the importance of the role played by the polymer and fullerene side chains and the orientations of the PC61BM molecules with respect to the polymer backbones.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with composite gel polymer electrolytes containing nanosized Al2O3 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Nawon; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-12-01

    Polymeric ionic liquid, poly(1-methyl 3-(2-acryloyloxy propyl) imidazolium iodide) (PMAPII) containing iodide ions is synthesized and used as a matrix polymer for preparing the composite polymer electrolytes. The composite gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by utilizing PMAPII, organic solvent containing redox couple and aluminum oxide nanoparticle for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMAPII is highly compatible with organic solvents and thus there is no phase separation between the PMAPII and organic solvents. This makes it be possible to directly solidify the liquid electrolyte in the cell and maintain good interfacial contacts between the electrolyte and electrodes. The addition of 10 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle to gel polymer electrolyte provides the most desirable environment for ionic transport, resulting in the improvement of the photovoltaic performance of DSSC. The quasi-solid-state DSSC assembled with optimized composite gel polymer electrolyte containing 10 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle exhibits a relatively high conversion efficiency of 6.51% under AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mA cm(-2) and better stability than DSSC with liquid electrolyte.

  19. Results of aperture area comparisons for exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B; Shirley, Eric L; Barnes, Robert A; Butler, James J

    2013-11-20

    Exo-atmospheric solar irradiance measurements made by the solar irradiance community since 1978 have incorporated limiting apertures with diameters measured by a number of metrology laboratories using a variety of techniques. Knowledge of the aperture area is a critical component in the conversion of radiant flux measurements to solar irradiance. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) sponsored international comparison of aperture area measurements of limiting apertures provided by solar irradiance researchers was performed, the effort being executed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in coordination with the EOS Project Science Office. Apertures that had institutional heritage with historical solar irradiance measurements were measured using the absolute aperture measurement facility at NIST. The measurement technique employed noncontact video microscopy using high-accuracy translation stages. We have quantified the differences between the participating institutions' aperture area measurements and find no evidence to support the hypothesis that preflight aperture area measurements were the root cause of discrepancies in long-term total solar irradiance satellite measurements. Another result is the assessment of uncertainties assigned to methods used by participants. We find that uncertainties assigned to a participant's values may be underestimated.

  20. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  1. Analysis of light intensity dependence of organic photovoltaics: towards efficient large-area solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Manor, A.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Katz, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-area organic solar cells are known to suffer from a major efficiency decrease which originates from the combination of a voltage drop across the front electrode and the voltage-dependent photocurrent. In this letter, we demonstrate this efficiency loss on large area, indium tin oxide free cell

  2. Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification aimed at removing organic impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.

    2013-01-01

    While bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated from high M n PBDTTPD achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 7.3%, the short-circuit current density (JSC) of these devices can drop by 20% after seven days of storage in the dark and under inert conditions. This degradation is characterized by the appearance of S-shape features in the reverse bias region of current-voltage (J-V) curves that increase in amplitude over time. Conversely, BHJ solar cells fabricated from low Mn PBDTTPD do not develop S-shaped J-V curves. However, S-shapes identical to those observed in high Mn PBDTTPD solar cells can be induced in low M n devices through intentional contamination with the TPD monomer. Furthermore, when high Mn PBDTTPD is purified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to reduce the content of low molecular weight species, the JSC of polymer devices is significantly more stable over time. After 111 days of storage in the dark under inert conditions, the J-V curves do not develop S-shapes and the JSC degrades by only 6%. The S-shape degradation feature, symptomatic of low device lifetimes, appears to be linked to the presence of low molecular weight contaminants, which may be trapped within samples of high Mn polymer that have not been purified by SEC. Although these impurities do not affect initial device PCE, they significantly reduce device lifetime, and solar cell stability is improved by increasing the purity of the polymer materials. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. AM-1 short circuit currents in small area PIN a-SiH(x) solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B. R.; Deckman, H. W.; Wronski, C. R.; Witzke, H.

    The potential pitfalls which may lead to an overestimation of AM-1 short-circuit current densities have been investigated for 0.02 sq cm a-SiH(x) solar cell structures. The investigators have spatially profiled carrier collection in a-Si PIN solar cells, using a scanned 10 micron diameter laser beam. The small beam size yields not only microscopic information about carrier collection efficiency spectra, but permits study of carrier collection at high light intensity without significantly heating the cell. Laser scans at low illumination levels were employed to determine the true active area of PIN solar cells, and these are compared to cell collection efficiency spectra.

  4. Remote area power supply in Nigeria: the prospects of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaje, I.M. [Malaya Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses power supply options for remote areas of Nigeria. Three systems were examined namely solar powered systems, conventional diesel generator plant and connection to the national grid. The analysis has shown that solar (photovoltaic) systems are the most economically viable, offering the least energy cost per annum. Photovoltaic power systems also provide a virtually maintenance free operation since they have no moving parts. (Author)

  5. The feasibility of solar energy use in rural areas of Mongolia: solar ''Ger''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishjamts Gonchigbat; Zandaryaa Sarantuyaa [Mongolian Technical University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Yutaka, Maemura [JICA, (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Mongolia, despite its heavy investment in energy sector, still faces difficulties to supply the rural population with electricity. The energy system of Mongolia is strongly dependent on indigenous coal and imported oil, and needs applications of emerging energy efficient technologies. Rural centers, which are still not connected to the centralized electricity system, supply their inhabitants with the electricity by diesel . However, the use of renewable energies is just being initiated designing solar panels and wind generators for nomads. At present, in rural areas some nomadic families depend on a simple petrol generator or a small wind generator. To avoid the environmental degradation and to improve life standards in rural areas, it is essential to supply the rural population with an appropriate electricity. This paper synthesizes the possible application of emerging technologies of photovoltaics and solar panels in nomadic families. (author)

  6. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  7. Comparison of Fast Roll-to-Roll Flexographic, Inkjet, Flatbed, and Rotary Screen Printing of Metal Back Electrodes for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Angmo, Dechan

    2013-01-01

    be avoided and electrodes should be printable using methods that provide a high degree of accuracy and high technical yield. When considering large area polymer solar cells (i.e., not laboratory devices) a few reports have employed printable back electrodes mostly by use of silver formulations[1–4] but also...... carbon[5] and copper has been discussed whereas copper is unlikely to yield the necessary cost reduction and resistance to oxidation. Most reports have employed flatbed or rotary screen printing whereas other methods are available and described later on. The important question to answer is which...... printing techniques have proven excellent while they do present disadvantages in speed due to significant drying requirements but also they do require significant amounts of material.[2,6] In this paper we employ four different roll-to-roll (R2R) printing methods for printing silver back electrodes...

  8. Colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and effect in polymer/fullerene solar cells; Kolloidale Goldnanopartikel. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Wirkung in Polymer/Fulleren-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Katja

    2011-06-08

    It has been reported in the literature that the efficiency of polymer/fullerene solar cells has been improved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles. The improvement was attributed to an enhanced electrical conductivity of the active layer and to an enhanced light absorption due to the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. In this work colloidal Au nanoparticles coated with different stabilizing ligands were synthesized and characterized. Then the impact of their incorporation into P3HT/PCBM solar cells was studied. On the one hand the Au nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk heterojunction active layer, otherwise they were deposited as an interlayer in the device set-up. No improvement of the solar cell efficiency could be observed neither for the incorporation of Au nanoparticles with isolating ligand shell nor for those with direct contact to the photoactive molecules. The efficiency even dropped, the more the higher the concentration of the Au nanoparticles was. Possible reasons are pointed out on the basis of detailed photophysical and structural investigations.

  9. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  10. Photoinduced charge transfer in donor-acceptor (DA) copolymer: fullerene bis-adduct polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Eui; Cho, Han-Hee; Cho, Chul-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Myounghee; Lee, Sunae; Kim, Bongsoo; Im, Chan; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2013-02-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) consisting of fullerene bis-adduct and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blends have shown higher efficiencies than P3HT:phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) devices, because of the high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of the fullerene bis-adducts. In contrast, the use of fullerene bis-adducts in donor-acceptor (DA) copolymer systems typically causes a decrease in the device's performance due to the decreased short-circuit current (J(SC)) and the fill factor (FF). However, the reason for such poor performance in DA copolymer:fullerene bis-adduct blends is not fully understood. In this work, bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)-type PSCs composed of three different electron donors with four different electron acceptors were chosen and compared. The three electron donors were (1) poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(5-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione)-1,3-diyl] (PBDTTPD), (2) poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-C), and (3) P3HT polymers. The four electron acceptors were (1) PCBM, (2) indene-C(60) monoadduct (ICMA), (3) indene-C(60) bis-adduct (ICBA), and (4) indene-C(60) tris-adduct (ICTA). To understand the difference in the performance of BHJ-type PSCs for the three different polymers in terms of the choice of fullerene acceptor, the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the blends were measured by the external quantum efficiency (EQE), photoluminescence, grazing incidence X-ray scattering, and transient absorption spectroscopy. We observed that while the molecular packing and optical properties cannot be the main reasons for the dramatic decrease in the PCE of the DA copolymers and ICBA, the value of the driving force for charge transfer (ΔG(CT)) is a key parameter for determining the change in J(SC) and device efficiency in the DA copolymer- and P3HT-based PSCs in

  11. The effects of a solar eclipse on photo-oxidants in different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 on surface ozone and other photo-oxidants over central China using the WRF-Chem model. Chemical and meteorological observation data were used to validate the model, and results suggest that the WRF-Chem model can capture the effects of the total solar eclipse well. The maximum impacts of the eclipse occur over the area of totality, with a decrease in surface temperature of 1.5 °C and decrease in wind speed of 1 m s−1. In contrast, the maximum impacts on atmospheric pollutants occur over parts of north and east China where emissions are greater, with an increase of 5 ppbv in NO2 and 25 ppbv in CO and a decrease of 10 ppbv in O3 and 3 ppbv in NO. This study also shows the effects of the solar eclipse on surface photo-oxidants in different parts of China. Although the sun was obscured to a smaller extent in polluted areas than in clean areas, the impacts of the eclipse in polluted areas are greater and last longer than they do in clean areas. The change in radical concentrations during the eclipse reveals that nighttime chemistry dominates in both polluted and clean areas. In contrast to the effects on atmospheric pollutants, the change in radical concentrations (OH, HO2 and NO3 in clean areas is much larger than in polluted areas mainly because of the limited sources of radicals in these areas. In addition, since solar eclipse does provide a natural opportunity to test our understanding more thoroughly on atmospheric chemistry, especially on photolysis-related chemistry, a comprehensive experimental campaign is highly recommended during solar eclipses in future.

  12. Bifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites as Hole-Transport Layers for Efficient Light Harvesting: Application to Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jhong-Yao; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Huang, Jeng-Yeh; Wang, Leeyih; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2015-12-23

    A new approach to largely enhancing light harvesting of solar cells by employing bifunctional polymer nanocomposites as hole-transport layers (HTLs) is proposed. To illustrate our working principle, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells are used as examples. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are added into a conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) matrix, resulting in a ∼4-fold enhancement in the electrical conductivity and carrier mobility of the native P3HT film. The improved electrical properties are attributed to enhanced polymer chain ordering caused by Au-NPs. By integration of those P3HT:Au-NP films with an optimum loading concentration of 20% into perovskite solar cells as HTLs, this leads to a more than 25% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with that of the NP-free one. In addition to the modulated electrical properties of the HTL, the improved performance can also be attributed to the scattering effect from the incorporated Au-NPs, which effectively extends the optical pathway to amplify photon absorption of the photoactive layer. The design principle shown here can be generalized to other organic materials as well, which should be very useful for the further development of high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  13. Performance Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Cells for Telecommunication Cellular Network in Remote Areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghayur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research design and implementation of solar photo voltaic cell is done for base transceiver system (BTS of telecom cellular networks in remote areas of Pakistan, to accomplish this task investigation is done regarding the present alternate power source of base transceiver system (BTS that is the generator sets used as a stand-by, prime and t-prime source. This research will examine that generator sets fuel consumption and maintenance cost is considerably high and the cellular company has to pay a lot to keep a site on air and to overcome the connectivity issues.To resolve these issues this research is aimed to implement solar technology on BTS, for this purpose exploration is done regarding BTS rectifier system and suggested to use power on distribution systems 16 (PODS 16, latest technology evolution (LTE based instead of the simple BTS rectifier, this new rectifier is intelligent and has redundant ways to overcome power issues as it has the capability to work directly on solar panel equipments and it requires DC supply. Other important factor is that solar panel recharge batteries for power backup and to keep the site on air during night time. Different cost comparison of solar and generator sets have been done by taking real data of different remote areas sites and in the end it is concluded that solar is the alternate costless, environmental friendly source of energy for BTS and can be implemented both for off-grid and on-grid systems.

  14. Fabrication and Optimization of Polymer Solar Cells Based on P3HT:PC70BM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangzhong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ polymer solar cells (PSCs based on P3HT:PC70BM were fabricated by optimizing the processing parameters. The optimized thickness and annealing temperature have been found to be about 200 nm and 130°C. The effect of cathode interfacial layers on device performance is related to the formation of interfacial dipole. Furthermore, the effect of optimum ZnO interfacial thickness (~30 nm on device performance is attributed to good interfacial conductivity and its optical property. The metal electrode deposited in the slow rate has a better influence on device performance. Based on these optimal conditions, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE of 3.91% was obtained under AM 1.5G and 100 mW/cm2 illumination. This detailed investigation provides an important reference for the fabrication and optimization of polymer photovoltaic devices.

  15. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10-3 S cm-1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm-2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  16. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sachs-Quintana, I. T.

    2014-03-24

    Long-term stability of polymer solar cells is determined by many factors, one of which is thermal stability. Although many thermal stability studies occur far beyond the operating temperature of a solar cell which is almost always less than 65 °C, thermal degradation is studied at temperatures that the solar cell would encounter in real-world operating conditions. At these temperatures, movement of the polymer and fullerenes, along with adhesion of the polymer to the back contact, creates a barrier for electron extraction. The polymer barrier can be removed and the performance can be restored by peeling off the electrode and depositing a new one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adhered to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. The degradation caused by hole-transporting polymer adhering to the electrode can be suppressed by using an inverted device where instead of electrons, holes are extracted at the back metal electrode. The problem can be ultimately eliminated by choosing a polymer with a high glass transition temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2015-12-11

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm(-2), 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from Solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Rollins, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the active Sun provide the largest sample of detected solar flares with emission greater than 30 MeV to date. These include detections of impulsive and sustained emission, extending up to 20 hours in the case of the 2012 March 7 X-class flares. These high-energy flares are coincident with GOES X-ray flares of X, M and C classes as well as very fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). We will present results from the First Fermi-LAT solar flare catalog covering the majority of Solar Cycle 24 including correlation studies with the associated Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and CMEs.

  19. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  20. How to design low bandgap polymers for highly efficient organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaic cells are promising in terms of their light weight, mechanically flexibility, ease of processing and low cost. Establishing a predictive understanding between the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers is still challenging, and continuous effort is needed to progress toward full commercialization. In this review, recent progress in polymer/fullerene systems is highlighted and four synthetic principles are summarized to engineer the bandgap and tune the energy levels and the solubility of the targeted polymers.

  1. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed J.F. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

  2. Development and Characterization of New Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers and Fullerene Nanoparticles for High Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    xenon lamp (450 W) with an AM 1.5 G filter was used as the solar simulator. The light intensity was calibrated to 100 mW cm-2 using a calibrated silicon...monochromator (Newport, Cornerstone 130) joined to the same xenon lamp and a lock-in amplifier (Stanford Research Systems, SR 830) coupled to a...polymer (5 mg mL-1) and PC71BM (20 mg mL-1) in 1,2-dichlorobenzene and filtered with a 0.2 μm PTFE filter. The substrates were annealed at 150 ºC for 10

  3. High-throughput roll-to-roll X-ray characterization of polymer solar cell active layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Menzel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-rays were used to probe active materials for polymer solar cells on flexible polyester foil. The active material was coated onto a flexible 130 micron thick polyester foil using roll-to-roll differentially pumped slot-die coating and presented variation in composition, thickne...... crystallinity and crystallite size. In coated films thinner than 275 nm, textured poly(3-hexyl)thiophene crystallites with the lamellar stack aligned with the substrate dominate, similar to what is observed for spin-coated films....

  4. Influence of D/A ratio on photovoltaic performance of a highly efficient polymer solar cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Maojie; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Hou, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tan, Jiahui; Hu, Wenping; Li, Yongfang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-12-18

    A new copolymer PIDTDTQx based on indacenodithiophene and quinoxaline is synthesized and characterized. The correlation between the D/A ratio, mobility, and photovoltaic properties, as well as morphology of the D/A blend based on a PIDTDTQx:PC{sub 70}BM system is investigated. The power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cells based on PIDTDTQx/PC{sub 70}BM (1:4, w/w) reaches 7.51%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Quasi-solid-state nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells using gel network polymer electrolytes based on polysiloxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline porous TiO2 film solar cell was fabricated using a novel gel network polymer electrolyte based on polysiloxanes with both polyethylene oxide internal plasticized side chains and quaternary ammonium groups. The cell exhibited better photoelectrical conversion performance under 60 mW/cm2 irradiation. The short photocurrent (Isc) of 5.0 mA/cm2 and open voltage (Voc) of 0.68 V were achieved, and the energy conversion efficiency (η) and fill factor (ff) were 3.4% and 0.60, respectively.

  6. All solution roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide and vacuum coating steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    A roll-to-roll process enabling fabrication of polymer solar cells comprising five layers on flexible substrates is presented. The device geometry is inverted and allow for fabrication on both transparent and non-transparent flexible substrates. The process is illustrated in this work by formation......:PSS. These first four layers were applied by slot-die coating. The final electrode was applied by screen printing a grid structure that allowed for transmission of 80% of the light. The materials were patterned into stripes allowing for formation of a single cell device and serially connected modules comprising 2...

  7. Comparison of Two Types of Vertically Aligned ZnO NRs for Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Valls, Irene; Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NR) are prepared by two different synthesesmethods and applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs). The ZnO electrodes work as the electron transport layer with the P3HT:PCBM blend acting as the active material. Several organic blend solution conditions are optimized...... infiltration of the organic P3HT:PCBM blend within the ZnO NR layer. The infiltration of the active layer was monitored by cross section SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. Our results show that higher power conversion efficiencies are achieved when shorter NRs lengths are applied. The best...

  8. Polymer blend solar cells based on a high-mobility naphthalenediimide-based polymer acceptor: device physics, photophysics and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jennifer R.; Albert-Seifried, Sebastian; Rao, Akshay; Massip, Sylvain; Friend, Richard H.; McNeill, Christopher R.; Sirringhaus, Henning [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watts, Benjamin [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Morgan, David J. [Cardiff Catalysis Institute, School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-18

    A high electron mobility polymer, poly{l_brace}[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) is investigated for use as an electron acceptor in all-polymer blends. Despite the high bulk electron mobility, near-infrared absorption band and compatible energy levels, bulk heterojunction devices fabricated with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor exhibit power conversion efficiencies of only 0.2%. In order to understand this disappointing photovoltaic performance, systematic investigations of the photophysics, device physics and morphology of this system are performed. Ultra-fast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals a two-stage decay process with an initial rapid loss of photoinduced polarons, followed by a second slower decay. This second slower decay is similar to what is observed for efficient P3HT:PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester) blends, however the initial fast decay that is absent in P3HT:PCBM blends suggests rapid, geminate recombination of charge pairs shortly after charge transfer. X-ray microscopy reveals coarse phase separation of P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) blends with domains of size 0.2 to 1 micrometer. P3HT photoluminescence, however, is still found to be efficiently quenched indicating intermixing within these mesoscale domains. This hierarchy of phase separation is consistent with the transient absorption, whereby localized confinement of charges on isolated chains in the matrix of the other polymer hinders the separation of interfacial electron-hole pairs. These results indicate that local, interfacial processes are the key factor determining the overall efficiency of this system and highlight the need for improved morphological control in order for the potential benefit of high-mobility electron accepting polymers to be realized. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  10. Highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on hexylimidazolium iodide ionic polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ low-temperature polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated using a novel ionic polymer electrolyte containing hexylimidazolium iodide (HII) ionic polymer prepared by in situ polymerization of N,N‧-bis(imidazolyl) hexane and 1,6-diiodohexane without an initiator at low temperature (40 °C). The as-prepared HII ionic polymer has a similar structure to alkylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid, and the imidazolium cations are contained in the polymer main chain; so, it can act simultaneously as the redox mediator in the electrolyte. By incorporating an appropriate amount of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (DMII) in HII ionic polymer (DMII/HII ionic polymer = 0.7:1, weight ratio), the conductivity of the ionic polymer electrolyte is greatly improved due to the formation of Grotthuss bond exchange. In addition, in situ synthesis of ionic polymer electrolyte guarantees a good pore-filling of the electrolyte in the TiO2 photoanode. As a result, the solid-state DSC based on the ionic polymer electrolyte containing HII ionic polymer and DMII without iodine achieves a conversion efficiency of 6.55% under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), which also exhibits a good at-rest stability at room temperature.

  11. Inverted organic solar cells with polymer-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide as the electron-collecting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M.; Kippelen, Bernard, E-mail: kippelen@ece.gatech.edu

    2014-03-03

    We report on inverted solar cells using amine-containing polymer (polyethylenimine ethoxylated, PEIE) modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the electron-collecting electrode. PEIE lowers the work function of FTO from 4.6 eV to 3.8 eV, measured by Kelvin probe, sufficiently low for collecting electrons in solar cells. With the FTO/PEIE electrode, inverted solar cells based on poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene) -2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl]: phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 ± 0.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 15.2 ± 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 0.60 ± 0.01 and a power conversion efficiency of 6.3 ± 0.2% averaged over 9 devices under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM1.5 illumination, which is comparable to the solar cells fabricated on indium–tin oxide glass substrates. In addition, we found that ultraviolet light-containing illumination can reduce the work function of bare FTO from 4.66 eV to 4.34 eV presumably because of the desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO. - Highlights: • Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is modified by polyethylenimine ethoxylated. • Inverted organic solar cells are fabricated with the modified FTO. • The solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%. • Ultraviolet (UV) illumination reduces work function of FTO from 4.66 to 4.34 eV. • UV illumination induces desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO.

  12. Cooperative effects of solvent and polymer acceptor co-additives in P3HT:PDI solar cells: simultaneous optimization in lateral and vertical phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingguang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jiangang; Zhou, Ke; Yu, Xinhong; Xing, Rubo; Geng, Yanhou; Han, Yanchun

    2014-03-14

    In this work, solvent chloronaphthalene (CN) and polymer acceptor an alternating copolymer of perylene diimide and carbazole (PCPDI) were utilized as co-additives to optimize the nanoscale phase-separated morphology and photovoltaic properties of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells based on the poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT)/N,N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI) system. The domain size of EP-PDI molecules together with that of P3HT distinctly decreased by adding a 0.75 vol% CN additive. The optimized lateral phase separation increased the donor-acceptor interfacial area and facilitated the exciton dissociation process, leading to 5-fold enhancement of short-circuit current (JSC). Furthermore, when PCPDI was employed as a co-additive, acceptor materials (including PCPDI and EP-PDI) were prone to aggregation towards the top surface of blend films, improving vertical phase separation of active layers. PCPDI incorporation, which improved the percolation pathways for electron carriers, suppressed the crystallinity of P3HT distinctly. Thus, much more balanced charge transport was achieved by PCPDI addition, which resulted in almost 1-fold enhancement of open-circuit voltage (VOC) by reducing nongeminate recombination. As a consequence, cooperative effects of CN and PCPDI additives improved the nanoscale phase-separated morphology in lateral and vertical directions simultaneously, achieving the enhancement in both VOC and JSC.

  13. A novel benzodipyrrolidone-based low band gap polymer for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Wei; Huang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Jianyu;

    2013-01-01

    A low band gap polymer PBDPDP-DTP, with alternating benzodipyrrolidone (BDP) unit and dithienopyrrole, was synthesized and characterized. A PCE of 2.60%and a Voc of up to 0.74 V were realized in PSCs, which demonstrated the strong potential of BDP as the electron deficient unit in the design...... of donor–acceptor conjugated polymers for PSCs....

  14. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  15. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  16. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  17. A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2015-08-20

    A novel photoactive polymer with two different molecular weights is reported, based on a new building block: thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo. Due to the improved crystallinity, optimal blend morphology, and higher charge mobility, solar-cell devices of the high-molecular-weight polymer exhibit a superior performance, affording efficiencies of 9.1% without the need for additives, annealing, or additional extraction layers during device fabrication.

  18. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Huang; Zuoqi Chen; Bin Wu; Liang Chen; Weiqing Mao; Feng Zhao; Jianping Wu; Junhan Wu; Bailang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, espe...

  19. Enhancing the light absorbance of polymer solar cells by introducing pulsed laser-deposited CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yu; LI, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu,Ning

    2014-01-01

    Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit cu...

  20. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; Younan, Kais; Wolf, David

    2007-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  1. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  2. Influence of Surface Energy on Organic Alloy Formation in Ternary Blend Solar Cells Based on Two Donor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S; Noh, Sangtaik; Howard, Jenna B; Thompson, Barry C

    2016-10-05

    The compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) in ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is correlated with the miscibility of polymers, which may be influenced by a number of attributes, including crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, or surface energy. Four ternary blend systems featuring poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (P3HT75-co-EHT25), poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-(hexyl-3-carboxylate)), herein referred to as poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-hexylesterthiophene) (P3HT50-co-3HET50), poly(3-hexylthiophene-thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (P3HTT-DPP-10%), and an analog of P3HTT-DPP-10% with 40% of 3-hexylthiophene exchanged for 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylthiophen-2-yl (3MEO-T) (featuring an electronically decoupled oligoether side-chain), referred to as P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, are explored in this work. All four polymers are semicrystalline and rich in rr-P3HT content and perform well in binary devices with PC61BM. Except for P3HTTDPP-MEO40%, all polymers exhibit similar surface energies (∼21-22 mN/m). P3HTTDPP-MEO40% exhibits an elevated surface energy of around 26 mN/m. As a result, despite the similar optoelectronic properties and binary solar cell performance of P3HTTDPP-MEO40% compared to P3HTT-DPP-10%, the former exhibits a pinned Voc in two different sets of ternary blend devices. This is a stark contrast to previous rr-P3HT-based systems and demonstrates that surface energy, and its influence on miscibility, plays a critical role in the formation of organic alloys and can supersede the influence of crystallinity, the random copolymer effect, similar backbone structures, and HOMO/LUMO considerations. Therefore, we confirm surface energy compatibility as a figure-of-merit for predicting the compositional dependence of the Voc in ternary blend solar cells and highlight the importance of polymer miscibility in organic alloy formation.

  3. Organized Hole Conducting Polymer/Nanoparticle Composite Solar Cell Fiber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent innovations in noncrystalline solar cells are beginning to emerge as viable replacements to traditional CVD grown single crystal counterparts in applications...

  4. Physically adsorbed fullerene layer on positively charged sites on zinc oxide cathode affords efficiency enhancement in inverted polymer solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liao, Sih-Hao; Li, Yi-Lun; Chen, Show-An

    2013-07-24

    We present a novel idea for overcoming the drawback of poor contact between the ZnO cathode and active layer interface in an inverted polymer solar cell (i-PSC), simply by incorporating an electron-acceptor self-assembled monolayer (SAM)--tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (TFTPA)--on the ZnO cathode surface to create an electron-poor surface of TFTPA on ZnO. The TFTPA molecules on ZnO are anchored on the ZnO surface by reacting its carboxyl groups with hydroxyl groups on the ZnO surface, such that the tetrafluoroterephthalate moieties lay on the surface with plane-on electron-poor benzene rings acting as positive charge centers. Upon coating a layer of fullerenes on top of it, the fullerene molecules can be physically adsorbed by Coulombic interaction and facilitate a promoted electron collection from the bulk. The active layer is composed of the mid bandgap polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or low bandgap polymer, poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  5. Do the Defects Make It Work? Defect Engineering in Pi-Conjugated Polymers and Their Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Reese, M.; Kopidakis N.; Gregg, B. A.

    2008-05-01

    The charged defect density in common pi-conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, is around 1018 cm-3. Despite, or perhaps because of, this huge defect density, bulk heterojunction solar cells made from these polymers and a C60 derivative such as PCBM exhibit some of the highest efficiencies (~5%) yet obtained in solid state organic photovoltaic cells. We discuss defects in molecular organic semiconductors and in pi-conjugated polymers. These defects can be grouped in two categories, covalent and noncovalent. Somewhat analogous to treating amorphous silicon with hydrogen, we introduce chemical methods to modify the density and charge of the covalent defects in P3HT by treating it with electrophiles such as dimethyl sulfate and nucleophiles such as sodium methoxide. The effects of these treatments on the electrical and photovoltaic properties and stability of organic PV cells is discussed in terms of the change in the number and chemical properties of the defects. Finally, we address the question of whether the efficiency of OPV cells requires the presence of these defects which function as adventitious p-type dopants. Their presence relieves the resistance limitations usually encountered in cleaner organic semiconductors and can create built-in electric fields at junctions.

  6. Nanostructured hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cell active layers formed by controllable in situ growth of semiconducting sulfide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Henry C; King, Simon P; Sudlow, Anna; Hill, Michael S; Molloy, Kieran C; Haque, Saif A

    2010-04-14

    Nanostructured composites of inorganic and organic materials are attracting extensive interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we introduce a general method for the fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticle/polymer films employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based upon the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a solution processable metal xanthate precursor complex in a semiconducting polymer film. To demonstrate the versatility of our method, we fabricate a CdS/P3HT nanocomposite film and show that the metal sulfide network inside the polymer film assists in the absorption of visible light and enables the achievement of high yields of charge photogeneration at the CdS/P3HT heterojunction. Photovoltaic devices based upon such nanocomposite films show solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 0.7% under full AM1.5 illumination and 1.2% under 10% incident power, demonstrating the potential of such nanocomposite films for low-cost photovoltaic devices.

  7. Simultaneously Enhanced Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Employing Solvent Additive and Upside-down Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Fujun; An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-15

    The morphology of active layer plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs), which strongly depend on the dynamic drying process of active layer. In this work, an efficient and universal method was developed to let active layer undergo upside-down drying process in a covered glass Petri dish. For the PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM, the champion PCEs were improved from 8.58% to 9.64% by mixing 3 vol % 1,8-di-iodooctane and further to 10.30% by employing upside-down drying method. The enhanced PCEs of PSCs with active layers undergoing upside-down drying process are mainly attributed to the optimized vertical phase separation, the more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking of polymer molecules. Meanwhile, PC71BM molecules can be frozen in more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking polymer network, which lead to the enhanced stability of PSCs. The universality of upside-down drying method can be solidly confirmed from PSCs with PTB7:PC71BM, PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, or PBDT-TS1:PC71BM as active layers, respectively. The molecular packing and phase separation of blend films with different solvent additives and drying methods were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  8. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  9. Moving through the phase diagram: morphology formation in solution cast polymer-fullerene blend films for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hansberg, Benjamin; Sanyal, Monamie; Klein, Michael F G; Pfaff, Marina; Schnabel, Natalie; Jaiser, Stefan; Vorobiev, Alexei; Müller, Erich; Colsmann, Alexander; Scharfer, Philip; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Lemmer, Uli; Barrena, Esther; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2011-11-22

    The efficiency of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the multiscale morphology of the interpenetrating polymer-fullerene network. Understanding the molecular assembly and the identification of influencing parameters is essential for a systematic optimization of such devices. Here, we investigate the molecular ordering during the drying of doctor-bladed polymer-fullerene blends on PEDOT:PSS-coated substrates simultaneously using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and laser reflectometry. In the process of blend crystallization, we observe the nucleation of well-aligned P3HT crystallites in edge-on orientation at the interface at the instant when P3HT solubility is crossed. A comparison of the real-time GIXD study at ternary blends with the binary phase diagrams of the drying blend film gives evidence of strong polymer-fullerene interactions that impede the crystal growth of PCBM, resulting in the aggregation of PCBM in the final drying stage. A systematic dependence of the film roughness on the drying time after crossing P3HT solubility has been shown. The highest efficiencies have been observed for slow drying at low temperatures which showed the strongest P3HT interchain π-π-ordering along the substrate surface. By adding the "unfriendly" solvent cyclohexanone to a chlorobenzene solution of P3HT:PCBM, the solubility can be crossed prior to the drying process. Such solutions exhibit randomly orientated crystalline structures in the freshly cast film which results in a large crystalline orientation distribution in the dry film that has been shown to be beneficial for solar cell performance.

  10. High-Performance Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells Based on a Selenium-Containing Polymer Donor and a Twisted Perylene Bisimide Acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Meng, Dong; Cai, Yunhao; Sun, Xiaobo; Li, Yan; Huo, Lijun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Zhaohui; Russell, Thomas P; Sun, Yanming

    2016-09-01

    A novel polymer donor (PBDTS-Se) is designed to match with a non-fullerene acceptor (SdiPBI-S). The corresponding solar cells show a high efficiency of 8.22%, which result from synergetic improvements of light harvesting, charge carrier transport and collection, and morphology. The results indicate that rational design of novel donor materials is important for non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  11. A nano-grid structure made of perovskite SrTiO3 nanowires for efficient electron transport layers in inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Won; Suh, Yo-han; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-03-14

    A nano-grid structure of perovskite SrTiO3 NWs is developed for a novel electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells. Due to the excellent charge transporting properties of the SrTiO3 nano-grid structure, the device employing this nanostructure showed ∼32% enhanced photovoltaic performance, compared to the solar cell using a TiO2 thin film.

  12. Stability issues pertaining large area perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermosa, S.; Yadav, S. K.; Vesce, L.; Guidobaldi, A.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Brown, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells are PV technologies which hold promise for PV application. Arguably, the biggest issue facing these technologies is stability. The vast majority of studies have been limited to small area laboratory cells. Moisture, oxygen, UV light, thermal and electrical stresses are leading the degradation causes. There remains a shortage of stability investigations on large area devices, in particular modules. At the module level there exist particular challenges which can be different from those at the small cell level such as encapsulation (not only of the unit cells but of interconnections and contacts), non-uniformity of the layer stacks and unit cells, reverse bias stresses, which are important to investigate for technologies that aim for industrial acceptance. Herein we present a review of stability investigations published in the literature pertaining large area perovskite and dye-sensitized solar devices fabricated both on rigid (glass) and flexible substrates.

  13. Open-circuit voltage enhancement on the basis of polymer gel electrolyte for a highly stable dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Congcong; Jia, Lichao; Guo, Siyao; Han, Song; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2013-08-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have received considerable attention owing to their low preparation cost and easy fabrication process. However, one of the drawbacks that limits the further application of DSSC is their poor stability, arising from the leakage and volatilization of the liquid organic solvent in the electrolyte. Therefore, to improve the long-term stability of DSSC, polymer gel electrolyte was studied to replace the conventional liquid electrolyte in this work. The results show that compared to liquid electrolyte, DSSC with polymer gel electrolyte has a smaller short-circuit current (Jsc), which decreases with the increase of the polymer gelator. Nevertheless, with the employment of the polymer gel electrolyte, there is a significant enhancement of open-circuit voltage (Voc), and it increases with the increase of the polymer gelator content. The highest Voc, up to 0.873 V, can be obtained for DSSC with a 30% polymer gelator content. The impact of the polymer gel electrolyte on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC, especially on Voc, was studied by analyzing the charge-transfer kinetics in the polymer gel electrolyte. Furthermore, the influence of the polymer gel electrolyte on the long-term stability of DSSC was also investigated.

  14. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  15. Graphene, conducting polymer and their composites as transparent and current spreading electrode in GaN solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahala, Pramila; Kumar, Ajay; Nayak, Sasmita; Behura, Sanjay; Dhanavantri, Chenna; Jani, Omkar

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the physics of charge carrier transport at graphene/p-GaN interface is critical for achieving efficient device functionality. Currently, the graphene/p-GaN interface is being explored as light emitting diodes, however this interface can be probed as a potential photovoltaic cell. We report the intimate interfacing of mechanically exfoliated graphene (EG), conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS) and composite of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and PEDOT:PSS with a wide band gap p-GaN layer. To explore their potential in energy harvesting, three heterojunction devices such as: (i) EG/p-GaN/sapphire, (ii) PEDOT:PSS/p-GaN/sapphire and (iii) PEDOT:PSS(rGO)/p-GaN/sapphire are designed and their photovoltaic characteristics are examined. It is interesting to observe that the EG/p-GaN/sapphire solar cell exhibits high open-circuit voltage of 0.545 V with low ideality factor and reverse saturation current. However, improved short circuit current density (13.7 mA/cm2) is noticed for PEDOT:PSS/p-GaN/sapphire solar cell because of enhanced conductivity accompanied by high transmittance for PEDOT:PSS. Further, the low series resistance for PEDOT:PSS(rGO)/p-GaN/sapphire is observed suggesting that the PEDOT:PSS and rGO composite is well dispersed and exhibits low interfacial resistances with p-GaN. The present investigation leverages the potential of graphene, conducting polymer and their composites as dual capability of (a) transparent and current spreading electrode and (b) an active top layer to make an intimate contact with wide bandgap p-type GaN for possible prospect towards high performance diodes, switches and solar cells.

  16. How to design low bandgap polymers for highly efficient organic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Xu; Luping Yu

    2014-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells are promising in terms of their light weight, mechanically flexibility, ease of processing and low cost. Establishing a predictive understanding between the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers is still challenging, and continuous effort is needed to progress toward full commercialization. In this review, recent progress in polymer/fullerene systems is highlighted and four synthetic principles are summarized to engineer the bandgap and tune the en...

  17. The effects of a solar eclipse on photo-oxidants in different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Wu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 on surface ozone and other photo-oxidants over China. A box model was used to study the sensitivity of ozone to the limb darkening effect during an eclipse event, and to show that the impact on ozone is small (less than 0.5 %. In addition, the regional model WRF-Chem was applied to study the effects of the eclipse on meteorological and chemical parameters, focusing on different regions in China. Chemical and meteorological observations were used to validate the model and to show that it can capture the effects of the total solar eclipse well. Model calculations show distinct differences in the spatial distributions of meteorological and chemical parameters with and without the eclipse. The maximum impacts of the eclipse occur over the area of totality, where there is a decrease in surface temperature of 1.5 °C and decrease in wind speed of 1 m s−1. The maximum impacts on atmospheric pollutants occur over parts of north and east China where emissions are greater, with an increase of 5 ppbv in NO2 and 25 ppbv in CO and a decrease of 10 ppbv in O3 and 4 ppbv in NO. This study also demonstrates the effects of the solar eclipse on surface photo-oxidants in different parts of China. Although the sun was obscured to a smaller extent in polluted areas than in clean areas, the impacts of the eclipse in polluted areas are greater and last longer than they do in clean areas. In contrast, the change in radical concentrations (OH, HO2 and NO3 in clean areas is much larger than in polluted areas mainly because of the limited source of radicals in these areas. The change in radical concentrations during the eclipse reveals that nighttime chemistry dominates in both clean and polluted areas. As solar eclipses provide a natural opportunity to test more thoroughly our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially that

  18. Replication fidelity assessment of polymer large area sub-μm structured surfaces using fast angular intensity distribution measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Hansen, H. N.; Tosello, G.;

    The present investigation addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent polymer substrates, identified in the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line ch...

  19. Plane polymer configurations enclosing a fixed area in an electric field: generating functional and statistical mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandekar, D.C.; Wiegel, F.W.

    1993-01-01

    The statistical mechanical properties of plane polymer configurations which enclose a fixed area and are subject to an external electric field are investigated. For this purpose an exact expression for the generating functional is obtained and subsequently used to derive: (a) the distribution functi

  20. Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

  1. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiley, Zach M; Christoforo, M Greyson; Gratia, Paul; Bowring, Andrea R; Eberspacher, Petra; Margulis, George Y; Cabanetos, Clément; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D

    2013-12-23

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%.

  2. A New Approach to Model-Based Simulation of Disordered Polymer Blend Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenzel, Ole; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Thiedmann, Ralf; Oosterhout, Stefan D.; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The 3D nanomorphology of blends of two different (organic and inorganic) solid phases as used in bulk heterojunction solar cells is described by a spatial stochastic model. The model is fitted to 3D image data describing the photoactive layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-ZnO (P3HT-ZnO) solar cells fabr

  3. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  4. Comparing the Device Physics and Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerenes and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2014-04-23

    There is a need to find electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics that are not based on fullerene derivatives since fullerenes have a small band gap that limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC), do not absorb strongly and are expensive. Here, a phenylimide-based acceptor molecule, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), that can be used to make solar cells with VOC values up to 1.11 V and power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7% with two thiophene polymers is demonstrated. An internal quantum efficiency of 56%, compared to 75-90% for polymer-fullerene devices, results from less efficient separation of geminate charge pairs. While favorable energetic offsets in the polymer-fullerene devices due to the formation of a disordered mixed phase are thought to improve charge separation, the low miscibility (<5 wt%) of HPI-BT in polymers is hypothesized to prevent the mixed phase and energetic offsets from forming, thus reducing the driving force for charges to separate into the pure donor and acceptor phases where they can be collected. A small molecule electron acceptor, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), achieves efficiencies of 3.7% and open-circuit voltage values of 1.11 V in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices with polythiophene donor materials. The lower internal quantum efficiency (56%) in these non-fullerene acceptor devices is attributed to an absence of the favorable energetic offsets resulting from nanoscale mixing of donor and acceptor found in comparable fullerene-based devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Investigation of the nanomorphology and device performance of organic solar cells based on polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madena, Thomas; Wischnath, Uli; Kittel, Achim; Parisi, Juergen; Riedel, Ingo [Energy- and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The coherences between structural layout of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells and the electrical properties are not fully understood so far. The morphology of such BHJ-thin films determines the efficiency balance between separation of electron hole pairs at the phase boundary of PCBM and P3HT and the charge transport along continuous paths in the pure materials. The optimization of both fundamental mechanisms is a challenge and plays a crucial role for the efficiency of the photovoltaic device. In this presentation we investigate the interplay of nanomorphology and device properties of P3HT: PCBM solar cells. AFM measurements were carried out to profile the nanomorphology of differently composed polymer: fullerene composite films. In these films we observed substantial growth of micron-sized crystallites in the PCBM moiety upon thermal annealing which severely limits the device performance. Based on these studies we discuss the influence of the nanomorphology of different thin film formulations on the electrical characteristics of P3HT:PCBM solar cells.

  6. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  7. Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vroman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources or from biological resources (renewable resources. In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. The following review presents an overview of the different biodegradable polymers that are currently being used and their properties, as well as new developments in their synthesis and applications.

  8. Upscaling from single cells to modules – fabrication of vacuum- and ITO-free polymer solar cells on flexible substrates with long lifetime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of polymer solar cell (PSC) modules was done on a previously reported compact coating/printing machine and tested in a readily scalable roll process on flexible substrates without applying vacuum, ITO or spin coating. Our aim was to establish loss upon scaling from cells to small...

  9. Roll-to-Roll Inkjet Printing and Photonic Sintering of Electrodes for ITO Free Polymer Solar Cell Modules and Facile Product Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Small polymer solar cell modules that are manufactured without indium-tin-oxide using only roll-to-roll printing and coating techniques under ambient conditions enable facile integration into a simple demonstrator (for example a laser pointer). Semitransparent front electrode grid structures...

  10. Schottky diodes between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J., E-mail: sspajp@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-07

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  11. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D' Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  12. Synthesis of a new conjugated polymer composed of pyrene and bithiophene units for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Jung, Choong-Hwa; Kang, Jun; Kim, Hee-Joon; Shin, Won Suk; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Moon, Sang-Jin; Lee, Changjin; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2011-05-01

    An alternating conjugated copolymer composed of pyrene and bithiophene units, poly(DHBT-alt-PYR) has been synthesized. The synthesized polymer was found to exhibit good solution processibility and thermal stability, losing less than 5% of their weight on heating to approximately 370 degrees C. The synthesized polymer showed its maximum absorption and peak PL emission at 401 and 548 nm, respectively. The optical band gap energy of the polymer was determined by absorption onset to be 2.64 eV. Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the polymer was determined to be -5.48 and -2.84 eV by cyclic voltametry (CV) and the optical band gap. The polymer photovoltaic devices were fabricated with a typical sandwich structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/active layer/LiF/Al using poly(DHBT-alt-PYR) as an electron donor and C60-PCBM or C70-PCBM as electron acceptors. The open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor of the device using C70-PCBM as an acceptor were 0.75 V, 3.80 mA/cm2 and 0.28, respectively, and the maximum power conversion efficiency of the device was 0.80%.

  13. Molecular order in high-efficiency polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew R; Kline, R Joseph; Herzing, Andrew A; Richter, Lee J; Germack, David S; Ro, Hyun-Wook; Soles, Christopher L; Fischer, Daniel A; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Toney, Michael F; Delongchamp, Dean M

    2011-10-25

    We report quantitative measurements of ordering, molecular orientation, and nanoscale morphology in the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells based on a thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene copolymer (PTB7), which has been shown to yield very high power conversion efficiency when blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM). A surprisingly low degree of order was found in the polymer-far lower in the bulk heterojunction than in pure PTB7. X-ray diffraction data yielded a nearly full orientation distribution for the polymer π-stacking direction within well-ordered regions, revealing a moderate preference for π-stacking in the vertical direction ("face-on"). By combining molecular orientation information from polarizing absorption spectroscopies with the orientation distribution of ordered material from diffraction, we propose a model describing the PTB7 molecular orientation distribution (ordered and disordered), with the fraction of ordered polymer as a model parameter. This model shows that only a small fraction (≈20%) of the polymer in the PTB7/PC(71)BM blend is ordered. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy shows that the morphology of PTB7/PC(71)BM is composed of nanoscale fullerene-rich aggregates separated by polymer-rich regions. The addition of diiodooctane (DIO) to the casting solvent, as a processing additive, results in smaller domains and a more finely interpenetrating BHJ morphology, relative to blend films cast without DIO.

  14. Local Imaging of Optoelectronic Properties and Film Degradation in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells with Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Phillip Alexander

    With power conversion efficiencies on the rise, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold promise as a next-generation thin-film solar technology. However, both device performance and stability are inextricably linked to local film structure. Methods capable of probing nanoscale electronic properties as a function of film structure are thus a crucial component of the rational design of efficient and robust devices. This dissertation describes the use of three scanning probe methods for studying local charge generation and photodegradation in polymer/fullerene solar cells. First, we show that time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) is capable of resolving local photocurrent from sub-bandgap excitation down to attoampere level currents, a result unattainable by traditional contact-mode methods. We find that the local charging rates measured with trEFM are proportional to external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements made on completed devices, making trEFM images equivalent to local EQE maps across the entire solar spectrum. For both phase-segregated and well-mixed MDMO-PPV:PCBM film morphologies, we show that the local distribution of photocurrent is invariant to excitation wavelength, providing local evidence for the controversial result that the probability of generating separated charge carriers does not depend on whether excitons are formed at the singlet state or charge transfer state. Next, we describe how local dissipation imaging can be performed with commercially-available frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy (FM-EFM) and show that dissipation maps are highly sensitive to photo-oxidative effects in organic semiconductors. We show that photo-oxidation induced changes in cantilever energy dissipation are proportional to device performance losses. We further develop dissipation imaging by implementing ringdown imaging, which directly measures the quality factor of the cantilever, enabling quantitative dissipation mapping. Using organic

  15. Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells%体异质结型聚合物太阳电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉荣; 马廷丽

    2011-01-01

    聚合物太阳电池因具有重量轻、制备工艺简单、成本低等特点近年来受到了国内外的广泛关注.其中体异质结型聚合物太阳电池(bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell,BHJ-PSC)是目前报道的具有高性能的器件之一.本文系统地综述了BHJ-PSC的最新研究进展.首先介绍了BHJ-PSC的结构及工作原理.其次重点介绍了影响太阳电池性能的给体和受体材料的最新研究成果.另外详细地介绍了影响活性层形貌的几个重要因素,例如共混溶剂和添加剂、给体受体比例以及退火条件等.同时对叠层和反型BHJ-PSC进行了介绍.最后,针对BHJ-PSC存在的问题提出了解决方案并对聚合物太阳电池的应用前景进行了展望.%Polymer solar cell has attracted considerable attention due to its advantages, such as light weight of device, simple process of production, and low-cost fabrication process.Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell (BHJ-PSC) is one of the device with excellent performance.In this paper, we review the recent progress of the BHJ-PSC.First, we introduce the device structure and the work principle of the BHJ-PSC with the focus on the progress of donor and acceptor material.Furthermore, we discuss several important factors for effecting morphology of the active layer, such as solvents, additives, ratio of donor and accepter, and annealing condition.In addition, tandem cell and inverted cell are also introduced.Finally, the solutions to improve performance of the BHJ-PSC and the application prospects of the BHJ-PSC are presented.

  16. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  17. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  18. Highly efficient graphene-based Cu(In, Ga)Se₂ solar cells with large active area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Zhang, Kang; Luo, Hailin; Cheng, Guanming; Ma, Xuhang; Xiong, Zhiyu; Xiao, Xudong

    2014-09-21

    Two-dimensional graphene has tremendous potential to be used as a transparent conducting electrode (TCE), owing to its high transparency and conductivity. To date graphene films have been applied to several kinds of solar cells except the Cu(In, Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) solar cell. In this work, we present a novel TCE structure consisting of a doped graphene film and a thin layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to replace the ZnO:Al (AZO) electrode for CIGS. By optimizing the contact between graphene and intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.5% has been achieved, which is among the highest efficiencies of graphene-based solar cells ever reported and approaching those of AZO-based solar cells. Besides, the active area of our solar cells reaches 45 mm(2), much larger than other highly efficient graphene-based solar cells (>10%) reported so far. Moreover, compared with AZO-based CIGS solar cells, the total reflectance of the graphene-based CIGS solar cells is decreased and the quantum efficiency of the graphene-based CIGS is enhanced in the near infrared region (NIR), which strongly support graphene as a competitive candidate material for the TCE in the CIGS solar cell. Furthermore, the graphene/PMMA film can protect the solar cell from moisture, making the graphene-based solar cells much more stable than the AZO-based solar cells.

  19. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  20. Synthetic microfluidic paper: high surface area and high porosity polymer micropillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Jonas; Yasuga, Hiroki; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2016-01-21

    We introduce Synthetic Microfluidic Paper, a novel porous material for microfluidic applications that consists of an OSTE polymer that is photostructured in a well-controlled geometry of slanted and interlocked micropillars. We demonstrate the distinct benefits of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper over other porous microfluidic materials, such as nitrocellulose, traditional paper and straight micropillar arrays: in contrast to straight micropillar arrays, the geometry of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper was miniaturized without suffering capillary collapse during manufacturing and fluidic operation, resulting in a six-fold increased internal surface area and a three-fold increased porous fraction. Compared to commercial nitrocellulose materials for capillary assays, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper shows a wider range of capillary pumping speed and four times lower device-to-device variation. Compared to the surfaces of the other porous microfluidic materials that are modified by adsorption, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper contains free thiol groups and has been shown to be suitable for covalent surface chemistry, demonstrated here for increasing the material hydrophilicity. These results illustrate the potential of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper as a porous microfluidic material with improved performance characteristics, especially for bioassay applications such as diagnostic tests.

  1. Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P-A; Bablumian, A; Voorakaranam, R; Christenson, C; Lin, W; Gu, T; Flores, D; Wang, P; Hsieh, W-Y; Kathaperumal, M; Rachwal, B; Siddiqui, O; Thomas, J; Norwood, R A; Yamamoto, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-11-04

    Holography is a technique that is used to display objects or scenes in three dimensions. Such three-dimensional (3D) images, or holograms, can be seen with the unassisted eye and are very similar to how humans see the actual environment surrounding them. The concept of 3D telepresence, a real-time dynamic hologram depicting a scene occurring in a different location, has attracted considerable public interest since it was depicted in the original Star Wars film in 1977. However, the lack of sufficient computational power to produce realistic computer-generated holograms and the absence of large-area and dynamically updatable holographic recording media have prevented realization of the concept. Here we use a holographic stereographic technique and a photorefractive polymer material as the recording medium to demonstrate a holographic display that can refresh images every two seconds. A 50 Hz nanosecond pulsed laser is used to write the holographic pixels. Multicoloured holographic 3D images are produced by using angular multiplexing, and the full parallax display employs spatial multiplexing. 3D telepresence is demonstrated by taking multiple images from one location and transmitting the information via Ethernet to another location where the hologram is printed with the quasi-real-time dynamic 3D display. Further improvements could bring applications in telemedicine, prototyping, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment.

  2. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  3. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun; Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun; Wilson, John I. B.

    2014-03-01

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  4. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2013-10-07

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 19.4%-efficient large-area fully screen-printed silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatz, Sebastian; Hannebauer, Helge; Hesse, Rene; Werner, Florian; Schmidt, Arne; Dullweber, Thorsten; Bothe, Karsten [Institute for Solar Energy Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Schmidt, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institute for Solar Energy Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Institute of Solid-State Physics, University of Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate industrially feasible large-area solar cells with passivated homogeneous emitter and rear achieving energy conversion efficiencies of up to 19.4% on 125 x 125 mm{sup 2} p-type 2-3 {omega} cm boron-doped Czochralski silicon wafers. Front and rear metal contacts are fabricated by screen-printing of silver and aluminum paste and firing in a conventional belt furnace. We implement two different dielectric rear surface passivation stacks: (i) a thermally grown silicon dioxide/silicon nitride stack and (ii) an atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide/silicon nitride stack. The dielectrics at the rear result in a decreased surface recombination velocity of S{sub rear} = 70 cm/s and 80 cm/s, and an increased internal IR reflectance of up to 91% corresponding to an improved J{sub sc} of up to 38.9 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub oc} of up to 664 mV. We observe an increase in cell efficiency of 0.8% absolute for the cells compared to 18.6% efficient reference solar cells featuring a full-area aluminum back surface field. To our knowledge, the energy conversion efficiency of 19.4% is the best value reported so far for large area screen-printed solar cells. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of solar sludge drying alternatives by costs and area requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mayıs; Aksoy, Ayşegül; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Thermal drying is a common method to reach above 90% dry solids content (DS) in sludge. However, thermal drying requires high amount of energy and can be expensive. A greenhouse solar dryer (GSD) can be a cost-effective substitute if the drying performance, which is typically 70% DS, can be increased by additional heat. In this study feasibility of GSD supported with solar panels is evaluated as an alternative to thermal dryers to reach 90% DS. Evaluations are based on capital and O&M costs as well as area requirements for 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with various sludge production rates. Costs for the supported GSD system are compared to that of conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. To calculate the optimal costs associated with the drying system, an optimization model was developed in which area limitation was a constraint. Results showed that total cost was minimum when the DS in the GSD (DS(m,i)) was equal to the maximum attainable value (70% DS). On average, 58% of the total cost and 38% of total required area were associated with the GSD. Variations in costs for 37 WWTPs were due to differences in initial DS (DS(i,i)) and sludge production rates, indicating the importance of dewatering to lower drying costs. For large plants, GSD supported with solar panels provided savings in total costs especially in long term when compared to conventional and co-generation thermal dryers.

  9. Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2015-01-28

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with different chalcogenophene comonomers (thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene) for use in field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaic devices are reported. The effect of the heteroatom substitution on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties and charge carrier mobilities of these polymers is discussed. The results indicate that by increasing the size of the chalcogen atom (S < Se < Te), polymer band gaps are narrowed mainly due to LUMO energy level stabilization. In addition, the larger heteroatomic size also increases intermolecular heteroatom-heteroatom interactions facilitating the formation of polymer aggregates leading to enhanced field-effect mobilities of 1.6 cm2/(V s). Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the chalcogenophene polymer series blended with fullerene derivatives show good photovoltaic properties, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 7.1-8.8%. A high photoresponse in the near-infrared (NIR) region with excellent photocurrents above 20 mA cm-2 was achieved for all polymers, making these highly efficient low band gap polymers promising candidates for use in tandem solar cells. (Graph Presented).

  10. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-19

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  11. Poly[(3-hexylthiophene-block-(3-semifluoroalkylthiophene] for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Toru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of poly[(3-hexylthiophene-block-(3-(4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-nonafluoroheptylthiophene], P(3HT-b-3SFT, carried out by the Grignard Metathesis Method (GRIM. The copolymers composition was determined by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopies, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The thin films of P(3HT‑b‑3SFT were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM. We also fabricated bulk-hetero junction (BHJ solar cells based on blends of P(3HT-b-3SFT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM. Although the composition ratio of P3SFT in P(3HT-b-3SFT was low, the influence of P3SFT on the morphology and properties of solar cells was significant. The annealing process for the BHJ solar cells induced the formation of large domains and led to poor solar cell performance. The BHJ solar cells, based on PCBM and P(3HT-b-3SFT, prepared by the non-annealing process, had a maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.84% under 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5 solar illumination in air.

  12. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  13. Gel polymer electrolyte based on LiBOB and PAN for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arof, A. K.; Jun, H. K.; Sim, L. N.; Kufian, M. Z.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated using metal complex N3 dye coupled with LiBOB and PAN-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). Conductivity of the GPE at room temperature was 1.2 × 10-2 S cm-1. The deconvoluted vibration spectra at different temperatures between 1000 and 970 cm-1 show the existence of ion pairs and free ions. Overall efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system is 0.65% and 48% respectively. The cell with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system appears to be stable under varied light intensity attributed to the presence of redox couple mediator in the GPE. Impedance measurements show that the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE has longer electron lifetime which suggests a lower electron recombination rate.

  14. Fast Inline Roll-to-Roll Printing for Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells Using Automatic Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    layer. The third and fourth layers were slot-die coated at the same time again using inline processing at a web speed of 10 mmin1 of firstly zinc oxide as the electron transport layer followed by P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. The first three layers (silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO) comprise a generally......Fast inline roll-to-roll printing and coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and barrier foil was demonstrated under ambient conditions at web speeds of 10 mmin1 for the manufacture of indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells comprising a 6-layer stack: silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ Zn...

  15. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossander, Lea Hildebrandt; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2014-01-01

    The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording...... scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil...... as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find...

  16. Graphene tailored polymer gel electrolytes for 9.1%-efficiency quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing

    2017-04-01

    Pursuit of technological implementation with enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency and power generation ability in the dark is a persistent objective for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We launch here three strategies of designing graphene tailored polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with an electron-conducting feature, aiming at reserving I-/I3- redox couples into three-dimensional (3D) PGE framework, reducing I3- species within the PGE and shortening the diffusion length of redox couples. The 3D PGE provides framework for I-/I3- diffusion like in a liquid system, whereas graphene experiences to form interconnected channels along polyelectrolyte backbones. The results demonstrate that a power conversion efficiency of 9.1% is yielded on the resultant quasi-solid-state DSSCs by optimizing synthesis strategies.

  17. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  18. High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Wide-Bandgap Polymer Containing Pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7-dione with a Power Conversion Efficiency of 8.63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liuyuan; Chen, Zhiming; Hu, Qin; Ying, Lei; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A novel donor-acceptor type conjugated polymer based on a building block of 4,8-di(thien-2-yl)-6-octyl-2-octyl-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7(6H)-dione (TZBI) as the acceptor unit and 4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as the donor unit, named as PTZBIBDT, is developed and used as an electron-donating material in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The resulting copolymer exhibits a wide bandgap of 1.81 eV along with relatively deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.34 eV. Based on the optimized processing conditions, including thermal annealing, and the use of a water/alcohol cathode interlayer, the single-junction polymer solar cell based on PTZBIBDT:PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) blend film affords a power conversion efficiency of 8.63% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a short circuit current of 13.50 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 73.95%, which is among the highest values reported for wide-bandgap polymers-based single-junction organic solar cells. The morphology studies on the PTZBIBDT:PC71BM blend film indicate that a fibrillar network can be formed and the extent of phase separation can be mani-pulated by thermal annealing. These results indicate that the TZBI unit is a very promising building block for the synthesis of wide-bandgap polymers for high-performance single-junction and tandem (or multijunction) organic solar cells.

  19. Heterogeneity in polymer solar cells: local morphology and performance in organic photovoltaics studied with scanning probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Chris; Reid, Obadiah G; Ginger, David S

    2010-05-18

    The use of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) could reduce production costs for solar cells because these materials are solution processable and can be manufactured by roll-to-roll printing. The nanoscale texture, or film morphology, of the donor/acceptor blends used in most OPVs is a critical variable that can dominate both the performance of new materials being optimized in the lab and efforts to move from laboratory-scale to factory-scale production. Although efficiencies of organic solar cells have improved significantly in recent years, progress in morphology optimization still occurs largely by trial and error, in part because much of our basic understanding of how nanoscale morphology affects the optoelectronic properties of these heterogeneous organic semiconductor films has to be inferred indirectly from macroscopic measurements. In this Account, we review the importance of nanoscale morphology in organic semiconductors and the use of electrical scanning probe microscopy techniques to directly probe the local optoelectronic properties of OPV devices. We have observed local heterogeneity of electronic properties and performance in a wide range of systems, including model polymer-fullerene blends such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), newer polyfluorene copolymer-PCBM blends, and even all polymer donor-acceptor blends. The observed heterogeneity in local photocurrent poses important questions, chiefly what information is contained and what is lost when using average values obtained from conventional measurements on macroscopic devices and bulk samples? We show that in many cases OPVs are best thought of as a collection of nanoscopic photodiodes connected in parallel, each with their own morphological and therefore electronic and optical properties. This local heterogeneity forces us to carefully consider the adequacy of describing OPVs solely by "average" properties such as the bulk carrier mobility

  20. The determination of area and time comparison of the partial solar eclipse at space science center, LAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filawati, S.; Gammamerdianti; Hidayat, E. E.; Suryana, Y.; Kesumaningrum, R.

    2016-11-01

    The observation of the partial solar eclipse in Bandung on March, 9th 2016 was done to measure the surface coverage area and to compare to NASA calculation. We have calculated solar disk coverage area based on image data at the maximum contact until final contact of the eclipse. We obtained that maximum eclipse was at 7:21 a.m. (UT+7) with 84.81% area of solar disk covered by Moon and the end of eclipse was at 8:31 a.m. (UT+7).