WorldWideScience

Sample records for area polymer solar

  1. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak;

    2009-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed b...

  2. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Alstrup, J.; Spanggaard, H.;

    2004-01-01

    pattern of conducting silver epoxy allowing for electrical contacts to the device was silk screen printed and hardened. Subsequently a pattern of MEH-PPV was silk screen printed in registry with the ITO electrode pattern on top of the substrate. Final evaporation of an aluminum electrode or sublimation of...... 20 muA cm(-2). The half-life based on I-sc in air for the devices were 63 h. The cells were laminated in a 125 mum PET encasement. Lamination had a negative effect on the lifetime. We demonstrate the feasibility of industrial production of large area solar cells (1 m(2)) by silk screen printing and......The possibility of making large area (100 cm(2)) polymer solar cells based on the conjugated polymer poly 1,4-(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy)phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) was demonstrated. Devices were prepared by etching an electrode pattern on ITO covered polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates. A...

  3. Polymer-based solar cells having an active area of 1.6 cm2 fabricated via spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polymer solar cells in which both a PEDOT:PSS hole transport and a PCDTBT:PC71BM photoactive layer are deposited by spray-casting. Two device geometries are explored, with devices having a pixel area of 165 mm2 attaining a power conversion efficiency of 3.7%. Surface metrology indicates that the PEDOT:PSS and PCDTBT:PC71BM layers have a roughness of 2.57 nm and 1.18 nm over an area of 100 μm2. Light beam induced current mapping reveals fluctuations in current generation efficiency over length-scales of ∼2 mm, with the average photocurrent being 75% of its maximum value

  4. Annealing-free high efficiency and large area polymer solar cells fabricated by a roller painting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Jo, Won Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-07-23

    Polymer solar cells are fabricated by a novel solution coating process, roller painting. The roller-painted film - composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) - has a smoother surface than a spin-coated film. Since the roller painting is accompanied by shear and normal stresses and is also a slow drying process, the process effectively induces crystallization of P3HT and PCBM. Both crystalline P3HT and PCBM in the roller-painted active layer contribute to enhanced and balanced charge-carrier mobility. Consequently, the roller-painting process results in a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.6%, as compared to that for spin coating (3.9%). Furthermore, annealing-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) with high PCE are fabricated by the roller painting process with the addition of a small amount of octanedi-1,8-thiol. Since the addition of octanedi-1,8-thiol induces phase separation between P3HT and PCBM and the roller-painting process induces crystallization of P3HT and PCBM, a PCE of roller-painted PSCs of up to 3.8% is achieved without post-annealing. A PCE of over 2.7% can also be achieved with 5 cm{sup 2} of active area without post-annealing. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    transportation to a participating laboratory for performance measurement and return to the starting location (Risø DTU) for re-measurement of the performance. It was found possible to package polymer solar-cell modules using a flexible plastic barrier material in such a manner that degradation of the devices...

  6. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  7. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small...... as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar...

  8. Polymer-based solar cells having an active area of 1.6 cm{sup 2} fabricated via spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarratt, N. W.; Griffin, J.; Zhang, Y.; Lidzey, D. G., E-mail: d.g.lidzey@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Wang, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yi, H.; Iraqi, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polymer solar cells in which both a PEDOT:PSS hole transport and a PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM photoactive layer are deposited by spray-casting. Two device geometries are explored, with devices having a pixel area of 165 mm{sup 2} attaining a power conversion efficiency of 3.7%. Surface metrology indicates that the PEDOT:PSS and PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM layers have a roughness of 2.57 nm and 1.18 nm over an area of 100 μm{sup 2}. Light beam induced current mapping reveals fluctuations in current generation efficiency over length-scales of ∼2 mm, with the average photocurrent being 75% of its maximum value.

  9. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdrhman M G; LI Hang-quan; ZHANG Li-ye; ZHOU Bing

    2006-01-01

    The conjugated polymer-based solar cell is one of the most promising devices in search of sustainable, renewable energy sources in last decade. It is the youngest field in organic solar cell research and also is certainly the fastest growing one at the moment. In addition, the key factor for polymer-based solar cells with high-efficiency is to invent new materials. Organic solar cell has attracted significant researches and commercial interest due to its low cost in fabrication and flexibility in applications. However, they suffer from relatively low conversion efficiency. The summarization of the significance and concept of high efficiency polymer solar cell technologies are presented.

  10. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells is drawn in a European context. It is found that the business potential of polymer solar cells is large when taking the projections for future performance into account while the currently available performance and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it is found that the polymer solar cell technology is very poorly protected in Europe with the central patents being valid in only France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Several countries with a large potential for PV such as Portugal and Greece are completely open and have apparently no relevant patents. This is viewed as a great advantage for the possible commercialization of polymer solar cells in a European setting as the competition for the market will be based on the manufacturing performance rather than domination by a few patent stakeholders. (author)

  11. Spray pyrolysed In2S3 thin films: A potential electron selective layer for large area inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the results of investigations on the potential of spray pyrolysis technique in depositing electron selective layer over larger area for the fabrication of inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The electron selective layer (In2S3) was deposited using spray pyrolysis technique and the linear heterojunction device thus fabricated exhibited good uniformity in photovoltaic properties throughout the area of the device. An MEH-PPV:PCBM inverted bulk-heterojunction device with In2S3 electron selective layer (active area of 3.25 x 3.25 cm2) was also fabricated and tested under indoor and outdoor conditions. From the indoor measurements employing a tungsten halogen lamp (50 mW/cm2 illumination), an open-circuit voltage of 0.41 V and a short-circuit current of 5.6 mA were obtained. On the other hand, the outdoor measurements under direct sunlight (74 mW/cm2) yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.46 V and a short-circuit current of 9.37 mA. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  13. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    . The line was at the same time adjusted and updated to handle the new production. The very first solar cells produced on this line appeared in July 2010. The line has subsequently been upgraded on a running basis, and Mekoprint's operators have been trained. The technology transfer is continued in the project's phase 2, where the goal is that Mekoprint fully masters both the production process and the production line. During the course of the project several applications for polymer solar cells have been investigated from a technical -, a design , and a market point of view. Faktor 3 has sketched and visualized a range of ideas. The ideas are communicated to a broader audience by means of a brochure. An on-line version of the brochure and a computer tool developed for guiding the designer through the process of dimensioning the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3's homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of solar powered products. A range of conceptual lamps have been evaluated, and two lamps have been produced in large series and demonstrated in public. Some hundred lamps targeted at school children in non-electrified areas in 3rd world countries were produced and distributed to target users in Asia, Africa and South America in collaboration with the Stroemme Foundation (NO). The feedback received was highly positive and proves the necessity for low-cost, off-grid lightening to replace the presently used kerosene lamps. A small credit-card sized lamp was produced in a series of 10.000 units in order to test the production setup's ability to handle large series. Several thousands of the lamps were handed out at an international conference for printed electronics, (LOPE-C, 2011). The response from this audience, who is well qualified to judge the news value of lamp's, has also been highly

  14. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hendriks, Koen H; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-19

    Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a result, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells based on conjugated polymers as electron donor and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptor have exceeded 10% in single-junction and 11% in multijunction devices. Despite these efforts, it is notoriously difficult to establish thorough structure-property relationships that will be required to further optimize existing high-performance polymers to their intrinsic limits. In this Account, we highlight progress on the development and our understanding of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells. The DPP moiety is strongly electron withdrawing and its polar nature enhances the tendency of DPP-based polymers to crystallize. As a result, DPP-based conjugated polymers often exhibit an advantageously broad and tunable optical absorption, up to 1000 nm, and high mobilities for holes and electrons, which can result in high photocurrents and good fill factors in solar cells. Here we focus on the structural modifications applied to DPP polymers and rationalize and explain the relationships between chemical structure and organic photovoltaic performance. The DPP polymers can be tuned via their aromatic substituents, their alkyl side chains, and the nature of the π-conjugated segment linking the units along the polymer chain. We show that these building blocks work together in determining the molecular conformation, the optical properties, the charge carrier mobility, and the solubility of the polymer. We identify the latter as a decisive parameter for DPP-based organic solar cells because it regulates the diameter of the semicrystalline DPP polymer fibers that form in the photovoltaic blends with

  15. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wilson Jose; Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is generated and extracted under dark conditions. This indicates that careful interface engineering of the charge-carrier transport layer is a useful approach to further improve the performance of polymer tandem solar cells.

  16. Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large-area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    screen printing a protective layer in the areas for front electrode contacts and finally a silver grid was applied by screen printing. The topology of the device and the choice of final grid electrode geometry allowed for serial connection of the individual cells into modules. The individual cells were...... substrate and back electrode for the devices. The active layer was slot-die coated onto the kapton/Cu/Ti foil followed by slot-die coating of a layer of PEDOT:PSS. No patterning of the first four layers was necessary and only the final front electrode required a pattern. The front electrode was applied by...

  17. Electrospun Polymer-Fiber Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Nagata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrospun polymer-fiber solar cell was synthesized by electrospinning a 1 : 2.5 weight% ratio mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM resulting in bulk heterojunctions. Electrospinning is introduced as a technique that may increase polymer solar cell efficiency, and a list of advantages of the technique applied to solar cells is discussed. The device achieved a power conversion efficiency of %. The absorption and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV nanofibers are compared to thin films of the same material. Electrospun nanofibers are discussed as a favorable structure for application in polymer solar cells.

  18. High performance polymer tandem solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Jose da Silva; Fabio Kurt Schneider; Abd. Rashid bin Mohd Yusoff; Jin Jang

    2015-01-01

    A power conversion efficiency of 9.02% is obtained for a fully solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell, based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole unit polymer as a low bandgap photoactive material in the rear subcell, in conjunction with a new robust interconnecting layer. This interconnecting layer is optically transparent, electrically conductive, and physically strong, thus, the charges can be collected and recombined in the interconnecting layer under illumination, while the charge is genera...

  19. Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability...... during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art...... understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing...

  20. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...

  1. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single...

  2. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  3. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Polymer solar cells with plasmonic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Tran, Vinh Son; Halašová, Klára; Pfleger, Jiří

    Dresden: Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V, 2012. s. 42. [IPF Colloquium Functional Polymers and Composites for Applications in Organic Electronics and Sensorics /10./. 07.11.2012-08.11.2012, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 290490 - ECNP-GROWTH Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : solar cell * plasmonics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  5. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2010-01-01

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and...... laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm−2, and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm2. Panels were mounted on a tracking...... station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than...

  6. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Pablo; Pastorelli, Francesco; Mantilla-Pérez, Paola; Mariano, Marina; Martínez-Otero, Alberto; Elias, Xavier; Betancur, Rafael; Martorell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, progress in the organic photovoltaic field has resulted in some device features which make organic cells applicable in electricity generation configurations where the standard silicon-based technology is not suitable, for instance, when a semi-transparent photovoltaic panel is needed. When the thin film solar cell performance is evaluated in terms of the device's visible transparency and power conversion efficiency, organic solar cells offer the most promising solution. During the last three years, research in the field has consolidated several approaches for the fabrication of high performance semi-transparent organic solar cells. We have grouped these approaches under three categories: devices where the absorber layer includes near-infrared absorption polymers, devices incorporating one-dimensional photonic crystals, and devices with a metal cavity light trapping configuration. We herein review these approaches.

  7. Polymers in solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R. H.; Coulter, D. R.; Dao, C.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique (LPAT) has been verified for performing accelerated life testing of outdoor photooxidation of polymeric materials used in solar energy applications. Samples of the material under test are placed in a chamber with a sensitive microphone, then exposed to chopped laser radiation. The sample absorbs the light and converts it to heat by a nonradiative deexcitation process, thereby reducing pressure fluctuations within the cell. The acoustic signal detected by the microphone is directly proportional to the amount of light absorbed by the specimen. Tests were performed with samples of ethylene/methylacrylate copolymer (EMA) reprecipitated from hot cyclohexane, compressed, and molded into thin (25-50 microns) films. The films were exposed outdoors and sampled by LPAT weekly. The linearity of the light absorbed with respect to the acoustic signal was verified.Correlations were established between the photoacoustic behavior of the materials aged outdoors and the same kinds of samples cooled and heated in a controlled environment reactor. The reactor tests were validated for predicting outdoor exosures up to 55 days.

  8. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren;

    2012-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) evolve in an exponential manner in the two key areas of efficiency and stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has in the last decade been increased by almost a factor of ten approaching 10%. A main concern has been the stability that was previously measured...

  9. All polymer photovoltaics: From small inverted devices to large roll-to-roll coated and printed solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Zhao, Xingang; Andreasen, Birgitta; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Helgesen, Martin; Norrman, Kion; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Inverted all polymer solar cells based on a blend of a perylene diimide based polymer acceptor and a dithienosilole based polymer donor were fabricated from small area devices to roll-to-roll (R2R) coated and printed large area modules. The device performance was successfully optimized by using...

  10. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Tromholt, Thomas; Andreasen, Birgitta; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2011-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) evolve in an exponential manner in the two key areas of efficiency and stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has in the last decade been increased by almost a factor of ten approaching 10%. A main concern has been the stability that was previously measured in minutes, but can now, in favorable circumstances, exceed many thousands of hours. This astonishing achievement is the subject of this article, which reviews the developments in stability/degradatio...

  11. Electrical characterization of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Cohick, Zane; Tzolov, Marian

    2013-03-01

    Polymer solar cell devices were fabricated using a mixture of the polymer PCPDTBT, PCBM, and 1,8-diiodooctane. The films were spin coated on ITO patterned substrates and covered with a hole injection layer. The film drying was performed at varied annealing temperatures and times. These devices were characterized utilizing current-voltage characteristics and the fill factor was determined. Devices were tested under dark and bright conditions using a xenon lamp. The current-voltage characteristics were modeled with an equivalent circuit yielding values for the shunt and series resistances. The variations in performance due to the changes in annealing temperatures and drying times were studied. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the dielectric constant of the active film.

  12. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    The field of polymer solar cells has undergone an extensive development in recent years after the invention of semiconducting polymers in 1991. Efficiencies have gradually increased to above 10 %, and high throughput processing methods such as roll-to-roll coating allow for production of thousands...... of solar cells with low embedded time, material, and energy consumption as compared to silicon solar cells. Consequently, different demonstration products of small mobile gadgets based on polymer solar cells have been produced, which are fully competitive with conventional energy technologies......, illustrating the maturity of the technology. However, a limiting factor in terms of full commercialization is the stability of polymer solar cells. While is has been estimated that 10 years lifetime is needed, existing technologies only provide stabilities up to 1 year. Degradation of polymer solar cell is a...

  13. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...... chemical degradation mechanisms are currently scarce. An overview of known degradation mechanisms will be presented and discussed in relation to state-of-the-art methodologies to study failure mechanisms with focus on chemical degradation....

  14. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The challenges associated with obtaining the desired nanomorphology of the active layer in polymer solar cells were addressed through preparation of conjugated polymer chains grown from the surface of seed nanoparticles with a well-defined size. Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) was thus polymerized u...... from single cells to two, three, and eight serially connected cells. The power conversion efficiency for the polymer solar cell modules were in the range of 0.8%-1.2% with an active area of up to 120 cm.......The challenges associated with obtaining the desired nanomorphology of the active layer in polymer solar cells were addressed through preparation of conjugated polymer chains grown from the surface of seed nanoparticles with a well-defined size. Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) was thus polymerized......, a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  15. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  16. Flexible, highly efficient all-polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesu; Kim, Jae-Han; Kang, Tae Eui; Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Shin, Minkwan; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Biwu; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Taek-Soo; Kim, Bumjoon J.

    2015-10-01

    All-polymer solar cells have shown great potential as flexible and portable power generators. These devices should offer good mechanical endurance with high power-conversion efficiency for viability in commercial applications. In this work, we develop highly efficient and mechanically robust all-polymer solar cells that are based on the PBDTTTPD polymer donor and the P(NDI2HD-T) polymer acceptor. These systems exhibit high power-conversion efficiency of 6.64%. Also, the proposed all-polymer solar cells have even better performance than the control polymer-fullerene devices with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor (6.12%). More importantly, our all-polymer solar cells exhibit dramatically enhanced strength and flexibility compared with polymer/PCBM devices, with 60- and 470-fold improvements in elongation at break and toughness, respectively. The superior mechanical properties of all-polymer solar cells afford greater tolerance to severe deformations than conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells, making them much better candidates for applications in flexible and portable devices.

  17. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R.

    2012-07-01

    high to allow processing on flexible substrates like PET. As a final result, the reduction in cleavage temperature of thermocleavable thiophene polymers with ester side chains, through acid catalysis have been examined. The study shows that substantial lowering of the temperatures can be obtained for tertiary, secondary and primary esters, but further research needs to be performed in order to transfer the reaction to solar cells. From a stability point of view, the current state of the art polymers are not stable enough to be processed by large area processing methods like roll-to-roll (R2R) coating techniques, as this has to be performed in air. This calls for the development of new materials, which can endure such processing conditions, and in this context it would be preferable to have a guideline towards which properties of a polymer that either induces stability or causes it to degrade. As part of a larger study, aiming at mapping the relative stability influence of different donors and acceptors in low-band-gap polymers, four polymers were synthesized for examination of their photochemical stabilities. Two of these were furthermore optimized for R2R processing and were tested together with other cells, in an outdoor study involving 8 countries. Panels containing the cells encapsulated in polyurethane were manufactured, measured and installed by travelling between the different locations. Following 4 1/2 months outdoor exposure the trip was done again in order to dismount the panels for shipment back to Denmark, where final characterization was made. The use of polyurethane for encapsulation showed improved conservations of the cells compared to previous studies. (Author)

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Jilian Nei de Freitas; Viviane Carvalho Nogueira; Bruno Ieiri Ito; Mauro Alfredo Soto-Oviedo; Claudia Longo; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli; Ana Flávia Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide) derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell perform...

  19. The interplay of nanostructure and efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Chunhong

    2008-12-04

    The aim of this thesis is to achieve a deep understanding of the working mechanism of polymer based solar cells and to improve the device performance. Two types of the polymer based solar cells are studied here: the polymer-polymer solar cells, and the polymer-small molecule solar cell which has polymer as electron donor incorporating with organic small molecule as electron acceptor. For the polymer-polymer devices, I compared the photocurrent characteristics of bilayer and blend devices as well as the blend devices with different nano-morphology, which is fine tuned by applying solvents with different boiling points. The main conclusion based on the complementary measurements is that the performance-limiting step is the field-dependent generation of free charge carriers, while bimolecular recombination and charge extraction do not compromise device performance. Regarding polymer-small molecular hybrid solar cells I combined the hole-transporting polymer M3EH-PPV with a novel small molecule electron acceptor vinazene. This molecule can be either deposited from solution or by thermal evaporation, allowing for a large variety of layer architectures to be realized. I then demonstrated that the layer architecture has a large influence on the photovoltaic properties. Solar cells with very high fill factors of up to 57 % and an open circuit voltage of 1V without thermal treatment of the devices were achieved. In the past, fill factors of solar cells exceeding 50 % have only been observed when using fullerene-derivatives as the electron-acceptor. The finding that proper processing of polymer-vinazene devices leads to similar high values is a major step towards the design of efficient polymer-based solar cells. (orig.)

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  1. Aqueous-Processed Insulating Polymer/Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gan; Chen, Zhaolai; Dong, Chunwei; Cheng, Zhongkai; Du, Xiaohang; Zeng, Qingsen; Liu, Fangyuan; Sun, Haizhu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-03-23

    A novel kind of hybrid solar cell (HSC) was developed by introducing water-soluble insulating polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) into nanocrystals (NCs), which revealed that the most frequently used conjugated polymer could be replaced by an insulating one. It was realized by strategically taking advantage of the characteristic of decomposition for the polymer at annealing temperature, and it was interesting to discover that partial decomposition of PVA left behind plenty of pits on the surfaces of CdTe NC films, enlarging surface contact area between CdTe NCs and subsequently evaporated MoO3. Moreover, the residual annealed PVA filled in the voids among spherical CdTe NCs, which led to the decrease of leakage current. An improved shunt resistance (increased by ∼80%) was achieved, indicating the charge-carrier recombination was effectively overcome. As a result, the new HSCs were endowed with increased Voc, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency compared with the pure NC device. This approach can be applied to other insulating polymers (e.g., PVP) with advantages in synthesis, type, economy, stability, and so on, providing a novel universal cost-effective way to achieve higher photovoltaic performance. PMID:26931540

  2. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently transnational but overall solar physics needs more European cohesion to gain most from EC policy trends towards 'European research areas".

  3. An isoindigo containing donor-acceptor polymer: synthesis and photovoltaic properties of all-solution-processed ITO- and vacuum-free large area roll-coated single junction and tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Yue, Wei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the design, synthesis, and characterization of a donor-acceptor polymer from dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole and isoindigo (i-ID) are presented. The synthesized polymer has been applied in large area ITO-free organic photovoltaics, both as spin coated and roll coated devices; the lat...

  4. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Andrew J; Lilliedal, Mathilde R; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Aarø, Dennis; Pakalski, Heinz; Fyenbo, Jan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-09-13

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm⁻², and had outer dimensions of 1 m x 1.7 m with active areas up to 9180 cm². Panels were mounted on a tracking station and their output was grid connected between testing. Several generations of polymer solar cells and panel constructions were tested in this context to optimize the production of polymer solar panels. Cells lacking a R2R barrier layer were found to degrade due to diffusion of oxygen after less than a month, while R2R encapsulated cells showed around 50% degradation after 6 months but suffered from poor performance due to de-lamination during panel production. A third generation of panels with various barrier layers was produced to optimize the choice of barrier foil and it was found that the inclusion of a thin protective foil between the cell and the barrier foil is critical. The findings provide a preliminary foundation for the production and optimization of large-area polymer solar panels and also enabled a cost analysis of solar panels based on polymer solar cells. PMID:21165057

  5. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer...

  6. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Garcia-Valverde, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Ossenbrink, H.; Jager-Waldau, A.; Helm, P.

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...

  7. Industrialization of Polymer Solar Cells – phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Bork, Jakob; Andersen, Rasmus B.;

    into more refined products. Such refined products might be self-powered electronic devices designed for easy integration in the customer’s production or solar-powered products for the end-user. A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU’s basic polymer solar cell technology was started...... the electronic system comprising a polymer solar cell, a battery and the electronic function to be powered, are available on Faktor 3’s homepage, www.faktor-3.dk. Small LED torches have served as a case for gaining experiences with development and production of so-lar powered products. A range of conceptual......Polymer solar cells have unique features such as low weight, slim outline, robustness against breakage and excellent adaptability of size, shape and curvature to the actual application. These features open, not only for cost- and energy effective application of the cell, but also for aesthetic...

  8. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient...... development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding...... solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are...

  9. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  10. Results of the development of a solar accumulation-type water heater made of polymer and composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Frid, S. E.; Mordynskii, A. V.; Suleimanov, M. Zh.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oschepkov, M. Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Results of the development and preliminary tests of a solar water heater completely made of polymer and composite materials are presented. The combination of a solar collector and storage tank into a united construction in combination with the application of modern fabrication technologies of bulk units made of polymer materials makes it possible to considerably decrease the expenses per area unit of the receiving surface of the heater with maintaining high-energy conversion characteristics of the solar energy into low-potential heat. This increases the competitiveness of such installations in comparison with conventional solar water heaters with separate solar collectors and a storage tank.

  11. Metal sulfide nanoparticle/polymer hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The decomposition of metal xanthates directly in a matrix of a conjugated polymer have been recently been introduced for copper indium sulphide polymer solar cells reaching efficiencies up to 3 %. Using this process the nanoparticles are naked without a ligand shell. In this contribution we show the versatility of this process to other metal sulphides-polymer systems. Aspects of materials synthesis and devices physics will be discussed. Different electrodes (Ag, Ag/Al, Al) have a strong influence on efficiency as well as devices stability. In addition, first results on tandem hybrid solar cells using the xanthate approach will be presented. (author)

  12. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2012-01-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, seve...

  13. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    , switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study......A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode...

  14. Effects of nanostructure geometry on polymer chain alignment and device performance in nanoimprinted polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Among the various organic photovoltaic devices, the conjugated polymer/fullerene approach has drawn the most research interest. The performance of these types of solar cells is greatly determined by the nanoscale morphology of the two components (donor/acceptor) and the molecular orientation/crystallinity in the photoactive layer. This article demonstrates our recent studies on the nanostructure geometry effects on the nanoimprint induced poly(3 hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) chain alignment and photovoltaic performance. Out-of-plane and in-plane grazing incident X-ray diffractions are employed to characterize the chain orientations in P3HT nanogratings with different widths and heights. It is found that nanoimprint procedure changes the initial edge-on alignment in non-imprinted P3HT thin film to a vertical orientation which favors the hole transport, with an organization height H≥ 170 nm and width in the range of 60 nmcells show an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the decrease of nanostructure width, and with the increase of height and junction area. Devices with the highest PCE are made by the fully aligned and highest P3HT nanostructures (width w= 60 nm, height h= 170 nm), allowing for the most efficient charge separation, transport and light absorption. We believe this work will contribute to the optimal geometry design of nanoimprinted polymer solar cells.

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Conducting Polymer Composites Based Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; R.Somani; M.Umeno

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Combination of carbon nanotubes (CN) with polymers is important for application towards value added composites,solar cells,fuel cells etc.Especially interesting is the combination of CN with π-conjugated polymers because of the potential interaction between the highly delocalized π-electrons of the CN and the π-electrons correlated with the lattice of polymer skeleton.Efficient exciton dissociation due to electron transfer from the photoexcited polymer to CN is of interest for photovoltaic app...

  16. Scalability and stability of very thin roll-to-roll processed large area indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod;

    2013-01-01

    -to-roll processing employing P3HT:PCBM as the active material and were found to exhibit a total area efficiency of >1% (1000 W/m2; AM1.5G) with a typical active-area efficiency in the 1.5–1.6% for total module area of >110 cm2 due to high fill factors in excess of 50%. The modules were also found to have an active......-area efficiency of >1% under low light levels (100Wm2). The modules were then subjected to extensive stability testing for a minimum of 1000 h employing several ISOS protocols. The modules presented higher than 80% of the initial performance (T80) in the dark (ISOS-D-1), in dark under elevated temperature of 65 C...... to high humidity and had low values for T80 for dark storage tests at 50 C/85%RH (ISOS-D-3) and accelerated operation conditions with 0.7 sun/65 oC/50%RH (ISOS-L-3). We found the modules to be particularly suited for information and communications technology (ICT) and mobile applications where low...

  17. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2012-01-01

    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...... with upscaling the multilayer tandem cells were identified giving valuable information for future experiments and development....

  18. Simple roll coater with variable coating and temperature control for printed polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    A simple and low cost thin film solution processing system comprising a single roll coating machine has been developed to allow direct investigation of variable parameter effects in roll-to-roll processing. We present roll coating of the active layers in polymer solar cells and validate the instr......A simple and low cost thin film solution processing system comprising a single roll coating machine has been developed to allow direct investigation of variable parameter effects in roll-to-roll processing. We present roll coating of the active layers in polymer solar cells and validate...... of solution, enabling roll coating testing of new polymers where only small amounts are often available. We demonstrate the formation of >50 solar cells (each with an active area of 1 cm2) with printed metal back electrodes using as little as 0.1 mL of active layer solution. This approach outperforms spin...

  19. Pyramid shape of polymer solar cells: a simple solution to triple efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyramid-shaped polymer solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates were investigated. Effective light trapping can be realized due to light reflection in all 360° directions, and 100% space utilization is achieved when assembled into arrays. The power conversion efficiency is enhanced by 200% ([60]PCBM as the acceptor) and 260% ([70]PCBM as the acceptor) with a dihedral angle of 30° between the opposite sides of the pyramid compared with a planar device, and a high Voc of 3.5 V in series connection is obtained. Considering the material utilization, an angle of 90° for pyramid-shaped polymer solar cells is proposed. Pyramid-shaped polymer solar cells are particularly suitable for installation on roof of vehicles and houses, which have limited surface area. (paper)

  20. Thiophene in Conducting Polymers: Synthesis of Poly(thiophene)s and Other Conjugated Polymers Containing Thiophenes, for Application in Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Bundgaard, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers based on thiophene are described. The polymers include poly(thiophene) with and without side-chains and other conjugated polymers in general, based on thiophene. The synthesis and characteristics of the polymers are described along with the application of these as light......-absorbing materials in polymer solar cells....

  1. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    platform for polymer development. PSC devices based on PDTSTTz-4 and PCBM were produced using the laboratory roll coater and through optimerization of the processing parameters a PCE of 2.95 % at ambient condition. This efficiency is among the highest obtained on flexible ITO-free substrates using slot......Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research. The...... and how this affects the PSC parameters are presented. It is generally found that it is possible to synthetically control the absorption spectrum of conjugated polymer systems. One way to alter the spectrum is by incorporating alternating donor-acceptor motifs, resulting in an additional optical...

  2. Photochemical Stability of π-Conjugated Polymers for Polymer Solar Cells: a Rule of Thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    A comparative photochemical stability study of a wide range of π-conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells is presented. More than 20 samples were selected to cover a broad variety of polymer types (purely donor, donor / acceptor, thermo-cleavable) and chemical structures. Many of the....... Polymer durability was shown to cover a very broad range of values, from very few hours (e.g. MEH-PPV) to several thousands of hours (e.g. some thermo-cleaved samples). As all the experiments were conducted under the same conditions, comparison of the collected data was possible and the influence of...

  3. Photochemical stability of π-conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells: a rule of thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manceau, Matthieu; Bundgaard, Eva; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Hagemann, Ole; Helgesen, Martin; Søndergaard, Roar; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A comparative photochemical stability study of a wide range of π-conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells is presented. The behavior of each material has been investigated under simulated sunlight (1 sun, 1000 W m−2, AM 1.5G) and ambient atmosphere. Degradation was monitored during...... ageing combining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. From the comparison of the collected data, the influence of the polymer chemical structure on its stability has been discussed. General rules relative to the polymer structure–stability relationship are proposed....

  4. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  5. Efficient polymer solar cells fabricated by simple brush painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.S.; Na, S.I.; Jo, J.; Tae, G.; Kim, D.Y. [Heeger Center for Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea)

    2007-12-17

    We demonstrate a brushing technique as a promising method for the mass production of efficient and flexible solar cells even on a non-flat surface such as roofing tiles. Higher device efficiency could be obtained compared to the spin-coated devices, resulting from the improved organization of polymer chains and domains induced by more effective application of shear stress to the polymer chains during the brushing process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Thiophene And Anthracene Containing Polymers In Organic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic solar cell research has attracted worldwide attention during the last two decades. Organic semiconductors are easily processable, light weight, easy to integrate in a wide variety of devices and have chemically tunable properties. These properties describe the advantages of organic plastic solar cells over that of conventional silicon solar cells. Conjugated polymers, also known as semiconducting polymers, are distinguished by alternating single and double bonds between carbon atoms on the polymer backbone. Among π-conjugated polymers, polythiophenes are promising candidates for organic solar cell research. At present, the commonly used polythiophene derivatives, as the electron donor in polymer solar cells, are mainly poly(3-hexylthiophene)s (P3HT). In this study, we investigated the effect of solvent, annealing on the performance and morphology of novel two thiophene-[P1 (MEH-PPE1-PThV2) and P2 (MEH-PThE1-PPV2)] as well as two anthracene- containing poly (phenylene-ethynylene) family of polymers [P3 (MEH-PPE1-PAnV2) and P4 (MEH-PAnE1-PPV2)] and (1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61) (PCBM) based organic solar cells. The devices using the blends of P2 as donor and PCBM as acceptor (1:3 weight ratio) exhibited a short circuit current of JSC = 5.2 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of VOC 800 mV, fill factor FF = 0.4 and resulting power conversion efficiency ηAM1.5 = 1.8 %.

  7. Development of polymer film solar collectors: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, W. G.; Andrews, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    Solar energy collector panels using polymer film and laminate technology were developed which demonstrate low cost and high thermal performance for residential and commercial applications. This device uses common water in the absorber/heat exchanger which is constructed with polymer film adhesively laminated to aluminum foil as the outer surfaces. Stressed polymer films are also used for the outer window and back surface of the panel forming a high strength structural composite. Rigid polymer foam complements the design by contributing insulation and structural definition. This design resulted in very low weight (3.5 kg/m(2)), potentially very low manufacturing cost (aprox. $11/m(2)), and high thermal performance. The development of polymer materials for this technology will be a key to early commercial success.

  8. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna P.; Gunashekar, Subhashini; Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.; Abu-Zahra, Nidal

    2015-06-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm-2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm-2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles.

  9. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm−2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm−2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles. (paper)

  10. All-Polymer Solar Cell Performance Optimized via Systematic Molecular Weight Tuning of Both Donor and Acceptor Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Dudnik, Alexander S; Li, Ting I N G; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Guo, Peijun; Liao, Hsueh-Chung; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Lin X; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the number-average molecular weight (Mn) on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of all-polymer solar cells (APSCs) fabricated with the donor polymer poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-1,3-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-5,5-(2,5-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)thiophene)] (PTPD3T) and acceptor polymer poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2); N2200) is systematically investigated. The Mn effect analysis of both PTPD3T and N2200 is enabled by implementing a polymerization strategy which produces conjugated polymers with tunable Mns. Experimental and coarse-grain modeling results reveal that systematic Mn variation greatly influences both intrachain and interchain interactions and ultimately the degree of phase separation and morphology evolution. Specifically, increasing Mn for both polymers shrinks blend film domain sizes and enhances donor-acceptor polymer-polymer interfacial areas, affording increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc). However, the greater disorder and intermixed feature proliferation accompanying increasing Mn promotes charge carrier recombination, reducing cell fill factors (FF). The optimized photoactive layers exhibit well-balanced exciton dissociation and charge transport characteristics, ultimately providing solar cells with a 2-fold PCE enhancement versus devices with nonoptimal Mns. Overall, it is shown that proper and precise tuning of both donor and acceptor polymer Mns is critical for optimizing APSC performance. In contrast to reports where maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are achieved for the highest Mns, the present two-dimensional Mn optimization matrix strategy locates a PCE "sweet spot" at intermediate Mns of both donor and acceptor polymers. This study provides synthetic methodologies to predictably access conjugated polymers with desired Mn and highlights the importance of optimizing Mn for both polymer

  11. Enhanced efficiency in double junction polymer: Fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D.J.D.; Bruyn, P. de; Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer solar cells based on the polyfluorene copolymer poly[9,9-didecanefluorene-alt-(bis-thienylene) benzothiadiazole] (PF10TBT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 4%. However, the optimum thickness of the photoac

  12. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to determi

  13. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Cruickshank, C.; Foged, S.;

    2010-01-01

    and manufacturing cost leaves little room for competition on the thin film photovoltaic market. However, polymer solar cells do enable the competitive manufacture of low cost niche products and is viewed as financially viable in its currently available form in a large volume approximation. Finally, it...

  14. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.;

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the rate-limiting spin-dependent charge-transfer processes in different polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells at 10 K. Observing central spin-locking signals in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance and an inversion of Rabi oscillations in multifrequency...

  15. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High efficiency all-polymer tandem solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Gu, Jinan; Shi, Guozheng; Sun, Jianxia; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Ma, Wanli

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have reported for the first time an efficient all-polymer tandem cell using identical sub-cells based on P2F-DO:N2200. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.70% was achieved, which is among the highest efficiencies for all polymer solar cells and 43% larger than the PCE of single junction cell. The largely improved device performance can be mainly attributed to the enhanced absorption of tandem cell. Meanwhile, the carrier collection in device remains efficient by optimizing the recombination layer and sub-cell film thickness. Thus tandem structure can become an easy approach to effectively boost the performance of current all polymer solar cells. PMID:27226354

  17. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Gómez, Pablo; Pastorelli, Francesco; Mantilla-Pérez, Paola; Mariano, Marina; Martínez-Otero, Alberto; Elias, Xavier; Betancur, Rafael; Martorell Pena, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, progress in the organic photovoltaic field has resulted in some device features which make organic cells applicable in electricity generation configurations where the standard silicon-based technology is not suitable, for instance, when a semi-transparent photovoltaic panel is needed. When the thin film solar cell performance is evaluated in terms of the device’s visible transparency and power conversion efficiency, organic solar cells offer the most promising sol...

  18. A polymer scaffold for self-healing perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yicheng; Wei, Jing; Li, Heng; Yan, Yin; Zhou, Wenke; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Advancing of the lead halide perovskite solar cells towards photovoltaic market demands large-scale devices of high-power conversion efficiency, high reproducibility and stability via low-cost fabrication technology, and in particular resistance to humid environment for long-time operation. Here we achieve uniform perovskite film based on a novel polymer-scaffold architecture via a mild-temperature process. These solar cells exhibit efficiency of up to ~16% with small variation. The unencapsulated devices retain high output for up to 300 h in highly humid environment (70% relative humidity). Moreover, they show strong humidity resistant and self-healing behaviour, recovering rapidly after removing from water vapour. Not only the film can self-heal in this case, but the corresponding devices can present power conversion efficiency recovery after the water vapour is removed. Our work demonstrates the value of cheap, long chain and hygroscopic polymer scaffold in perovskite solar cells towards commercialization.

  19. A two-dimensional DNA lattice implanted polymer solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double crossover tile based artificial two-dimensional (2D) DNA lattice was fabricated and the dry-wet method was introduced to recover an original DNA lattice structure in order to deposit DNA lattices safely on the organic layer without damaging the layer. The DNA lattice was then employed as an electron blocking layer in a polymer solar cell causing an increase of about 10% up to 160% in the power conversion efficiency. Consequently, the resulting solar cell which had an artificial 2D DNA blocking layer showed a significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency compared to conventional polymer solar cells. It should be clear that the artificial DNA nanostructure holds unique physical properties that are extremely attractive for various energy-related and photonic applications.

  20. Aqueous Processing of Low-Band-Gap Polymer Solar Cells Using Roll-to-Roll Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    . This enabled slot-die coating of high quality films with a dry thickness of 126 ± 19, 500 ± 25, and 612 ± 22 nm P1, P2, and P3, respectively for polymer solar cells. Large area inverted polymer solar cells were thus prepared based on the aqueous inks. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached for each...... films. The aqueous dispersions were dialyzed to remove excess detergent and concentrated to a solid content of approximately 60 mg mL–1. The formation of films for solar cells using the aqueous dispersion required the addition of the nonionic detergent FSO-100 at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1...

  1. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic solar cells have the potential to be low-cost and efficient solar energy converters, with a promising energy balance. They are made of carbon-based semiconductors, which exhibit favourable light absorption and charge generation properties, and can be manufactured by low temperature processes such as printing from solvent-based inks, which are compatible with flexible plastic substrates or even paper. In this review, we will present an overview of the physical function of organic solar cells, their state-of-the-art performance and limitations, as well as novel concepts to achieve a better material stability and higher power conversion efficiencies. We will also briefly review processing and cost in view of the market potential.

  2. Photoresponsive polymer design for solar concentrator self-steering heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jessica; Basnet, Amod; Bhaduri, Moinak; Burch, Caroline; Chow, Amenda; Li, Xue; Oates, William S.; Massad, Jordan E.; Smith, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Concentrating solar energy and transforming it into electricity is clean, economical and renewable. One design of solar power plants consists of an array of heliostats which redirects sunlight to a fixed receiver tower and the generated heat is converted into electricity. Currently, the angles of elevation of heliostats are controlled by motors and drives that are costly and require diverting power that can otherwise be used for producing electricity. We consider replacing the motor and drive system of the heliostat with a photosensitive polymer design that can tilt the mirror using the ability of the polymer to deform when subjected to light. The light causes the underlying molecular structure to change and subsequently, the polymer deforms. The deformation of the polymer is quantified in terms of photostrictive constitutive relations. A mathematical model is derived governing the behaviour of the angle of elevation as the photostrain varies. Photostrain depends on the composition of the polymer, intensity and temperature of light and angle of light polarization. Preliminary findings show a photomechanical rod structural design can provide 60° elevation for temperatures of about 40°C. A photomechanical beam structural design can generate more tilt at lower temperatures. The mathematical analysis illustrates that photostrains on the order of 1% to 10% are desired for both rod and beam designs to produce sufficient tilt under most heliostat field conditions.

  3. Effect of electrode geometry on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meng; Ma, Heng; Wang, Zhaokui; Wang, Chuankun; Jiang, Yurong; Liu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Four types of negative electrodes with equal area (0.09 cm2) but different shape (round, oval, square, and triangular) are evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency of PSCs. The results show that the device with round electrodes gives the best photovoltaic performance; in contrast, the device with triangula...

  4. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Gevorgyan, S.; Frausig, J.; Andersen, Rasmus B.; Krebs, F.C.

    2013-03-15

    The key results from the project are: a firmly anchoring of DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology, ProcessOne, at Mekoprint, improved documented operational lifetime for polymer solar modules, and optimized processing of such modules. Mekoprint has worked determinedly to stabilize their production of ProcessOne devices, to prepare for full scale production and to build a marked for polymer solar cells. Work has been invested in improvement of process tolerances, documentation of the production process, training of process operators and roll-to-roll characterization of the produced solar cells. The planned and conducted actions have been summed up in a SIPOC diagram. Mekoprint's communication with potential customers reveals that lowering the cost, increasing the efficiency and operational life time is important for reaching the commercial market. Activities aimed at penetrating the market for lighting products in 3{sup rd} world countries are intensified. A new solar cell laser pointer is developed and a series of 2000 has been produced for the purpose of creating a commercial focus on polymer solar cells. DTU has established a characterization laboratory for organic photovoltaics (CLOP). The laboratory allows for real-time - and accelerated lifetime testing of solar cells both indoor and outdoor, and thus for the development of reliable methods for predicting life-time from accelerated testing. An operational lifetime of 2 years has, by means of the method, been documented for polymer solar modules encapsulated in a food-packaging barrier. Preliminary accelerated measurements on an equivalent device encapsulated in the same barrier, but in two layers, show a five times improvement of the solar cell stability. On basis of this it is considered that five years operational lifetime is within reach. DTU has improved of their OPV production technology by replacing the purchased vacuum-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode by a roll-to-roll processed

  5. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn;

    2013-01-01

    otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique is...... comparable to devices with evaporated back electrodes. We further confi rm that inkjet printing represent an effi cient alternative to screen printing....

  6. Azobenzene-based Polymers for Solar Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani

    Azobenzene exists as two isomers, a higher energy cis-isomer and a lower energy trans-isomer. The isomers interconvert under light or heat. Recently, there is a renewed interest in capturing the difference in the energies of the isomers and using azobenzene-based molecules as active layers for solar thermal batteries. My research group has been exploring azobenzene-based polymers as candidates for solar thermal batteries. In this talk, I will show that the azo-benzene moieties can be converted to the cis-form using light and converted back to the trans form using mechanical force. I will provide some of our recent results that indicate that high energy densities can be achieved in these polymers.

  7. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Mühling; Ralf Ruhmann; Arno Seeboth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from...

  8. METAL-POLYMER SOLAR COLLECTORS WITH MULTICHANNEL ABSORBER FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTIPURPOSE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New modification of liquid-metal-polymer solar collector for solar heating and for creation of multifunctional energy systems on its basis, particularly solar refrigeration systems was developed. A comparative study of several modifications of polymer collectors involving data of a set of foreign researchers was made and high efficiency of the new elaboration was proven.

  9. METAL-POLYMER SOLAR COLLECTORS WITH MULTICHANNEL ABSORBER FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTIPURPOSE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko A.; Danko V.; Turbovets Y.

    2012-01-01

    New modification of liquid-metal-polymer solar collector for solar heating and for creation of multifunctional energy systems on its basis, particularly solar refrigeration systems was developed. A comparative study of several modifications of polymer collectors involving data of a set of foreign researchers was made and high efficiency of the new elaboration was proven.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Plasmonic Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Adam, Jost; Madsen, Morten

    The organic bulk hetero-junction solar cell has remarkable advantages such as low cost, mechanical flexibility and simple process techniques. Recently, low-band gap photoactive materials have obtained a significant attention due to their potential to absorb a wider range of the solar spectrum...... to attain higher power conversion efficiencies. Many low-band gap photoactive materials, however, still show a relatively low external quantum efficiency of less than 60% [1]. One possible approach to improve the device performance is to increase the light absorption in the active layer. This may, amongst...... other approaches, be achieved by using nano- or micro-structures that trap light at specific wavelengths [2], or by using the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of metal nanoparticles in the devices. In this work, we theoretically studied planar polymer solar cell based on finite-difference time...

  11. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained

  12. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  13. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. Electrodeposited cobalt sulfide hole collecting layer for polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In polymer solar cells based on the blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, the hole collecting layer has to be endowed with its ionization potential close to or greater than that of P3HT (∼5 eV). Conductive polymer blends such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and metal oxides such as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) satisfy this requirement and have been the most common materials used so far in bulk heterojunction structures. We report here cobalt sulfide (CoS) to be a promising hole collecting material deposited by convenient and room temperature electrodeposition. By simply tuning the CoS electrodeposition parameters, power conversion efficiencies similar (within 15%) to a reference structure with PEDOT:PSS were obtained

  15. Industrialisation of polymer solar cells. Phase 2: Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Gevorgyan, Suren; Frausig, Jesper;

    of the OPV devices – targets that are import both for niche applications and bulk power production. Besides the work dedicated to solving these three key targets, two more activities have been included in the project; a pre-study on OPV solar parks and an evaluation of the business opportunities arising......The present report refers to the project “Industrialization of polymer solar cells – phase 2”. Both the project and this report build directly upon the prior phase 1 where the basic OPV technology, ProcessOne, was transferred to Mekoprint. This second phase focuses on an anchoring......-scale power production. The project represents thus a crossroad, where Mekoprint and DTU gradually differentiate themselves with respect to applications and therefore also their R&D priorities. The key targets of phase 2 relate to production cost, stabilization of the production and operational lifetime...

  16. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  17. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles

  18. Thermocleavable Materials for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage-A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2009-01-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3...

  19. High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Yan

    2014-03-24

    An average PCE of 4.2% for all-polymer solar cells from 20 devices with an average J SC of 8.8 mA cm-2 are obtained with a donor-acceptor pair despite a low LUMO-LUMO energy offset of less than 0.1 eV. Incorporation of polystyrene side chains into the donor polymer is found to assist in reducing the phase separation domain length scale, and results in more than 20% enhancement of PCE. We observe a direct correlation between the short circuit current (J SC) and the length scale of BHJ phase separation, which is obtained by resonance soft X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Area-scaling of organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungkeun; Potscavage, William J.; Kippelen, Bernard

    2009-09-01

    We report on the performance of organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions as a function of active area. Devices with areas of 0.13 and 7 cm2 were fabricated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass. Degradation of the performance with increased area is observed and analyzed in terms of the power loss density concept. The various power loss contributions to the total series resistance (RSA) are measured independently and compared to the values of the series resistance extracted from the current-voltage characteristics using a Shockley equivalent circuit model. The limited sheet resistance of ITO is found to be one of the major limiting factors when the area of the cell is increased. To reduce the effects of series resistance, thick, electroplated, metal grid electrodes were integrated with ITO in large-area cells. The metal grids were fabricated directly onto ITO and passivated with an insulator to prevent electrical shorts during the deposition of the top Al electrode. By integrating metal grids onto ITO, the series resistance could be reduced significantly yielding improved performance. Design guidelines for metal grids are described and tradeoffs are discussed.

  1. Oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition of Neutral Hole Transporting Polymer for Enhanced Solar Cell Efficiency and Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Won Jun; Nelson, Justin T; Chang, Sehoon; Bulović, Vladimir; Gradečak, Silvija; Strano, Michael S; Gleason, Karen K

    2016-08-01

    The concept of a neutral hole-transporting polymer is realized for the first time, by integrating patterned Cl(-) -doped poly(3,4-dimethoxythiophene) thin films into organic solar cells through a vacuum-based polymer vapor printing technique. Due to this novel polymer's neutrality, high transparency, good conductivity, and appropriate energy levels, the solar-cell efficiency and lifetime are significantly enhanced. PMID:27167214

  2. Hybrid solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, monodispersed colloidal titanium dioxide (TiO2) was synthesized and applied with poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3OT), phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS) to fabricate an aluminum/calcium/P3OT:PCBM:TiO2/PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide hybrid solar cell using spin coating and evaporation deposition. The effects of the TiO2 content and annealing temperature on cell performances were investigated. The results showed that optimization of the TiO2 content (15 wt.%) and annealing temperature (150 °C) effectively enhanced the performance of the hybrid solar cells. The PCBM and TiO2 absorbed more light photons in the P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 active layer. The charge transfer in the P3OT:PCBM:TiO2 active layer was more efficient, increasing the amount of photoluminescence quenching. The increased active layer surface roughness reduced the charge-transport distance and enhanced the internal light scattering and light absorption. The best values for the open circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and efficiency for the prepared hybrid solar cell were 0.61 V, 9.50 mA/cm2, 34.46%, and 2.09%, respectively. - Highlights: • Solar cell based on titania and conjugated polymer was fabricated. • Optimal titania content and annealing temperature were investigated. • Solar cell with 2.09% efficiency was obtained

  3. High efficiency hybrid silicon nanopillar-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Sharma, Manisha; Elam, David; Ponce, Arturo; Ayon, Arturo A

    2013-10-01

    Recently, inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have been considered as a viable alternative for low-cost photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between inorganic and organic materials can be formed employing low temperature processing methods. We present an efficient hybrid solar cell based on highly ordered silicon nanopillars (SiNPs) and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The proposed device is formed by spin coating the organic polymer PEDOT:PSS on a SiNP array fabricated using metal assisted electroless chemical etching process. The characteristics of the hybrid solar cells are investigated as a function of SiNP height. A maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.65% has been achieved for an optimized SiNP array hybrid solar cell with nanopillar height of 400 nm, despite the absence of a back surface field enhancement. The effect of an ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD), grown aluminum oxide (Al2O3), as a passivation layer (recombination barrier) has also been studied for the enhanced electrical performance of the device. With the inclusion of the ultrathin ALD deposited Al2O3 between the SiNP array textured surface and the PEDOT:PSS layer, the PCE of the fabricated device was observed to increase to 10.56%, which is ∼10% greater than the corresponding device without the Al2O3 layer. The device described herein is considered to be promising toward the realization of a low-cost, high-efficiency inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell. PMID:24032746

  4. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently transna

  5. “Electrical annealing” effect in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electrical annealing treatment under different reverse bias on the performance of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene): 6,6-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester is explored. After electrical annealing at − 6 V, the polymer solar cell exhibits a 7.77 mA/cm2 short circuit current density, a 0.53 fill factor, and a 0.63 V open circuit voltage. A corresponding efficiency of 2.59% was achieved. In comparison, solar cell without electrical annealing exhibits power conversion efficiency of 2.37%. This enhanced efficiency is attributed to the modified orientation of the polymer chains inside the photoactive layer that increases the mobility of charge carriers. In addition, after electrical annealing, the Al cathode will penetrate further into the active layer increases the contact area and reduces the contact resistance. This Al penetration was confirmed by the depth profile of atomic concentration in the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► Electrical annealing improves performance of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. ► Enhanced efficiency attributed to modified orientation of polymer chains. ► Al penetration confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles

  6. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I2), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (Jsc, 10.75 mA cm−2) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm−2 irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte

  7. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the performance in terms of power conversion efficiency and operational stability for polymer and organic solar cells is rapidly approaching the key 10–10 targets (10 % efficiency and 10 years of stability the quest for efficient, scalable, and rational processing methods has begun. The 10–10 targets are being approached through consistent laboratory research efforts, which coupled with early commercial efforts have resulted in a fast moving research field and the dawning of a new industry. We review the roll-to-roll processing techniques required to bring the magnificent 10–10 targets into reality, using quick methods with low environmental impact and low cost. We also highlight some new targets related to processing speed, materials, and environmental impact.

  8. Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Landi, Brian J.; Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer solar cells has been conducted towards developing alternative lightweight, flexible devices for space power applications. Photovoltaic devices were constructed with regioregular poly(3-octylthiophene)-(P3OT) and purified, >95% w/w, laser-generated SWNTs. The P3OT composites were deposited on ITO-coated polyethylene terapthalate (PET) and I-V characterization was performed under simulated AM0 illumination. Fabricated devices for the 1.0% w/w SWNT-P3OT composites showed a photoresponse with an open-circuit voltage (V(sub oc)) of 0.98 V and a short-circuit current density (I(sub sc)) of 0.12 mA/sq cm. Optimization of carrier transport within these novel photovoltaic systems is proposed, specifically development of nanostructure-SWNT complexes to enhance exciton dissociation.

  9. High efficient inverted polymer solar cells with different annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted polymer solar cells (IPSCs) were fabricated with cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates as the electrode and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) modified Al as the anode. The Cs2CO3 dissolved in 2-ethoxyethanol was spin-coated on ITO substrates, showing snowflake-like morphology characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The absorption, X-ray diffraction as well as the morphology of the active layer were measured before and after annealing treatment. The IPSCs with annealing treatments on the active layers and MoO3 layers exhibited the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) approaching to 2%, with open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.57 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 8.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor (FF) of 38.7%. The performance of IPSCs was dramatically decreased by annealing treatment after the deposition of Al cathode, which may be due to the diffusion of Al atom crossing the MoO3 layer forming new channels for charge carrier collection. However, the new channels are not beneficial to the charge carrier collection, which is demonstrated from that the Jsc of IPSCs was evidently decreased from 8.8 to 4.6 mA/cm2 by annealing treatment after deposition Al layer. The annealing treatment after deposition of MoO3 could improve the interfacial contact to aid in electron extraction. Highlights: ► PCE of inverted polymer solar cells (IPSc) with Cs2Co3 modified ITO as cathode and MoO3/Al as anode is approaching to 2%. ► The snowflake-like morphology of Cs2CO3 was investigated by SEM. ► The annealing treatment before deposition Al layer has positive effect on improvement of IPSCs performance. ► EDX results directly demonstrate the vertical phase separation of P3HT:PCBM induced by annealing treatment.

  10. Comparison of solar cell performance of conducting polymer dyes with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Dong-Min; Yoon, Sang-Su; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Conductive polymer precursors, including carboxylic acid, cyano groups, amino groups, 5,2‧:5‧,2″-terthiophene-3‧-carboxylic acid (TTCA), 3‧-cyano-5,2‧:5‧,2″-terthiophene (CTT), and 3‧,4‧-diamino-2,2‧:5‧,2″-terthiophene (DATT) are synthesized. Electrochemically polymerized films of the precursors on a nanocrystalline TiO2 layer are examined as photo sensitizers, and the cell performance is compared. The photovoltaic cells are assembled with a polymer-coated TiO2 layer treated with TiCl4 as an anode and a Pt layer as a cathode in a propionitrile solution containing an iodide ion-based redox electrolyte. The charge-transfer processes of polymer-dyed cells are studied using impedance spectroscopy. The polymer dyes on the TiO2 surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the conducting polymer dye, bearing a carboxylic acid group, is more strongly bound to the TiO2 layer in comparison with other groups. Various experimental parameters affecting the cell efficiency are optimized, including the scan rate, number of potential cycles, and terthiophene monomer concentration. Of these polymers, the best cell efficiency is attained for poly-TTCA containing a carboxylic acid group. The optimized cell with the poly-TTCA dye shows a short-circuit current of 6.78 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.54 V, and a fill factor of 63.6. An energy conversion efficiency of 2.32% is obtained with a cell area of 0.24 cm2 under an air mass 1.5 solar simulated light irradiation of 100 mW cm-2.

  11. Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Claire H.

    2010-11-10

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of the first examples of furan-containing low band-gap polymers, PDPP2FT and PDPP3F, with substantial power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells are reported. Inserting furan moieties in the backbone of the conjugated polymers enables the use of relatively small solubilizing side chains because of the significant contribution of the furan rings to overall polymer solubility in common organic solvents. Bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated from furan-containing polymers and PC71BM as the acceptor showed power conversion efficiencies reaching 5.0%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells will not be a......-depth morphology of polymer solar cells using ellipsometry. It was demonstrated that ellipsometry can be used as a non destructive depth profiling technique to obtain compositional morphology of the active layer of roll-to-roll coated samples. The second and third part is devoted to the study of photo...

  13. Parameter study for polymer solar modules based on various cell lengths and light intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Burgers, A.R.; Bende, E.E.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Veenstra, S.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, P63, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Polymer solar cells may be applied in portable electronic devices, where light intensity and spectral distribution of the illuminating source can be very different compared to outdoor applications. As the power output of solar cells depends on temperature, light intensity and spectrum, the design of the module must be optimized for the specific illumination conditions in the different applications. The interconnection area between cells in a module must be as narrow as possible to maximize the active area, also called geometrical fill factor, of the module. Laser scribing has the potential to realize this. The optimal width of the interconnection zone depends both on technological limitations, e.g. laser scribe width and the minimal distance between scribes, and electrical limitations like resistive losses. The latter depends on the generated current in the cell and thus also on illumination intensity. Besides that, also the type of junction, i.e. a single or tandem junction, will influence the optimal geometry. In this paper a calculation model is presented that can be used for electrical modeling of polymer cells and modules in order to optimize the performance for the specific illumination conditions.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cell with poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile)-based gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A nontoxic, easily synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) showed suitable transmittance for dye-sensitized solar cell. ► A cell with relatively large active area fabricated with this polymer material showed acceptable efficiency. ► The gel polymer matrix affected the charge recombination, I3− diffusion, double layer capacitance, and electron lifetime in the cell. - Abstract: A non-conducting, nontoxic poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAA) was prepared and used as a supporting matrix for the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs of active area 0.80 cm × 1.10 cm fabricated with PAA, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 3-tert-butylpyridine, and 0.1 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent showed an average solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.61% under simulated sunlight illumination of 100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5. The effects of the gel polymer matrix on the electrochemical properties of DSSCs were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Relative to the non-gel reference cells, the results showed a decrease in charge recombination, ionic diffusion, and double layer capacitance and an increase in electron lifetime. These results could play an important role in determining the future direction for the development of high-performance gel polymer electrolytes.

  15. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  16. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichko D. Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  17. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko

    2016-01-13

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  18. Grid-connected polymer solar panels: initial considerations of cost, lifetime, and practicality

    OpenAIRE

    Medford, Andrew James; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Aarø, Dennos; Pakalski, Heinz; Fyenbo, Jan; Frederik C. Krebs

    2010-01-01

    Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar foil using two sheets of 0.5 mm thick ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The panels produced up to 8 W with solar irradiance of ~960 Wm−2, ...

  19. Utilizing insulating nanoparticles as the spacer in laminated flexible polymer solar cells for improved mechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhang; Alexander, Clement; Xiao, Zhengguo; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhang, Runyu; Huang, Jinsong

    2012-08-31

    Roll-to-roll lamination is one promising technique to produce large-area organic electronic devices such as solar cells with a large through output. One challenge in this process is the frequent electric point shorting of the cathode and anode by the excess or concentrated applied stress from many possible sources. In this paper, we report a method to avoid electric point shorting by incorporating insulating and hard barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) nanoparticles (NPs) into the active layer to work as a spacer. It has been demonstrated that the incorporated BaTiO(3) NPs in poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-c-61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells cause no deleterious effect to the power conversion process of this type of solar cell. The resulting laminated devices with NPs in the active layer display the same efficiency as the devices without NPs, while the laminated devices with NPs can sustain a ten times higher lamination stress of over 6 MPa. The flexible polymer solar cell device with incorporated NPs shows a much smaller survivable curvature radius of 4 mm, while a regular flexible device can only sustain a bending curvature radius of 8 mm before fracture. PMID:22886059

  20. On the Efficiency Limit of Conjugated Polymer:Fullerene-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, Markus C

    2016-03-01

    The power conversion efficiency potential of eight high-performance polymer-fullerene blends is investigated. All studied absorbers show the typical organic solar cell losses limiting their performance to ≈13%. PMID:26757236

  1. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Hoppe, H.

    2012-01-01

    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT), electro...... investigation can be divided into a fast DLIT overview of the module and a successive more detailed analysis of the suspicious region by all imaging methods....

  2. All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Ole; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.;

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer tandem polymer solar cells were prepared by solution processing using thermocleavable polymer materials that allow for conversion to an insoluble state through a short thermal treatment. The problems associated with solubility during application of subsequent layers in the stack were...

  3. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  4. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  5. Elaboration of fabrication technology of ITO/CdS/CdTe solar cells on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of high efficiency, stable, lightweight and flexible solar cell is important for terrestrial and space applications. We have developed a novel process to make solar cells on flexible polymer sheets. A thin layer of CdTe compound semiconductor is used for the absorption of solar light and generation of electrical current. In this work the solar electricity conversion efficiency of 4,66% is the highest efficiency reported for a solar cell grown on a polymer sheet. (authors)

  6. Fabrication and characterization of polymer tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer tandem solar cells were fabricated and characterized. Copolymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly((4,4-octyldithieno(3,2-b:20,30-d)silole)-2,6-diyl-alt- (2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl) (PSBTBT) were used as p-type semiconductors, and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was used as an n-type semiconductor. The open circuit voltage was improved up to 0.69 V by using the tandem structure of P3HT:PCBM and PSBTBT:PCBM layers as compared with those of P3HT:PCBM and PSBTBT:PCBM single cell of 0.53 V and 0.10 V, respectively. Absorption of the tandem cell was in the range of 400 to 800 nm, which corresponded to a sum of those in P3HT:PCBM and PSBTBT:PCBM single cells.

  7. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2015-08-10

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  8. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    simulator and an IV-curve tracer. After characterisation the solar cell modules were cut into sheets using a sheeting machine and contacted using button contacts applied by crimping. Based on this a detailed cost analysis was made showing that it is possible to prepare complete and contacted polymer solar...

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANNEALING TREATMENT AND POLYMER BLENDS ON I-V CHARACTERISTSICS OF POLYMER SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research reports on a fabrication of polymer solar cells based on blends of two widely used polymeric semiconductors i.e. poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy-para phenylene vinylene (MDMO-PPV and the soluble fullerene C60 derivative [6,6 phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] (PCBM. The devices were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate. After cleaned and dried, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS in H2O was spin coated onto the freshly prepared substrate and then dried in a vacuum oven at 120°C for 60 minutes. A blend of MDMO-PPV and PCBM in chlorobenzene was spin coated on the top and dried in a nitrogen ambient at room temperature for 24 hours. The devices were transferred to a sputtering system where an aluminum was coated. Some of the devices then were annealed in a vacuum oven at 60°C for 60 minutes. Finally, the devices were encapsulated by placing a sealant between the back of the devices and glass slides and then cured in a vacuum oven at temperature 100°C for 10 minutes. For characterization, the devices were illuminated with a xenon lamp at the intensity of 27 mW/cm2 and the temperature at approximately 25°C. The influence of the annealing treatment and polymer blends on the photovoltaic performance of the devices was also discussed here. The best performance was obtained from the device with a blend ratio of 1:1 MDMO-PPV/PCBM without annealing treatment. The typical power efficiency was 0.01% with open circuit voltage of 0.347 V, short circuit current of 0.064 mA, and maximum power of 0.006 mW.

  11. Aqueous processing of low-band-gap polymer solar cells using roll-to-roll methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas R; Larsen-Olsen, Thue T; Andreasen, Birgitta; Böttiger, Arvid P L; Carlé, Jon E; Helgesen, Martin; Bundgaard, Eva; Norrman, Kion; Andreasen, Jens W; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-05-24

    Aqueous nanoparticle dispersions of a series of three low-band-gap polymers poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b')dithiophene-alt-5,6-bis(octyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5'-diyl] (P1), poly[(4,4'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (P2), and poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3) were prepared using ultrasonic treatment of a chloroform solution of the polymer and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM) mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The size of the nanoparticles was established using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the aqueous dispersions and by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and using both grazing incidence SAXS (GISAXS) and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in the solid state as coated films. The aqueous dispersions were dialyzed to remove excess detergent and concentrated to a solid content of approximately 60 mg mL(-1). The formation of films for solar cells using the aqueous dispersion required the addition of the nonionic detergent FSO-100 at a concentration of 5 mg mL(-1). This enabled slot-die coating of high quality films with a dry thickness of 126 ± 19, 500 ± 25, and 612 ± 22 nm P1, P2, and P3, respectively for polymer solar cells. Large area inverted polymer solar cells were thus prepared based on the aqueous inks. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached for each of the materials was 0.07, 0.55, and 0.15% for P1, P2, and P3, respectively. The devices were prepared using coating and printing of all layers including the metal back electrodes. All steps were carried out using roll-to-roll (R2R) slot-die and screen printing methods on flexible substrates. All five layers were processed using environmentally friendly methods and solvents. Two of the layers were processed entirely from water (the electron transport layer and the active

  12. Polymer Acceptor Based on Double B←N Bridged Bipyridine (BNBP) Unit for High-Efficiency All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaojing; Ding, Zicheng; Dou, Chuandong; Zhang, Jidong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-08-01

    A novel polymer acceptor based on the double B←N bridged bipyridine building block is reported. All-polymer solar cells based on the new polymer acceptor show a power conversion efficiency of as high as 6.26% at a photon energy loss of only 0.51 eV. PMID:27167123

  13. Radiation induced damage and recovery in poly(3-hexyl thiophene) based polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Devine, R A B; Mayberry, Clay

    2008-10-22

    Polymer solar cells have been characterized during and after x-ray irradiation. The open circuit voltage, dark current and power conversion efficiency show degradation consistent with the generation of defect states in the polymer semiconductor. The polymer solar cell device remained functional with exposure to a considerable dose (500 krad (SiO(2))) and showed clear signs of recovery upon removal of the irradiation source (degraded from 4.1% to 2.2% and recovered to 2.9%). Mobility-relaxation time variation, derived from J-V measurement, clearly demonstrates that radiation induced defect generation mechanisms in the organic semiconductor are active and need to be further studied. Optical transmission results ruled out the possibility of reduced light absorption and/or polymer crystallinity. The results suggest that organic solar cells are sufficiently radiation tolerant to be useful for space applications. PMID:21832674

  14. Synthesis and characterization of quinoxaline-based polymers for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of quinoxaline (Qx)-based copolymers, poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dibenzosilole)-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P1), poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P2), and poly[4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]silole-alt-5,5-(5′, 8′-di-2-thienyl-2,3-bis(4-octyloxyl)phenyl)quinoxaline] (P3), were synthesized and characterized for use in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We describe the effects of the various donor segments on the optical, electrochemical, field-effect carrier mobilities, and photovoltaic characteristics of the resulting Qx-based copolymers. The results indicated that the donor units in the copolymers significantly influenced the band gap, electronic energy levels, carrier mobilities, and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers. The band gaps of the copolymers were 1.71–2.03 eV. Under optimized conditions, the Qx-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencies for the PSCs of 0.87–2.15% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). Among the studied Qx-based copolymers, P2, which contained a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene unit, showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.15% with a short circuit current of 7.06 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, and a fill factor of 0.46, under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). - Highlights: • A series of quinoxaline (Qx)-based copolymers were synthesized. • We described the effects of the donor segments on photovoltaic characteristics. • The Qx-based polymers showed power conversion efficiencys in the range 0.87–2.15%

  15. Feasibility & design of PV-T polymer solar collector for real estate households in Addis Ababa

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Seyfe

    2011-01-01

    A combined application of PV and polymer thermal solar collector (PVT) of solar energy for residential electricity and thermal demand can be harnessed sustainably with effective means at a time where long sun duration and most consistent solar irradiation throughout the year is available, in place like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Due to frequent power shedding though out the country which Addis Ababa is part of problem, because of the energy demand in the country is increasing and a source of elect...

  16. Solution processable organic polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have gained wide interest in past few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. Power conversion efficiencies up to 6% and 6.5% have been reported in the literature for single layer and tandem solar cells, respectively using conjugated polymers. A recent record efficiency about 8.13% with active area of 1.13 cm2 has been reported. However Solution processable small molecules have been widely applied for photovoltaic (PV) devices in recent years because they show strong absorption properties, and they can be easily purified and deposited onto flexible substrates at low cost. Introducing different donor and acceptor groups to construct donor--acceptor (D--A) structure small molecules has proved to be an efficient way to improve the properties of organic solar cells (OSCs). The power conversion efficiency about 4.4 % has been reported for OSCs based on the small molecules. This review deals with the recent progress of solution processable D--A structure small molecules and discusses the key factors affecting the properties of OSCs based on D--A structure small molecules: sunlight absorption, charge transport and the energy level of the molecules.

  17. Integration of polymer electrolytes in dye sensitized solar cells by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mesoporous titanium dioxide electrode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has been successfully filled with polymer electrolyte to replace the conventional liquid electrolyte. Polymer electrolyte was directly synthesized and deposited using the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process, and an iodide-triiodide redox couple in different redox solvents was then incorporated into the polymer. We have investigated different candidate polymer electrolytes, including poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The open circuit voltage of cells fabricated with iCVD PHEMA was found to be higher when compared with a liquid electrolyte that is attributed to a lower rate of electron recombination.

  18. Quantitative characterization of phase separation in the photoactive layer of polymer solar cells by the phase image of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have quantitatively characterized the phase separation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend films and studied the effect of phase separation of photoactive layer on the performance of polymer solar cells. A mixed solvent of dichlorobenzene and chlorobenzene was adopted to prepare the P3HT:PCBM blend films, and a series of blend films with different morphologies were obtained by adjusting both the volume ratio of dichlorobenzene to chlorobenzene and the solvent annealing time. The surface morphology and phase distribution were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interface length between the domains of donor and acceptor, which is extracted from the AFM phase image of blend film, was used to quantitatively characterize the phase separation of photoactive layer. It was found that the short-circuit current density (JSC) of bulk heterojunction solar cells is proportional to the interfacial area of two phases, while it has a negligible effect on the open-circuit voltage. These results indicate that the larger interfacial area of donor and acceptor phases is beneficial to the exciton dissociation and carrier transport resulting in a significant increase of JSC and power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Phase separation of photoactive layers in polymer solar cells was evaluated quantitatively. • Interface contours between the donor and acceptor were extracted from AFM phase images. • Effects of phase separation on polymer solar cell performance were investigated. • The interface area mainly influences short-circuit current of the polymer solar cells

  19. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-01

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ~90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  20. n-Type Water/Alcohol-Soluble Naphthalene Diimide-Based Conjugated Polymers for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihong; Sun, Chen; Dong, Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Siping; Wu, Hongbin; Yip, Hin-Lap; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-17

    With the demonstration of small-area, single-junction polymer solar cells (PSCs) with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over the 10% performance milestone, the manufacturing of high-performance large-area PSC modules is becoming the most critical issue for commercial applications. However, materials and processes that are optimized for fabricating small-area devices may not be applicable for the production of high-performance large-area PSC modules. One of the challenges is to develop new conductive interfacial materials that can be easily processed with a wide range of thicknesses without significantly affecting the performance of the PSCs. Toward this goal, we report two novel naphthalene diimide-based, self-doped, n-type water/alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers (WSCPs) that can be processed with a broad thickness range of 5 to 100 nm as efficient electron transporting layers (ETLs) for high-performance PSCs. Space charge limited current and electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies confirm that the presence of amine or ammonium bromide groups on the side chains of the WSCP can n-dope PC71BM at the bulk heterojunction (BHJ)/ETL interface, which improves the electron extraction properties at the cathode. In addition, both amino functional groups can induce self-doping to the WSCPs, although by different doping mechanisms, which leads to highly conductive ETLs with reduced ohmic loss for electron transport and extraction. Ultimately, PSCs based on the self-doped WSCP ETLs exhibit significantly improved device performance, yielding PCEs as high as 9.7% and 10.11% for PTB7-Th/PC71BM and PffBT4T-2OD/PC71BM systems, respectively. More importantly, with PffBT4T-2OD/PC71BM BHJ as an active layer, a prominent PCE of over 8% was achieved even when a thick ETL of 100 nm was used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency demonstrated for PSCs with a thick interlayer and light-harvesting layer, which are important criteria for eventually making

  1. Effect of electrode geometry on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Ma, Heng; Liu, Hairui; Wu, Dongge; Niu, Heying; Cai, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The negative electrodes with equal area (0.09 cm2) but different shape (round, oval, square and triangular) are evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency of PSCs. The results show that the device with round electrodes gives the best photovoltaic performance; in contrast, the device with triangular electrodes reveals the worst properties. A maximum of almost a 19% increase in power conversion efficiency with a round electrode is obtained in the devices compared with that of the triangular electrode. To conclude, the electrode boundary curvature has a significant impact on the performance of PSCs. The larger curvature, i.e. sharper electrodes edges, perhaps has a negative effect on exciton separation and carrier transport in photoelectric conversion processes.

  2. Effect of electrode geometry on photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of electrode geometry on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The negative electrodes with equal area (0.09 cm2) but different shape (round, oval, square and triangular) are evaluated with respect to short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency of PSCs. The results show that the device with round electrodes gives the best photovoltaic performance; in contrast, the device with triangular electrodes reveals the worst properties. A maximum of almost a 19% increase in power conversion efficiency with a round electrode is obtained in the devices compared with that of the triangular electrode. To conclude, the electrode boundary curvature has a significant impact on the performance of PSCs. The larger curvature, i.e. sharper electrodes edges, perhaps has a negative effect on exciton separation and carrier transport in photoelectric conversion processes. (paper)

  3. Microlens array induced light absorption enhancement in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuqing [Ames Laboratory; Elshobaki, Moneim [Iowa State University; Ye, Zhuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Joong-Mok [Ames Laboratory; Noack, Max A. [Iowa State University; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-24

    Over the last decade, polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a lot of attention and highest power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are now close to 10%. Here we employ an optical structure – the microlens array (MLA) – to increase light absorption inside the active layer, and PCE of PSCs increased even for optimized devices. Normal incident light rays are refracted at the MLA and travel longer optical paths inside the active layers. Two PSC systems – poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:(6,6)-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC70BM) – were investigated. In the P3HT:PCBM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and the PCE of an optimized device by [similar]4.3%. In the PCDTBT:PC70BM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and PCE by more than 10%. In addition, simulations incorporating optical parameters of all structural layers were performed and they support the enhancement of absorption in the active layer with the assistance of MLA. Our results show that utilizing MLA is an effective strategy to further increase light absorption in PSCs, in which optical losses account for [similar]40% of total losses. MLA also does not pose materials processing challenges to the active layers since it is on the other side of the transparent substrate.

  4. Design Principles in Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Solar Cells: PBDTTPD as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-06-29

    Among Organic Electronics, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM.[1] In recent years, great headway has been made in the development of efficient polymer donors across the community, with published power conversion efficiencies (PCE) >8% in single cells and >10% in tandems. In most reports, these systems involve elaborate repeat unit and side chain patterns, and deviating from those patterns induces substantial drops in device PCE. While the range of polymer design parameters that impact BHJ solar cell performance remains a matter of some debate, our recent developments indicate that the combination of side-chain substituents appended to the main chain critically impacts polymer performance. For example, in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD), side-chain substituents of various size and branching impart distinct molecular packing distances (i.e., π–π stacking and lamellar spacing), varying degrees of nanostructural order in thin films, and preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate.[2-5] While these structural variations seem to correlate with BHJ solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 4% to 8.5%,[2,3] we believe that other contributing parameters – such as the local conformations between the polymer and the fullerene, and the domain distribution/composition across the BHJ (i.e., pure/mixed phases) – should also be taken into account.[6,7] Other discrete modifications of PBDTTPD’s molecular structure affect polymer performance in BHJ solar cells with PCBM, and our recent developments emphasize how systematic structure-property relationship studies impact the design of efficient polymer donors for BHJ solar cell applications.[8-10] It is important to further our understanding of these effects as we look to continue improving BHJ solar

  5. Polymer solar cells. Morphology-property-correlation; Polymere Solarzellen. Morphologie-Eigenschafts-Korrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, Tobias

    2008-09-22

    The aim of the presented dissertation is to clarify open questions concerning the development and control of the morphology in the active layer of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The new findings hereby derived shall modify the existing models of the active layer morphology as found in today's literature. The experimental investigations were performed by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition to those methods, light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were applied to investigate three chosen material systems: P3HT/PCBM-C{sub 60}, P3HT/MDHE-C{sub 60}, and P3HT/(MDHE){sub 2}-C{sub 60}. On the basis of experimental results a morphological model is developed, which is discussed in the context of existing literature. The solar cells were electrically characterised by current-voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. The structural model is set into relation with photovoltaic parameters of the polymer solar cell, such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency. This contributes to the explanation and analysis of the electrical properties of the organic solar cell as a device. In summary, this work yields morphology-property-relations that are able to explain the interaction between physical properties, such as light absorption, charge carrier generation, and transport, with the morphology present within the active layer. Finally, the three investigated systems are compared and evaluated with respect to their applicability in polymer solar cells. Further on, the morphology-propertyrelations are used to develop a strategy to estimate the suitability of new twocomponent polymer-fullerene donor-acceptor systems for polymer solar cells. Based on these findings it becomes possible to evaluate the optimization potential for new materials. In conclusion, this helps to develop polymer solar cells with increased power conversion

  6. Low band gap polymers for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of copolymers based on thiophene, benzothiadiazole and benzo-bis-thiadiazole are described. The polymers were obtained by employing Stille cross coupling polymerization. The polymers were characterized by NMR, size exclusion chromatography, UV-vis and ultraviolet photoelectron spect...

  7. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    -cost solar cells as the laboratory solar cells are mostly focused on increasing the power conversion efficiency through materials design with little emphasis on the choice of materials, operational stability and large-scale processing. Indium-tinoxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor......Polymer solar cells (PSCs) aim to produce clean energy that is cost-competitive to energy produced by fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. From an environmental perspective, PSCs already compares favorably to other solar cell technologies in terms of fewer emissions of greenhouse gases...

  8. Titanium oxide thin film improving efficiency in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feu, W.H.M.; Martins, R.F.; Krambrock, K.; Cury, L.A.; Guimaraes, P.S.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Reis, G.A.; Franchello, F.; Dias, I.F.L. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Polymer/fullerene based solar cells are of great interest in polymer-based photovoltaic due to low cost fabrication in large areas and on flexible substrates, and roll-to-roll manufacturing. Standard power conversion efficiencies of about 5 - 8% are reported in such organic photovoltaic cells (OPVC) but in order to improve device performance new materials and device architectures are needed. Our OPVC thin films consists of blend of P3HT-PCBM (1:1 by weight) and are spin-coated over indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass substrate covered with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene) polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) forming the hole electrode. The collector electrode is a lower-work-function metal, which is in our case Al. Many papers reported the use of lithium fluoride (LiF) layer for a better ohmic contact, but this insulating layer can also reduce the electron collection efficiency if its thickness is above few nanometers. From current-voltage curves in dark and under illumination we show an improvement in the fill factor (FF) and better quality of an OPVC when LiF layer is replaced by titanium oxide (TiO) thin film. The final device is annealed to 150 deg C well below the crystallization temperature for TiO{sub 2} (anatase), resulting in an amorphous phase of this oxide but keeping good conductive quality.

  9. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC71BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC71BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells

  10. Efficient polymer solar cells employing a non-conjugated small-molecule electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xinhua; Peng, Ruixiang; Ai, Ling; Zhang, Xingye; Ge, Ziyi

    2015-08-01

    Polymer solar cells have drawn a great deal of attention due to the attractiveness of their use in renewable energy sources that are potentially lightweight and low in cost. Recently, numerous significant research efforts have resulted in polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies in excess of 9% (ref. 1). Nevertheless, further improvements in performance are sought for commercial applications. Here, we report polymer solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 10.02% that employ a non-conjugated small-molecule electrolyte as an interlayer. The material offers good contact for photogenerated charge carrier collection and allows optimum photon harvesting in the device. Furthermore, the enhanced performance is attributed to improved electron mobility, enhanced active-layer absorption and properly active-layer microstructures with optimal horizontal phase separation and vertical phase gradation. Our discovery opens a new avenue for single-junction devices by fully exploiting the potential of various material systems with efficiency over 10%.

  11. Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are reviewed in the context of the processing techniques leading to complete devices. A distinction is made between the film-forming techniques that are used currently such as spincoating, doctor blading and casting and the, from a processing point of view, more desirable film......-forming techniques such as slot-die coating, gravure coating, knife-over-edge coating, off-set coating, spray coating and printing techniques such as ink jet printing, pad printing and screen printing. The former are used almost exclusively and are not suited for high-volume production whereas the latter are highly...... suited, but little explored in the context of polymer solar cells. A further distinction is made between printing and coating when a film is formed. The entire process leading to polymer solar cells is broken down into the individual steps and the available techniques and materials for each step are...

  12. Silver clusters insert into polymer solar cell for enhancing light absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Li; Hongyu Zhen; Zhuoyin Huang; Kan Li; Weidong Shen; Xu Liu

    2012-01-01

    As an employment of surface plasmonic effect,the consequence of insertion of a layer of Ag clusters into polymer solar cell on the enhancement of light absorption and power conversion efficiency is investigated.Optical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is performed with experiments to evaluate the effect of the interaction between the Ag clusters and incident light on light absorption in polymer solar cell Ag clusters modify the light wave vector and the electromagnetic field inside the device is redistributed and enhanced.As a result,polymer solar cells achieve an overall increase in absorption,short-circuit current density,and power conversion efficiency.

  13. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli, E-mail: tgl@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Lingyu [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian National Laboratory of Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jianzhang@guet.edu.cn [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  14. Indium tin oxide nanopillar electrodes in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high surface area nanostructured electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is a route to enhanced power conversion efficiency. In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) and hybrid ITO/SiO2 nanopillars are employed as three-dimensional high surface area transparent electrodes in OPVs. The nanopillar arrays are fabricated via glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and electrochemically modified with nanofibrous PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(p-styrenesulfonate)). The structures are found to have increased surface area as characterized by porosimetry. When applied as anodes in polymer/fullerene OPVs (architecture: commercial ITO/GLAD ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al, where P3HT is 2,5-diyl-poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM is [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester), the air-processed solar cells incorporating high surface area, PEDOT:PSS-modified ITO nanoelectrode arrays operate with improved performance relative to devices processed identically on unstructured, commercial ITO substrates. The resulting power conversion efficiency is 2.2% which is a third greater than for devices prepared on commercial ITO. To further refine the structure, insulating SiO2 caps are added above the GLAD ITO nanopillars to produce a hybrid ITO/SiO2 nanoelectrode. OPV devices based on this system show reduced electrical shorting and series resistance, and as a consequence, a further improved power conversion efficiency of 2.5% is recorded.

  15. ‘Inorganics - in - Organics’: Recent Developments and Outlook for 4G Polymer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawardena, KDGI; Rozanski, LJ; Mills, CA; Beliatis, MJ; Nismy, NA; Silva, SRP

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in solution processable single junction polymer solar cells have led to a significant improvement in power conversion efficiencies from ~5% to beyond 9%. While much of the initial efficiency improvements were driven through judicious design of donor polymers, it is the engineering of device architectures through the incorporation of inorganic nanostructures and better processing that has continued the efficiency gains. Inorganic nano-components such as carbon nanotubes, gr...

  16. Solution-processed cathode interfacial layer materials for high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biao Xiao; Hongbin Wu; Yong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are a new type of renewable energy source currently being extensively investigated due to perceived advantages; such as being lightweight, low-cost and because of the unlimited materials resource. The power conversion efficiency of state-of-the-art PSCs has increased dramatically in the past few years, obtained mainly through the development of new electron donor polymers, acceptors, and novel device structures through the use of various electrode interfacial materi...

  17. High-efficiency polymer solar cells with small photon energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Kazuaki; Tamai, Yasunari; Ohkita, Hideo; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    A crucial issue facing polymer-based solar cells is how to manage the energetics of the polymer/fullerene blends to maximize short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage at the same time and thus the power conversion efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the use of a naphthobisoxadiazole-based polymer with a narrow bandgap of 1.52 eV leads to high open-circuit voltages of approximately 1 V and high-power conversion efficiencies of ~9% in solar cells, resulting in photon energy loss as small as ~0.5 eV, which is much smaller than that of typical polymer systems (0.7-1.0 eV). This is ascribed to the high external quantum efficiency for the systems with a very small energy offset for charge separation. These unconventional features of the present polymer system will inspire the field of polymer-based solar cells towards further improvement of power conversion efficiencies with both high short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage.

  18. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard to......Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass...

  19. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent ...... (water). The photograph here was taken just before screen printing of the aqueous silver ink.......The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  20. Applicability of X-ray reflectometry to studies of polymer solar cell degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Gevorgyan, Suren; Schleputz, C.M.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2008-01-01

    Although degradation of polymer solar cells is widely acknowledged, the cause, physical or chemical, has not been identified. The purpose of this work is to determine the applicability of X-ray reflectometry for in situ observation of physical degradation mechanisms. We find that the rough...... interfaces of the polymer solar cell constituent layers seriously obstruct the sensitivity of the technique, rendering it impossible to elucidate changes in the layer/interface structure at the sub-nanometer level. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Bilayer Polymer Solar Cells with Improved Power Conversion Efficiency and Enhanced Spectrum Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the construction of an efficient bilayer polymer solar cell comprising of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as a p-type semiconductor and asymmetric fullerene (C70) as n-type counterparts. The bilayer configuration was very efficient compared to the individual layer performance and it behaved like a regular p-n junction device. The photovoltaic characteristic of the bilayers were studied under AM 1.5 solar radiation and the optimized device parameters are the following: Voc = 0.5V, Jsc = 10.1 mA/cm2, FF = 0.60 and power conversion efficiency of 3.6 %. A high fill factor of ∼0.6 was achieved, which is only slightly reduced at very intense illumination. Balanced mobility between p-and n-layers is achieved which is essential for achieving high device performance. Correlation between the crystallinity, morphology and the transport properties of the active layers is established. The External quantum efficiency (EQE) spectral distribution of the bilayer devices with different processing solvents correlates well with the trends of short circuit current densities (Jsc) measured under illumination. Efficiency of the bilayer devices with rough P3HT layer was found to be about 3 times higher than those with a planar P3HT surface. Hence it is desirable to have a larger grains with a rough surface of P3HT layer for providing larger interfacial area for the exciton dissociation.

  2. Improved hole mobility and suppressed trap density in polymer-polymer dual donor based highly efficient organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vishal; Sharma, Abhishek; Gupta, Vinay; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Here we report, the charge transport properties of polymer-polymer dual donor blended film, viz., polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) and poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) in the optimized concentration. Trap density and hole mobility in polymer-polymer (PTB7-PCDTBT) dual donor system have been studied by means of current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at various temperatures, i.e., 280 K-120 K in hole only device configuration, i.e., indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Polymer film/gold (Au). The J-V curves exhibit the space charge limited conduction behavior. The corresponding hole mobility for PTB7 and PCDTBT are 3.9 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.1 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, whereas it is 9.1 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the polymer-polymer blend of PTB7:PCDTBT (0.7:0.3). This enhancement in mobility can be attributed to the suppressed trap density in PTB7:PCDTBT (0.7:0.3) of 7.4 × 1016 cm-3, as compared to the trap density of 1.1 × 1017 cm-3 for PTB7 and 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 for PCDTBT. Atomic force microscopy shows an improvement in the morphology of the blend. The J-V characteristic at various light intensities in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell reveals that the blending of PCDTBT in PTB7 suppressed the trap-assisted recombination. The corresponding power conversion efficiencies for PTB7:PC71BM, PCDTBT:PC71BM and PTB7:PCDTBT:PC71BM BHJ solar cells are 6.9%, 6.1% and 9.0%, respectively. This work unravels that the enhanced mobility and suppressed trap density play a significant role in the improvement of efficiency in dual donor based organic solar cells.

  3. Synthesis and property characterization of two novel side-chain isoindigo copolymers for polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two novel side-chain conjugated polymers, PTBT-TID and PTBT-TTID, based on the new synthetic thiophene-benzne-thiophene (TBT unit, side-chain isoindigo (ID unit, and the introduced thiophene π-bridge, have been designed and synthesized. The photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the two polymers have been systematically investigated. The two polymers possess relatively good solubility as well as excellent thermal stability up to 380°C, and all of the polymer solar cell (PSC devices based on the two polymers obtain high open circuit voltage (Voc of about 0.8 V. The polymer solar cells based on the polymer PTBT-TID show relatively higher efficiencies than the PTBT-TTID-based ones, due to the broader absorption spectrum, a relatively higher hole mobility, a lower HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level, a stronger IPCE (the incident photon to current conversion efficiency response and a better microphase separation, Consequently, the device based on PTBT-TID:PC61BM (1:2, by weight gives the best power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.04%, with a short-circuit current density (Jsc of 5.39 mA·cm–2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.83 V, and a fill factor (FF of 0.45.

  4. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We present the synthesis of a low band gap copolymer based on dithienothiophene and dialkoxybenzothiadiazole (poly(dithienothiophene-co-dialkoxybenzothiadiazole), PDTTDABT). The optical properties of the polymer showed a band gap of 1.6 eV and a sky-blue color in solid films. The polymer was...

  5. Outdoor Operational Stability of Indium-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Modules Over 1 Year Studied in India, Holland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sommeling, Paul M.; Gupta, Ritu;

    2014-01-01

    We present an outdoor interlaboratory stability study of fully printed and coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cell modules in JNCASR Bangalore (India), ECN (Holland), and DTU (Denmark) carried over more than 1 year. The modules comprising a fully printed and coated stack (Ag grid....../PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag grid) were prepared in two successive generations and evaluated for outdoor operational stability according to the test protocols laid out by the International Summit on OPV stability (ISOS-3). The modules (70–100 cm2 active area) were encapsulated between two sheets of low...

  6. Developmental experiments on large-area silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silard, Andrei P.; Nani, Gabriel

    1989-05-01

    Practical ways of attenuating the severe limitations imposed by areal inhomogeneities on the performance of large-area solar cells fabricated on both p- and n-silicon wafers are described, and the results of tests are presented. The p(+)-n-n(+) and n(+)-p-p(+) cells were processed as bifacial devices and tested under both frontside and backside AM1 illumination. It is shown that the combination of a simple design and some of the technological approaches evaluated in this study result in low-cost high-efficiency large-area bifacial silicon solar cells that exhibit with good electrooptical performance.

  7. Solar Resource Mapping of AL Duqm Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hatmi, Yousuf; Tan, C. S.; Al-Yahyai, Sultan al; Al-Badi, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has one of the highest percentages of potential solar radiation in the world, which puts it in an outstanding position to horde electricity generation plants through photovoltaic solar systems. Oman consists of 11 governorates, and each governorate is divided into many Willyiah, which are made up of small villages. Willyiah of Al Duqm is located in Al Wusta Governorate (19°39’42”N 57°42’17”E) in central-eastern Oman. This paper proposes the use of a monthly average hourly diffuse illuminance from meteorological data and from a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the best plots suitable for installing photovoltaic solar farms in the Al Duqm Industrial Area. Solar data collected in this study shows that the highest average annual solar radiation data recorded is 5,764 Wh/m2 in the Al Duqm area. Solar radiation data from 2000 to 2012 has been collected for further analysis. The Annual Energy Production (AEP) simulated using ArcGIS ranges between 6,028 Wh/m2 and 3,668 Wh/m2. This shows a very close estimation between simulation results and the data collected from the meteorological department in Oman.

  8. Large area shunt defect free GaAs solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shunt defects have been found to be the type of defect that can degrade and cause failure in GaAs solar cells. Because of their catastrophic effects, it is necessary to insure that no shunt defects are formed in the solar cell. A technique for fabricating large area shunt defect free GaAs solar cells has been investigated. A Be doped GaAlAs window layer was grown directly on a n-type GaAs substrate by isothermal liquid phase epitaxial growth (ILPE). By growing directly on the GaAs substrate and not growing the usual buffer, absorber, collector, and window layer combination, the fabrication is simplified and yields can be large. It was found that the Be from the liquid GaAlAs melt diffused into the GaAs to form a complete collector layer. Because the collector is complete, a shunt defect free solar cell is produced. The results of the ILPE growth are reported for both 5.1 cm2 and 0.12 cm2 solar cells. The technique is very versatile and may be used to fabricate larger area solar cells

  9. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  10. Ultrabroadband time-resolved THz spectroscopy of polymer-based solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    We have developed ultrabroadband THz spectroscopy in reflection mode for characterization of conductivity dynamics in conductive polymer samples used in organic solar cells. The spectrometer is designed to have a time resolution limited only by the duration of the optical pump pulse, thus enabling...

  11. Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchao; Qian, Deping; Zhang, Shaoqing; Li, Sunsun; Inganäs, Olle; Gao, Feng; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-06-01

    A nonfullerene-based polymer solar cell (PSC) that significantly outperforms fullerene-based PSCs with respect to the power-conversion efficiency is demonstrated for the first time. An efficiency of >11%, which is among the top values in the PSC field, and excellent thermal stability is obtained using PBDB-T and ITIC as donor and acceptor, respectively. PMID:27061511

  12. Low-Cost Upscaling Compatibility of Five Different ITO-Free Architectures for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gonzalez-Valls, Irene; Veenstra, Sjoerd;

    2013-01-01

    Five different indium-tin-oxide free (ITO-free) polymer solar cell architectures provided by four participating research institutions that all presented a laboratory cell performance sufficient for use in mobile and information and communication technology (ICT) were evaluated based on photovolta...

  13. Influence of injected charge carriers on photocurrents in polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehenkel, Dominique J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2012-01-01

    We determine and analyze the photocurrent Jph in polymer solar cells under conditions where, no, one, or two different charge carriers can be injected by choosing appropriate electrodes and compare the experimental results to simulations based on a drift-diffusion device model that accounts for phot

  14. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  15. High efficiency inverted polymer solar cells with the sol–gel derived vanadium oxide interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution-processable vanadium oxide film was prepared by sol–gel reaction on a bulk-heterojunction and adopted as the hole collection interlayer of inverted polymer solar cells that were based on a blend of commercial low bandgap polymer and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester as the photoactive layer. The developed cell shows an efficiency of 6.29% compare to 6.24% efficiency from the normal devices, the thus-prepared inverted devices demonstrated the feasibility of this alternative approach for developing an ease all-solution route for fabricating air-stable device using low-temperature processes in air ambient. - Highlights: ►A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell was demonstrated. ►The hole transport interlayer was prepared by a sol–gel derived vanadium oxide. ►The developed cell shows an efficiency of 6.29%.

  16. Breaking the barriers of all-polymer solar cells: Solving electron transporter and morphology problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna

    All-polymer solar cells (APSC) are a class of organic solar cells in which hole and electron transporting phases are made of conjugated polymers. Unlike polymer/fullerene solar cell, photoactive material of APSC can be designed to have hole and electron transporting polymers with complementary absorption range and proper frontier energy level offset. However, the highest reported PCE of APSC is 5 times less than that of polymer/fullerene solar cell. The low PCE of APSC is mainly due to: i) low charge separation efficiency; and ii) lack of optimal morphology to facilitate charge transfer and transport; and iii) lack of control over the exciton and charge transport in each phase. My research work is focused towards addressing these issues. The charge separation efficiency of APSC can be enhanced by designing novel electron transporting polymers with: i) broad absorption range; ii) high electron mobility; and iii) high dielectric constant. In addition to with the above parameters chemical and electronic structure of the repeating unit of conjugated polymer also plays a role in charge separation efficiency. So far only three classes of electron transporting polymers, CN substituted PPV, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derived polymers and rylene diimide derived polymers, are used in APSC. Thus to enhance the charge separation efficiency new classes of electron transporting polymers with the above characteristics need to be synthesized. I have developed a new straightforward synthetic strategy to rapidly generate new classes of electron transporting polymers with different chemical and electronic structure, broad absorption range, and high electron mobility from readily available electron deficient monomers. In APSCs due to low entropy of mixing, polymers tend to micro-phase segregate rather than forming the more useful nano-phase segregation. Optimizing the polymer blend morphology to obtain nano-phase segregation is specific to the system under study, time consuming, and not

  17. Effect of film and device annealing in polymer:polymer solar cells with a LiF nanolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Investigation of thermal annealing effect for P3HT:F8BT solar cells with LiF/Al. → Both film and device annealing resulted in improved JSC (>2 fold) and VOC (>0.16 V). → A planar p-n junction structure might be responsible for the enhanced performance. - Abstract: We report the effect of thermal annealing on the performance of polymer:polymer solar cells with a lithium fluoride (LiF) nanolayer inserted between active layer and electron-collecting electrode. The active layer was prepared using blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT). Film annealing and device annealing were separately performed at 150 deg. C for 30 min to understand the influence of the existence of LiF nanolayer during thermal annealing. Results showed that both film and device annealing did considerably improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of P3HT:F8BT solar cells though the PCE was higher in the case of device annealing. The surface analysis suggested that the improved device performance by thermal annealing is attributed partly to the formation of planar p-n junction structure in the P3HT:F8BT blend film during thermal annealing.

  18. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Reis Benatto, Dos Gisele A.; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2016-01-01

    The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver and z

  19. Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the Lighting Africa initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Fyenbo, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    lamp two adjacent corners are joined via button contacts whereby the device can stand on a horizontal surface and the circuit is closed such that the battery discharges through the LEDs that illuminate the surface in front of the lamp. Several different lamps were prepared using the same solar cell and......Semitransparent flexible polymer solar cells were manufactured in a full roll-to-roll process under ambient conditions. After encapsulation a silver based circuit was printed onto the back side of the polymer solar cell module followed by sheeting and application of discrete components and vias...... measured <1 mm. A hole with a ring was punched in one corner to enable mechanical fixation or tying. The lamp has two states. In the charging state it has a completely flat outline and will charge the battery when illuminated from either side while the front side illumination is preferable. When used as a...

  20. Incorporation of ester groups into low band-gap diketopyrrolopyrrole containing polymers for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiaolian; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei;

    2012-01-01

    To increase the open circuit voltage (VOC) of polymer solar cells based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) containing polymers, the weakly electron-withdrawing thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate unit was introduced into the polymer backbone. Two ester group functionalized DPP containing polymers, PCTDPP with a....... The PSC based on a PCTDPP:PCBM blend shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 3.52%, with a VOC of 0.66 V, a short circuit current (ISC) of 8.53 mA cm−2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.63. For the PDCTDPP:PCBM blend, the highest VOC reaches a value of 0.84 V, and a final PCE (0.92%) is limited by...

  1. Quantitative analysis of electroluminescence images from polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeland, Marco; Rösch, Roland; Hoppe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the micro-diode-model (MDM) based on a discrete network of interconnected diodes, which allows for quantitative description of lateral electroluminescence emission images obtained from organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Besides the distributed solar cell description, the equivalent circuit, respectively, network model considers interface and bulk resistances as well as the sheet resistance of the semitransparent electrode. The application of this model allows direct calculation of the lateral current and voltage distribution within the solar cell and thus accounts well for effects known as current crowding. In addition, network parameters such as internal resistances and the sheet-resistance of the higher resistive electrode can be determined. Furthermore, upon introduction of current sources the micro-diode-model also is able to describe and predict current-voltage characteristics for solar cell devices under illumination. The local nature of this description yields important conclusions concerning the geometry dependent performance and the validity of classical models and equivalent circuits describing thin film solar cells.

  2. Polymer electrolyte system based on carrageenan-poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite for dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. A.; Camacho, D. H.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-κ-carregeenan polymer electrolyte blend was prepared and incorporated as the electrolyte system in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Polymer blends prepared with different κ-carrageenan concentrations and molecular weights were investigated. It was found that the conductivity of the polymer blend increases with higher κ-carrageenan concentration, and lowers with degraded κ-carregeenan. The polymer blend was incorporated in a DSSC and yielded a solar cell with efficiency (η) of 0.421%.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SUNSPOT AREA OVER TWO SOLAR CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Toma, G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Chapman, G. A.; Preminger, D. G.; Cookson, A. M., E-mail: detoma@ucar.edu [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We examine changes in sunspots and faculae and their effect on total solar irradiance during solar cycles 22 and 23 using photometric images from the San Fernando Observatory. We find important differences in the very large spots between the two cycles, both in their number and time of appearance. In particular, there is a noticeable lack of very large spots in cycle 23 with areas larger than 700 millionths of a solar hemisphere which corresponds to a decrease of about 40% relative to cycle 22. We do not find large differences in the frequencies of small to medium spots between the two cycles. There is a decrease in the number of pores and very small spots during the maximum phase of cycle 23 which is largely compensated by an increase during other phases of the solar cycle. The decrease of the very large spots, in spite of the fact that they represent only a few percent of all spots in a cycle, is primarily responsible for the observed changes in total sunspot area and total sunspot deficit during cycle 23 maximum. The cumulative effect of the decrease in the very small spots is an order of magnitude smaller than the decrease caused by the lack of large spots. These data demonstrate that the main difference between cycles 22 and 23 was in the frequency of very large spots and not in the very small spots, as previously concluded. Analysis of the USAF/NOAA and Debrecen sunspot areas confirms these findings.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SUNSPOT AREA OVER TWO SOLAR CYCLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine changes in sunspots and faculae and their effect on total solar irradiance during solar cycles 22 and 23 using photometric images from the San Fernando Observatory. We find important differences in the very large spots between the two cycles, both in their number and time of appearance. In particular, there is a noticeable lack of very large spots in cycle 23 with areas larger than 700 millionths of a solar hemisphere which corresponds to a decrease of about 40% relative to cycle 22. We do not find large differences in the frequencies of small to medium spots between the two cycles. There is a decrease in the number of pores and very small spots during the maximum phase of cycle 23 which is largely compensated by an increase during other phases of the solar cycle. The decrease of the very large spots, in spite of the fact that they represent only a few percent of all spots in a cycle, is primarily responsible for the observed changes in total sunspot area and total sunspot deficit during cycle 23 maximum. The cumulative effect of the decrease in the very small spots is an order of magnitude smaller than the decrease caused by the lack of large spots. These data demonstrate that the main difference between cycles 22 and 23 was in the frequency of very large spots and not in the very small spots, as previously concluded. Analysis of the USAF/NOAA and Debrecen sunspot areas confirms these findings.

  5. Thermocleavable materials for polymer solar cells with high open circuit voltage-a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren A; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O

    2009-12-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3MHOCT) and unsubstituted polythiophene (PT) were used, the latter of which results from thermo cleaving the former at 310 degrees C. As reference, P3HT solar cells were built in parallel. As electron acceptors, either PCBM or bis-[60]PCBM were used. In excess of 300 solar cells were produced under as identical conditions as possible, varying only the material combination of the photo active layer. It was observed that on replacing PCBM with bis[60]PCBM, the open circuit voltage on average increased by 100 mV for P3MHOCT and 200 mV for PT solar cells. Open circuit voltages approaching 1 V were observed for the PT:bis[60]PCBM solar cells and a maximum conversion efficiency of 1.3% was obtained for solar cells with P3MHOCT:PCBM as the photoactive material. For the reference solar cells maximum efficiencies of 2.1 and 2.4% were achieved for P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:bis[60]PCBM, respectively. Despite special measures taken in terms of substrate design and device processing, a substantial spread in the photovoltaic properties was generally observed. This spread could not be correlated with the optical properties of the solar cells, the thickness of the photo active layer or the electrode deposition conditions of the aluminum top electrode. PMID:20356155

  6. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  7. A comparative study of fluorine substituents for enhanced stability of flexible and ITO-free high-performance polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia;

    2014-01-01

    Two low-band gap polymer series based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene (BDT) and dithienylbenzothiadiazole, with different numbers of fluorine substituents on the 2,3,1-benzothiadiazole unit, have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study of the photochemical stability and operational...... lifetime in flexible large area roll-coated bulk heterojunction solar cells. The two polymer series have different side chains on the BDT unit, namely 2-hexyldecyloxy (BDTHDO) (P1-P3) or 2-hexyldecylthiophene (BDT THD) (P4-P6). The photochemical stability clearly shows that the stability enhances along...

  8. Solution-processed cathode interfacial layer materials for high-efficiency polymer solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer solar cells (PSCs are a new type of renewable energy source currently being extensively investigated due to perceived advantages; such as being lightweight, low-cost and because of the unlimited materials resource. The power conversion efficiency of state-of-the-art PSCs has increased dramatically in the past few years, obtained mainly through the development of new electron donor polymers, acceptors, and novel device structures through the use of various electrode interfacial materials. In this short review, recent progress in solution-processed cathode interfacial layers that could significantly improve device performances is summarized and highlighted.

  9. Thermo-cleavable solvents for printing conjugated polymers: Application in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hagemann, Ole; Alstrup, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    ” combined with fast drying on heating that cannot be attained with the usual solvents used for conjugated polymers. The new solvents have low volatility at ambient conditions, but decompose thermally at 130–180 °C to low-boiling and highly volatile products. Characterization by thermogravimetric analysis...

  10. Flexible CdTe solar cells on polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A.N.; Romeo, A.; Baetzner, D.; Zogg, H. [ETH Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Thin Film Physics Group, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Lightweight and flexible CdTe/CdS solar cells on polyimide films have been developed in a 'superstrate configuration' where the light is absorbed in CdTe after passing through the polyimide substrate. The average optical transmission of the approximately 10-{mu}m-thin spin-coated polyimide substrate layer is more than {approx}75% for wavelengths above 550 nm. RF magnetron sputtering was used to grow transparent conducting ZnO:Al layers on polyimide films. CdTe/CdS layers were grown by evaporation of compounds, and a CdCl{sub 2} annealing treatment was applied for the recrystallisation and junction activation. Solar cells of 8.6% efficiency with V{sub oc} = 763 mV, I{sub sc} = 20.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF = 55.7% were obtained. (Author)

  11. Aesthetically Pleasing Conjugated Polymer: Fullerene Blends for Blue-Green Solar Cells Via Roll-to-Roll Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amb, Chad M.; Craig, Michael R.; Koldemir, Unsal;

    2012-01-01

    cells OPVs not utilizing poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends as a light absorbing layer. Through synthetic optimization, we show that strict protocols are necessary to yield polymers which achieve consistent photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated spin......-coated laboratory scale OPV devices with PGREEN: PCBM blends as active light absorbing layers, and compare performance to slot die-coated individual solar cells, and slot-die-coated solar modules consisting of many cells connected in series. We find that the optimum ratio of polymer to PCBM varies significantly...... as a thin-film deposition technique due its convenience. We report on the significant differences between the spin-coating of laboratory solar cells and slot-die coating of a blue-green colored, low bandgap polymer (PGREEN). This is one of the first demonstrations of slot-die-coated polymer solar...

  12. Silver Nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS Layer for Polymer Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Iwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs incorporated in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The structure of constructed solar devices was ITO/PEDOT:PSS:Ag NPs/P3HT:PCBM/Al. Typical polyol chemistry was used to synthesize silver in water solution. Ag nanoparticles were investigated by UV-vis, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS methods. We investigated influence of amount of silver in a hole transporting layer on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The value of power conversion efficiency (PCE, equal to 2.16% under simulated 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G irradiation, was found for device created in air with 60 µL of Ag NPs added to 1 mL of PEDOT:PSS. Along with the increase amount of Ag NPs from 60 to 150 µL, the PCE decrease was found. Stability of solar cells with Ag was also investigated. The loss in value of PCE after 8 months was found in the range 13–47% depending on the device architecture. The solar cells were additionally measured with impedance spectroscopy.

  13. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell - preparation and operation in air

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf; ANDREASEN, Jens Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good operational stability under illumination (1000 W m(-2), AM1.5G, 72 +/- 2 degrees C, 35 +/- 5% relative humidity) for 100 h with a 20% loss in efficiency with respect to the initial performance. The dark stor...

  14. Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Barrier Coatings and Encapsulated Polymer Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report silicon oxide coatings deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology (PECVD) on 125 μm polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces for the purpose of the shelf lifetime extension of sealed polymer solar cells. After optimization of the processing parameters, we achieved a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ca. 10−3 g/m2/day with the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) less than 0.05 cc/m2/day, and succeeded in extending the shelf lifetime to about 400 h in encapsulated solar cells. And then the chemical structure of coatings related to the properties of encapsulated cell was investigated in detail. (plasma technology)

  15. Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cells: Towards Low Environmental Impact and Reporting Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    The sun is by far the largest source of renewable energy available; consequently solar cells, which are able to convert light into electricity, have the technical potential to cover the global energy needs. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) on flexible plastic substrate have a low embodied energy and can...... be processed by fast roll-to-roll (R2R) methods, using earth abundant materials, and thus deliver the prospects to fulfil this potential. A strong polarization in PSC research efforts have led to diverging and non-comparable results: While very high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above 10% have...

  16. Polymer defect states modulate open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect states influence the operation of organic solar cells altering transport, recombination, and energetic mechanisms. This work investigates how processing conditions induce morphology-related, electrically active defects in the donor polymer of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Structural order is inferred from absorption and X-ray diffraction data, while defect density is determined from capacitance methods. A correlation is observed between the polymer nanocrystallite size, the defect concentration, and the output voltage. For the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene), processing that promote crystallinity is beneficial for the device performance as it decreases the defect density (energy disorder) that finally enlarges the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage. Defect states within the effective bandgap modulate the downshift of the hole Fermi level upon illumination that in turn establishes the achievable open-circuit voltage

  17. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zaifei; Sun, Wenjun; Himmelberger, Scott;

    2014-01-01

    ) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer–fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force...... for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal...... for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc....

  18. Polymer defect states modulate open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles, Teresa S.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà, E-mail: garciag@uji.es [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Física, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castelló (Spain)

    2013-12-09

    Defect states influence the operation of organic solar cells altering transport, recombination, and energetic mechanisms. This work investigates how processing conditions induce morphology-related, electrically active defects in the donor polymer of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Structural order is inferred from absorption and X-ray diffraction data, while defect density is determined from capacitance methods. A correlation is observed between the polymer nanocrystallite size, the defect concentration, and the output voltage. For the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene), processing that promote crystallinity is beneficial for the device performance as it decreases the defect density (energy disorder) that finally enlarges the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage. Defect states within the effective bandgap modulate the downshift of the hole Fermi level upon illumination that in turn establishes the achievable open-circuit voltage.

  19. Hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhanced stability of inverted polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report hydrophobic perfluoropolymer thin-film encapsulation for enhancing the air ambient stability of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Using a perfluoropolymer, poly(perfluorodecylmethacrylate) (PFDMA), as an encapsulation material, an orthogonal process that enables a solution-processing of encapsulation polymers to be coated directly on the inverted PSCs without damaging the underlying organic components is possible. Particularly, with PFDMA encapsulation, the air ambient stability was significantly enhanced, showing only an efficiency reduction of 23.3% after 456 hours of air exposure. The enhanced device stability can be attributed to the hydrophobic property of the PFDMA surface, which suppresses the transmission of air ambient gas molecules into the solar cells. Thus, the PFDMA coating can be beneficial in achieving high-stability organic electronics by using an easy-to-use route.

  20. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  1. Counter electrodes from conducting polymer intercalated graphene for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin; Yan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-03-01

    Creation of cost-effective and platinum-free counter electrodes (CEs) is persistent for developing advanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We present here the fabrication of conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PANi), polypyrole (PPy), or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) intercalated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) CEs on flexible Ti foil or polyethylene-terephthalate substrate for liquid-junction DSSC applications. The ration architecture integrates the high electron-conducting ability of graphene and good electrocatalytic activity of a conducting polymer into a single CE material. The preliminary results demonstrate that the resultant CEs follow an order of rGO/PPy > rGO/PANi > rGO/PEDOT > rGO. A maximal cell efficiency of 6.23% is determined on the optimized solar cell device, yielding 104.9% enhancement in comparison to rGO based device.

  2. Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with VOC >1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangqin; Le Corre, Vincent M; Gaïtis, Alexandre; Neophytou, Marios; Hamid, Mahmoud Abdul; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2016-05-01

    Efficient homo-tandem and triple-junction polymer solar cells are constructed by stacking identical subcells composed of the wide-bandgap polymer PBDTTPD, achieving power conversion efficiencies >8% paralleled by open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The high-voltage homo-tandem is used to demonstrate PV-driven electrochemical water splitting with an estimated solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ≈6%. PMID:26946165

  3. FACULAR AND SUNSPOT AREAS DURING SOLAR CYCLES 22 AND 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of facular/network and sunspot areas (and their ratio) covering most of cycle 22 and all of cycle 23. The data are corrected areas (in microhemispheres) from full-disk solar images using two photometric telescopes at the San Fernando Observatory, CFDT1 and CFDT2. Images from CFDT2 have approximately twice the spatial resolution of CFDT1. Sunspot areas are obtained from red images where spots are determined as those pixels darker than -8.5%. Facular/network areas are from Ca II K-line images where facular/network pixels are brighter than 4.8%. Regressions of facular area versus spot area for CFDT1 give a slope term of 25. For CFDT2, the slope term is 33. The average ratio of facular to spot area for cycle 22 is 45 and for cycle 23 the ratio is 42. These values are substantially higher than those from earlier studies. The increase is due to a combination of higher spatial resolution and the removal of a correction factor in μ. For the 0.3 nm K-line images, the spot to facular/network ratio is 138 for six years of cycle 23. A relation is given for the dependence of facular/network area on contrast. The relationship of facular/network area to sunspot area is linear for data from both telescopes.

  4. A Low Reabsorbing Luminescent Solar Concentrator Employing π-Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Gregory D; Coropceanu, Igor; Bawendi, Moungi G; Swager, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient thin-film luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) utilizing two π-conjugated polymers as antennae for small amounts of the valued perylene bisimide Lumogen F Red 305 is presented. The LSC exhibits high photoluminescence quantum yield, low reabsorption, and relatively low refractive indices for waveguide matching. A Monte Carlo simulation predicts the LSC to possess exceptionally high optical efficiencies on large scales. PMID:26596854

  5. Polymer nanostructures for solar cell applications: Morphology-to-performance relationship

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfleger, Jiří; Podhájecká, Klára; Vu, Q. T.

    Brno : VUTIUM Brno, 2006 - (Šandera, P.), s. 93-98 ISBN 80-214-3331-0. [International Conference Nano 06. Brno (CZ), 13.11.2006-15.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0688; GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : solar cells * TiO2 * .pi.-conjugated polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-10-11

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Influence of injected charge carriers on photocurrents in polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wehenkel, Dominique J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2012-01-01

    We determine and analyze the photocurrent Jph in polymer solar cells under conditions where, no, one, or two different charge carriers can be injected by choosing appropriate electrodes and compare the experimental results to simulations based on a drift-diffusion device model that accounts for photogeneration and Langevin recombination of electrons and holes. We demonstrate that accounting for the series resistance of the device is essential to determine Jph. Without such correction, the res...

  8. Highly Efficient Hybrid Polymer and Amorphous Silicon Multijunction Solar Cells with Effective Optical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hairen; Furlan, Alice; Li, Weiwei; Arapov, Kirill; Santbergen, Rudi; Wienk, Martijn M; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-03-16

    Highly efficient hybrid multijunction solar cells are constructed with a wide-bandgap amorphous silicon for the front subcell and a low-bandgap polymer for the back subcell. Power conversion efficiencies of 11.6% and 13.2% are achieved in tandem and triple-junction configurations, respectively. The high efficiencies are enabled by deploying effective optical management and by using photoactive materials with complementary absorption. PMID:26780260

  9. Solar water disinfection by singlet oxygen photogenerated with polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Hernandez, M. Emilia; Manjon, Francisco; Garcia-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo [Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as model microorganisms, water disinfection has been demonstrated with singlet molecular oxygen (a reactive oxygen species) photogenerated by polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers and solar light. Both laboratory and sunlight tests were performed. The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex and its insoluble support have been optimized to provide maximum efficiency of singlet oxygen production and contact with the microorganism. (author)

  10. Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goris, L.; Poruba, Aleš; Hoďáková, Lenka; Vaněček, Milan; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Wagner, P.; Vanderzande, D.; De Schepper, L.; Manca, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 5 (2006), 052113/1-052113/3. ISSN 0003-6951 Grant ostatní: BIL Cooperation Flanders-Czech Republic(BE) BOF04B03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solar cells * optical spectroscopy * polymer- fulleren e bulk heterojunctions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  11. Improved performance of polymer solar cells by using inorganic, organic, and doped cathode buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taohong, Wang; Changbo, Chen; Kunping, Guo; Guo, Chen; Tao, Xu; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The interface between the active layer and the electrode is one of the most critical factors that could affect the device performance of polymer solar cells. In this work, based on the typical poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) polymer solar cell, we studied the effect of the cathode buffer layer (CBL) between the top metal electrode and the active layer on the device performance. Several inorganic and organic materials commonly used as the electron injection layer in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were employed as the CBL in the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. Our results demonstrate that the inorganic and organic materials like Cs2CO3, bathophenanthroline (Bphen), and 8-hydroxyquinolatolithium (Liq) can be used as CBL to efficiently improve the device performance of the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM devices employed various CBLs possess power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.0%-3.3%, which are ca. 50% improved compared to that of the device without CBL. Furthermore, by using the doped organic materials Bphen:Cs2CO3 and Bphen:Liq as the CBL, the PCE of the P3HT:PCBM device will be further improved to 3.5%, which is ca. 70% higher than that of the device without a CBL and ca. 10% increased compared with that of the devices with a neat inorganic or organic CBL. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61204014), the “Chenguang” Project (13CG42) supported by Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation, China, and the Shanghai University Young Teacher Training Program of Shanghai Municipality, China.

  12. Enhanced efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Tran, Vinh Son; Halašová, Klára; Pfleger, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav; Tran, Q. T.

    Badajoz : Formatex Research Center, 2012. s. 124. [The Energy & Materials Research Conference - EMR 2012. 20.06.2012-22.06.2012, Torremolinos] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0941; GA MŠk 7E10040 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247745 - FlexNet Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solar cells * plasmonics * gold nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Thiophene-rich fused-aromatic thienopyrazine acceptor for donor–acceptor low band-gap polymers for OTFT and polymer solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Thiophene enriched fused-aromatic thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine systems were designed and employed to produce low band gap polymers (Eg = 1.0-1.4 eV) when copolymerized with fluorene and cyclopentadithiophene. The copolymers are mainly investigated for organic thin film transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. Molecular packing in the thin films of these polymers was investigated using Grazing incidence X-ray Scattering. Although both fluorene and cyclopentadithiophene polymers follow similar face to face π-π stacking, the latter polymers show much smaller lamellar d-spacings due to side-chain interdigitation between the lamellae. This lead to the higher charge carrier mobilities in cyclopentadithiophene polymers (up to 0.044 cm2/V.s) compared to fluorene polymers (up to 8.1 × 10-3 cm2/V.s). Power conversion efficiency of 1.4% was achieved using fluorene copolymer in solar cells with a fullerene derivative as an acceptor. Although the cyclopentadithiophene polymers show lower band gaps with higher absorption coefficients compared to fluorene copolymers, but the power conversion efficiencies in solar cells of these polymers are low due to their low ionization potentials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  14. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zaifei

    2014-01-01

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Random Conjugated Copolymers with Panchromatic Absorption for High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Jo, Won Ho

    2013-03-01

    One of the most important issues for polymer solar cells (PSCs) is to develop conjugated polymers with broad light absorption, high mobility and appropriate orientation to provide effective pathways to electrode. Particularly, the broad light absorption of the polymer is important to enhance the power conversion efficiency because the limited absorption leads to low current in comparison with other inorganic-based solar cells. A fascinating approach to extend light absorption is the synthesis of copolymers composed of several chromophores. Among various building blocks, diketopyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DPP) and 6,6'-[3,3']biindolylidene-2,2'-dione (isoindigo) have attracted much interest since they are easily accessible and exhibit promising optoelectronic properties. Here, we report random conjugated copolymers consisting of DPP and isoindigo as co-electron acceptor of donor-acceptor conjugated polymer. The random copolymers exhibited not only broad light absorption but also low-lying HOMO levels. Also, the predominant face-on orientation of the copolymers is beneficial for vertical charge transport in PSCs. The combination of excellent optoelectrical properties and favorable molecular conformation makes copolymers promising candidate for active material in high performance PSCs.

  16. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance–voltage (C–V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  17. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell-preparation and operation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Andreasen, Jens W [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum, University of Freiburg, Stefan Meier Strasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: frederik.krebs@risoe.dk

    2008-10-22

    A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good operational stability under illumination (1000 W m{sup -2}, AM1.5G, 72 {+-} 2 deg. C, 35 {+-} 5% relative humidity) for 100 h with a 20% loss in efficiency with respect to the initial performance. The dark storability (darkness, 25 deg. C, 35 {+-} 5% relative humidity) has been shown to exceed six months without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene) (P3MHOCT), which through a thermal treatment is converted to the insoluble form poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) that generally gives stable polymer solar cells. The devices employed a solution based silver back electrode. One advantage is that preparation of the devices is very simple and can be carried out by hand under ambient conditions, requiring only a hot plate that can reach a temperature of 210 deg. C, and preferably also a spincoater. This type of device is thus excellently suited for teaching and demonstration purposes provided that the materials are at hand.

  18. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell—preparation and operation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf; Andreasen, Jens W.

    2008-10-01

    A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good operational stability under illumination (1000 W m-2, AM1.5G, 72 ± 2 °C, 35 ± 5% relative humidity) for 100 h with a 20% loss in efficiency with respect to the initial performance. The dark storability (darkness, 25 °C, 35 ± 5% relative humidity) has been shown to exceed six months without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene) (P3MHOCT), which through a thermal treatment is converted to the insoluble form poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) that generally gives stable polymer solar cells. The devices employed a solution based silver back electrode. One advantage is that preparation of the devices is very simple and can be carried out by hand under ambient conditions, requiring only a hot plate that can reach a temperature of 210 °C, and preferably also a spincoater. This type of device is thus excellently suited for teaching and demonstration purposes provided that the materials are at hand.

  19. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominetti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Andrea; Longo, Luca [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.po@eni.com [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Tacca, Alessandra; Carbonera, Chiara; Salvalaggio, Mario [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Baldrighi, Michele; Meille, Stefano Valdo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, IT-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells.

  20. Roll-to-roll embossing of optical linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XinQuan; Liu, Kui; Shan, Xuechuan; Liu, Yuchan

    2014-12-15

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing has been proven to be a high-throughput and low-cost technology for continuous fabrication of functional optical polymer films. In this paper, we have firstly studied a complete manufacturing cycle of linear Fresnel lens polymer film for solar concentration in the aspects of ultra-precision diamond machining of metal roller mold, roll-to-roll embossing, and measurement on film profile and functionality. A metal roller mold patterned with linear Fresnel lenses is obtained using single point diamond turning technique. The roller mold is installed onto a self-developed roll-to-roll UV embossing system to realize continuous manufacturing of linear Fresnel lens film. Profile measurement of the machined roller mold and the embossed polymer film, which is conducted using a stylus profilometer, shows good agreement between measured facet angles with designed ones. Functionality test is conducted on a solar simulation system with a reference solar cell, and results show that strong light concentration is realized. PMID:25607497

  1. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-02-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas, E-mail: abehjat@yazd.ac.ir; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm{sup 2} have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm2 have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I−/I3− redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance

  5. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology w...

  6. Morphology controlled open circuit voltage in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Chetan R.; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan; Hoppe, Harald [Institute of Physics and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Sommer, Michael; Wicklein, Andre; Thelakkat, Mukundan [Applied Functional Polymers, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We report a strong dependence of open circuit voltage on the altered morphology of block copolymer (P3HT-b -PPerAcr) based solar cells. The open circuit voltage increases dramatically by about 300 mV by increasing the amount of acceptor homopolymer within the block copolymer/homopolymer blends. The change in open circuit voltage is found to be in correlation with the enrichment of acceptor moiety at the film surface as identified by Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on this fact, an additional increase in open circuit voltage to its maximum values is achieved by introducing an acceptor buffer layer at the cathode interface. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Effects of surfactants on agarose-based magnetic polymer electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel agarose magnetic polymer electrolyte for DSSC was investigated. ► Four surfactants were introduced to improve the dispersivity of Fe3O4 nanoparticle. ► Fe3O4 nanoparticles are well dispersed and the ionic conductivity was improved. ► TW-80 was selected as the proper surfactant for magnetic polymer electrolyte. -- Abstract: Four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG200) and polysorbate 80 (TW-80), were added to disperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles in agarose based magnetic polymer electrolyte, for the purpose of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the interactions between surfactants and magnetic polymer electrolyte. TW-80 and PEG200 showed good dispersion properties according to surface morphology tests. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study, the ionic conductivity, charge transfer resistance, charge recombination resistance and electron lifetime of polymer electrolytes were all improved by modification, while TW-80 modified electrolyte reached the highest ionic conductivity of 2.98 × 10−3 S/cm. Moreover, the photoelectric properties were also significantly enhanced and the best energy conversion efficiency achieved 1.83% with TW-80 modification

  8. Large area high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Katsuhiko; Yamashita, Hironori; Fukui, Kenji; Takayama, Michihiro; Okada, Kenichi

    A high-efficiency, low-cost large-area multicrystalline silicon solar cell having a cell size of 15 cm x 15 cm and a substrate made by the casting method has been developed. The bifacial silicon nitride solar cell (BSNSC) fabrication process was used to construct the cell. By incorporating a new structure at the cell surface, an optimized back-surface field (BSF) process, and an electrode with a ratio of 5.2 percent into the BSNSC fabrication process, a conversion efficiency of 15.1 percent (global, AM1.5, 100 mW/sq cm, 25 C) has been obtained. The uniformity of the electrical performance of the cell has been studied by measuring the distribution of the spectral response at various points on the cell. The results of uniformity testing are presented.

  9. The Role of Electron Affinity in Determining Whether Fullerenes Catalyze or Inhibit Photooxidation of Polymers for Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-05-21

    Understanding the stability and degradation mechanisms of organic solar materials is critically important to achieving long device lifetimes. Here, an investigation of the photodegradation of polymer:fullerene blend fi lms exposed to ambient conditions for a variety of polymer and fullerene derivative combinations is presented. Despite the wide range in polymer stabilities to photodegradation, the rate of irreversible polymer photobleaching in blend fi lms is found to consistently and dramatically increase with decreasing electron affi nity of the fullerene derivative. Furthermore, blends containing fullerenes with the smallest electron affi nities photobleached at a faster rate than fi lms of the pure polymer. These observations can be explained by a mechanism where both the polymer and fullerene donate photogenerated electrons to diatomic oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion which degrades the polymer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  10. The role of electron affinity in determining whether fullerenes catalyze or inhibit photooxidation of polymers for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Eric T.; Sachs-Quintana, I.T.; Kauvar, Isaac; Mateker, William R.; Peters, Craig H.; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lloyd, Matthew T.; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Kopidakis, Nikos [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the stability and degradation mechanisms of organic solar materials is critically important to achieving long device lifetimes. Here, an investigation of the photodegradation of polymer:fullerene blend films exposed to ambient conditions for a variety of polymer and fullerene derivative combinations is presented. Despite the wide range in polymer stabilities to photodegradation, the rate of irreversible polymer photobleaching in blend films is found to consistently and dramatically increase with decreasing electron affinity of the fullerene derivative. Furthermore, blends containing fullerenes with the smallest electron affinities photobleached at a faster rate than films of the pure polymer. These observations can be explained by a mechanism where both the polymer and fullerene donate photogenerated electrons to diatomic oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion which degrades the polymer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P. de; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer:fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO3 transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted structur

  12. Describing the light intensity dependence of polymer:fullerene solar cells using an adapted Shockley diode model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Verhees, W.; Koster, L.J.A.; Galagan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells are generally optimised for operation under AM1.5 100 mW cm-2 conditions. This is also typically done for polymer solar cells. However, one of the entry markets for this emerging technology is portable electronics. For this market, the spectral shape and intensity of typical illumination

  13. A facile route to inverted polymer solar cells using a precursor based zinc oxide electron transport layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, P.; Moet, D. J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Inverted polymer: fullerene solar cells with ZnO and MoO(3) transport layers are demonstrated. ZnO films are prepared through spin casting of a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate solution, followed by low temperature annealing under ambient conditions. The performance of solar cells with an inverted struc

  14. Model for the J-V characteristics of degraded polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Gaur, Ankita

    2013-03-01

    An equivalent circuit model was developed for polymer solar cells (PSCs), which explains correctly their behavior under different test conditions. We examine here the validity of that model for degraded PSCs. For that purpose, investigations were carried out on solar cells based on the interpenetrating bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hehylthiophene) and phenyl[6,6] C61 butyric acid methyl ester. Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics were measured in dark and under illumination at different time intervals. The characteristics of fresh solar cells are explained well by the developed model, with exponential dependence of photocurrent on applied voltage. However, the degraded characteristics showed space charge limited conduction and the characteristics could be explained well by the same model but with different voltage dependence of photocurrent.

  15. Silicon nanowire array/polymer hybrid solar cell incorporating carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present a simple and novel approach of fabricating three dimensional (3D) n-Si nanowires (NWs) and poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Vertically aligned n-Si NWs arrays were fabricated by electroless chemical etching of a n-Si [1 1 1] wafer. n-Si NWs/poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells were fabricated with and without functionalized CNTs incorporation. Fabricated solar cells incorporating CNTs show open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc) fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency as 0.353, 7.85 mA cm-2, 22% and 0.61%, respectively. In fabricated devices n-Si NWs arrays form multiple heterojunctions with the polymer and provide efficient electron collection and transportation, whereas CNTs provide efficient hole transportation.

  16. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang-Yen, E-mail: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chien, Wen-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Ko, Yu-Hsin [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Ping [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Ching [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained.

  17. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm2. - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained

  18. Using Polar Coronal Hole Area Measurements to Determine the Solar Polar Magnetic Field Reversal in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, N.; Webber, S.A. Hess; Pesnell, W.D.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of solar polar coronal hole (PCH) areas since the launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) shows how the polar regions have evolved during Solar Cycle 24. We present PCH areas from mid-2010 through 2013 using data from the Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments onboard SDO. Our analysis shows that both the northern and southern PCH areas have decreased significantly in size since 2010. Linear fits to the areas derived from the magnetic-field properties indicate that, although the northern hemisphere went through polar-field reversal and reached solar-maximum conditions in mid-2012, the southern hemisphere had not reached solar-maximum conditions in the polar regions by the end of 2013. Our results show that solar-maximum conditions in each hemisphere, as measured by the area of the polar coronal holes and polar magnetic field, will be offset in time.

  19. Enhancing the performance of nanostructured zinc oxide/polymer-based hybrid solar cells using ammonia as a structural and interfacial modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of ammonia solution treatment on the ZnO nanostructure and its influence on the photovoltaic device performance of conjugated polymer/nanostructured ZnO-based hybrid solar cells (HSC). The ammonia solution was used as the etching agent on the ZnO nanostructure as well as the interface modifier between ZnO/polymer interfaces which led to a better open circuit voltage (VOC). The etching of ZnO nanostructure provides better polymer infiltration inside the nanostructure arrays with higher effective donor-acceptor interface area. We have also investigated the absorption and photoluminescence behaviour of the NH3-treated device in comparison with an untreated device. The study showed that the NH3 etching with optimized time over ZnO nanostructure enhances the absorption, charge carrier separation, recombination suppression which leads to the improvement in the overall performance of the photovoltaic device. (paper)

  20. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials. PMID:27411487

  1. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials.

  2. Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ying; Tu, Kun-Hua; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Li, Shao-Sian; Hwang, Jeong-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2011-08-23

    In this article, we demonstrate a semitransparent inverted-type polymer solar cell using a top laminated graphene electrode without damaging the underlying organic photoactive layer. The lamination process involves the simultaneous thermal releasing deposition of the graphene top electrode during thermal annealing of the photoactive layer. The resulting semitransparent polymer solar cell exhibits a promising power conversion efficiency of approximately 76% of that of the standard opaque device using an Ag metal electrode. The asymmetric photovoltaic performances of the semitransparent solar cell while illuminated from two respective sides were further analyzed using optical simulation and photocarrier recombination measurement. The devices consisting of the top laminated transparent graphene electrode enable the feasible roll-to-roll manufacturing of low-cost semitransparent polymer solar cells and can be utilized in new applications such as power-generated windows or multijunction or bifacial photovoltaic devices. PMID:21749099

  3. A composite light-harvesting layer from photoactive polymer and halide perovskite for planar heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Rahaq, Yaqub; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    A new route for fabrication of photoactive materials in organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells is presented in this report. Photoactive materials by blending a semiconductive conjugated polymer with an organolead halide perovskite were fabricated for the first time. The composite active layer was then used to make planar heterojunction solar cells with the PCBM film as the electron-acceptor. Photovoltaic performance of solar cells was investigated by J-V curves and external quantum efficiency spectra. We demonstrated that the incorporation of the conjugated photoactive polymer into organolead halide perovskites did not only contribute to the generation of charges, but also enhance stability of solar cells by providing a barrier protection to halide perovskites. It is expected that versatile of conjugated semi-conductive polymers and halide perovskites in photoactive properties enables to create various combinations, forming composites with advantages offered by both types of photoactive materials. PMID:27411487

  4. Pad printing as a film forming technique for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-04-15

    Pad printing as a technique for preparing the active layer in polymer solar cells is presented. The technique employs a silicone rubber stamp to pick up the motif from a gravure plate and transfer it to the substrate. The strengths and limitations of pad printing are discussed and polymer solar cells prepared by pad printing are presented. Devices were prepared on indium tin oxide substrates but in principle the entire photovoltaic device comprising front and back electrodes, barrier layers and active layer could be printed with no need for vacuum steps. The device geometry comprises a spin coated transparent zinc oxide front electrode, a pad printed active layer based on a bulk heterojunction of the thermocleavable polymer poly(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)thiophene-co-thiopene) (P3MHOCT) and zinc oxide nanoparticles, spin coated PEDOT:PSS and finally a manually cast thermally cured silver paste back electrode. The P3MHOCT was converted to poly(3-carboxy-dithiophene) (P3CT) in situ by heating the film to 200 C for a brief period. The entire printing and device preparation was carried out in the ambient atmosphere and the devices obtained had a good stability in air during storage and operation. (author)

  5. Rapid flash annealing of thermally reactive copolymers in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2012-01-01

    Light induced thermocleaving of a thermally reactive copolymer based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) in contact with the heat sensitive substrate the heat sensitive substrate polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) was effectively demonstrated with the use of high...... photonic sintering system was successfully implemented in a full roll-to-roll process on flexible PET substrates and large-area polymer solar cell modules were prepared by solution processing of five layers under ambient conditions using the photonic sintering system for thermocleaving of the active layer....... The PET foil did not show any deformation after exposure to the high intensity light only leaving the insoluble thermocleaved active layer. The active layer remained planar after light exposure thereby allowing the coating of supplementary material on top....

  6. Hybrid Silver Mesh Electrode for ITO-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Cells with Good Mechanical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanjung; Kim, Soyeon; Kang, Iljoong; Jung, Myung Sun; Kim, Sung June; Kim, Jung Kyu; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2016-05-10

    Herein, we report a tailored Ag mesh electrode coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The introduction of this highly conductive polymer solves the existing problems of Ag mesh-type transparent conductive electrodes, such as high pitch, roughness, current inhomogeneity, and adhesion problems between the Ag mesh grid and PEDOT polymer or PET substrate, to result in excellent electron spreading from the discrete Ag mesh onto the entire surface without sacrificing sheet conductivity and optical transparency. Based on this hybrid anode, we demonstrate highly efficient flexible polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a high fill factor of 67.11 %, which results in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.9 % based on a poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}):[6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction device. Furthermore, the PSC device with the Ag mesh electrode also exhibits a good mechanical bending stability, as indicated by a 70 % retention of the initial PCE after 500 bending cycles compared with the PSC device with a PET/indium tin oxide electrode, which retained 0 % of the initial PCE after 300 bending cycles. PMID:27038288

  7. Morphology control of polymer: Fullerene solar cells by nanoparticle self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan

    During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based solar cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer solar cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on control of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer solar cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) solar cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was

  8. A novel polymer gel electrolyte based on cyanoethylated cellulose for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer gel electrolyte with the cyanoethylated hydroxypropyl cellulose (CN-HPC) as polymer matrix was prepared and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ionic conductivities of the gel electrolytes based on LiI/I2 and 1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium iodide (MHII)/I2 as the I−/I3− redox couple were determined, being 2.94 mS cm−1 and 2.46 mS cm−1 with the respective diffusion constants of I3− (Dapp) of 2.54 × 10−6 cm2 S−1, 2.15 × 10−6 cm2 S−1. Under the optimized condition, the overall conversion efficiencies of quasi-solid DSSCs were determined to be 7.40% based on a triphenylamine dye (SD2) and 7.55% based on a ruthenium dye (N719), which is 94% of those with liquid electrolyte.

  9. Effect of polymer electrolyte on the performance of natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, R.; Abdallah, T.; Moustafa, Y. M.; Al-sabagh, A. M.; Talaat, H.

    2015-10-01

    Polymer electrolyte based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), Ethylene Carbonate (EC) and Acetonitrile (ACN) mixed with Potassium Iodide and Iodine in liquid and thin film forms were employed in natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs). Three natural dyes; black berry, hibiscus and rose are used as the sensitizing dye. The NDSSCs used, follow the configuration: FTO/TiO2/Natural Dye/Electrolyte/ Carbon/FTO. The liquid form polymer electrolyte with black berry natural dye gives an increase of 111% in short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), 17.5% to open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor of 0.57 ± 0.05 and three times increase in the conversion efficiency of 0.242 ± 0.012% compared to the iodine electrolyte.

  10. Pentacene nanostructural interlayer for the efficiency improvement of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In poly(3-hexylthiophene) mixed with phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterojunction polymer solar cells, organic small molecular pentacene was introduced as the interfacial layer between PEDOT:PSS coated ITO substrates and polymer layer. It is found that the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency were distinctly improved due to the introduction of the nanostructural pentacene interlayer. The nearly 100% power conversion efficiency improvement was obtained on the cells with a 4 nm pentacene interlayer, which benefits from the increased short circuit current from 2.34 mA/cm2 to 5.76 mA/cm2. The morphology of different thicknesses of pentacene thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy. The effect of pentacene interlayer's thickness on the distribution of light in the active layer was simulated by using a transfer matrix mode.

  11. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell-preparation and operation in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf; Andreasen, Jens W

    2008-10-22

    A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good operational stability under illumination (1000 W m(-2), AM1.5G, 72 ± 2 °C, 35 ± 5% relative humidity) for 100 h with a 20% loss in efficiency with respect to the initial performance. The dark storability (darkness, 25 °C, 35 ± 5% relative humidity) has been shown to exceed six months without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene) (P3MHOCT), which through a thermal treatment is converted to the insoluble form poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) that generally gives stable polymer solar cells. The devices employed a solution based silver back electrode. One advantage is that preparation of the devices is very simple and can be carried out by hand under ambient conditions, requiring only a hot plate that can reach a temperature of 210 °C, and preferably also a spincoater. This type of device is thus excellently suited for teaching and demonstration purposes provided that the materials are at hand. PMID:21832673

  12. Hybrid nanostructured solar cells based on the incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles in polymer-fullerene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Jilian N.; Nogueira, Ana Flávia

    2010-08-01

    Ternary systems based on mixtures of polymer, PCBM and CdSe nanoparticles were investigated. The photophysical and electrochemical properties were modulated by changing the size of the inorganic nanoparticles and their effects on the performance of the solar cells were analyzed. At the optimized conditions, the presence of the nanoparticles increased the photocurrent and photovoltage, improving the efficiency of the devices. A complete study on the morphologic effects induced by the presence of these nanoparticles was performed using AFM, HR-TEM and optical microscopy techniques.

  13. Electrostatically self-assembled nonconjugated polyelectrolytes as an ideal interfacial layer for inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hongkyu; Hong, Soonil; Lee, Jongjin; Lee, Kwanghee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Heeger Center for Advanced Materials, Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-12

    Nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (NPEs) are ideal interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells (I-PSCs). The NPEs are coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) using ionic self-assembly. Due to dipole formation between the cationic amine of the NPE and the anionic oxygen of ITO, the work function of ITO is dramatically reduced from 4.8 to 4.0 eV. Using the modified ITO, UV-independent I-PSCs with high efficiencies of 6.3% are demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Enhancement of power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells by plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfleger, Jiří; Tran, V. S.; Halašová, Klára; Kazim, Samrana; Šlouf, Miroslav

    Thessaloniki: Laboratory for Thin Films Nanosystems and Nanometrology, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2012. s. 80. [International Symposium on Flexible Organic Electronics /5./ - ISFOE12. 02.07.2012-05.07.2012, Thessaloniki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0941; GA MŠk 7E10040 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247745 - FlexNet Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanoparticles * polymer * solar cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Enabling Flexible Polymer Tandem Solar Cells by 3D Ptychographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind;

    2015-01-01

    one after the other by wet processing leaves plenty of room for error and the process development calls for an analytical technique that enables 3D reconstruction of the layer stack with the possibility to probe thickness, density, and chemistry of the individual layers in the stack. The use of......The realization of a complete tandem polymer solar cell under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods on a flexible substrate results in a fully scalable process but also requires accurate control during layer formation to succeed. The serial process where the layers are added...

  16. Electrical and optical properties of hybrid polymer solar cells incorporating Au and CuO nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna P. Wanninayake; Shengyi Li; Benjamin C. Church; Nidal Abu-Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer solar cells (PSCs), Gold (Au) and Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are incorporated into the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM active layers respectively. PSCs with a constant CuO-NP content were fabricated with varying amounts of Au NPs. Addition of Au NPs increased the power conversion efficiency by up to 18% compared to a reference cell without Au-NPs. The short circuit current(Jsc) of the cells containing 0.06 mg of ...

  17. Improving charge transport property and energy transfer with carbon quantum dots in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunyu; Chang, Kaiwen; Guo, Wenbin, E-mail: guowb@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenwy@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: dawei.yan@hotmail.com; Li, Hao; Shen, Liang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Weiyou, E-mail: guowb@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenwy@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: dawei.yan@hotmail.com [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yan, Dawei, E-mail: guowb@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenwy@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: dawei.yan@hotmail.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-983, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-08-18

    Carbon quantum dots (Cdots) are synthesized by a simple method and introduced into active layer of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The performance of doped devices was apparently improved, and the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.05% was obtained, corresponding to a 28.2% enhancement compared with that of the contrast device. The charge transport properties, resistance, impedance, and transient absorption spectrum are systematically investigated to explore how the Cdots affect on PSCs performance. This study reveals the importance of Cdots in enhancing the efficiency of PSCs and gives insight into the mechanism of charge transport improvement.

  18. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  19. Inverted polymer solar cells with enhanced fill factor by inserting the potassium stearate interfacial modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangsheng; Jiu, Tonggang; Li, Bairu; Kuang, Chaoyang; Chen, Qiushan; Ma, Sushuang; Shu, Jie; Fang, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    A thin potassium stearate (KSt) film combined with an optimized ZnO film was introduced to improve the fill factor (FF) of highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements were used to show that the introduction of KSt did not change the morphology of interlayer. On the contrary, it is beneficial for the spread of the active layer on the interlayer. The origin of enhanced FF was systematically studied by the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of the data analysis, the reduced charge recombination loss was responsible for this improved FF. At last, when KSt was replaced by sodium stearate (NaSt), the similar experiment phenomenon was observed. This indicates that inserting a metallic stearate modified layer is a promising strategy to enhance inverted PSCs performance.

  20. Plasmon-enhanced polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with solution-processable Ag nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qi-qi; QIN Wen-jing; WANG Chao; SONG Peng-fei; DING Guo-jing; YANG Li-ying; YIN Shou-gen

    2011-01-01

    We report the plasmon-enhanced polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) obtained via chemical method.Here,the AgNPs films with different particle densities are introduced between the poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) buffer layer and the poly (3-hexythiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) layer.By improving the optical absorption of the active layer owing to the localized surface plasmons,the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells is increased compared with the control device.It is shown that the efficiency of the device increases with the density of AgNPs.For the device employing higher density,the resulted power conversion efficiency is found to increase from 2.89% to 3.38%,enhanced by 16.96%.

  1. Elaboration of Conductive Polymer thin films (P3HT/PCBM) by spin coating method - Application for hybrid organic solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanostructured polymer-fullerene thin film is one of the most prominent materials to make the hybrid bulk heterofunction solar cell (BHJ) with high conversion efficiency. Especially when the blend of P3HT and PCBM was used as a donor and accepter materials. The properties of P3HT and PCBM layer in solar cell has been much studied and considered as high performance systems. One of the important factors for the high performance device is the fabrication of photoactive layer with the appropriate thickness and morphology. In the ideal case, the intermolecular distance between the polymer and fullerene should be appropriately 10-20 nm (the exciton diffusion distance) giving an area of extensive contact between the two phases. After the dissociation of carriers, the two polymer phases should create the path way for carriers to reach electrodes. But so far, this ideal configuration has not been published. In this work, we have elaborated the P3HT and PCBM photoactive layers by spin coating method on glass substrates covered ITO electrode. The rotational velocity was determined to get the necessary effective thickness of the polymer film. The annealing effect on structure, optical and electrical properties of the polymer thin film with different content of PCBM were also investigated. The experiments show the best device on electrode ITO has I-V characteristic as a photodiode and short circuit current (Isc) about milli-Ampere. These results demonstrate convincingly that polymer layers elaborated by spin coating method can result a good performance of the device. (author)

  2. A comparative study of fluorine substituents for enhanced stability of flexible and ITO-free high-performance polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia;

    2014-01-01

    Two low-band gap polymer series based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene (BDT) and dithienylbenzothiadiazole, with different numbers of fluorine substituents on the 2,3,1-benzothiadiazole unit, have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study of the photochemical stability and operational...... lifetime in flexible large area roll-coated bulk heterojunction solar cells. The two polymer series have different side chains on the BDT unit, namely 2-hexyldecyloxy (BDTHDO) (P1-P3) or 2-hexyldecylthiophene (BDT THD) (P4-P6). The photochemical stability clearly shows that the stability enhances along...... series showed the best performance, reaching efficiencies up to 3.8% for an active area of 1 cm2, due to an enhanced current compared to P1-P3. Lifetime measurements, carried out according to international summit on OPV stability (ISOS), of encapsulated devices reveals an initial fast decay for P1-P6 in...

  3. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis;

    2016-01-01

    The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver and...... zinc to the environment through precipitated water for damaged solar cells, and also observed failure and emission from an initially undamaged device in an experiment that endured for 6 months. In the case of the damaged cells, we found that the drinking water limits for Ag were only exceeded on a few...

  4. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO2/electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  5. Solidification of liquid electrolyte with imidazole polymers for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Miao [Beijing National laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Lin Yuan [Beijing National laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: linyuan@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen; Xiao Xurui [Beijing National laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Lei [Beijing National laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng Shujing; Li Xueping [Beijing National laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Quasi-solid-state electrolytes were prepared by employing the imidazole polymers to solidify the liquid electrolyte containing lithium iodide, iodine and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) mixed solvent. The ionic conductivity and diffusion behavior of triiodide in the quasi-solid-state electrolytes were examined in terms of the polymer content. Application of the quasi-solid-state electrolytes to the dye-sensitized solar cells, the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.6% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm{sup -2}) was achieved. The dependence of the photovoltaic performance on the polymer content and on the different anions of the imidazole polymers was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicate the charge transfer behaviors occurred at nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}/electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface play an important role in influencing the photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Effect of acceptor strength on optical and electronic properties in conjugated polymers for solar applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasegun O; Jung, In Hwan; Orr, Meghan; Yu, Luping; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-05-01

    Four new low-bandgap electron-accepting polymers-poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(2-(2-ethylhexyl)-1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]isothiazol-4-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H-dione) (PNSW); poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4,6-dioxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione) (PNTPD); poly(5-(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-5,11-dioxo-4,5,10,11-tetrahydrothieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinolin-2-yl)-2,9-bis(2-decyldodecyl)anthra[2,1,9-def:6,5,10-d'e'f']diisoquinoline-1,3,8,10(2H,9H)-tetraone) (PNPDI); and poly(9,9-bis(2-butyloctyl)-9H-fluorene-bis((1,10:5,6)2-(5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-4-ylidene)malonitrile)-2-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine)) (PECN)-containing thieno[2',3':5',6']pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione and fluorenedicyclopentathiophene dimalononitrile, were investigated to probe their structure-function relationships for solar cell applications. PTB7 was also investigated for comparison with the new low-bandgap polymers. The steady-state, ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical properties of all the organic polymers were probed. All the polymers showed broad absorption in the visible region, with the absorption of PNPDI and PECN extending into the near-IR region. The polymers had HOMO levels ranging from -5.73 to -5.15 eV and low bandgaps of 1.47-2.45 eV. Fluorescence upconversion studies on the polymers showed long lifetimes of 1.6 and 2.4 ns for PNSW and PNTPD, respectively, while PNPDI and PECN showed very fast decays within 353 and 110 fs. PECN exhibited a very high two-photon absorption cross section. The electronic structure calculations of the repeating units of the polymers indicated the localization of the molecular orbitals in different co-monomers. As the difference between the electron affinities of the co-monomers in the repeating units decreases, the highest

  7. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated...

  8. Understanding polycarbazole-based polymer:CdSe hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time the fabrication and characterization of organic–inorganic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells made of poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and pyridine-capped CdSe nanorods. By optimizing both CdSe loading and active layer film thickness, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PCDTBT:CdSe hybrid solar cells were able to reach 2%, with PCDTBT:CdSe devices displaying an open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is 35% higher than P3HT:CdSe devices due to the deeper HOMO level of PCDTBT polymer. The performance of PCDTBT:CdSe devices is limited by its morphology and also its lower LUMO energy offset compared to P3HT:CdSe devices. Hence, the performance of PCDTBT:CdSe solar cells could be further improved by modifying the morphology of the films and also by including an interlayer to generate a built-in voltage to encourage exciton dissociation. Our results suggest that PCDTBT could be a viable alternative to P3HT as an electron donor in hybrid BHJ solar cells for high photovoltage application. (paper)

  9. Nanostructured Conjugated Polymers for Energy-Related Applications beyond Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Zhao, Cui-E; Lin, Zong-Qiong; Gu, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-05-20

    To meet the ever-increasing requirements for the next generation of sustainable and versatile energy-related devices, conjugated polymers, which have potential advantages over small molecules and inorganic materials, are among the most promising types of green candidates. The properties of conjugated polymers can be tuned through modification of the structure and incorporation of different functional moieties. In addition, superior performances can be achieved as a result of the advantages of nanostructures, such as their large surface areas and the shortened pathways for charge transfer. Therefore, nanostructured conjugated polymers with different properties can be obtained to be applied in different energy-related organic devices. This review focuses on the application and performance of the recently reported nanostructured conjugated polymers for high-performance devices, including rechargeable lithium batteries, microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thermoelectric generators, and photocatalytic systems. The design strategies, reaction mechanisms, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conjugated polymers are further discussed in each section. Finally, possible routes to improve the performances of the current systems are also included in the conclusion. PMID:26971875

  10. The role of triplet excitons in enhancing polymer solar cell efficiency: a photo-induced absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Guha, Suchi

    2009-03-01

    Inclusion of heavy metal atoms in a polymer backbone allows transitions between the singlet and triplet manifolds. Interfacial dissociation of triplet excitons constitutes a viable mechanism for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) efficiencies in polymer heterojunction-based solar cells, which are now becoming feasible options for solar panels. The PV efficiency from polymer solar cells utilizing a ladder-type poly para phenylene polymer (PhLPPP) with trace quantity of Pd atoms and a fullerene derivative (PCBM) is almost 10 times more than its counterpart (MeLPPP) with no Pd atom. Evidence is presented for the formation of a weak ground-state charge-transfer complex (CTC) in the blended films of PhLPPP and PCBM, using photo- induced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. Such complexes are not seen in the PIA spectrum of MeLPPP: PCBM blends. Possible mechanisms for the CTC state formation as well as the significance of this to the understanding and optimization of polymer blended solar cells will be discussed.

  11. Side Chain Engineering of Naphthalenediimide-Based N-type Polymer for High-Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell near 6% Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeon; Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Wonho; Kim, Taesu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Woo, Han Young; Wang, Cheng; Kim, Bumjoon; Pusan National University (PNU) Collaboration; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Despite the attractive features of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), i.e., enhanced absorption coefficients, the tunability of their energetic and chemical properties and their thermal and mechanical stabilities, they still face the great challenge of having significantly low power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of only 3-5%. The prominent origins of the poor efficiency of all-PSCs are the undesirable features of the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) blend morphology including the phase-separated large-scale domain size, reduced ordering of the polymer chains. Tuning side alkyl chains of conjugated polymers is an effective route for manipulating the blend morphology in BHJ type solar cells. However, the role of side chains in all-PSCs is poorly understood. Herein, we report high-performing all-PSCs with 5.96% efficiency by developing a series of naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors with different alkyl side chains. We demonstrated that the use of the PNDIT with hexyldecyl side chains produced highly-ordered polymer stackings with strong face-on geometry and at the same time, forming the optimal BHJ morphology with finely separated phase domains, all of which contributed together to induce well-balanced μe/ μh ratio and generate efficient all-PSCs with PCEs near 6%.

  12. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of LiClO4 and LiFS3SO3 on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO2–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO4–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10−5 and 3.7×10−6 S cm−1 for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO4 and 25 wt% LiCF3SO3, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO4 and LiCF3SO3, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (Jsc=3 mA cm−2, Voc=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm−2

  13. Numerical simulations of the role of a ferroelectric polymer interfacial layer in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong; Lu, Dan

    2016-02-21

    A Pauli master equation method is adopted for the simulation of polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF-TrFE)) films as interfacial layers. According to previous reports, using highly crystalline P(VDF-TrFE) films as interfacial layers can highly enhance the efficiency of polymer BHJ solar cells, and possible mechanisms for the enhancement by two different groups were given as the dipole induced permanent internal electric field or simply the electrode improvement which implied that the origin is the barrier lowering effect. The correlation between the appearance of S-shaped current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics and the energy barrier is studied first, and then further results indicate that the previous electrode improvement model provides a consistent explanation for the origin of performance enhancement due to the insertion of polarized P(VDF-TrFE) interfacial layers. Moreover, the phenomenon of an increase of the internal electric field observed before can be attributed to better contact conditions which help reduce the bimolecular recombination rate. Comparatively speaking, the electrode improvement model can give a more rational explanation for the origin of performance enhancement experimentally found. In contrast, the dipole induced permanent internal electric field model was not complete enough. PMID:26822850

  14. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  15. Role of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Device Properties of Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-02-11

    For semiconducting polymers, such as regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) (rr-P3HT), the molecular weight has been correlated to charge carrier field-effect mobilities, surface morphology, and gelation rates in solution and therefore has important implications for long-Term reliability, manufacturing, and future applications of electronic organic thin films. In this work, we show that the molecular weight rr-P3HT in organic solar cells can also significantly change the internal cohesion of the photoactive layer using micromechanical testing techniques. Cohesive values ranged from ∼0.5 to ∼17 J m -2, following the general trend of greater cohesion with increasing molecular weight. Using nanodynamic mechanical analysis, we attribute the increase in cohesion to increased plasticity which helps dissipate the applied energy. Finally, we correlate photovoltaic efficiency with cohesion to assess the device physics pertinent to optimizing device reliability. This research elucidates the fundamental parameters which affect both the mechanical stability and efficiency of polymer solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. The Influence of Nanofilled Polymer Coatings and Magnetic Field on the Decay Kinetics of Photovoltage in Silicon Crystals Used in Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Steblenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a weak stationary magnetic field on the kinetics of photovoltage decay in "solar" silicon crystals (solar-Si with nanofilled polymer coatings is studied. The characteristic features of magnetostimulated change of carrier lifetime depending on the concentration and the method of forming the nanofillers in the polymer matrix are established.

  17. Polymer highlights for September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, H.G.; Althouse, L.P.; Buckner, A.T.; McKinley, B.; Walkup, C.M.; Rinde, J.; Lorensen, L.L.; Cady, W.E.; Caley, L.E.

    1988-12-15

    Research programs in polymer chemistry are briefly described. The following polymers are under investigation for use as adhesives, nozzles, insulators, or fluid cushions: urethanes, teflon, TFE, Tefzel, Ryton, H Resin, Imidite 2803, PPQ, KELF 800, and KELF 5500. Areas of research application include geothermal and solar energy fields. (CBS)

  18. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  19. Simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhicai; Zhong, Chengmei; Wu, Hongbin; Su, Shijian; Cao, Yong [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xun; Chen, Liwei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wong, Wai-Yeung [Institute of Molecular Functional Materials (Areas of Excellence Scheme, University Grants Committee, Hong Kong) and Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced Luminescence Materials, Hong Kong Baptist University, Waterloo Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-10-25

    Simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor in highly efficient polymer solar cells by incorporating an alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymer as cathode interlayer is domonstrated. When combined with a low-bandgap polymer PTB7 as the electron donor material, the power efficiency of the devices is improved to certified 8.370%. Due to drastic improvement in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  1. Controlling solution-phase polymer aggregation with molecular weight and solvent additives to optimize polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2014-03-20

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell performance of many polymers depends on the polymer molecular weight (M n) and the solvent additive(s) used for solution processing. However, the mechanism that causes these dependencies is not well understood. This work determines how M n and solvent additives affect the performance of BHJ solar cells made with the polymer poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co- octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD). Low M n PBDTTPD devices have exceedingly large fullerene-rich domains, which cause extensive charge-carrier recombination. Increasing the M n of PBDTTPD decreases the size of these domains and significantly improves device performance. PBDTTPD aggregation in solution affects the size of the fullerene-rich domains and this effect is linked to the dependency of PBDTTPD solubility on M n. Due to its poor solubility high M n PBDTTPD quickly forms a fibrillar polymer network during spin-casting and this network acts as a template that prevents large-scale phase separation. Furthermore, processing low M n PBDTTPD devices with a solvent additive improves device performance by inducing polymer aggregation in solution and preventing large fullerene-rich domains from forming. These findings highlight that polymer aggregation in solution plays a significant role in determining the morphology and performance of BHJ solar cells. The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy) benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Factors governing intercalation of fullerenes and other small molecules between the side chains of semiconducting polymers used in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nichole Cates; Gysel, Roman; Miller, Chad E.; Sweetnam, Sean; Sellinger, Alan; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Cho, Eunkyung [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Toney, Michael F. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    While recent reports have established significant miscibility in polymer:fullerene blends used in organic solar cells, little is actually known about why polymers and fullerenes mix and how their mixing can be controlled. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular simulations are used to study mixing in a variety of polymer:molecule blends by systematically varying the polymer and small-molecule properties. It is found that a variety of polymer:fullerene blends mix by forming bimolecular crystals provided there is sufficient space between the polymer side chains to accommodate a fullerene. Polymer:tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) bimolecular crystals were also observed, although bimolecular crystals did not form in the other studied polymer:non-fullerene blends, including those with both conjugated and non-conjugated small molecules. DSC and molecular simulations demonstrate that strong polymer-fullerene interactions can exist, and the calculations point to van der Waals interactions as a significant driving force for molecular mixing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Factors Governing Intercalation of Fullerenes and Other Small Molecules Between the Side Chains of Semiconducting Polymers Used in Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Nichole Cates

    2012-08-22

    While recent reports have established signifi cant miscibility in polymer:fullerene blends used in organic solar cells, little is actually known about why polymers and fullerenes mix and how their mixing can be controlled. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular simulations are used to study mixing in a variety of polymer:molecule blends by systematically varying the polymer and smallmolecule properties. It is found that a variety of polymer:fullerene blends mix by forming bimolecular crystals provided there is suffi cient space between the polymer side chains to accommodate a fullerene. Polymer:tetrafl uoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) bimolecular crystals were also observed, although bimolecular crystals did not form in the other studied polymer:nonfullerene blends, including those with both conjugated and non-conjugated small molecules. DSC and molecular simulations demonstrate that strong polymer-fullerene interactions can exist, and the calculations point to van der Waals interactions as a signifi cant driving force for molecular mixing. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Side-chain functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based copolymers: synsthesis and characterization of derivatives for application in polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPO, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated polymers combine semi-conductive electrical properties with desirable mechanical properties such as light weight and high mechanical strength and flexibility. This enables the development of new technologies and applications based on these materials. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) is a conjugated polymer that has been extensively investigated in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. ...

  5. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 μm thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell

  6. Optimization of cathode and intermediate layers for polymer solar cells; Optimierung von Kathoden und Zwischenschichten fuer Polymersolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with the influence of the cathode on the characteristics of polymer solar cells. In addition to studying various Abscheidearten the focus is primarily on the exploration of the effect of intermediate layers. Analysis using Sekundaerteilchenmassenspektrometrie (SIMS and SNMS) allow insight into the underlying mechanisms and interactions. The knowledge gained will be used in the realization of semi-transparent solar cells. (orig.)

  7. Effects of annealing on the polymer solar cells based on CdSe–PVK electron acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► At annealing temperature of 150 °C/30 min, the device demonstrated an optimal efficiency. ► Thermal annealing enhanced PV cell performance by optimizing both the donor/acceptor morphology. ► The improved nanoscale morphology is responsible for the enhancement of the device efficiency. - Abstract: CdSe–poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (CdSe–PVK) nanocomposite was synthesized and utilized as the electron acceptor in the active layer of polymer solar cells. The photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):CdSe–PVK as the active layer were investigated in detail. The effects of annealing temperature (100–200 °C) and time (5–60 min) on the device performance were studied. At annealing temperature of 150 °C for 30 min, the device demonstrated an optimal efficiency of 0.235% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm−2) solar simulated light irradiation. The improved efficiency under the optimal conditions was confirmed by the highest light harvest in UV–vis spectra due to the increased crystallinity of P3HT after thermal annealing. Photoluminescence of these devices also exhibited that the quench effect increases with the increasing of annealing temperature, indicating that the charge separation between electron-donating (P3HT) and electron-accepting (CdSe–PVK) molecules was increased after heat treatment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the phase segregation and 3D interpenetrating networks of P3HT:CdSe–PVK were responsible for the enhancement of the device efficiency.

  8. Development of a silver/polymer nanocomposite interconnection layer for organic tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas; Shahpari, Mahboobeh; Edalati, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Interconnecting layers (ICL) play an important role in regulating the performance of tandem devices. We report the design of a solution-processed ICL that consists of a silver/polymer nanocomposite deposited on the top of a TiO2 layer. This nanocomposite contains modified poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS), and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the chemical reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of PEDOT:PSS. Formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by monitoring the plasmon absorption peak characteristics in the UV-visible spectrum of the synthesized nanocomposite. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of spherical silver NPs in a polymer matrix with a mean size of around 20 nm. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS was found to be 2474±35 Ω/sq. It was changed to 445±28 Ω/sq after solvent modification and decreased to 53.31±3.59 Ω/sq after synthesizing silver NPs in the polymer medium. Meanwhile, the transparency of the nanocomposite film deposited on TiO2 was 89.6%, which is considered appropriate for an interconnecting electrode. We demonstrated that by incorporating a silver/polymer nanocomposite as a hole-transporting layer in contact with TiO2 as an electron-transporting layer, the ohmic behavior of ICL is enhanced with respect to pristine PEDOT:PSS. P3HT:PCBM-based tandem solar cells based on this solution-processed intermediate electrode represent significantly increased open-circuit voltage (Voc), reaching close to the sum of the single cells. By incorporating the nanocomposite in the tandem structure, a Voc of 1.1 V was obtained. This value was almost the sum of the Voc of two single cells, which was 1.18 V.

  9. Influence of the polymer matrix on the efficiency of hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires have been fabricated. ► The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between the polymer matrices and SiNWs has been examined. ► We have investigated the effect of the polymer matrix on the photovoltaic characteristics. - Abstract: Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK):SiNWs and poly (2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenyl vinylene) (MEH-PPV):SiNWs bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) have been elaborated from blends of SiNWs and the polymer in solution from a common solvent. Optical properties of these nanocomposites have been investigated by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectral measurements. We have studied the charge transfer between SiNWs and the two polymers using the photoluminescence quenching of PVK and MEH-PPV which is a convenient signature of the reduced radiative recombination of the generated charge pairs upon exciton dissociation. We found that PVK and SiNWs constitutes the better donor–acceptor system. In order to understand the difference between PVK:SiNWs or MEH-PPV:SiNWs behaviours, photoluminescence responses were correlated with the topography (SEM) of the thin films. The photovoltaic effect of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SiNWs:PVK/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SiNWs:MEH-PPV/Al structures was studied by current–voltage (I–V) measurements in dark and under illumination and interpreted on the basis of the charge transfer differences resulting from the morphologies.

  10. Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in High Performance Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2011-06-28

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9″-hepta- decanyl-2,7-carbazole- alt -5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than ∼70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fi ll factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We fi nd that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the "fruit-fl y" P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the π-π stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBTbased BHJs. These fi ndings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The importance of fullerene percolation in the mixed regions of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2012-10-26

    Most optimized donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have active layers too thin to absorb greater than - 80% of incident photons with energies above the polymer\\'s band gap. If the thickness of these devices could be increased without sacrifi cing internal quantum effi ciency, the device power conversion effi ciency (PCE) could be signifi cantly enhanced. We examine the device characteristics of BHJ solar cells based on poly(di(2- ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2- b :4,5- b \\' ]dithiophene- co -octylthieno[3,4- c ]pyrrole-4,6- dione) (PBDTTPD) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with 7.3% PCE and fi nd that bimolecular recombination limits the active layer thickness of these devices. Thermal annealing does not mitigate these bimolecular recombination losses and drastically decreases the PCE of PBDTTPD BHJ solar cells. We characterize the morphology of these BHJs before and after thermal annealing and determine that thermal annealing drastically reduces the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions, which consist of PCBM dispersed in the amorphous portions of PBDTTPD. Decreasing the concentration of PCBM may reduce the number of percolating electron transport pathways within these mixed regions and create morphological electron traps that enhance charge-carrier recombination and limit device quantum effi ciency. These fi ndings suggest that (i) the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions of polymer BHJs must be above the PCBM percolation threshold in order to attain high solar cell internal quantum effi ciency, and (ii) novel processing techniques, which improve polymer hole mobility while maintaining PCBM percolation within the mixed regions, should be developed in order to limit bimolecular recombination losses in optically thick devices and maximize the PCE of polymer BHJ solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  12. Efficient organometal trihalide perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells on flexible polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Ball, James M.; Darwich, Mariam; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2013-11-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells offer the promise of a low-cost easily manufacturable solar technology, compatible with large-scale low-temperature solution processing. Within 1 year of development, solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiencies have risen to over 15%, and further imminent improvements are expected. Here we show that this technology can be successfully made compatible with electron acceptor and donor materials generally used in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate that a single thin film of the low-temperature solution-processed organometal trihalide perovskite absorber CH3NH3PbI3-xClx, sandwiched between organic contacts can exhibit devices with power-conversion efficiency of up to 10% on glass substrates and over 6% on flexible polymer substrates. This work represents an important step forward, as it removes most barriers to adoption of the perovskite technology by the organic photovoltaic community, and can thus utilize the extensive existing knowledge of hybrid interfaces for further device improvements and flexible processing platforms.

  13. Growth of ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition and their application in polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using pulsed-laser deposition method, crystalline ZnSe nano-needles have been grown on catalyst-coated silicon (100) substrates. The crystalline ZnSe nano-needles with the middle diameters of about 20–80 nm, and the lengths ranging from 100 to 600 nm can be grown densely on 300–400 °C substrates. The as-grown ZnSe nano-needles were well crystalline and base-grown. They are potential electron-capturing materials in polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cells for their properties of good electron-conductance and high ratio surface area. Based on the ZnSe nano-needle cathode, a five-layer composite structure of polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cell has been designed and fabricated. The absorption spectra of the blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM), ZnSe nano-needles and the combination of P3HT:PCBM and ZnSe nano-needles were examined by ultraviolet–visible-infrared spectrophotometer, respectively. The absorption bands of the combination of P3HT:PCBM and ZnSe nano-needles fit well with the solar spectral distribution. - Highlights: ► Crystalline ZnSe nano-needles grown by pulsed laser deposition. ► A five-layer polymer/inorganic hybrid solar cell based on ZnSe nano-needles cathode. ► ZnSe nano-needles improve light absorption. ► Employment of ZnSe nano-needles increase the open-circuit voltage and fill factor

  14. Non-Fullerene Polymer Solar Cells Based on Alkylthio and Fluorine Substituted 2D-Conjugated Polymers Reach 9.5% Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Haijun; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Liang; Chen, Shanshan; Zhong, Lian; Xue, Lingwei; Yang, Changduk; Li, Yongfang

    2016-04-01

    Non-fullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) with solution-processable n-type organic semiconductor (n-OS) as acceptor have seen rapid progress recently owing to the synthesis of new low bandgap n-OS, such as ITIC. To further increase power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices, it is of a great challenge to develop suitable polymer donor material that matches well with the low bandgap n-OS acceptors thus providing complementary absorption and nanoscaled blend morphology, as well as suppressed recombination and minimized energy loss. To address this challenge, we synthesized three medium bandgap 2D-conjugated bithienyl-benzodithiophene-alt-fluorobenzotriazole copolymers J52, J60, and J61 for the application as donor in the PSCs with low bandgap n-OS ITIC as acceptor. The three polymers were designed with branched alkyl (J52), branched alkylthio (J60), and linear alkylthio (J61) substituent on the thiophene conjugated side chain of the benzodithiophene (BDT) units for studying effect of the substituents on the photovoltaic performance of the polymers. The alkylthio side chain, red-shifted absorption down-shifted the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and improved crystallinity of the 2D conjugated polymers. With linear alkylthio side chain, the tailored polymer J61 exhibits an enhanced JSC of 17.43 mA/cm(2), a high VOC of 0.89 V, and a PCE of 9.53% in the best non-fullerene PSCs with the polymer as donor and ITIC as acceptor. To the best of our knowledge, the PCE of 9.53% is one of the highest values reported in literature to date for the non-fullerene PSCs. The results indicate that J61 is a promising medium bandgap polymer donor in non-fullerene PSCs. PMID:26997357

  15. π-Conjugated Organometallic Isoindigo Oligomer and Polymer Chromophores: Singlet and Triplet Excited State Dynamics and Application in Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Subhadip; Gish, Melissa K; Wang, Jiliang; Winkel, Russell W; Papanikolas, John M; Schanze, Kirk S

    2015-12-01

    An isoindigo based π-conjugated oligomer and polymer that contain cyclometalated platinum(II) "auxochrome" units were subjected to photophysical characterization, and application of the polymer in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with PCBM acceptor was examined. The objective of the study was to explore the effect of the heavy metal centers on the excited state properties, in particular, intersystem crossing to a triplet (exciton) state, and further how this would influence the performance of the organometallic polymer in solar cells. The materials were characterized by electrochemistry, ground state absorption, emission, and picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the cyclometalated units have a significant impact on the HOMO energy level of the chromophores, but little effect on the LUMO, which is consistent with localization of the LUMO on the isoindigo acceptor unit. Picosecond-nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals a transient with ∼100 ns lifetime that is assigned to a triplet excited state that is produced by intersystem crossing from a singlet state on a time scale of ∼130 ps. This is the first time that a triplet state has been observed for isoindigo π-conjugated chromophores. The performance of the polymer in bulk heterojunction solar cells was explored with PC61BM as an acceptor. The performance of the cells was optimum at a relatively high PCBM loading (1:6, polymer:PCBM), but the overall efficiency was relatively low with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.22%. Atomic force microscopy of blend films reveals that the length scale of the phase separation decreases with increasing PCBM content, suggesting a reason for the increase in PCE with acceptor loading. Energetic considerations show that the triplet state in the polymer is too low in energy to undergo charge separation with PCBM. Further, due to the relatively low LUMO energy of the polymer, charge transfer

  16. The effect of sunny area ratios on the thermal performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of sunny area ratio on model solar ponds in different geometries. • The sunny area ratio was calculated for 8 different cases. • The efficiency of the model solar pond was determined for 8 different cases. • The energy efficiencies of the solar pond are affected by the sizes of the solar pond, strongly. • The results help to select the sizes of the solar pond before construction. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of the sunny area ratios on thermal efficiency of model solar pond for different cases in Adiyaman, Turkey. For this purpose, we modeled the solar ponds to compute theoretical sunny area ratios of the zones and temperature distributions in order to find the performance of the model solar ponds. Incorporating the finite difference approach, one and two dimensional heat balances were written for inner zones and insulation side walls. Through, careful determination of the dimensions, insulation parameter and incoming solar radiation reaching the storage zone increased the efficiency of the solar pond. The efficiencies of the model solar pond were determined for case1a–2a–3a–4a to be maximum 14.93%, 20.42%, 23.51% and 27.84%, and for case1b–2b–3b–4b to be maximum 12.65%, 16.76%, 21.37% and 23.30% in August, respectively. With the increase of the sunny area ratio, the performance of the solar pond significantly increased. However, with the increasing rate of the surface area, performance increase rate decreased gradually. The results provide a strong perspective to determine the dimensions of the solar pond before starting the project of a solar pond

  17. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... efficiency similar to 1%, and long lifetime allow solar cells application in building elements like windows, facades and semi-transparent roofs. The use in DSSCs of gel polymer electrolytes prepared by liquid electrolyte incorporation into a polymer matrix such as poly-methyl-methacrylate presents...... encouraging results. A short circuit current (I-sc) of 4.45 mA cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.5 V were recorded in standard solar cells sensitized by cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2, 2'-bipyridine-4, 4'-dicarboxylate. Up-scaling tests demonstrate the easy realization of a 625 cm(2...

  18. Comparison of Two Types of Vertically Aligned ZnO NRs for Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Valls, Irene; Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren;

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NR) are prepared by two different synthesesmethods and applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs). The ZnO electrodes work as the electron transport layer with the P3HT:PCBM blend acting as the active material. Several organic blend solution conditions are optimized: c...

  19. Understanding the Role of Additives in Improving the Performance of Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells based on the polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) represent one of the most promising technologies for next-generation solar energy conversion due to their low-cost and scalability. In the last fifteen years, research efforts have led to organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ~ 12%, but these values are still insufficient for the devices to become widely marketable. To further improve solar cell performance, a thorough understanding of the complex processing-structure-performance relationships in OPV devices is required. Recently, the use of processing additives have been proved to be one of the most effective methods to tune the nanomorphology of polymer:fullerene active layer, as the incorporation of a small percentage of solvent additives results in a nearly doubling of device efficiency. However, the physics behind these improved performances by processing additives still remains unclear. In this work, by taking advantage of resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have determined that the solvent additives induce the change in the formation mechanism of polymer:fullerene nanomorphologies in the process of film casting. Progress established in the course of these studies on structural and morphological characterizations will serve as the foundation for further improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells to realize their large-scale commercial use.

  20. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices u

  1. Investigation of optical spacer layers from solution based precursors for polymer solar cells using X-ray reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Skårhøj, Jakob; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel;

    2009-01-01

    Optical spacer layers based on titaniumalkoxide precursor solutions were prepared by spin-coating on top of bulk heterojunction layers based on poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Models and experiment have shown that the performance of polymer solar cells...

  2. Thermally reactive Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based copolymers for high photochemical stability in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Andreasen, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    New thermally reactive copolymers based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) have been synthesized and explored in bulk heterojunction solar cells as mixtures with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps in...

  3. Origin of the light intensity dependence of the short-circuit current of polymer/fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Xie, H; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    A typical feature of polymer/fullerene based solar cells is that the current density under short-circuit conditions (J(sc)) does not scale exactly linearly with light intensity (I). Instead, a power law relationship is found given by J(sc)proportional to I-alpha, where alpha ranges from 0.85 to 1. I

  4. Roll coated large area ITO- and vacuum-free all organic solar cells from diketopyrrolopyrrole based non-fullerene acceptors with molecular geometry effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbaek; Zhang, Fei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks;

    2016-01-01

    morphology, and photovoltaic performance of both spin-coated ITO based and roll coated large area, ITO- and vacuum-free organic solar cells (OSCs). For spin-coated devices based on P3HT as the donor polymer the solar cells gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the following order for (P3HT:PhDMe(DPP)2.......04%) and the highest Voc was 0.82 V. Our preliminary results highlight the influence of geometry, structure and processing on the performance of non-fullerene acceptors....

  5. Human projected area factors for detailed direct and diffuse solar radiation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubaha, K.; Fiala, D.; Toftum, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    Projected area factors for individual segments of the standing and sedentary human body were modelled for both direct and diffuse solar radiation using detailed 3D geometry and radiation models. The local projected area factors with respect to direct short-wave radiation are a function of the solar...

  6. Effects of the Molybdenum Oxide/Metal Anode Interfaces on Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted polymer solar cells with molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as an anode buffer layer and different metals (Al or Ag) as anodes are studied. It is found that the inverted cell with a top Ag anode demonstrates enhanced charge collection and higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to the cell with a top Al anode. An 18% increment of PCE is obtained by replacing Al with Ag as the top anode. Further studies show that an interfacial dipole pointing from MoO3 to Al is formed at MoO3/Al interfaces due to electron transfer from Al to MoO3 while this phenomenon cannot be observed at MoO3/Ag interfaces. It is speculated that the electric field at the MoO3/Al interface would hinder hole extraction, and hence reduce the short-circuit current

  7. Enhancement of polymer solar cell performance using spin-coated reflector structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared polymer solar cells with improved performance by inserting a simple reflector layer prepared by spin-coating. The reflector consists of TiOx and SiOx layers inserted between glass substrate and indium tin oxide electrode. All the processing is performed at temperatures not exceeding 150 °C. The transmittance of the structure can be adjusted by changing the spinning speed and the number of layers used. The use of a reflector structure results in a significant increase in the short circuit current density, on average from 7.6 mA cm−2 to 8.9 mA cm−2. -- Highlights: ► Aperiodic reflector structures were prepared by spin-coating. ► Processing temperature does not exceed 150 °C. ► Optical properties can be tuned by spinning speed and the number of layers. ► Efficiency enhancement by 24% can be achieved.

  8. Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; 10.1016/j.cma.2010.01.018

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial...

  9. Morphology and interdiffusion control to improve adhesion and cohesion properties in inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The role of pre-electrode deposition annealing on the morphology and the fracture properties of polymer solar cells is discussed. We found an increase in adhesion at the weak P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface with annealing temperature, caused by increased interdiffusion between the organic layers. The formation of micrometer sized PCBM crystallites, which occurs with annealing above the crystallization temperature of PCBM, initially weakened the P3HT:PCBM layer itself. Further annealing improved the cohesion, due to a pull-out toughening mechanism of the growing PCBM clusters. Understanding how the morphology, tuned by annealing, affects the adhesive and cohesive properties in these organic films is essential for the mechanical integrity of OPV devices.

  10. Modeling of the polymer solar cell with a P3HT:PCBM active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a theoretical model for simulating the behavior of a polymer solar cell with a poly(3-hexylthiophene):1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl-[6, 6]-methanofullerene (P3HT:PCBM) active layer. Two different types of boundary conditions were considered, Dirichlet’s and mixed. For Dirichlet’s boundary conditions we have achieved an excellent agreement with the experiment. The influence of boundary conditions on the appearance of the s-shaped current-voltage characteristic (sometimes observed in experiments) has been investigated. When mixed boundary conditions are applied, calculated current-voltage characteristics are inevitably s-shaped. By altering the boundary carrier concentration, an s-shaped deformation in current-voltage characteristics is numerically simulated by using Dirichlet’s boundary conditions. (paper)

  11. High performance of inverted polymer solar cells with cobalt oxide as hole-transporting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Peng, Qing; Zhu, Weiguo; Lei, Gangtie

    2015-05-01

    Cobalt oxide (II, III) (CoOx) was inserted as efficient hole-transporting interlayer between the active layer and top electrode in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2, 4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) as an electron selective layer. The work function of CoOx was measured by Kelvin probe and the device performances with different thicknesses of cobalt oxide were studied. The device with CoOx exhibited a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiency compared with that without CoOx, which indicated that CoOx efficiently prevented the recombination of charge carriers at the organic/top electrode interface. The performance improvement was attributed to the fact that the CoOx thin film can module the Schottky barrier and form an ohmic contact at the organic/metal interface, which makes it a promising hole-transporting layer.

  12. Low-Work-Function, ITO-Free Transparent Cathodes for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Lv, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2015-09-16

    A low-work-function, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free transparent cathode having a tin oxide (SnOX)/Ag/SnOX/bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) (SASB) structure is developed without using annealing treatment. This represents the first time that Bi2O3 has been introduced to lower the work function of transparent electrodes. The SASB transparent cathode exhibits excellent photoelectric properties with a maximum transmittance of ∼88%, a low sheet resistance of ∼9.0 Ω·sq(-1), and a suitable work function of 4.22 eV that matches the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the acceptor for exacting electrons efficiently. The power conversion efficiency of the polymer solar cell with the SASB electrode is 6.21%, which is comparable to that of ITO-based devices. The results indicate that SASB is a good alternative to ITO as transparent cathodes in optoelectronic devices. PMID:26323711

  13. Using Light-Induced Thermocleavage in a Roll-to-Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Norrman, Kion

    2010-01-01

    We report on the use of intense visible light with a narrow spectral distribution matched to the region where the conjugated polymer material absorbs to selectively heat the active material and induce thermocleavage. We show a full roll-to-roll process, leading to complete large-area polymer sola...... ion mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and transmission/reflection UV−vis techniques....... cell modules using light-induced thermocleavage. The process employs full solution processing in air for all five layers in the device and does not employ indium−tin oxide or vacuum processing. The process steps were carefully analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary...

  14. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...... induced current (LBIC) mapping, External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements, and monochromatic current-voltage (I-V) characterization. Using these methods, inherent limitations to the accuracy of EQE and LBIC measurements on non-ideal tandem solar cells are identified and described through the use of a...... small-signal electrical model. The model is able to predict the EQE spectrum of the non-ideal polymer tandem solar cell, using extracted values of shunt- and series resistance of the individual junction of the tandem cell. This finally enables LBIC mapping of the individual junctions of the tandem...

  15. Performance improvement in flexible polymer solar cells based on modified silver nanowire electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danbei; Zhou, Weixin; Liu, Huan; Ma, Yanwen; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an efficient flexible polymer solar cell was achieved by controlling the UV-ozone treatment time of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) used in the electrode and combined with other modification materials. Through optimizing the time of UV-ozone treatment, it is shown that Ag NWs electrode treated by UV-ozone for 10 s improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) from 0.76% to 1.34%. After treatment by UV-ozone, Ag NWs electrodes exhibit several promising characteristics, including high optical transparency, low sheet resistance and superior surface work function. As a consequence, the performance of devices utilizing 10 s UV-ozone-treated Ag NWs with PEDOT:PSS or MoO3 as composite anode showed higher PCEs of 2.77% (2.73%) compared with that for Ag NW electrodes without UV-ozone treatment. In addition, a PCE of 5.97% in flexible polymer solar cells based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl](PBDTTT-EFT):[6, 6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as a photoactive layer was obtained.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of novel D–A porphyrin-containing copolymers for polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel asymmetrical D–A zinc porphyrin derivative was first synthesized. ► Two copolymers containing D–A zinc porphyrin derivatives were synthesized. ► Polymer solar cells were fabricated and exhibited a maximal PCE of 1.26%. - Abstract: A novel asymmetrical D–A zinc porphyrin derivative with dimehtyl triphenylamine (donor unit) and methyl benzoate (acceptor unit) as para-arms was first synthesized. Then, two new copolymers (P1 and P2) containing D–A zinc porphyrin derivatives were synthesized by the Stille coupling method and applied in PSCs. Their structures, photophysical and electrochemical properties were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The two copolymers exhibited good thermal stability and film-forming ability. The results showed that P1 containing D–A zinc porphyrin exhibits a strong absorption in the range of 400–500 nm. By the introduction of thiophene derivative with 4,7-di(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzothiadiazole (T-DTBT) conjugated side-chain unit, P2 showed broader absorption in the region of 300–650 nm than P1. The photoluminescence spectra made clear that charge transfer between the whole main chain and side chain can be effective. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the LUMO energy levels of P2 was reduced in comparison with P1 due to the introduction of electron-deficient T-DTBT conjugated side-chain unit, indicating that electron-injection and transporting properties have been improved. Polymer solar cells were fabricated based on the blend of the copolymers and methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM). The PSC based on P2:PC61BM (1:2, w/w) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.26% under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm−2.

  17. Thermocleavable π‐Conjugated Polymers – Synthesis and photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    Polymer solar cells (plastic solar cells) have seen remarkable improvements in recent years where power conversion efficiencies of up to 6% have been reported for small area devices. However in terms of stability polymer solar cells degrade during illumination and in the dark leading to operational...

  18. Fullerene-based materials for solar cell applications: design of novel acceptors for efficient polymer solar cells--a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Afshan; Omidvar, Akbar

    2015-09-14

    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) hold promise for their potential to be used as low-cost and efficient solar energy converters. PSCs have been commonly made from bicontinuous polymer:fullerene composites or so-called bulk heterojunctions. The conjugated polymer donors and the fullerene derivative acceptors are the key materials for high performance PSCs. In the present study, we have performed density functional theory calculations to investigate the electronic structures and magnetic properties of several representative C60 fullerene derivatives, seeking ways to improve their efficiency as acceptors of photovoltaic devices. In our survey, we have successfully correlated the LUMO energy level as well as chemical hardness, hyper-hardness, nucleus-independent chemical shift, and static dipole polarizability of PC60BM-like fullerene derivative acceptors with the experimental open circuit voltage of the photovoltaic device based on the P3HT:fullerene blend. The obtained structure-property correlations allow finding the best fullerene acceptor match for the P3HT donor. For this purpose, four new fullerene derivatives are proposed and the output parameters for the corresponding P3HT-based devices are predicted. It is found that the proposed fullerene derivatives exhibit better photovoltaic properties than the traditional PC60BM acceptor. The present study opens the way for manipulating fullerene derivatives and developing promising acceptors for solar cell applications. PMID:26248255

  19. Challenges Found When Patterning Semiconducting Polymers with Electric Fields for Organic Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A material-independent, contactless structuring method of semiconducting organic materials for the fabrication of interface-enhanced bilayer solar cells is not available so far. Patterning of thin films using electrohydrodynamic instabilities possesses many desired characteristics and has convincingly been used as a simple method to structure and replicate patterns of nonconducting polymers on submicrometer length scales. However, the applicability of this technique to a wider range of materials has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report attempts to structure poly(p-phenylene vinylene in a similar way. We found that thin films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyl-oxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MEH-PPV and poly(2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MDMO-PPV could not be destabilized at all in the limited accessible range of the experimental parameters set by the delicate chemical nature of these materials. We discuss failure origins and present possible loopholes for the patterning of semiconducting polymers using electric fields.

  20. Inverted polymer solar cells with employing of electrochemical-anodizing synthesized TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi, Dafeh; Hamed, Fatehy

    2016-04-01

    An inverted structure of polymer solar cells based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with using thin films of TiO2 nanotubes and nanoparticles as an efficient cathode buffer layer is developed. A total of three cells employing TiO2 thin films with different thickness values are fabricated. Two cells use layers of TiO2 nanotubes prepared via self-organized electrochemical-anodizing leading to thickness values of 203 and 423.7 nm, while the other cell uses only a simple sol–gel synthesized TiO2 thin film of nanoparticles with a thickness of 100 nm as electron transport layer. Experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 nanotubes with these thickness values are inefficient as the power conversion efficiency of the cell using 100-nm TiO2 thin film is 1.55%, which is more than the best power conversion efficiency of other cells. This can be a result of the weakness of the electrochemical anodizing method to grow nanotubes with lower thickness values. In fact as the TiO2 nanotubes grow in length the series resistance (R s) between the active polymer layer and electron transport layer increases, meanwhile the fill factor of cells falls dramatically which finally downgrades the power conversion efficiency of the cells as the fill factor falls.

  1. All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Ole; Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Polymer Department, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr. [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2008-11-15

    Multilayer tandem polymer solar cells were prepared by solution processing using thermocleavable polymer materials that allow for conversion to an insoluble state through a short thermal treatment. The problems associated with solubility during application of subsequent layers in the stack were efficiently solved. Devices comprised a transparent front cathode based on solution processed zinc oxide nanoparticles, a large band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS processed from water. The second cell in the stack employed a zinc oxide front cathode processed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer from an organic solvent, a low band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and the novel poly(carboxyterthiophene-co-diphenylthienopyrazine) (P3CTTP) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS again processed from water and finally a printed silver electrode. The devices were prepared without the use of fullerenes and vacuum steps and employ only thermal treatments and orthogonal solvents. The devices exhibited operational stability in air without any form of encapsulation. (author)

  2. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm2/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of JSC, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance

  3. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peiwen; Chen, Shan-Ci; Zheng, Qingdong; Huang, Feng, E-mail: fhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn; Ding, Kai [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou Fujian, 350002 (China)

    2015-04-20

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of J{sub SC}, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance.

  4. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations. PMID:27427659

  5. Application of Nanostructured Materials and Multi-junction Structure in Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-12-09

    With power conversion efficiency surpassing the 10% milestone for commercialization, photovoltaic technology based on solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs) provides a promising route towards a cost-efficient strategy to address the ever-increasing worldwide energy demands. However, to make PSCs successful, challenges such as insufficient light absorption, high maintenance costs, and relatively high production costs must be addressed. As solutions to some of these problems, the unique properties of nanostructured materials and complimentary light absorption in multi-junction device structure could prove to be highly beneficial. As a starting point, integrating nanostructure-based transparent self-cleaning surfaces in PSCs was investigated first. By controlling the length of the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods and covering their surface with a thin layer of chemical vapor-deposited SiO2, a highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic surface was constructed. Integrating the transparent superhydrophobic surface in a PSC shows minimal impact on the figure of merit of the PSC. To address the low mechanical durability of the transparent superhydrophobic surface based on SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods, a novel method inspired by the water condensation process was developed. This method involved directly growing hollow silica half-nanospheres on the substrate through the condensation of water in the presence of a silica precursor. Benefit from the decreased back scattering efficiency and increased light transport mean free path arise from the hollow nature, a transparent superhydrophobic surface was realized using submicrometer sized silica half-nanospheres. The decent mechanical property of silica and the “direct-grown” protocol are expected to impart improved mechanical durability to the transparent superhydrophobic surface. Regarding the application of multi-junction device structure in PSCs, homo multi-junction PSCs were constructed from an identical

  6. Enhanced Lifetime of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface Passivation of Metal Oxide Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Ngo, Evan; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2015-07-29

    The role of electron selective interfaces on the performance and lifetime of polymer solar cells were compared and analyzed. Bilayer interfaces consisting of metal oxide films with cationic polymer modification namely poly ethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) were found to enhance device lifetime compared to bare metal oxide films when used as an electron selective cathode interface. Devices utilizing surface-modified metal oxide layers showed enhanced lifetimes, retaining up to 85% of their original efficiency when stored in ambient atmosphere for 180 days without any encapsulation. The work function and surface potential of zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO/PEIE interlayers were evaluated using Kelvin probe and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) respectively. Kelvin probe measurements showed a smaller reduction in work function of ZnO/PEIE films compared to bare ZnO films when aged in atmospheric conditions. KPFM measurements showed that the surface potential of the ZnO surface drastically reduces when stored in ambient air for 7 days because of surface oxidation. Surface oxidation of the interface led to a substantial decrease in the performance in aged devices. The enhancement in the lifetime of devices with a bilayer interface was correlated to the suppressed surface oxidation of the metal oxide layers. The PEIE passivated surface retained a lower Fermi level when aged, which led to lower trap-assisted recombination at the polymer-cathode interface. Further photocharge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV) measurements were performed on fresh and aged samples to evaluate the field required to extract maximum charges. Fresh devices with a bare ZnO cathode interlayer required a lower field than devices with ZnO/PEIE cathode interface. However, aged devices with ZnO required a much higher field to extract charges while aged devices with ZnO/PEIE showed a minor increase compared to the fresh devices. Results indicate that surface modification can act as a

  7. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (14 nm)/ZnO (30 nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550 nm, Rsq of 8 Ω/◻) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics

  8. Physical and electrical models for interpreting AC and DC transport measurements in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian; Cossel, Raquel; Peeler, Seth

    We have fabricated and studied bulk heterojunction solar cells using a mixture of the low bandgap material PCPDTBT and PCBM-C60. Our transport studies show that the devices in dark have good rectification and they respond to AC voltage as a simple RC circuit. The illumination causes an additional contribution to the impedance, which varies with the level of illumination. One proposed model is that photo-generated charges can become trapped in potential wells. These charges then follow a Debye relaxation process, which contributes to a varying dielectric constant. Another proposed model is based on a RC circuit model with two capacitors which can describe the varying capacitance behavior. The physical mechanism for this model is that photo-generated charges become accumulated at the interface between PCPDTBT and PCBM-C60 and form an additional layer of charge. We will show that our circuit models and their analogous physical models can predict the AC and DC responses of polymer solar cells.

  9. Ultrafast decoherence dynamics govern photocarrier generation efficiencies in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Eleonora; Li, Hao; Grégoire, Pascal; Tuladhar, Sachetan M; Vezie, Michelle S; Few, Sheridan; Bazán, Claudia M; Nelson, Jenny; Silva-Acuña, Carlos; Bittner, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    All-organic-based photovoltaic solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their low-cost processing and short energy payback time. In such systems the primary dissociation of an optical excitation into a pair of photocarriers has been recently shown to be extremely rapid and efficient, but the physical reason for this remains unclear. Here, two-dimensional photocurrent excitation spectroscopy, a novel non-linear optical spectroscopy, is used to probe the ultrafast coherent decay of photoexcitations into charge-producing states in a polymer:fullerene based solar cell. The two-dimensional photocurrent spectra are interpreted by introducing a theoretical model for the description of the coupling of the electronic states of the system to an external environment and to the applied laser fields. The experimental data show no cross-peaks in the twodimensional photocurrent spectra, as predicted by the model for coherence times between the exciton and the photocurrent producing states of 20 fs or less. PMID:27412119

  10. Ultrafast decoherence dynamics govern photocarrier generation efficiencies in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Eleonora; Li, Hao; Grégoire, Pascal; Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Bazán, Claudia M.; Nelson, Jenny; Silva-Acuña, Carlos; Bittner, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    All-organic-based photovoltaic solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their low-cost processing and short energy payback time. In such systems the primary dissociation of an optical excitation into a pair of photocarriers has been recently shown to be extremely rapid and efficient, but the physical reason for this remains unclear. Here, two-dimensional photocurrent excitation spectroscopy, a novel non-linear optical spectroscopy, is used to probe the ultrafast coherent decay of photoexcitations into charge-producing states in a polymer:fullerene based solar cell. The two-dimensional photocurrent spectra are interpreted by introducing a theoretical model for the description of the coupling of the electronic states of the system to an external environment and to the applied laser fields. The experimental data show no cross-peaks in the twodimensional photocurrent spectra, as predicted by the model for coherence times between the exciton and the photocurrent producing states of 20 fs or less. PMID:27412119

  11. Ultrafast decoherence dynamics govern photocarrier generation efficiencies in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Eleonora; Li, Hao; Grégoire, Pascal; Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Vezie, Michelle S.; Few, Sheridan; Bazán, Claudia M.; Nelson, Jenny; Silva-Acuña, Carlos; Bittner, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    All-organic-based photovoltaic solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their low-cost processing and short energy payback time. In such systems the primary dissociation of an optical excitation into a pair of photocarriers has been recently shown to be extremely rapid and efficient, but the physical reason for this remains unclear. Here, two-dimensional photocurrent excitation spectroscopy, a novel non-linear optical spectroscopy, is used to probe the ultrafast coherent decay of photoexcitations into charge-producing states in a polymer:fullerene based solar cell. The two-dimensional photocurrent spectra are interpreted by introducing a theoretical model for the description of the coupling of the electronic states of the system to an external environment and to the applied laser fields. The experimental data show no cross-peaks in the twodimensional photocurrent spectra, as predicted by the model for coherence times between the exciton and the photocurrent producing states of 20 fs or less.

  12. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  13. Polymer solar cells based on very narrow-bandgap polyplatinynes with photocurrents extended into the near-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Zhu; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Cheung, Kai-Yin; Fung, Man-Kin; Djurisić, Aleksandra B; Chan, Wai-Kin

    2008-10-28

    The synthesis, characterization and photophysics of some solution-processable intensely coloured polyplatinynes functionalized with the thienopyrazine-thiophene hybrid spacer and their model molecular complexes are described. These metallated polymers possess extremely low bandgaps of 1.47-1.50 eV, which extend towards the near-infrared (NIR) range of the solar spectrum, and represent the lowest optical bandgaps ever reported for metallopolyynes in the literature. Both polymers can be used to fabricate efficient solar cells with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 0.63% under air mass (AM1.5) simulated solar illumination, and the possibility of covering the 600-900 nm solar-radiation range to harvest photocurrent has been demonstrated. The influence of the thienyl core as well as its substituent group, on the optical and photovoltaic behavior of these metallopolymers was investigated in detail. The power dependencies of the solar cell parameters (including the short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill-factor and PCE) were also studied. The present work offers an attractive avenue towards conjugated materials with broad solar absorptions and demonstrates the potential of metallopolyynes for both visible and NIR light power generation. PMID:19082032

  14. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  15. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  16. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  17. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  18. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  19. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  20. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  1. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  2. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  3. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  4. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area poster-size Maps for Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (poster-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  5. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  6. Replication fidelity assessment of large area sub-μm structured polymer surfaces using scatterometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent structured polymer substrates, the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over a large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line characterization of large nanostructured surfaces using scatterometry. In particular an approach to quantify the replication fidelity of high volume manufacturing processes such as polymer injection moulding is presented. Both periodic channels and semi-spherical structures were fabricated on nickel shims used for later injection moulding of Cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) substrate were the sub-μm features where ultimately transferred. The scatterometry system was validated using calibrated atomic force microscopy measurements and a model based on scalar diffraction theory employed to calculate the expected angular distribution of the reflected and the transmitted intensity for the nickel surfaces and structured COC and, respectively. (paper)

  7. Criteria for validating polaron pair dissociation in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inche Ibrahim, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    The dissociation of polaron pairs into free charge carriers in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is a fundamental step in generating photocurrent and is still in debate. In this study, we propose two simple criteria that can be used to test the validity of any polaron pair dissociation model for polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. The first criterion states that the ratio of the bimolecular recombination current density to the maximum photocurrent density should increase as a function of applied voltage. The second criterion states that the ratio of the bimolecular recombination current density to the maximum photocurrent density at short circuit should not be larger than 1. We apply these criteria to test the validity of the widely used Onsager-Braun model by using the experimental current-voltage data of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3'-7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (OC1C10-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) based solar cells. We find that our numerical analysis is not suitable to employ these criteria. Our analytical analysis, on the other hand, clearly demonstrates that the Onsager-Braun model simply cannot fulfill the first criteria. The reason is because the polaron pair dissociation given by the Onsager-Braun model is too strongly influenced by the electric field (i.e., decreases too rapidly as the electric field decreases). The analysis provides a further evidence against the widely used Onsager-Braun model. The proposed criteria can help us to determine the correct model for polaron pair dissociation by serving as a guideline on how strongly the electric field is allowed to influence the polaron pair dissociation.

  8. Optimizing the fabrication process and interplay of device components of polymer solar cells using a field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the device composition and fabrication process are well-known to crucially affect the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells. Major advances have recently been achieved through the development of novel device materials and inkjet printing technologies, which permit to improve their durability and performance considerably. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm to investigate the influence of the material characteristics, like, e.g., electrode surfaces, polymer architectures, and impurities in the active layer, as well as post-production treatments, like, e.g., electric field alignment, on the photovoltaic performance of block-copolymer solar-cell devices. Our study reveals that a short exposition time of the polymer bulk heterojunction to the action of an external electric field can lead to a low photovoltaic performance due to an incomplete alignment process, leading to undulated or disrupted nanophases. With increasing exposition time, the nanophases align in direction to the electric field lines, resulting in an increase of the number of continuous percolation paths and, ultimately, in a reduction of the number of exciton and charge-carrier losses. Moreover, we conclude by modifying the interaction strengths between the electrode surfaces and active layer components that a too low or too high affinity of an electrode surface to one of the components can lead to defective contacts, causing a deterioration of the device performance. Finally, we infer from the study of block-copolymer nanoparticle systems that particle impurities can significantly affect the nanostructure of the polymer matrix and reduce the photovoltaic performance of the active layer. For a critical volume fraction and size of the nanoparticles, we observe a complete phase transformation of the polymer nanomorphology, leading to a drop of the internal quantum efficiency. For other particle-numbers and -sizes

  9. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  10. Efficient all polymer solar cells employing donor polymer based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guanqun; Yuan, Jianyu; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zeke; Shi, Guozheng; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Jiexiong; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Ma, Wanli

    2015-11-01

    We reported all polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) employing BDT-based donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (PyTZ) (PBPT-8 and PBPT-12) as donor and NDI-based n-type polymer Poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (P(NDI2OD-T2)) (N2200) as acceptor. The influence of thermal annealing on the performance of all-PSCs was systematically investigated and discussed. It was found that the pre-annealing of the active blend films could significantly improve the all-PSCs performance. Both PBPT-8/PBPT-12:N2200 systems can deliver promising PCEs (4.12% and 4.25%) at the optimal annealing temperature of 160 oC due to the promoted film quality and charge transport properties. Morphology investigation and carrier mobility measurements have been carried out to analyze the effect of thermal annealing. This study suggests that BDT-based polymer:N2200 systems can be promising candidates for all-PSCs, with thermal annealing as an effective approach to promote the device performance.

  11. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dyer-Smith, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–alt–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymer donors with linear side-chains yield bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 4% with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor, while a PBDTTPD polymer with a combination of branched and linear substituents yields a doubling of the PCE to 8%. Using transient optical spectroscopy it is shown that while the exciton dissociation and ultrafast charge generation steps are not strongly affected by the side chain modifications, the polymer with branched side chains exhibits a decreased rate of nongeminate recombination and a lower fraction of sub-nanosecond geminate recombination. In turn the yield of long-lived charge carriers increases, resulting in a 33% increase in short circuit current (J sc). In parallel, the two polymers show distinct grazing incidence X-ray scattering spectra indicative of the presence of stacks with different orientation patterns in optimized thin-film BHJ devices. Independent of the packing pattern the spectroscopic data also reveals the existence of polymer aggregates in the pristine polymer films as well as in both blends which trap excitons and hinder their dissociation.

  12. Printed metal back electrodes for R2R fabricated polymer solar cells studied using the LBIC technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Søndergaard, Roar; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The performance of printable metal back electrodes for polymer solar cells were investigated using light beam induced current (LBIC) mapping of the final solar cell device after preparation to identify the causes of poor performance. Three different types of silver based printable metal inks were...... employed. Organic solvent based, UV-curable and water based silver inks were tested. Both grid electrodes and full electrodes were employed and it was shown via the grid electrode that the organic solvent based ink adversely affects the device performance under the printed metal whereas both the UV...

  13. Novel Terthiophene-Substituted Fullerene Derivatives as Easily Accessible Acceptor Molecules for Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Nisic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fulleropyrrolidines and methanofullerenes, bearing one or two terthiophene moieties, have been prepared in a convenient way and well characterized. These novel fullerene derivatives are characterized by good solubility and by better harvesting of the solar radiation with respect to traditional PCBM. In addition, they have a relatively high LUMO level and a low band gap that can be easily tuned by an adequate design of the link between the fullerene and the terthiophene. Preliminary results show that they are potential acceptors for the creation of efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on donor polymers containing thiophene units.

  14. A study of interfaces between organic and metal materials and their application in polymer light-emitting diodes and polymer photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juo-Hao

    2009-12-01

    In the past few decades, it attracts a lot of attention for the researches of organic semiconductor due to its new and interesting properties, compared with conventional soft material and inorganic semiconductor. Several kinds of electronic devices such as light emitting diodes, thin film transistors and photovoltaic solar cell based on these organic semiconductors are also proposed and studied. This dissertation will focus on interface between organic and metal, which is one of the mysteries and critical issues remaining in the material properties and limiting the device performance. In the first chapter, a brief review and introduction of the organic semiconductor and organic electronics will be described. The purpose is to introduce the research background, motivation and methodology. Chapter two demonstrates the concept of top-emitting light-emitting diodes and the research focus on the interfaces between the light-emitting polymer and electrodes. An interfacial layer is introduced to improve the hole-injection from the anode. Except for alternating the electrode architecture, surface treatment or modification also have significant influences on interfacial electronic structure. Chapter three describes the discovery of solvent treatment on top of the light-emitting polymer and its application on organic electrophosphorescent devices. To further study the interfaces in organic electronics, an interface layer of sol-gel processed titanium oxide is introduced into organic electronic devices. Chapter four describes the amorphous titanium oxide and its application on polymer light-emitting diodes, while Chapter five demonstrates nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and its application in both light-emitting devices and polymer photovoltaic solar cells.

  15. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minyu [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-04-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V{sub oc} closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs. (author)

  16. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  17. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  18. Enhanced performance of polymer solar cell with ZnO nanoparticle electron transporting layer passivated by in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network has been developed to passivate ZnO nanoparticles as an electron transporting layer (ETL) to improve the performance of inverted organic solar cells. The passivated ZnO ETL-based devices achieve efficiencies of 3.26% for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and 7.37% for poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  19. Conducting polymer-based counter electrode for a quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with a polysulfide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This is the first report on the use of conducting polymers as counter electrode catalysts for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ► Conducting polymer materials, i.e., polythiophene (PT), polypyrrole (PPy), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were used to prepare counter electrodes for QDSSCs. ► The influences of morphology of the PEDOT-based counter electrode (CE) on the performance of its QDSSC were studied. ► PEDOT electrode exhibits well electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte. ► The efficiency for the QDSSC with PEDOT-CE (1.35%) is comparable to that of the cell with sputtered-Au CE (1.33%). - Abstract: Conducting polymer materials, i.e., polythiophene (PT), polypyrrole (PPy), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were used to prepare counter electrodes (CEs) for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The QDSSC with PEDOT-CE exhibited the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 1.35%, which is remarkably higher than those of the cells with PT-CE (0.09%) and PPy-CE (0.41%) and very slightly higher than that of the cell with sputtered-gold-CE (1.33%). Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show that this highest conversion efficiency of the PEDOT-based cell is due to higher electrocatalytic activity and reduced charge transfer resistance at the interface of the CE and the electrolyte, compared to those in the case of the cells with other conducting polymers and bare Au. Furthermore, the influences of morphology of the PEDOT film and the charge passed for its electropolymerization on the performance of its QDSSC were also studied. The higher porosity and surface roughness of the PEDOT matrix, with reference to those of other polymers are understood to be the reason for PEDOT to possess higher electrocatalytic activity at its interface with electrolyte.

  20. Polymer-metal complex as gel electrolyte for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of polymer-metal complex gel electrolyte is successfully prepared and is used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the structure of this complex and is found that the metal ion reacts with nitrogen in the polymer. This novel electrolyte shows apparent diffusion coefficient of iodide of 8.37 x 10-7 cm2 s-1 and the energy conversion efficiency of 6.10% when the amount of ZnI2 is 0.04 M. By studying the dissociation active energy of the inorganic salt in electrolytes, we find that the metal salts can dissociate more easily after reacting with polymer and as a result can provide extra free iodide ion. The cell maintains ca. 93% of its initial efficiency after 20 d without further sealing, which shows good long-time stability.

  1. Optimization of characteristics of the j-v bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on polymer/fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many models of optical and electrical that with them can be evaluated optical absorption and voltage - current properties in organic solar cells. Study of adsorption phenomena to an optical model and to achieve voltage-current characteristics is a new method for calculating the conversion efficiency that considered in this paper. In this study with this method is reviewed two bulk heterojunction structures based on polymer/fullerene and Power conversion efficiency in these structures has been compared with each other.

  2. Small-bandgap polymer solar cells with unprecedented short-circuit current density and high fill factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyosung; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Taehyo; Morin, Pierre-Olivier; Walker, Bright; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Leclerc, Mario; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-01

    Small-bandgap polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a thick bulk heterojunction film of 340 nm exhibit high power conversion efficiencies of 9.40% resulting from high short-circuit current density (JSC ) of 20.07 mA cm(-2) and fill factor of 0.70. This remarkable efficiency is attributed to maximized light absorption by the thick active layer and minimized recombination by the optimized lateral and vertical morphology through the processing additive. PMID:25899940

  3. Solution-Processed 8-Hydroquinolatolithium as Effective Cathode Interlayer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liang, Tao; Chen, Qi; Yu, Zhikai; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Yujing; Fu, Weifei; Tang, Feng; Chen, Liwei; Chen, Hongzheng

    2016-04-13

    Solution-processed 8-hydroxyquinolinatolithium (s-Liq) was successfully applied as an efficient cathode interlayer in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), giving rise to enhancement in device performance. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectra results revealed that the presence of s-Liq could lower work function of Al cathode, allowing for the ohmic contacts with the fullerene acceptor for better electron extraction and also a larger work function difference between the two electrodes, which leads to an increase in open-circuit voltage (Voc). Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy study on the surface potential of active layers suggested that an interfacial dipole was formed in the s-Liq interlayer between the active layer and the Al cathode, which enhanced the intrinsic built-in potential in the device for better charge transportation and extraction. Consequently, the Voc, fill factor, and current density of the device can be improved by the introduction of s-Liq interlayer, leading to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement. With PTB7 (or PTB7-Th) as the donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, the s-Liq-based PSC devices exhibited a PCE of 8.37% (or 9.04%), much higher than those of devices with the evaporated Liq (7.62%) or commonly used PFN (8.14%) as the cathode interlayer. Moreover, the s-Liq-based devices showed good stability, maintaining 75% (in N2) and 45% (in air) of the initial PCE after 7 days, respectively. These results suggest the great potential of s-Liq as cathode interlayer material for high-performance solar cells application. PMID:27015527

  4. The use of polymers for solar photochemistry. Application of ionizing radiation methods for the binding of functional groups to polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of polymers for photochemical energy storage is described. A system is reported which enables the storage of energy for a time period in the range of minutes. Such systems require polymers covalently linked to specific functional groups, which is the only way to achieve linkage between a polymeric ion and a specific group which possess the same electric charge. In systems where the binding is a result of electrostatic interactions only, a local opposite field exists at the site of the reaction. In such cases, the retardation is by 2-3 orders of magnitude as compared with 6-7 orders which is observed in covalently linked systems. A method based on application of ionizing radiation for the formation of covalent links between a polymer, and a functional molecule is reported. It requires pulse radiolytic investigations of the chemical kinetics in polymer solutions as well as in the solutions of the functional molecules. The advantage of the radiation induced method is that it enables the use of natural polymers. It can be applied to fields other than photochemical storage of energy, such as preparation of model systems for biological and medical research, on line analysis and specific interactions. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs

  5. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Samsudin, Adel, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  6. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm2 respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell

  7. A novel self-assembly with zinc porphyrin coordination polymer for enhanced photocurrent conversion in supramolecular solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: An innovative type of self-assembly based on acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin coordination polymer has been prepared in supramolecular solar cells. - Highlights: • A novel assembly with acetohydrazide porphyrin coordination polymer. • The assembly based on porphyrin is prepared as parallel sample. • Coordination polymer-based assembly shows enhanced photoelectronic behavior. • A series of different organic acid ligands as anchoring groups are prepared. - Abstract: In this work, a novel acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin-based coordination polymer (CP)-isonicotinic acid self-assembly by metal-ligand axial coordination to modify the nano-structured TiO2 electrode surface has been investigated in photoelectrochemical device. Compared to the assembly based on corresponding zinc porphyrin combined with isonicotinic acid by metal-ligand axial coordination, CP-isonicotinic acid assembly exhibits a significantly enhanced photoelectronic behavior. In addition, a series of different organic acid ligands were prepared to probe the impact of their structures on the photoelectronic performances of their corresponding assemblies-sensitized cells. This study affords a novel type of self-assembly to functionalize the nanostructured TiO2 electrode surface in supramolecular solar cells

  8. Polymer assisted solution processing of Ti-doped indium oxide transparent conducting thin films for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polymer assisted solution process. • Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films. • Replacement of sputtered ITO with polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films. • High mobility transparent conducting films. • Application of polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films to organic solar cells. - Abstract: We report the preparation and evaluation of Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films by a polymer-assisted solution (PAS) process, as well as the evaluation of this type of film as a transparent cathode in an inverted organic solar cell (IOCS). Both Ti- and In-PASs have been synthesized by coordinating Ti- and In-anionic complexes with polyethyleneimine. The final TIO–PAS was formed by mixing Ti-PAS into In-PAS with a Ti concentration between 1 at.% and 7 at.%. The TIO–PAS was spin-coated onto glass substrates to form uniform thin films of Ti-doped indium oxide, which were then annealed at high temperature. The optimum Ti concentration to achieve the best electrical and optical properties of PAS–TIO films was found to be 3 at.%. With the film thickness of 650 nm, PAS–TIO films had a sheet resistance of 65 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance greater than 85%. The feasibility of PAS-coated TIO thin film as a transparent electrode was evaluated by applying it to the fabrication of IOSCs, which showed the energy conversion efficiency of 4.60%

  9. Recombination in polymer:Fullerene solar cells with open-circuit voltages approaching and exceeding 1.0 V

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2012-09-14

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells are demonstrated with power conversion efficiencies over 7% with blends of PBDTTPD and PC 61 BM. These devices achieve open-circuit voltages ( V oc ) of 0.945 V and internal quantum efficiencies of 88%, making them an ideal candidate for the large bandgap junction in tandem solar cells. V oc \\'s above 1.0 V are obtained when the polymer is blended with multiadduct fullerenes; however, the photocurrent and fill factor are greatly reduced. In PBDTTPD blends with multiadduct fullerene ICBA, fullerene emission is observed in the photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra, indicating that excitons are recombining on ICBA. Voltage-dependent, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicate that energy transfer occurs from PBDTTPD to ICBA and that back hole transfer from ICBA to PBDTTPD is inefficient. By analyzing the absorption and emission spectra from fullerene and charge transfer excitons, we estimate a driving free energy of -0.14 ± 0.06 eV is required for efficient hole transfer. These results suggest that the driving force for hole transfer may be too small for efficient current generation in polymer:fullerene solar cells with V oc values above 1.0 V and that non-fullerene acceptor materials with large optical gaps ( > 1.7 eV) may be required to achieve both near unity internal quantum efficiencies and values of V oc exceeding 1.0 V. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.

  10. Influence of aggregation on the performance of all-polymer solar cells containing low-bandgap naphthalenediimide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Marcel; Roland, Steffen; Steyrleuthner, Robert; Stiller, Burkhard; Neher, Dieter [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Dolfen, Daniel; Scherf, Ullrich [Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Frisch, Johannes; Koch, Norbert [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio [Polyera Corporation, 8045 Lamon Avenue, Illinois 60077 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present efficient all-polymer solar cells comprising two different low-bandgap naphthalenediimide (NDI)-based copolymers as acceptors and regioregular P3HT as the donor. It is shown that these naphthalene copolymers have a strong tendency to preaggregate in specific organic solvents, and that preaggregation can be completely suppressed when using suitable solvents with large and highly polarizable aromatic cores. Organic solar cells prepared from such nonaggregated polymer solutions show dramatically increased power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.4%, which is mainly due to a large increase of the short circuit current. In addition, optimized solar cells show remarkable high fill factors of up to 70%. The analysis of the blend absorbance spectra reveals a surprising anticorrelation between the degree of polymer aggregation in the solid P3HT:NDI copolymer blends and their photovoltaic performance. Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements reveal important information on the blend morphology. It is shown that films with high degree of aggregation and low photocurrents exhibit large-scale phase-separation into rather pure donor and acceptor domains. It is proposed that, by suppressing the aggregation of NDI copolymers at the early stage of film formation, the intermixing of the donor and acceptor component is improved, thereby allowing efficient harvesting of photogenerated excitons at the donor-acceptor heterojunction. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Study on geomagnetic effects of the March 9, 1997 solar eclipse in Mohe area, China*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯忠孝; 高金田; 任熙宪

    2002-01-01

    The geomagnetic effects of the total solar eclipse in Mohe area and the partial eclipse occurred on March 9, 1997 in China are analyzed in this paper. The geomagnetic effects of the eclipse widely distributed in China are obtained, which show H component decreases obviously and is symmetric along the latitude with a center near 33(N during the eclipse time. These results of solar eclipse geomagnetic effects are the newest in recent years obtained in the largest area in China.

  12. The effect of methanol treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant performance enhancement was observed for the bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cell of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly[N-9″-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′, 7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′ -benzodithiazole)]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC71BM)/Al when the as-cast active layer was rinsed with methanol before the deposition of the metal electrode. Comparison of independent anode interfacial layers of PEDOT:PSS and MoO3 indicated that the effects of methanol treatment on the improvement of device performance are more pronounced for PEDOT:PSS-based devices. No discernible changes can be observed in film thickness, surface topography and UV–vis absorption profiles of the photoactive layer, indicating the absence of film reconstruction and the improvement of device performance are hence attributed to the modification of the interface between the PEDOT:PSS and the fresh active layer. Further examination of the devices containing a cathode interlayer of poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamino) propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9–dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) also demonstrates the potential modification of the interface between the PEDOT:PSS and the active layer by methanol in addition to the widely observed PFN functionality. (paper)

  13. Two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays for polymer:fullerene solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the application of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) array substrates for polymer:fullerene solar cells of which the active layer is made with blended films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The 2D PC array substrates were fabricated by employing a nanosphere lithography technique. Two different hole depths (200 and 300 nm) were introduced for the 2D PC arrays to examine the hole depth effect on the light harvesting (trapping). The optical effect by the 2D PC arrays was investigated by the measurement of optical transmittance either in the direction normal to the substrate (direct transmittance) or in all directions (integrated transmittance). The results showed that the integrated transmittance was higher for the 2D PC array substrates than the conventional planar substrate at the wavelengths of ca. 400 nm, even though the direct transmittance of 2D PC array substrates was much lower over the entire visible light range. The short circuit current density (JSC) was higher for the device with the 2D PC array (200 nm hole depth) than the reference device. However, the device with the 2D PC array (300 nm hole depth) showed a slightly lower JSC value at a high light intensity in spite of its light harvesting effect proven at a lower light intensity.

  14. Solution-processed nickel compound as hole collection layer for efficient polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated efficient bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs) by inserting a solution-processable hole collection layer (HCL) between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and photoactive layer. The HCL was prepared by spin-coating nickel acetylacetonate (Ni(acac)2) isopropanol solution on ITO, and then baking in air at 180 °C for 10 min followed by UV ozone treatment, which was marked as a-Ni(acac)2. The a-Ni(acac)2 HCL shows suitable energy levels, high hole mobility of 4.09  ×  10−3 cm2 V−1·s−1, and high transparency with light transmittance better than poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the wavelength range 550–800 nm. The PSCs with a-Ni(acac)2 HCL showed improved performance compared with the PSCs without or with traditional PEDOT:PSS HCL. The power conversion efficiency of the PSC based on PBDTTT-C-T:PC70BM with a-Ni(acac)2 HCL reached 7.84% under the illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm−2. (paper)

  15. A MULTISCALE APPROACH TO THE REPRESENTATION OF 3D IMAGES, WITH APPLICATION TO POLYMER SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiedmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiscale approach to the description of geometrically complex 3D image data is proposed which distinguishes between morphological features on a ‘macro-scale’ and a ‘micro-scale’. Since our method is mainly tailored to nanostructures observed in composite materials consisting of two different phases, an appropriate binarization of grayscale images is required first. Then, a morphological smoothing is applied to extract the structural information from binarized image data on the ‘macro-scale’. A stochastic algorithm is developed for the morphologically smoothed images whose goal is to find a suitable representation of the macro-scale structure by unions of overlapping spheres. Such representations can be interpreted as marked point patterns. They lead to an enormous reduction of data and allow the application of well-known tools from point-process theory for their analysis and structural modeling. All those voxels which have been ‘misspecified’ by the morphological smoothing and subsequent representation by unions of overlapping spheres are interpreted as ‘micro-scale’ structure. The exemplary data sets considered in this paper are 3D grayscale images of photoactive layers in hybrid solar cells gained by electron tomography. These composite materials consist of two phases: a polymer phase and a zinc oxide phase. The macro-scale structure of the latter is represented by unions of overlapping spheres.

  16. Wavelength-Scale Structures as Extremely High Haze Films for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Juyoung; Dong, Wan Jae; Jung, Gwan Ho; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-scale inverted pyramid structures with low reflectance and excellent haze have been designed for application to polymer solar cells (PSCs). The wavelength-scale structured haze films are fabricated on the back surface of glass without damages to organic active layer by using a soft lithographic technique with etched GaN molds. With a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of optical modeling, we find the shift of resonance peaks with the increase of pattern's diameter. Wavelength-scale structures could provide the number of resonances at the long wavelength spectrum (λ = 650-800 nm), yielding enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the PSCs. Compared with a flat device (PCE = 7.12%, Jsc = 15.6 mA/cm(2)), improved PCE of 8.41% is achieved in a haze film, which is mainly due to the increased short circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.5 mA/cm(2). Hence, it opens up exciting opportunities for a variety of PSCs with wavelength-scale structures to further improve performance, simplify complicated process, and reduce costs. PMID:26901630

  17. ITO-free flexible polymer solar cells with ink-jet-printed Ag grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated cost-effective ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) with ink-jet-printed current collecting Ag grids in combination with highly conductive PEDOT:PSS as a composite transparent electrode. By ink-jetting of Ag nano-particle solution, we were able to obtain ink-jet-printed Ag grids with sheet resistance of 15.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 82.51% at 550 nm wavelength. Furthermore, the ITO-free PSC with the composite transparent anode on flexible substrates exhibited excellent cell-performances: fill factor of 64.72%, short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 6.301 mA cm−2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.562 V and power conversion efficiency of 2.292%, indicating the ink-jet-printed grid-based electrode is a visible alternative to cost-intensive sputter-grown ITO electrodes and a promising printing-based electrode for realization of fully printed and flexible ITO-free photovoltaic devices. (paper)

  18. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices

  19. Effect of Doping Phosphorescent Material and Annealing Treatment on the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polymer solar cells (PSCs with P3HT:PCBM or P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 blend films as the active layer were fabricated under the same conditions. Effects of phosphorescent material Ir(btpy3 doping concentration and annealing temperature on the performance of PSCs were investigated. The short-circuit current density (Jsc and open-circuit voltage (Voc are increased by adopting P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 blend films as the active layer when the cells do not undergo annealing treatment. The increased Jsc should be attributed to the increase of photon harvesting induced by doping phosphorescent material Ir(btpy3 and the effective energy transfer from Ir(btpy3 to P3HT. The effective energy transfer from Ir(btpy3 to P3HT was demonstrated by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL spectra. The increased Voc is due to the photovoltaic effect between Ir(btpy3 and PCBM. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of PSCs with P3HT:PCBM as the active layer is increased from 0.19% to 1.49% by annealing treatment at 140°C for 10 minutes. The PCE of PSCs with P3HT:PCBM:Ir(btpy3 as the active layer is increased from 0.49% to 0.95% by annealing treatment at lower temperature at 100°C for 10 minutes.

  20. Transient Photocurrent Response of Plasmon-Enhanced Polymer Solar Cells with Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the transient photocurrent of the plasmon-enhanced polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM is investigated. Two kinds of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR enhanced devices were fabricated by doping the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs into the anode buffer layer and inserting Au NPs between the anode buffer layer and the active layer. We probed the dynamics of the turn-on and turn-off responses to 400 μs square-pulse optical excitation from the 380 nm and 520 nm light-emitting diodes (LED driven by an electric pulse generator. The transient photocurrent curves of devices with Au NPs at different positions and under different excitation wavelength are compared and analyzed. The charge trapping/detrapping processes that occurred at the interface of Au NPs and the active layer were observed; these exhibit an overshoot in the initial fast rise of photocurrent response. Our results show that the incorporating position of Au NPs is an important key factor to influence the transient photocurrent behaviors.

  1. Gold Nanorods Incorporated Cathode for Better Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Y. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inserting low density of gold nanorods in the metallic rear electrode of polymer solar cells on their performance was studied. Gold nanorods were introduced by spin-coating their aqueous solution directly on top of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester layer. The resulting devices showed a 5% increase in the short circuit current that leads to a 14% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency. Investigation on the photocurrent spectral response of devices with/without gold nanorods revealed that incorporating the rods helped in enhancing the devices photogenerated current near the plasmonic absorption modes of the rods. The enhancement in the devices efficiency is related to the increase in their absorptivity due to the far-field and near-field effect of localized surface plasmon resonance induced by the presence of the rods in the interface between the photoactive layer and the metallic rear electrode.

  2. Electrical and optical properties of hybrid polymer solar cells incorporating Au and CuO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna P. Wanninayake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE of the polymer solar cells (PSCs, Gold (Au and Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs are incorporated into the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM active layers respectively. PSCs with a constant CuO-NP content were fabricated with varying amounts of Au NPs. Addition of Au NPs increased the power conversion efficiency by up to 18% compared to a reference cell without Au-NPs. The short circuit current(Jsc of the cells containing 0.06 mg of Au NPs was measured at 7.491 mA/cm2 compared to 6.484 mA/cm2 in the reference cells with 0.6 mg of CuO nanoparticles; meanwhile, the external quantum efficiency(EQE increased from 53% to 61%, showing an enhancement of 15.1%. Au-NPs improved the charge collection at the anode, which results in higher short circuit current and fill factor. However, the strong near field surrounding Au-NPs due to localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR effect is not distributed into the active layer. Instead, it is spread horizontally through the PEDOT:PSS layer, thus minimizing the light absorption in the active layer.

  3. Alcohol-soluble interfacial fluorenes for inverted polymer solar cells: sequence induced spatial conformation dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie; Liu, Xiangfu; Wei, Yingkai; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-01-21

    Three fluorene-based alcohol-soluble organic small molecule electrolytes (SMEs) with different conjugated backbones, namely, TFTN-Br, FTFN-Br and FTTFN-Br, were designed as cathode interfacial layers for inverted polymer solar cells (i-PSCs). The insertion of SMEs to the ITO/active layer interfaces effectively lowered the energy barrier for electron transport and improved the inherent compatibility between the hydrophilic ITO and hydrophobic active layers. Due to these advantages, the device based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) with TFTN-Br as the cathode interfacial layer achieved an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8%, which is a 26% improvement when compared to the standard device comprising ZnO cathode interfacial layers (PCE = 3.0%). Devices with FTFN-Br and FTTFN-Br also showed an improved PCE of 3.1% and 3.5%, respectively. The variation in device performance enhancement was found to be primarily correlated with the different conformation of their assembly onto the electrode caused by the joint sequence of the polar group of the SMEs, consequently impacting the dipole moment and interface morphology. In addition, introducing SMEs as the cathode interfacial layer also produced devices with long-term stability. PMID:26694627

  4. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells fabricated in air at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaofan; Kusumi, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-08-01

    A series of modified indium tin oxide (ITO) materials, including sol–gel zinc-oxide-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO), ZnO nanoparticle-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO-NP), 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP)-modified ITO, and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)-modified ITO, were used for electron-collection electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified ITO electrodes were prepared in air at temperatures below 100 °C, using various ITO films on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates (PET–ITO) with sheet resistances ranging from 12 to 60 Ω sq‑1. The PET–ITO (12 Ω sq‑1)/ZnO-NP PSC exhibited an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) (2.93%), and this PCE was ∼90% of that observed for a cell using glass–ITO/ZnO-NP (sheet resistance = 10 Ω sq‑1 PCE = 3.28%). Additionally, we fabricated a flexible inverted ZnO-NP PSC using an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as the acceptor material in place of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and obtained a PCE of 4.18%.

  5. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Vroman; Lan Tighzert

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  6. Lithium iodide effect on the electrochemical behavior of agarose based polymer electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · Conduction behavior in agarose electrolyte system. · Charge recombination resistance is reduced with the increasing LiI concentration. · Charge transfer resistance is also reduced with the increasing LiI concentration. · Electron lifetime is shortened by increasing LiI concentrations. · LiI addition enhances the back reaction in DSSC. - Abstract: The effect of lithium iodide (LiI: 0-85 wt%) on the electrochemical behavior of agarose-based polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the interactions between polymer matrix and salt and the morphology of the agarose electrolytes, respectively. From the AC impedance spectra study, it was determined that the conduction behavior of the agarose-based polymer electrolyte matches the 'salt-in-polymer' like behavior of low LiI content (0-25 wt%) and 'polymer-in-salt' like behavior of high LiI content (25-85 wt%). Detailed analysis of characteristic electrochemical processes occurring in DSSC with these agarose electrolytes was also obtained by employing the EIS technique. The impedance spectra showed that the electron lifetime of DSSC was shortened with increasing LiI concentration, while the charge transfer resistance and charge recombination resistance were reduced when LiI concentration was increased.

  7. Unsubstituted Benzodithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers for High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichao; Xiao, Manjun; Han, Liangliang; Zhang, Jidong; Jiang, Huanxiang; Gu, Chuantao; Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Renqiang

    2016-08-01

    Unsubstituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) was used to construct a high-performance conjugated polymer with 5,6-difluoro-4,7-bis[4-(2-octyldodecyl)thiophene-2-yl]benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazole (DTFFBT), named PBDT-DTFFBT. The polymer shows the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level (-5.40 eV) and a broad absorption spectra with strong vibronic absorption peak. Pure polymer films exhibit good crystallinity and edge-on orientation, partially attributed to the BDT units without any side chains, and as a result, the corresponding thin-film transistor showed excellent hole mobility over 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, a well-distributed nanofibrillar polymer aggregation with face-on orientation was obviously formed when blending with PC71BM, which was in favor of the charge transportation. Consequently, the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on the blends showed high power conversion efficiency of 9.29% with large short-current density (14.56 mA cm(-2)) and high fill factor (0.751) without any process additives or thermal annealing. PMID:27403850

  8. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, Geert; Kesters, Jurgen; Verstappen, Pieter; Govaerts, Sanne; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter

    2015-10-12

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have attracted great interest as a solar cell technology with appealing mechanical, aesthetical, and economies-of-scale features. To drive OPV toward economic viability, low-cost, large-scale module production has to be realized in combination with increased top-quality material availability and minimal batch-to-batch variation. To this extent, continuous flow chemistry can serve as a powerful tool. In this contribution, a flow protocol is optimized for the high performance benzodithiophene-thienopyrroledione copolymer PBDTTPD and the material quality is probed through systematic solar-cell evaluation. A stepwise approach is adopted to turn the batch process into a reproducible and scalable continuous flow procedure. Solar cell devices fabricated using the obtained polymer batches deliver an average power conversion efficiency of 7.2 %. Upon incorporation of an ionic polythiophene-based cathodic interlayer, the photovoltaic performance could be enhanced to a maximum efficiency of 9.1 %. PMID:26388210

  9. Photovoltaic properties and morphology of organic solar cells based on liquid-crystal semiconducting polymer with additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on liquid crystal semiconducting polymers of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene] (F8T2) as p-type semiconductors and fullerenes (C60) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and acceptor has been fabricated and characterized for improving photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic performance including current voltage curves in the dark and illumination of the F8T2/C60 conventional and inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were investigated. Relationship between the photovoltaic properties and morphological behavior was focused on tuning for optimization of photo-voltaic performance under annealing condition near glass transition temperature. Additive-effect of diiodooctane (DIO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) on the photovoltaic performance and optical properties was investigated. Mechanism of the photovoltaic properties of the conventional and inverted solar cells will be discussed by the experimental results

  10. Hybrid polymer-CdS solar cell active layers formed by in situ growth of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymeric matrix has the potential to enhance the performance of polymer-based solar cells taking advantage of the physical properties of NPs and polymers. We synthesize a new class of CdS-NPs-based active layer employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based on the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a cadmium thiolate precursor in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The casted P3HT:precursor solid foils were heated up from 200 to 300 °C to allow the precursor decomposition and the CdS-NP formation within the polymer matrix. The CdS-NP growth was controlled by varying the annealing temperature. The polymer:precursor weight ratio was also varied to investigate the effects of increasing the NP volume fraction on the solar cell performances. The optical properties were studied by using UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at room temperature. To investigate the photocurrent response of P3HT:CdS nanocomposites, ITO/P3HT:CdS/Al solar cell devices were realized. We measured the external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of the wavelength. The photovoltaic response of the devices containing CdS-NPs showed a variation compared with the devices with P3HT only. By changing the annealing temperature the EQE is enhanced in the 400–600 nm spectral region. By increasing the NPs volume fraction remarkable changes in the EQE spectra were observed. The data are discussed also in relation to morphological features of the interfaces studied by Focused Ion Beam technique.

  11. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The 3......D imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using a high-resolution 1322nm OCT system having a 4.5 microns axial resolution and a 12 microns lateral resolution. It was possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprise...... UV-barrier, barrier material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. In addition, it was found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers, making it a potential technique to enable process control by real...

  12. The effect of anneal, solar irradiation and humidity on the adhesion/cohesion properties of P3HT:PCBM based inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-06-01

    We use a thin-film adhesion technique that enables us to precisely measure the energy required to separate adjacent layers in OPV cells. We demonstrate the presence of weak interfaces in prototypical inverted polymer solar cells, either prepared by spin, spray or slot-die coating, including flexible and non flexible solar cells. In all cases, we observed adhesive failure at P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS interface, indicating the intrinsic material dependence of this mechanism. The impact of temperature, solar irradiation and humidity on the adhesion and cohesion properties of this particular interface is discussed. First, we have found that post-deposition annealing increases the adhesion significantly. Annealing changes the morphology in the photoactive layer and consequently alters the chemical properties at the interface. Second, solar irradiation on fully encapsulated solar cells has no damaging but in contrast an enhancing effect on the adhesion properties, due to the heat generated from IR radiation. Finally, the synergetic effect of stress and an environmental species like moisture greatly accelerates the decohesion rate in the weak hygroscopic PEDOT:PSS layer. This results in a loss of mechanical integrity and device performance. The insight into the mechanisms of delamination and decohesion yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification aimed at removing organic impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.

    2013-01-01

    While bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated from high M n PBDTTPD achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 7.3%, the short-circuit current density (JSC) of these devices can drop by 20% after seven days of storage in the dark and under inert conditions. This degradation is characterized by the appearance of S-shape features in the reverse bias region of current-voltage (J-V) curves that increase in amplitude over time. Conversely, BHJ solar cells fabricated from low Mn PBDTTPD do not develop S-shaped J-V curves. However, S-shapes identical to those observed in high Mn PBDTTPD solar cells can be induced in low M n devices through intentional contamination with the TPD monomer. Furthermore, when high Mn PBDTTPD is purified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to reduce the content of low molecular weight species, the JSC of polymer devices is significantly more stable over time. After 111 days of storage in the dark under inert conditions, the J-V curves do not develop S-shapes and the JSC degrades by only 6%. The S-shape degradation feature, symptomatic of low device lifetimes, appears to be linked to the presence of low molecular weight contaminants, which may be trapped within samples of high Mn polymer that have not been purified by SEC. Although these impurities do not affect initial device PCE, they significantly reduce device lifetime, and solar cell stability is improved by increasing the purity of the polymer materials. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Design of passive solar buildings in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombazis, A.N.; Preuss, S.A. [Meletitiki-Alexandros N. Tombazis and Associates Architects Ltd., Athens (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is about designing solar buildings within given urban contexts and the resulting restrictions rather than about town planning with the freedom to arrange buildings freely so as to maximise access to natural resources. A comprehensive bioclimatic design in such a given urban environment must carefully investigate and assess the building's access to natural resources while taking into account the negative influences that might prevail around the site. The associated constraints can be a challenging but very interesting and rewarding starting point for architectural design. If understood and considered from the beginning these constraints can lead to creative, innovative and beautiful architectural solutions, in other words, to real architecture. (Author)

  15. Colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and effect in polymer/fullerene solar cells; Kolloidale Goldnanopartikel. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Wirkung in Polymer/Fulleren-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Katja

    2011-06-08

    It has been reported in the literature that the efficiency of polymer/fullerene solar cells has been improved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles. The improvement was attributed to an enhanced electrical conductivity of the active layer and to an enhanced light absorption due to the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. In this work colloidal Au nanoparticles coated with different stabilizing ligands were synthesized and characterized. Then the impact of their incorporation into P3HT/PCBM solar cells was studied. On the one hand the Au nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk heterojunction active layer, otherwise they were deposited as an interlayer in the device set-up. No improvement of the solar cell efficiency could be observed neither for the incorporation of Au nanoparticles with isolating ligand shell nor for those with direct contact to the photoactive molecules. The efficiency even dropped, the more the higher the concentration of the Au nanoparticles was. Possible reasons are pointed out on the basis of detailed photophysical and structural investigations.

  16. Dip-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of anodes and active layers by dip-coating in indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) is investigated. A highly conductive poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) layer was used as an anode while a blend film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was employed as an active layer. The transmittance and sheet resistance of dip-coated PEDOT:PSS layers prepared with different thickness were studied. These layers were integrated into PSCs. The PSCs with the dip-coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM films exhibited power conversion efficiencies of 3.21% and 3.03% on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, respectively, comparable to those of conventional ITO-based cells. Our research results suggest the feasibility of fabricating PSCs without a traditional spin-coating process and the possibility to substitute the ITO electrodes for conducting polymer films using the facile dip-coating method. - Highlights: • ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated by dip coating method. • Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films used as anode were prepared. • The ITO-free PSCs performance was comparable with that of the spin coated devices. • Our results suggest the possibility of replacing ITO with dip coated PEDOT:PSS

  17. Dip-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) anodes for efficient polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Like; Hu, Ziyang, E-mail: huziyang@nbu.edu.cn; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Peipei; Zhu, Yuejin, E-mail: zhuyuejin@nbu.edu.cn

    2015-03-02

    The fabrication of anodes and active layers by dip-coating in indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) is investigated. A highly conductive poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) layer was used as an anode while a blend film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was employed as an active layer. The transmittance and sheet resistance of dip-coated PEDOT:PSS layers prepared with different thickness were studied. These layers were integrated into PSCs. The PSCs with the dip-coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM films exhibited power conversion efficiencies of 3.21% and 3.03% on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, respectively, comparable to those of conventional ITO-based cells. Our research results suggest the feasibility of fabricating PSCs without a traditional spin-coating process and the possibility to substitute the ITO electrodes for conducting polymer films using the facile dip-coating method. - Highlights: • ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated by dip coating method. • Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films used as anode were prepared. • The ITO-free PSCs performance was comparable with that of the spin coated devices. • Our results suggest the possibility of replacing ITO with dip coated PEDOT:PSS.

  18. Solar Cells: Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with VOC >1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangqin; Le Corre, Vincent M; Gaïtis, Alexandre; Neophytou, Marios; Hamid, Mahmoud Abdul; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2016-05-01

    On page 3366, P. M. Beaujuge and co-workers describe homo-tandem solar cells constructed by stacking identical subcells solution-processed from blends of the wide-bandgap polymer donor PBDTTPD and the fullerene acceptor PCBM, which achieve power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The homo-tandem devices provide sufficient voltage to induce the dissociation of water in an electrochemical cell. The authors acknowledge Hyun Ho Hwang (Heno) for developing the artwork. PMID:27122114

  19. Effects of acetone-soaking treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of the acetone-soaking treatment to the performance of polymer solar cells based on the P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction is reported. Undergoing acetone-soaking, the PCBM does not distribute uniformly in the vertical direction, a PCBM enrichment layer forms on the top of the active layer, which is beneficial to the collection of the carriers and blocking the inverting diffusion carriers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the PCBM weight ratio on the top of the active layer increases by 20% after the acetone-soaking treatment. Due to the nonuniform distribution of PCBM, the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage, and the fill factor are enhanced significantly. Finally, the power conversion efficiency of the acetone-soaking device increases by 31% compared with the control device. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium oxide (TiOX) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiOX (s-TiOX) film as an ETL. The s-TiOX film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiOX ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiOX film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiOX film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiOX films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiOX films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiOX film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiOX film will be much compatible with flexible substrates

  1. 1000 solar water heaters in the newly built area Woudhuis in Apeldoorn, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of 1990 a large scale solar boiler project was initiated for the title area. The aim of the project is to gain experience in project planning of the implementation of solar water heaters in newly built areas and to investigate to what extent this could contribute to a cost reduction of the solar boilers. The target was a total of 1,000 solar boilers in the Woudhuis area, in which 1,700 houses will be built in the period 1993-1995. A cost reduction of 10-20% is estimated. Descriptions of the project, the Woudhuis area and the planning method are given. It is expected that the installation of 1,000 solar water heaters and the estimated cost reduction will be realized. The Woudhuis project will be a part of the European Community research program THERMIE and provided much knowledge on how to plan such a project in newly built areas. It also has very positive effects on other similar follow-up projects. 2 figs

  2. Ultrathin flexible planar crystalline-silicon/polymer hybrid solar cell with 5.68% efficiency by effective passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Fu, Pengfei; Li, Ruike; Li, Meicheng; Luo, Younan; Song, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin silicon based solar cells provide a viable way to reduce the material usage and diversify their applications. However, complex light-trapping structures are always needed to be fabricated to enhance light absorption, which will lead to exacerbation of carrier collection and expensive fabrication cost. Here, we report very simple planar flexible crystalline silicon-polymer hybrid solar cell with thickness about 18 μm, whose power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 5.68%. By introducing the amorphous silicon layer to passivate the Silicon/Polymer interface in our device, with accuracy control of the thickness of 2 nm to balance the passivation effect and the deterioration of internal electric field, the short current density reaches 83.0% of the theoretical limit. Additionally, we found that the average PCE of solar cells passivated by such technology is 5.8% and 7.1% enhanced compared with those without passivation (H-terminated) and passivated by native oxide approaches. The simple device structure provided in this study has great practicability, and the passivation processes can be duplicated for other silicon based photovoltaic devices.

  3. How to design low bandgap polymers for highly efficient organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaic cells are promising in terms of their light weight, mechanically flexibility, ease of processing and low cost. Establishing a predictive understanding between the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers is still challenging, and continuous effort is needed to progress toward full commercialization. In this review, recent progress in polymer/fullerene systems is highlighted and four synthetic principles are summarized to engineer the bandgap and tune the energy levels and the solubility of the targeted polymers.

  4. Polymer blend solar cells based on a high-mobility naphthalenediimide-based polymer acceptor: device physics, photophysics and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jennifer R.; Albert-Seifried, Sebastian; Rao, Akshay; Massip, Sylvain; Friend, Richard H.; McNeill, Christopher R.; Sirringhaus, Henning [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watts, Benjamin [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Morgan, David J. [Cardiff Catalysis Institute, School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-18

    A high electron mobility polymer, poly{l_brace}[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) is investigated for use as an electron acceptor in all-polymer blends. Despite the high bulk electron mobility, near-infrared absorption band and compatible energy levels, bulk heterojunction devices fabricated with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor exhibit power conversion efficiencies of only 0.2%. In order to understand this disappointing photovoltaic performance, systematic investigations of the photophysics, device physics and morphology of this system are performed. Ultra-fast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals a two-stage decay process with an initial rapid loss of photoinduced polarons, followed by a second slower decay. This second slower decay is similar to what is observed for efficient P3HT:PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester) blends, however the initial fast decay that is absent in P3HT:PCBM blends suggests rapid, geminate recombination of charge pairs shortly after charge transfer. X-ray microscopy reveals coarse phase separation of P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) blends with domains of size 0.2 to 1 micrometer. P3HT photoluminescence, however, is still found to be efficiently quenched indicating intermixing within these mesoscale domains. This hierarchy of phase separation is consistent with the transient absorption, whereby localized confinement of charges on isolated chains in the matrix of the other polymer hinders the separation of interfacial electron-hole pairs. These results indicate that local, interfacial processes are the key factor determining the overall efficiency of this system and highlight the need for improved morphological control in order for the potential benefit of high-mobility electron accepting polymers to be realized. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Thermally induced vertical phase separation and photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells for P3HT/PCBM composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masaru; Wei, Huang; Yoshida, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of vertical phase separation has been reported for various spin-cast polymer films, including bulk-heterojunction films of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Focusing on real-space analysis, we conducted a study on the relationship between the morphology and processing conditions of PSCs for typical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cells. Our results demonstrated that spin-casting caused a localized reduction in the P3HT concentration in the bulk center. Thermal annealing after cathode formation enhanced the unevenness in concentration and created a multilayered vertical phase-separated morphology in which the P3HT domains were gathered near the electrodes, leaving only PCBM domains at the center of the film. Cells with this morphology had good power conversion efficiency (∼3%).

  6. Slot-die Coating of a High Performance Copolymer in a Readily Scalable Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    reported compact coating/printing machine, which enables the preparation of PSCs that are directly scalable with full roll-to-roll processing. The positioning of the side-chains on the thiophene units proves to be very significant in terms of solubility of the polymers and consequently has a major impact...... on the device yield and process control. The most successful processing is accomplished with the polymer, PDTSTTz-4, that has the side-chains situated in the 4-position on the thiophene units. Inverted PSCs based on PDTSTTz-4 demonstrate high fill factors, up to 59%, even with active layer...... thicknesses well above 200 nm. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% can be reached with the roll-coated PDTSTTz-4:PCBM solar cells that, together with good process control and high device yield, designate PDTSTTz-4 as a convincing candidate for high-throughput roll-to-roll production of PSCs....

  7. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10-3 S cm-1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm-2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  8. Electron Barrier Formation at the Organic-Back Contact Interface is the First Step in Thermal Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sachs-Quintana, I. T.

    2014-03-24

    Long-term stability of polymer solar cells is determined by many factors, one of which is thermal stability. Although many thermal stability studies occur far beyond the operating temperature of a solar cell which is almost always less than 65 °C, thermal degradation is studied at temperatures that the solar cell would encounter in real-world operating conditions. At these temperatures, movement of the polymer and fullerenes, along with adhesion of the polymer to the back contact, creates a barrier for electron extraction. The polymer barrier can be removed and the performance can be restored by peeling off the electrode and depositing a new one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal a larger amount of polymer adhered to electrodes peeled from aged devices than electrodes peeled from fresh devices. The degradation caused by hole-transporting polymer adhering to the electrode can be suppressed by using an inverted device where instead of electrons, holes are extracted at the back metal electrode. The problem can be ultimately eliminated by choosing a polymer with a high glass transition temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper estimation of potential of any renewable energy technology is essential for planning and promotion of the technology. The methods reported in literature for estimation of potential of solar water heating in a target area are aggregate in nature. A methodology for potential estimation (technical, economic and market potential) of solar water heating in a target area is proposed in this paper. This methodology links the micro-level factors and macro-level market effects affecting the diffusion or adoption of solar water heating systems. Different sectors with end uses of low temperature hot water are considered for potential estimation. Potential is estimated at each end use point by simulation using TRNSYS taking micro-level factors. The methodology is illustrated for a synthetic area in India with an area of 2 sq. km and population of 10,000. The end use sectors considered are residential, hospitals, nursing homes and hotels. The estimated technical potential and market potential are 1700 m2 and 350 m2 of collector area, respectively. The annual energy savings for the technical potential in the area is estimated as 110 kW h/capita and 0.55 million-kW h/sq. km. area, with an annual average peak saving of 1 MW. The annual savings is 650-kW h per m2 of collector area and accounts for approximately 3% of the total electricity consumption of the target area. Some of the salient features of the model are the factors considered for potential estimation; estimation of electrical usage pattern for typical day, amount of electricity savings and savings during the peak load. The framework is general and enables accurate estimation of potential of solar water heating for a city, block. Energy planners and policy makers can use this framework for tracking and promotion of diffusion of solar water heating systems. (author)

  10. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, especially in downtown areas, which makes the determination of roof solar energy potential a challenging task. The object of this study is to estimate the solar radiation on building roofs in an urban area in Shanghai, China, and select suitable spaces for installing solar panels that can effectively utilize solar energy. A Graphic Processing Unit (GPU-based solar radiation model named SHORTWAVE-C simulating direct and non-direct solar radiation intensity was developed by adding the capability of considering cloud influence into the previous SHORTWAVE model. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data was used as the input of the SHORTWAVE-C model and to investigate the morphological characteristics of the study area. The results show that the SHORTWAVE-C model can accurately estimate the solar radiation intensity in a complex urban environment under cloudy conditions, and the GPU acceleration method can reduce the computation time by up to 46%. Two sites with different building densities and rooftop structures were selected to illustrate the influence of urban morphology on the solar radiation and solar illumination duration. Based on the findings, an object-based method was implemented to identify suitable places for rooftop solar panel installation that can fully utilize the solar energy potential. Our study provides useful strategic guidelines for the selection and assessment of roof solar energy potential for urban energy planning.

  11. Bulk Heterojunction versus Diffused Bilayer: The Role of Device Geometry in Solution p-Doped Polymer-Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Loiudice, Anna; Rizzo, Aurora; Biasiucci, Mariano; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the effect of molecular p-type doping of P3HT in diffused bilayer (DB) polymer solar cells. In this alternative device geometry, the p-doping is accomplished in solution by blending the F4-TCNQ with P3HT. The p-doping both increases the film conductivity and reduces the potential barrier at the interface with the electrode. This results in an excellent power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, which is an improvement of ∼48% over the p-doped standard bulk heterojunction ...

  12. Inverted polymer solar cells with Nafion® as the hole extraction layer: efficiency and lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Nafion® as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated in this work. Inverted devices were built on plastic foil with the following architecture: PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Nafion®/Ag. The Nafion® was processed from a surfactant-free solution in alcoholic solvents on top of the active layer. Optimization of film thickness and annealing yielded fully functional devices with power conversion efficiency similar to others referenced, along with good operational stability. (paper)

  13. A life cycle analysis of polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Urbina, Antonio;

    2011-01-01

    processed into the required pattern using a full roll-to-roll process, employing screen printing of an etch resist and then applying etching, stripping, washing and drying procedures. The three subsequent layers; ZnO, P3HT:PCBM and PEDOT:PSS were slot-die coated and the silver back electrode was screen...... printed. Finally the polymer solar modules were encapsulated, using a polyester barrier material. All operations except the application of ITO were carried out under ambient conditions. The life cycle analysis delivered a material inventory of the full process for a module production, and an...

  14. New M- and V-shaped perylene diimide small molecules for high-performance nonfullerene polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Eun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Choi, Suna; Lee, Dae Hee; Uddin, Mohammad Afsar; Woo, Han Young; Cho, Min Ju; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2016-07-01

    New M- and V-shaped perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules using a non-conjugated 1,1-diphenylcyclohexane linker (CP-M and CP-V, respectively) were designed and synthesized as new n-type acceptors for nonfullerene-based polymer solar cells. The blended film with poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(5,6-difluoro-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)] (PPDT2FBT) and CP-V displayed a higher power conversion efficiency of 5.28% due to higher short circuit current and fill factor values. PMID:27351371

  15. Water-Induced Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells Studied by (H2O)-O-18 Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Water-induced degradation of polymer photovoltaics based on the active materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) was studied. The solar cell devices comprised a bulk heterojunction formed by the active material and [6,6]-phenyl-C......61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in a standard device geometry. The use of H218O in conjunction with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enabled mapping of the parts of the device that were induced by water. A comparison was made between the two active materials and between devices that...

  16. Dramatic enhancement of fullerene anion formation in polymer solar cells by thermal annealing: Direct observation by electron spin resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dong; Nagamori, Tatsuya; Yabusaki, Masaki; Yasuda, Takeshi; HAN, LIYUAN; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we clarified the origin of the efficiency degradation of polymer solar cells containing a lithium-fluoride (LiF) buffer layer created by a thermal annealing process after the deposition of an Al electrode (post-annealing). The device structure was indium-tin-oxide/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)/LiF/Al. Three samples consisting of quartz/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, qua...

  17. High-throughput roll-to-roll X-ray characterization of polymer solar cell active layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Menzel, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-rays were used to probe active materials for polymer solar cells on flexible polyester foil. The active material was coated onto a flexible 130 micron thick polyester foil using roll-to-roll differentially pumped slot-die coating and presented variation in composition, thickness...... 1 cm, probing linear variations in processing and coating parameters along the foil. The demonstration shows that real-time structural characterization of roll-to-roll coating at realistic web-speeds is feasible using synchrotron radiation. Off-line characterization with lower spatial resolution...

  18. Phenylene-ethynylene/phenylene-vinylene hybrid polymers: optical and electrochemical characterization, comparison with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] and application in flexible polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect-free phenylene-ethynylene/phenylene-vinylene hybrid polymers (PPE-PPV) have been characterized optically and electrochemically. The presence of -C≡C- within the polymers backbone leads to higher oxidation potentials and higher optical band gaps compared with poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The new polymers were used as electron donor in polymer solar cells (PSCs). An effective charge transfer from polymer to [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was found via the photoluminescence technique and light-induced electron spin resonance techniques. Photovoltaic devices were prepared on ambient conditions on flexible polyester foils coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) and showed power conversion efficiency (ηAM1.5) of 3% (MDMO-PPV:PCBM) and 1.75% as well as 0.5% (PPE-PPV:PCBM)

  19. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  20. Solar Cycle Variations in Polar Cap Area Measured by the SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a long term study, from January 1996 - August 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) measured at midnight using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection, and is used in this study as a measure of the global magnetospheric dynamics and activity. We find that the yearly distribution of HMB latitudes is single-peaked at 64° magnetic latitude for the majority of the 17-year interval. During 2003 the envelope of the distribution shifts to lower latitudes and a second peak in the distribution is observed at 61°. The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function derived by Milan et al. (2012) suggests that the solar wind driving during this year was significantly higher than during the rest of the 17-year interval. In contrast, during the period 2008-2011 HMB distribution shifts to higher latitudes, and a second peak in the distribution is again observed, this time at 68° magnetic latitude. This time interval corresponds to a period of extremely low solar wind driving during the recent extreme solar minimum. This is the first statistical study of the polar cap area over an entire solar cycle, and the results demonstrate that there is a close relationship between the phase of the solar cycle and the area of the polar cap on a large scale statistical basis.

  1. Flexible organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorod array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ‘flexible’ transparent substrates. The solar cell device is composed of ZnO nanorod array and the bulk heterojunction structured organic layer which is the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The ZnO nanorod array was grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates via a low-temperature (85 °C) aqueous solution process. The blend solution consisting of conjugated polymer P3HT and fullerene PCBM was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure and then the photoactive layer was slow dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the nanorod network. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered on top of the photoactive layer. The flexible solar cell with the structure of PET/ITO/ZnO thin film/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag exhibited a photovoltaic performance with an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current density (JSC) of 9.82 mA cm−2, a fill factor (FF) of 35% and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.78%. All the measurements were performed under 100 mW cm−2 of illumination with an air mass 1.5 G filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of investigation into the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on bulk heterojunction structured conjugated polymer/fullerene photoactive layer and ZnO nanorod array constructed on flexible transparent substrates. (paper)

  2. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  3. Simple solution-processed titanium oxide electron transport layer for efficient inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Wenfei [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Institute of Hybrid Materials, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile—The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Weichao [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wang, Ning; Dou, Xiaowei; Han, Liangliang; Wen, Shuguang [CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-12-31

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub X}) is an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). We report efficient inverted PSCs with a simple solution-processed amorphous TiO{sub X} (s-TiO{sub X}) film as an ETL. The s-TiO{sub X} film with high light transmittance was prepared by spin-coating titanium (IV) isopropoxide isopropanol solution on indium tin oxide coated glass in inert and then placed in air under room temperature for 60 min. The introduction of s-TiO{sub X} ETL greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl -thieno[3,4-b]thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl- C71-butyric acid methyl ester using s-TiO{sub X} film as ETL shows high power conversion efficiency of 4.29% and 6.7% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which shows enhancements compared to the conventional PSCs with poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) as anode buffer layer. In addition, the device exhibits good stability in a humid ambient atmosphere without capsulation. The results indicate that the annealing-free, simple solution processed s-TiO{sub X} film is an efficient ETL for high-performance PSCs. - Highlights: • High quality s-TiO{sub X} films were prepared by a simple, solution method without thermal treatment. • The s-TiO{sub X} films with high transmittance are very smooth. • The organic photovoltaic performance with s-TiO{sub X} film improved greatly and exhibited good stability. • The annealing-free, simple prepared s-TiO{sub X} film will be much compatible with flexible substrates.

  4. Inverted organic solar cells with polymer-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide as the electron-collecting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M.; Kippelen, Bernard, E-mail: kippelen@ece.gatech.edu

    2014-03-03

    We report on inverted solar cells using amine-containing polymer (polyethylenimine ethoxylated, PEIE) modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the electron-collecting electrode. PEIE lowers the work function of FTO from 4.6 eV to 3.8 eV, measured by Kelvin probe, sufficiently low for collecting electrons in solar cells. With the FTO/PEIE electrode, inverted solar cells based on poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene) -2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl]: phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 ± 0.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 15.2 ± 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 0.60 ± 0.01 and a power conversion efficiency of 6.3 ± 0.2% averaged over 9 devices under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM1.5 illumination, which is comparable to the solar cells fabricated on indium–tin oxide glass substrates. In addition, we found that ultraviolet light-containing illumination can reduce the work function of bare FTO from 4.66 eV to 4.34 eV presumably because of the desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO. - Highlights: • Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is modified by polyethylenimine ethoxylated. • Inverted organic solar cells are fabricated with the modified FTO. • The solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%. • Ultraviolet (UV) illumination reduces work function of FTO from 4.66 to 4.34 eV. • UV illumination induces desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO.

  5. Inverted organic solar cells with polymer-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide as the electron-collecting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on inverted solar cells using amine-containing polymer (polyethylenimine ethoxylated, PEIE) modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the electron-collecting electrode. PEIE lowers the work function of FTO from 4.6 eV to 3.8 eV, measured by Kelvin probe, sufficiently low for collecting electrons in solar cells. With the FTO/PEIE electrode, inverted solar cells based on poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene) -2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl]: phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.70 ± 0.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 15.2 ± 0.2 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 0.60 ± 0.01 and a power conversion efficiency of 6.3 ± 0.2% averaged over 9 devices under 100 mW/cm2 AM1.5 illumination, which is comparable to the solar cells fabricated on indium–tin oxide glass substrates. In addition, we found that ultraviolet light-containing illumination can reduce the work function of bare FTO from 4.66 eV to 4.34 eV presumably because of the desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO. - Highlights: • Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is modified by polyethylenimine ethoxylated. • Inverted organic solar cells are fabricated with the modified FTO. • The solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%. • Ultraviolet (UV) illumination reduces work function of FTO from 4.66 to 4.34 eV. • UV illumination induces desorption of oxygen trapped in FTO

  6. A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2015-08-20

    A novel photoactive polymer with two different molecular weights is reported, based on a new building block: thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo. Due to the improved crystallinity, optimal blend morphology, and higher charge mobility, solar-cell devices of the high-molecular-weight polymer exhibit a superior performance, affording efficiencies of 9.1% without the need for additives, annealing, or additional extraction layers during device fabrication.

  7. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  8. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  9. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; Younan, Kais; Wolf, David

    2007-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  10. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Hoppe, Harald; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut ...... the imaging experiments show that the ingress of atmospheric reactants from the edges leads to degradation. In the case of edge sealed devices the same effects are observed but significantly slowed down. In particular, the fast nonlinear degradation is eliminated.......Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results of...

  11. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  12. Fabrication of large-area arrays of hybrid nanostructures on polymer-derived chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Nepal, Dhriti; Biswas, Sushmita; Park, Kyoungweon; Vaia, Richard; Nealey, Paul; Air Force Research Laboratories Collaboration; University of Chicago Team

    2014-03-01

    The precise placement and assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) into large-area nanostructure arrays will allow for the design and implementation of advanced nanoscale devices for applications in fields such as quantum computing, optical sensing, superlenses, photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and non-linear optics. Our work is focused on using chemically nanopatterned surfaces to fabricate arrays of hybrid nanostructures with each component of the building block at well-defined positions. The precise chemical contrast patterns with densities and resolution of features created using standard tools of lithography, polymer self-assembly, and surface functionalization allow for control of position and interparticle spacing through selective surface-particle and particle-particle interactions. We have demonstrated the assembly of NPs, including metallic NPs and semiconductor quantum dots, into arrays of hybrid structures with various geometries, such as monomers, dimers, quatrefoils, stripes, and chains. We have developed protocols to fabricate NP arrays over a variety of substrates, which allows for the design and characterization of optical and electronic nanostructures and devices to meet the requirements of various technological applications.

  13. A large area nano-gap interdigitated electrode array on a polymer substrate as a disposable nano-biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-cost nano-gap interdigitated electrode array (IDA) on a polymer substrate has been developed to realize a disposable nano-biosensor for biochemical clinical analysis. Utilizing the common instruments for optical lithography, nano-scale features were fabricated on a thermoplastic polymer to produce an electrochemical nano-biosensor in a disposable format. The IDA was realized on a 3-inch cyclo-olefin copolymer wafer, which illustrates the utility of our fabrication technique as a large-area nanofabrication process for a polymer using low temperature processes. In order to demonstrate the use of the sensor for lab-on-a-chip applications, the developed IDA was integrated with a microfluidic channel and applied for the electrochemical detection of poly-aminophenol with 10−8 M detection limit. The results indicate the developed fabrication technique is suitable for the inexpensive mass fabrication of highly sensitive nano-biosensors for disposable applications. (paper)

  14. Modified conducting polymer films having high catalytic activity for use as counter electrodes in rigid and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chun-Ren; Chang, Chih-Ching; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2015-06-01

    We report replacing platinum based counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with conducting polymer based CE. Conducting polymers are prepared through mixing poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythio phene):poly-(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) with Triton. The polymer mixture is spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and ITO-coated polyethylene naphthalate plastic substrate to form a CE for use in both rigid and flexible DSSCs, respectively. The PEDOT:PSS-Triton polymer not only is transparent (up to 93%) and highly conductive but also exhibits better catalytic activity than the expensive platinum. The DSSC fabricated using the PEDOT:PSS-Triton conducting polymer CE shows better performance or higher power conversion efficiency than that using Pt-based CE, either rigid or flexible.

  15. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  16. Organized Hole Conducting Polymer/Nanoparticle Composite Solar Cell Fiber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent innovations in noncrystalline solar cells are beginning to emerge as viable replacements to traditional CVD grown single crystal counterparts in applications...

  17. Interplay of nanoscale domain purity and size on charge transport and recombination dynamics in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Adhikari, Nirmal; Chen, Jihua; Ngo, Evan C.; Dubey, Ashish; Galipeau, David W.; Qiao, Qiquan

    2013-12-01

    Charge transport and bimolecular recombination dynamics were correlated with nanomorphology in polymer solar cells. The morphology of poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) blend films was modified using different solvent additives namely 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) and 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT) and their role on steady state and transient optoelectronic properties was investigated. The energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images showed that additives (e.g. CN and DIO) improved the domain purity which leads to significantly higher short circuit current densities (Jsc). However when the cells were processed with the ODT additive, the fill factor (FF) and open circuit voltage (Voc) decreased dramatically. Films processed with the ODT additive showed a smaller domain size but were more connected compared to films processed using CN and DIO additives. Transient photocurrent analysis indicates faster charge collection in the case of CN and DIO processed solar cells and the slowest charge collection in ODT processed solar cells. Interestingly devices processed with the ODT additive also showed the longest charge carrier recombination lifetime and lowest bimolecular recombination coefficient. This is attributed to the smaller donor domains that are connected with each other to provide a more interconnected and efficient charge transport matrix but longer pathways in ODT films. Such a matrix helped the charge to escape from the donor-acceptor interfaces and thus reduces the bimolecular recombination, while the longer pathway increases the charge collection time. Further insight is provided into the selection of processing conditions to achieve an ideal active layer morphology consisting of domains with higher polymer purity and optimal size that lead to higher Jsc and FF.Charge transport and bimolecular recombination dynamics were correlated with nanomorphology in polymer

  18. Graphene, conducting polymer and their composites as transparent and current spreading electrode in GaN solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahala, Pramila; Kumar, Ajay; Nayak, Sasmita; Behura, Sanjay; Dhanavantri, Chenna; Jani, Omkar

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the physics of charge carrier transport at graphene/p-GaN interface is critical for achieving efficient device functionality. Currently, the graphene/p-GaN interface is being explored as light emitting diodes, however this interface can be probed as a potential photovoltaic cell. We report the intimate interfacing of mechanically exfoliated graphene (EG), conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS) and composite of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and PEDOT:PSS with a wide band gap p-GaN layer. To explore their potential in energy harvesting, three heterojunction devices such as: (i) EG/p-GaN/sapphire, (ii) PEDOT:PSS/p-GaN/sapphire and (iii) PEDOT:PSS(rGO)/p-GaN/sapphire are designed and their photovoltaic characteristics are examined. It is interesting to observe that the EG/p-GaN/sapphire solar cell exhibits high open-circuit voltage of 0.545 V with low ideality factor and reverse saturation current. However, improved short circuit current density (13.7 mA/cm2) is noticed for PEDOT:PSS/p-GaN/sapphire solar cell because of enhanced conductivity accompanied by high transmittance for PEDOT:PSS. Further, the low series resistance for PEDOT:PSS(rGO)/p-GaN/sapphire is observed suggesting that the PEDOT:PSS and rGO composite is well dispersed and exhibits low interfacial resistances with p-GaN. The present investigation leverages the potential of graphene, conducting polymer and their composites as dual capability of (a) transparent and current spreading electrode and (b) an active top layer to make an intimate contact with wide bandgap p-type GaN for possible prospect towards high performance diodes, switches and solar cells.

  19. Comparing the Device Physics and Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerenes and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2014-04-23

    There is a need to find electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics that are not based on fullerene derivatives since fullerenes have a small band gap that limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC), do not absorb strongly and are expensive. Here, a phenylimide-based acceptor molecule, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), that can be used to make solar cells with VOC values up to 1.11 V and power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7% with two thiophene polymers is demonstrated. An internal quantum efficiency of 56%, compared to 75-90% for polymer-fullerene devices, results from less efficient separation of geminate charge pairs. While favorable energetic offsets in the polymer-fullerene devices due to the formation of a disordered mixed phase are thought to improve charge separation, the low miscibility (<5 wt%) of HPI-BT in polymers is hypothesized to prevent the mixed phase and energetic offsets from forming, thus reducing the driving force for charges to separate into the pure donor and acceptor phases where they can be collected. A small molecule electron acceptor, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), achieves efficiencies of 3.7% and open-circuit voltage values of 1.11 V in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices with polythiophene donor materials. The lower internal quantum efficiency (56%) in these non-fullerene acceptor devices is attributed to an absence of the favorable energetic offsets resulting from nanoscale mixing of donor and acceptor found in comparable fullerene-based devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Estimating Roof Solar Energy Potential in the Downtown Area Using a GPU-Accelerated Solar Radiation Model and Airborne LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Huang; Zuoqi Chen; Bin Wu; Liang Chen; Weiqing Mao; Feng Zhao; Jianping Wu; Junhan Wu; Bailang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy, as a clean and renewable resource is becoming increasingly important in the global context of climate change and energy crisis. Utilization of solar energy in urban areas is of great importance in urban energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. However, available spaces for solar panel installation in cities are quite limited except for building roofs. Furthermore, complex urban 3D morphology greatly affects sunlit patterns on building roofs, espe...

  1. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  2. Origin of organic matter in the early solar system. VII - The organic polymer in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatsu, R.; Matsuoka, S.; Anders, E.; Scott, R. G.; Studier, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Degradation techniques, including pyrolysis, depolymerization, and oxidation, were used to study the insoluble polymer from the Murchison C2 chondrite. Oxidation with Cr2O7(2-) or O2/UV led to the identification of 15 aromatic ring systems. Of 11 aliphatic acids identified, three dicarboxylic acids presumably came from hydroaromatic portions of the polymer, whereas eight monocarboxylic acids probably derive from bridging groups or ring substituents. Depolymerization with CF3COO4 yielded some of the same ring systems, as well as alkanes (C1 through C8) and alkenes (C2 through C8), alkyl (C1 through C5) benzenes and naphthalenes, and methyl- or dimethyl -indene, -indane, -phenol, -pyrrole, and -pyridine. All these compounds were detected below 200 C, and are therefore probably indigenous constituents. The properties of the meteoritic polymer were compared with the properties of a synthetic polymer produced by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. It is suggested that the meteoritic polymer was also produced by surface catalysis.

  3. The effects of a solar eclipse on photo-oxidants in different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Wu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 on surface ozone and other photo-oxidants over China. A box model was used to study the sensitivity of ozone to the limb darkening effect during an eclipse event, and to show that the impact on ozone is small (less than 0.5 %. In addition, the regional model WRF-Chem was applied to study the effects of the eclipse on meteorological and chemical parameters, focusing on different regions in China. Chemical and meteorological observations were used to validate the model and to show that it can capture the effects of the total solar eclipse well. Model calculations show distinct differences in the spatial distributions of meteorological and chemical parameters with and without the eclipse. The maximum impacts of the eclipse occur over the area of totality, where there is a decrease in surface temperature of 1.5 °C and decrease in wind speed of 1 m s−1. The maximum impacts on atmospheric pollutants occur over parts of north and east China where emissions are greater, with an increase of 5 ppbv in NO2 and 25 ppbv in CO and a decrease of 10 ppbv in O3 and 4 ppbv in NO. This study also demonstrates the effects of the solar eclipse on surface photo-oxidants in different parts of China. Although the sun was obscured to a smaller extent in polluted areas than in clean areas, the impacts of the eclipse in polluted areas are greater and last longer than they do in clean areas. In contrast, the change in radical concentrations (OH, HO2 and NO3 in clean areas is much larger than in polluted areas mainly because of the limited source of radicals in these areas. The change in radical concentrations during the eclipse reveals that nighttime chemistry dominates in both clean and polluted areas. As solar eclipses provide a natural opportunity to test more thoroughly our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially that

  4. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  5. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells

  6. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi2S3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  7. Schottky diodes between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J., E-mail: sspajp@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-07

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  8. Roll-to-Roll Inkjet Printing and Photonic Sintering of Electrodes for ITO Free Polymer Solar Cell Modules and Facile Product Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    Small polymer solar cell modules that are manufactured without indium-tin-oxide using only roll-to-roll printing and coating techniques under ambient conditions enable facile integration into a simple demonstrator (for example a laser pointer). Semitransparent front electrode grid structures...

  9. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D' Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  10. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...... material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. The achievable resolution was 12 μm in the lateral plane and 4.5 μm in the depth. We found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers. We finally identify the limitations of...

  11. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  12. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  13. Experimental investigation on the characteristics of a solar cell under different illumination intensities and shading areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W. B.; Hu, F. Y.; He, X. D.; Zhang, H. M.; Wu, H. M.

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of a solar cell, the short-circuit current ( I sc ), the open-circuit voltage ( V oc ), the maximum power point ( V m , I m ), the fill factor ( FF) and the photoelectric conversion efficiency ( η) under different illumination intensities and shading areas have been experimentally investigated. The work factor ω is given by ω = (1 - A/ A 0) × S/ S 0, where A 0 is the total solar cell area, A the shading area, S 0 the benchmark reference irradiation level, and S the new level of the irradiation, is introduced to take the light intensity and shading area into account. The results show that Isc and Im increase on an approximately linear increasing way with ω, but V oc and V m approach the saturation levels. The reason is that the current is a linear function of ω, and the relationship of the voltage to ω is logarithmic. We also found I sc ( V m ) to depend more on ω than I m ( V oc ). In addition, we observed that η tended to increase linearly with ω, but FF tended to converge to saturation. The reason for the behavior of η is the reduction in the contact resistance and in the electron-hole recombination with increasing ω. However, FF is mainly determined by V oc . The improvement in the solar cell performance with increasing ω results from an increase in the current, but not in the voltage or the fill factor.

  14. Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2015-01-28

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with different chalcogenophene comonomers (thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene) for use in field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaic devices are reported. The effect of the heteroatom substitution on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties and charge carrier mobilities of these polymers is discussed. The results indicate that by increasing the size of the chalcogen atom (S < Se < Te), polymer band gaps are narrowed mainly due to LUMO energy level stabilization. In addition, the larger heteroatomic size also increases intermolecular heteroatom-heteroatom interactions facilitating the formation of polymer aggregates leading to enhanced field-effect mobilities of 1.6 cm2/(V s). Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the chalcogenophene polymer series blended with fullerene derivatives show good photovoltaic properties, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 7.1-8.8%. A high photoresponse in the near-infrared (NIR) region with excellent photocurrents above 20 mA cm-2 was achieved for all polymers, making these highly efficient low band gap polymers promising candidates for use in tandem solar cells. (Graph Presented).

  15. Thermocleavable π‐Conjugated Polymers – Synthesis and photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    2009-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (plastic solar cells) have seen remarkable improvements in recent years where power conversion efficiencies of up to 6% have been reported for small area devices. However in terms of stability polymer solar cells degrade during illumination and in the dark leading to operational lifetimes that are generally very poor. There has been a recent interest in the operational stability of devices and more importantly on the understanding of why devices and materials break down. T...

  16. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2013-10-07

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Poly[(3-hexylthiophene-block-(3-semifluoroalkylthiophene] for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Toru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of poly[(3-hexylthiophene-block-(3-(4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-nonafluoroheptylthiophene], P(3HT-b-3SFT, carried out by the Grignard Metathesis Method (GRIM. The copolymers composition was determined by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopies, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The thin films of P(3HT‑b‑3SFT were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM. We also fabricated bulk-hetero junction (BHJ solar cells based on blends of P(3HT-b-3SFT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM. Although the composition ratio of P3SFT in P(3HT-b-3SFT was low, the influence of P3SFT on the morphology and properties of solar cells was significant. The annealing process for the BHJ solar cells induced the formation of large domains and led to poor solar cell performance. The BHJ solar cells, based on PCBM and P(3HT-b-3SFT, prepared by the non-annealing process, had a maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.84% under 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5 solar illumination in air.

  18. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells.

  19. Morphology and Performance of Polymer Solar Cell Characterized by DPD Simulation and Graph Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunmiao; Ji, Yujin; Xue, Junwei; Hou, Tingjun; Tang, Jianxin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of active layers in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is critical to the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Currently, there is limited information for the morphology from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Meanwhile, there are limited approaches to predict the morphology /efficiency of OPV. Here we use Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) to determine 3D morphology of BHJ solar cells and show DPD to be an efficient approach to predict the 3D morphology. Based on the 3D morphology, we estimate the performance indicator of BHJ solar cells by using graph theory. Specifically, we study poly (3-hexylthiophene)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) BHJ solar cells. We find that, when the volume fraction of PCBM is in the region 0.4 ∼ 0.5, P3HT/PCBM will show bi-continuous morphology and optimum performance, consistent with experimental results. Further, the optimum temperature (413 K) for the morphology and performance of P3HT/PCBM is in accord with annealing results. We find that solvent additive plays a critical role in the desolvation process of P3HT/PCBM BHJ solar cell. Our approach provides a direct method to predict dynamic 3D morphology and performance indicator for BHJ solar cells. PMID:26581407

  20. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell - preparation and operation in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf;

    2008-01-01

    without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl...

  1. Semiconducting Polymers Consisting of Anthracene and Benzotriazole Units for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Ah; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-02-01

    An alternating copolymer composed of 2,6-dibromo-9,10-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)anthracene and benzotriazole units, poly(An-alt-BTz), was synthesized, through a Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization, for use in photovoltaic devices as a p-type electron donor. For the reduction of the bandgap energy of benzotriazole units, 5,5'-dibromo-2,2'-bithiophene, or 2,5-dibromothieno [3,2-b] thiophene units were introduced into the polymer. Poly(anthracene-co-benzotriazole-co-bithiophene(thienothiophene))s were synthesized using the same polymerization reactions. The measured optical bandgap energy of poly(anthracene-alt-benzotriazole) was 2.62 eV. As the contents of the flat comonomer units in the ter-polymers increased, the bandgap energies of the resulting polymers decreased up to 1.95 eV. The energy levels of the HOMO and the LUMO of the copolymers were determined from the cyclic voltammetry. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated with the polymers as electron donors and PC71 BM as an electron acceptor. One of the fabricated devices showed the maximum PCE of 0.74% with 0.57 V of VOC, 2.59 mA/cm2 of JSC, and 0.48 of FF under AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm2) condition. PMID:26353683

  2. A novel benzodipyrrolidone-based low band gap polymer for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Wei; Huang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Jianyu;

    2013-01-01

    A low band gap polymer PBDPDP-DTP, with alternating benzodipyrrolidone (BDP) unit and dithienopyrrole, was synthesized and characterized. A PCE of 2.60%and a Voc of up to 0.74 V were realized in PSCs, which demonstrated the strong potential of BDP as the electron deficient unit in the design of...

  3. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  4. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  5. UV-Ozone Treatment on Cs2CO3 Interfacial Layer for the Improvement of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yusheng Xin; Zixuan Wang; Lu Xu; Xiaowei Xu; Yang Liu; Fujun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Inverted configuration polymer solar cells (IPSCs) were prepared by using Cs2CO3 modified indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates as cathode and MoO3/Al as anode, ITO/Cs2CO3/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Al. The interfacial Cs2CO3 layers were conducted with annealing treatment and different time UV-Ozone treatment. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of IPSCs was improved to 1% when the UV-Ozone treatment time is 15 minutes, with the open-circuit voltage of 0.48 V, short-circuit current density of 5.4 mA/cm2, a...

  6. A low-temperature processed environment-friendly full-organic carrier collection layer for polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed a concept of the full-organic carrier collection layer (CCL) used for polymer solar cells. The CCL is composed of dipyrazino[2,3-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile as hole collection layer (HCL) and chlorine-free solvents (formic acid (FA)) processed 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron collection layer, exhibiting good solubility, and environmental protection. The FA based device shows ideal power conversion efficiency (3.75%), which is higher than that of control device (3.6%). Besides, the HCL shows a different mechanism in hole extraction by functioning as a charge recombination zone for electrons injected from anode and holes extracted from the donor materials

  7. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.;

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...... edges. The edge sealing rim was 10 mm wide. Cell modules were characterized by periodic measurements of IV curves over extended periods in a variety of conditions, as well as by a variety of spatial imaging techniques. Data show significant stability benefits of the edge sealing process. The results...... of the imaging experiments show that the ingress of atmospheric reactants from the edges leads to degradation. In the case of edge sealed devices the same effects are observed but significantly slowed down. In particular, the fast nonlinear degradation is eliminated....

  8. Enhanced efficiency of inverted polymer solar cells by using solution-processed TiOx/CsOx cathode buffer layer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Fan, Xi; Sun, Xianke; ZHANG, YUNLI; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a double-buffer film of TiOx coated with CsOx (TiOx/CsOx) was solution prepared to be applied in poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct (P3HT:ICBA) and P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Compared with TiOx films and CsOx films, the TiOx/CsOx double-buffer film exhibited a favorable energy-level alignment among TiOx, CsOx, and the electron acceptor of PCBM or ICBA a better surface morphology; and an enhanced wetting an...

  9. Surface Modification of ZnO Layers via Hydrogen Plasma Treatment for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamakarios, Vasilis; Polydorou, Ermioni; Soultati, Anastasia; Droseros, Nikos; Tsikritzis, Dimitris; Douvas, Antonios M; Palilis, Leonidas; Fakis, Mihalis; Kennou, Stella; Argitis, Panagiotis; Vasilopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-20

    Modifications of the ZnO electron extraction layer with low-pressure H plasma treatment increased the efficiency of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on four different photoactive blends, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC71BM), P3HT:1',1″,4',4″-tetrahydro-di[1,4]methanonaphthaleno-[5,6]ullerene-C60 (P3HT:IC60BA), poly[(9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl)-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:PC71BM (PCDTBT:PC71BM), and (poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-(2-ethylhexy)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low-bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Jingbi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Li, Xuanhua; Xie, Feng-xian; Sha, Wei E.I.; Kwong, Johnson H.W.; Choy, Wallace C.H. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong (China)

    2012-10-15

    The active layer of a low bandgap polymer solar cell has been patterned by a simple imprinting technique, and thin metal oxide/metal layers have been coated on the active layer to form a metal grating back electrode. By finely controlling the distance between the grating and active layer, about 10% short current enhancement (J{sub sc}) is seen, without any obvious degradation to the open circuit voltage or fill factor. The power conversion efficiency increases from 7.20 to 7.73%, which is due to absorption enhancement from waveguide modes, Wood's anomaly, and plasmonic effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Performance improvement of polymer solar cells by using a solution processible titanium chelate as cathode buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhan'ao; Yang, Chunhe; Zhou, Erjun; Wang, Xiang; Li, Yongfang

    2007-07-01

    A solution processible titanium chelate, titanium (diisopropoxide) bis (2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD), was used as the cathode buffer layer in the polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the blend of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester. Introducing TIPD buffer layer reduced the interface resistance between the active layer and Al electrode, leading to a lower device resistance. The power conversion efficiency of the PSC with TIPD buffer layer reached 2.52% under the illumination of AM1.5, 100mW/cm2, which is increased by 51.8% in comparison with that (1.66%) of the device without TIPD buffer layer under the same experimental conditions.

  12. Fast Inline Roll-to-Roll Printing for Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells Using Automatic Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    Fast inline roll-to-roll printing and coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and barrier foil was demonstrated under ambient conditions at web speeds of 10 mmin1 for the manufacture of indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells comprising a 6-layer stack: silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ Zn...... layer. The third and fourth layers were slot-die coated at the same time again using inline processing at a web speed of 10 mmin1 of firstly zinc oxide as the electron transport layer followed by P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. The first three layers (silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO) comprise a generally...

  13. Fabrication of large area silicon solar cells by rapid thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivoththaman, S.; Laureys, W.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.

    1995-10-01

    Large area n+pp+ solar cells have been fabricated on 10 cm×10 cm pseudo-quasi-square CZ silicon wafers (1 Ω cm, p-type) predominantly used by the photovoltaic (PV) industry. All the high-temperature steps have been performed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Emitter formation, back surface field (BSF) formation, and surface oxidation have been performed in just two RTP steps each lasting 50 s. Solar cells of 15% efficiency have been fabricated this way, demonstrating the applicability of this low thermal budget technology to large area, modulable size, industrial quality Si wafers. Furthermore, the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) is shown to result in good quality thin oxides with Si/SiO2 interface trap densities (Dit)<1011 cm-3 eV-1 near-midgap.

  14. Graphene-based large area dye-sensitized solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaluci, Simone; Gemmi, Mauro; Pellegrini, Vittorio; di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate spray coating of graphene ink as a viable method for large-area fabrication of graphene-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) modules. A graphene-based ink produced by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite is spray coated onto a transparent conductive oxide substrate to realize a large area (>90 cm2) semi-transparent (transmittance 44%) counter-electrode (CE) replacing platinum, the standard CE material. The graphene-based CE is successfully integrated in a large-area (43.2 cm2 active area) DSSC module achieving a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The approach demonstrated here paves the way to all-printed, flexible, and transparent graphene-based large-area and cost-effective photovoltaic devices on arbitrary substrates.

  15. Polyfluorene Electrolytes Interfacial Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells: Controllably Interfacial Dipoles by Regulation of Polar Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Hu, Lin; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2016-04-20

    The polar groups in the conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) can create the favorable dipoles at the electrode/active layer interface, which is critical for the CPEs to minimize the interfacial energy barrier in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of CPEs based on poly [(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-co-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] derivates (PFNs) (PFN30, PFN50, PFN70, and PFN100) with different mole ratio of polar groups (-N(C2H5)2) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of the numbers of polar groups on the interfacial dipoles. Controllably interfacial dipoles could be readily achieved by only tuning the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs, as revealed by the work function of the PFNs modified ITO gradually reduced as the loadings of the -N(C2H5)2 increased. In addition, increasing the numbers of -N(C2H5)2 in PFNs were also favorable for developing the smooth and homogeneous morphology of the active layer. As a result, the content of the polar amine in the PFNs exerted great influence on the performance of polymer solar cells. Increasing the numbers of the pendent -N(C2H5)2 could effectively improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices. Among these PFNs, PFN100 with the highest content of -N(C2H5)2 polar groups delivered the device with the best PCE of 3.27%. It indicates tailoring the content of the polar groups in the CPEs interlayer is a facial and promising approach for interfacial engineering to developing high performance PSCs. PMID:27028166

  16. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  17. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  18. Improved performance of polymer solar cells using PBDTT-F-TT:PC71BM blend film as active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yue; Gao, Xiumin; Lu, Xinmiao; Xin, Qing; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jufeng

    2016-07-01

    A detailed study of high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a low bandgap polymer PBDTT-F-TT and PC71BM as the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is carried out. By using 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as solvent additive to control the morphology of active layer and comparing different device architecture to optimize the optical field distribution, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the resulted devices can be reached as high as 9.34%. Comprehensive characterization and optical modeling of the resulting devices is performed to understand the effect of DIO and device geometry on photovoltaic performance. It was found that the addition of DIO can significantly improve the nanoscale morphology and increased electron mobility in the BHJ layer. The inverted device architecture was chosen because the results from optical modeling shows that it offers better optical field distribution and exciton generation profile. Based on these results, a low-temperature processed ZnO was finally introduced as an electron transport layer to facility the fabrication on flexible substrates and showed comparable performance with the device based on conventional ZnO interlayer prepared by sol-gel process.

  19. Performance of polymer electrolyte based on chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraidah, M. H.; Teo, L. P.; Au Yong, C. M.; Shah, Shahan; Arof, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide) powders have been mixed in different weight ratios. To each mixture, a fixed amount of ammonium iodide has been added. All mixtures have been dissolved in 1% acetic acid solution to form polymer blend electrolyte films by the solution cast technique. X-ray diffraction indicates that the polymer blend electrolytes are amorphous. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows shifting of the amine, carboxamide and Csbnd Osbnd C bands to lower wavenumbers indicating the occurrence of complexation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the electrical properties of the samples. The ionic conductivity for 55 wt.% chitosan-45 wt.% NH4I electrolyte system is 3.73 × 10-7 S cm-1 at room temperature and is increased to 3.66 × 10-6 S cm-1 for the blended film (16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I film. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated by sandwiching the polymer electrolyte between the TiO2/dye photoelectrode and Pt counter electrode. DSSCs fabricated exhibits short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.71 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V and efficiency of 0.78% with configuration ITO/TiO2/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO and Jsc of 2.84 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.58 V and efficiency of 1.13% with configuration ITO/TiO2 + Ag nanoparticles/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO.

  20. Evaluation of solar sludge drying alternatives by costs and area requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mayıs; Aksoy, Ayşegül; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Thermal drying is a common method to reach above 90% dry solids content (DS) in sludge. However, thermal drying requires high amount of energy and can be expensive. A greenhouse solar dryer (GSD) can be a cost-effective substitute if the drying performance, which is typically 70% DS, can be increased by additional heat. In this study feasibility of GSD supported with solar panels is evaluated as an alternative to thermal dryers to reach 90% DS. Evaluations are based on capital and O&M costs as well as area requirements for 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with various sludge production rates. Costs for the supported GSD system are compared to that of conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. To calculate the optimal costs associated with the drying system, an optimization model was developed in which area limitation was a constraint. Results showed that total cost was minimum when the DS in the GSD (DS(m,i)) was equal to the maximum attainable value (70% DS). On average, 58% of the total cost and 38% of total required area were associated with the GSD. Variations in costs for 37 WWTPs were due to differences in initial DS (DS(i,i)) and sludge production rates, indicating the importance of dewatering to lower drying costs. For large plants, GSD supported with solar panels provided savings in total costs especially in long term when compared to conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. PMID:26025600

  1. Application of a polymer heterojunction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a blend heterojunction consisting of a C60 derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a charge carrier transfer medium to replace the I3-/I- redox electrolyte, a novel TiO2/dye/PCBM/P3HT dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated and characterized. It was found that the P3HT/PCBM heterojunction widened the incident light harvest range from ultraviolet to visible light, and improved the photoelectrical response of the dye-sensitized solar cell. We investigated the influence of the PCBM/P3HT ratio and barrier layer on the photoelectric performance of the solar cell and proposed optimized preparation conditions. The optimized solar cell with a barrier layer and PCBM/P3HT ratio of 1:2 had a short circuit current density of 5.52 mA cm-2, an open circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a fill factor of 0.640 and a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 3.09% under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW cm-2.

  2. Application of a polymer heterojunction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jihuai, E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.c [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China)] [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021, Fujian (China); Yue Gentian; Xiao Yaoming; Ye Haifeng; Lin Jianming; Huang Miaoliang [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China)] [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021, Fujian (China)

    2010-08-01

    Using a blend heterojunction consisting of a C{sub 60} derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a charge carrier transfer medium to replace the I{sub 3}{sup -}/I{sup -} redox electrolyte, a novel TiO{sub 2}/dye/PCBM/P3HT dye-sensitized solar cell was fabricated and characterized. It was found that the P3HT/PCBM heterojunction widened the incident light harvest range from ultraviolet to visible light, and improved the photoelectrical response of the dye-sensitized solar cell. We investigated the influence of the PCBM/P3HT ratio and barrier layer on the photoelectric performance of the solar cell and proposed optimized preparation conditions. The optimized solar cell with a barrier layer and PCBM/P3HT ratio of 1:2 had a short circuit current density of 5.52 mA cm{sup -2}, an open circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a fill factor of 0.640 and a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 3.09% under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW cm{sup -2}.

  3. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Greenhouse systems with integrated water desalination for arid areas based on solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaibi, M.Thameur

    2003-01-01

    The limited water resources in arid areas have led to the use of low-quality irrigation water in agriculture which may reduce crop yields and damage the environment. This study is focused on a greenhouse concept with integrated water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations in areas where only saline water is available. In this greenhouse the roof light transmission is reduced as solar radiation is absorbed by a layer of flowing water on a glass covered by a to...

  5. Polymer blend lithography for metal films: large-area patterning with over 1 billion holes/inch2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymer blend lithography (PBL is a spin-coating-based technique that makes use of the purely lateral phase separation between two immiscible polymers to fabricate large area nanoscale patterns. In our earlier work (Huang et al. 2012, PBL was demonstrated for the fabrication of patterned self-assembled monolayers. Here, we report a new method based on the technique of polymer blend lithography that allows for the fabrication of metal island arrays or perforated metal films on the nanometer scale, the metal PBL. As the polymer blend system in this work, a mixture of polystyrene (PS and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is used. This system forms a purely lateral structure on the substrate at controlled humidity, which means that PS droplets are formed in a PMMA matrix, whereby both phases have direct contact both to the substrate and to the air interface. Therefore, a subsequent selective dissolution of either the PS or PMMA component leaves behind a nanostructured film which can be used as a lithographic mask. We use this lithographic mask for the fabrication of metal patterns by thermal evaporation of the metal, followed by a lift-off process. As a consequence, the resulting metal nanostructure is an exact replica of the pattern of the selectively removed polymer (either a perforated metal film or metal islands. The minimum diameter of these holes or metal islands demonstrated here is about 50 nm. Au, Pd, Cu, Cr and Al templates were fabricated in this work by metal PBL. The wavelength-selective optical transmission spectra due to the localized surface plasmonic effect of the holes in perforated Al films were investigated and compared to the respective hole diameter histograms.

  6. Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulra'uf Lukman Bola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean, inexpensive and renewable energy has increasingly turned research attention towards polymer photovoltaic cells. However, the performance efficiency of these devices is still low in comparison with silicon-based devices. The recent introduction of new materials and processing techniques has resulted in a remarkable increase in power-conversion efficiency, with a value above 10%. Controlling the interpenetrating network morphology is a key factor in obtaining devices with improved performance. This review focuses on the influence of controlled nanoscale morphology on the overall performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ photovoltaic cells. Strategies such as the use of solvents, solvent annealing, polymer nanowires (NWs, and donor–acceptor (D–A blend ratios employed to control the active-layer morphologies are all discussed.

  7. Sunspot areas and tilt angles for solar cycles 7-10

    CERN Document Server

    Pavai, V Senthamizh; Dasi-Espuig, M; Krivova, N; Solanki, S

    2015-01-01

    Extending the knowledge about the properties of solar cycles into the past is essential for understanding the solar dynamo. This paper aims at estimating areas of sunspots observed by Schwabe in 1825-1867 and at calculating the tilt angles of sunspot groups. The sunspot sizes in Schwabe's drawings are not to scale and need to be converted into physical sunspot areas. We employed a statistical approach assuming that the area distribution of sunspots was the same in the 19th century as it was in the 20th century. Umbral areas for about 130,000 sunspots observed by Schwabe were obtained, as well as the tilt angles of sunspot groups assuming them to be bipolar. There is, of course, no polarity information in the observations. The annually averaged sunspot areas correlate reasonably with sunspot number. We derived an average tilt angle by attempting to exclude unipolar groups with a minimum separation of the two alleged polarities and an outlier rejection method which follows the evolution of each group and detect...

  8. Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulra'uf Lukman Bola; Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul Mahmud; Rosiyah Yahya; Wasiu Adebayo Hammed

    2013-01-01

    The need for clean, inexpensive and renewable energy has increasingly turned research attention towards polymer photovoltaic cells. However, the performance efficiency of these devices is still low in comparison with silicon-based devices. The recent introduction of new materials and processing techniques has resulted in a remarkable increase in power-conversion efficiency, with a value above 10%. Controlling the interpenetrating network morphology is a key factor in obtaining devices with im...

  9. Efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells with n-type doped titanium oxide as an electron transport layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported a highly n-type doped solution-processed titanium metal oxide (TiOx) for use as an efficient electron-transport layer (ETL) in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. When the metal ions (Ti) in TiOx are partially substituted by niobium (Nb), the charge carrier density increased, by an order of magnitude, because of the large electronegativity of Nb compared to that of Ti. Therefore, the work function (WF) of Nb-doped metal oxide (Nb-TiOx) decreases from 4.75 eV (TiOx) to 4.66 eV (Nb-TiOx), leading to an enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of BHJ solar cells with a Nb-TiOx ETL (from 7.99% to 8.40%). - Highlights: • Solution processable Nb-doped TiOx was developed by simple sol-gel synthesis. • Charge carrier density in TiOx is significantly increased by introducing Nb element. • The work function value of Nb-doped TiOx is reduced by introducing Nb element. • A charge recombination inside of PSC with Nb-TiOx was effectively suppressed

  10. Efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells with n-type doped titanium oxide as an electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youna [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heejoo, E-mail: heejook@gist.ac.kr [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Hee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwanghee, E-mail: klee@gist.ac.kr [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    We have reported a highly n-type doped solution-processed titanium metal oxide (TiO{sub x}) for use as an efficient electron-transport layer (ETL) in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. When the metal ions (Ti) in TiO{sub x} are partially substituted by niobium (Nb), the charge carrier density increased, by an order of magnitude, because of the large electronegativity of Nb compared to that of Ti. Therefore, the work function (WF) of Nb-doped metal oxide (Nb-TiO{sub x}) decreases from 4.75 eV (TiO{sub x}) to 4.66 eV (Nb-TiO{sub x}), leading to an enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of BHJ solar cells with a Nb-TiO{sub x} ETL (from 7.99% to 8.40%). - Highlights: • Solution processable Nb-doped TiO{sub x} was developed by simple sol-gel synthesis. • Charge carrier density in TiO{sub x} is significantly increased by introducing Nb element. • The work function value of Nb-doped TiO{sub x} is reduced by introducing Nb element. • A charge recombination inside of PSC with Nb-TiO{sub x} was effectively suppressed.

  11. Development of a low-cost solar panel using laminated polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Adams, G. J.; Elkins, W.; McLeod, A. H.

    1980-03-01

    The Low Cost Solar Panel development program demonstrate the fabrication of an inexpensive single glazed, nonconcentrating solar collector. With fabrication of a prototype version of the LCSP, the following key conclusions are reached: (1) the LCSP can provide cost effective thermal energy in the near term due to low collector cost, low shipping and installation costs, and high performance; (2) the LCSP concept can be rapidly commercialized since the required manufacturing technology already exists, and the capital cost for equipment would be relatively low; and (3) the LCSP concept is technically feasible; however, additional engineering and manufacturing development are required to reach the point of commercialization.

  12. Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokalič, Matevž; Raguse, John; Sites, James R.; Topič, Marko

    2013-09-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) imaging process of small area solar cells is investigated in detail to expose optical and electrical effects that influence image acquisition and corrupt the acquired image. An approach to correct the measured EL images and to extract the exact EL radiation as emitted from the photovoltaic device is presented. EL images of circular cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells are obtained under different conditions. The power-law relationship between forward injection current and EL emission and a negative temperature coefficient of EL radiation are observed. The distributed Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE®) model of the circular CdTe solar cell is used to simulate the dark J-V curve and current distribution under the conditions used during EL measurements. Simulation results are presented as circularly averaged EL intensity profiles, which clearly show that the ratio between resistive parameters determines the current distribution in thin-film solar cells. The exact resistance values for front and back contact layers and for CdTe bulk layer are determined at different temperatures, and a negative temperature coefficient for the CdTe bulk resistance is observed.

  13. A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Astronomy and Meterology

    2004-07-01

    The monthly mean values of global, G, and ultraviolet, UV, solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo urban area during the two different periods (1969-1973) and (1993-1997) are presented, analyzed and compared. The effect of urbanization processes on the solar radiation components is investigated and discussed. It was found that the total radiation of the two components, G and UV received at the urban area of Cairo during the period (1969-1973) highly exceeds the radiation received during the period (1993-1997) for all months of the year. The mean relative reduction of G and UV reached 17.4% and 27.4% respectively. A significant correlation between G and UV radiation has been established and the recommended correlation equation has been stated to estimate the values of UV radiation that are difficult to measure at any site in the zone of Lower Egypt. Also, a comparative study of the two radiation components, G and UV, at urban (Cairo) and rural (Bahtim) areas during the period (1993-1997) revealed that the urban area always has values of G and UV radiation distinctly lower than that found in rural area for all months of the year. Urban-rural mean reduction of G and UV reached 7.0% and 17.9% respectively. The ratio of the ultraviolet to global radiation (UV/G) are calculated and compared with other sites in the Arabian Peninsula. The effect of atmospheric dust on the measured solar radiation components is also investigated and discussed. (author)

  14. Luminescent GdVO4:Sm3+ quantum dots enhance power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Sharma, Chhavi; Haranath, D.; Naqvi, Sheerin; Kumar, Mahesh; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO4:Sm3+) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO4:Sm3+ QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO4:Sm3+ to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO4:Sm3+ QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO4:Sm3+:PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO4:Sm3+:PC71BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC71BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.

  15. Correlating the efficiency and nanomorphology of polymer blend solar cells utilizing resonant soft X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongping; Collins, Brian A; Gann, Eliot; Wang, Cheng; Ade, Harald; McNeill, Christopher R

    2012-01-24

    Enhanced scattering contrast afforded by resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) is used to probe the nanomorphology of all-polymer solar cells based on blends of the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with either the acceptor polymer poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2"-diyl) (F8TBT) or poly([N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-11-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-12-bithiophene)) (P(NDI2OD-T2)). Both P3HT:F8TBT and P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) blends processed from chloroform with subsequent annealing exhibit complicated morphologies with a hierarchy of phase separation. A bimodal distribution of domain sizes is observed for P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) blends with small domains of size ~5-10 nm that evolve with annealing and larger domains of size ~100 nm that are insensitive to annealing. P3HT:F8TBT blends in contrast show a broader distribution of domain size but with the majority of this blend structured on the 10 nm length scale. For both P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) and P3HT:F8TBT blends, an evolution in device performance is observed that is correlated with a coarsening and purification of domains on the 5-10 nm length scale. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GI-WAXS) is also employed to probe material crystallinity, revealing P(NDI2OD-T2) crystallites 25-40 nm in thickness that are embedded in the larger domains observed by R-SoXS. A higher degree of P3HT crystallinity is also observed in blends with P(NDI2OD-T2) compared to F8TBT with the propensity of the polymers to crystallize in P3HT:P(NDI2OD-T2) blends hindering the structuring of morphology on the sub-10 nm length scale. This work also underscores the complementarity of R-SoXS and GI-WAXS, with R-SoXS measuring the size of compositionally distinguishable domains and GI-WAXS providing information regarding crystallinity and crystallite thickness. PMID:22168639

  16. Influence of morphology and polymer:nanoparticle ratio on device performance of hybrid solar cells—an approach in experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a thorough study on the various impacts of polymer:nanoparticle ratios on morphology, charge generation and device performance in hybrid solar cells, comprising active layers consisting of a conjugated polymer and in situ prepared copper indium sulfide (CIS) nanoparticles. We conducted morphological studies through transmission electron microscopy and transient absorption measurements to study charge generation in absorber layers with polymer:nanoparticle weight ratios ranging from 1:3 to 1:15. These data are correlated to the characteristic parameters of the prepared solar cells. To gain a deeper understanding of our experimental findings, three-dimensional drift-diffusion-based simulations were performed. Based on elaborate descriptions of the contributions of polymer and nanoparticle phase to device performances, our results suggest that a polymer:CIS volume ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio 1:9) is necessary to obtain a balanced hole and electron percolation. Also at higher CIS loadings the photocurrent remains surprisingly high due to the contribution of the CIS phase to the charge carrier generation. (paper)

  17. Extraction of photo-generated charge carriers from polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM; Heremans, PL; Muccini, M; Hofstraat, H

    2004-01-01

    Two models describing charge extraction from insulators have been used to interpret the experimental photocurrent data of 20:80 wt% blends of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MDMO-PPV) and [6,6]phenyl C-61,-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar ce

  18. Large scale deployment of polymer solar cells on land, on sea and in the air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hösel, Markus; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    With the development of patterns that connect all cells in series, organic photovoltaics have leapt a step forward being ahead of other solar and even other energy technologies in terms of manufacturing speed and energy density. The important questions of how they are meant to be installed for...

  19. Efficient decommissioning and recycling of polymer solar cells: justification for use of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    silver that is an essential component of the two electrodes. We employed life cycle analysis as a tool to evaluate the most efficient silver extraction method as well as the impact on the overall life cycle of the solar cells. Silver from the electrodes could be recovered as silver chloride in 95% yield...

  20. Stability and photodegradation mechanisms of conjugated polymer/fullerene plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neugebauer, H.; Brabec, C.; Hummelen, J.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    Degradation studies of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MDMO-PPV), fullerenes ((6,6)-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C-60), and mixtures, which are the photoactive components in plastic solar cells, are shown. The degradation processes of the indivi