WorldWideScience

Sample records for area germany final

  1. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  2. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  3. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  4. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30,...

  5. 78 FR 23220 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... from Germany.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. We invited... in the section entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Lightweight Thermal Paper from...

  6. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.\\1\\ The period...

  7. 75 FR 53661 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ..., Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... and parts thereof from Germany, is the successor-in-interest to the pre-acquisition myonic...

  8. 77 FR 21082 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Final Results of the 2009-2010 Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Final Results of the 2009... from Germany.\\1\\ The review covers one manufacturer/exporter: Koehler. The period of review (``POR...\\ See Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  9. 75 FR 27538 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Extension of Time Limit for the Final... duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany covering one respondent, Wieland-Werke A.G. See... Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 18801 (April 13, 2010)....

  10. 77 FR 28851 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Amended Final Results of the 2009-2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Amended Final Results of... (LWTP) from Germany for the period from ] November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. We are amending... results of the 2009-2010 administrative review for LWTP from Germany for the period from November 1,...

  11. 78 FR 69368 - Sodium Nitrite From Germany and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Sodium Nitrite From Germany and the People's Republic of China: Final Results... reviews of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on sodium nitrite from Germany and the People's Republic... nitrite from Germany and the PRC.\\1\\ On July 1, 2013, the Department published the notice of initiation...

  12. 76 FR 22078 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Final Results of the First Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Final Results of the First... administrative review for the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany.\\2\\ The review... October 31, 2009. \\1\\ See Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission...

  13. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Administrative and Changed...

  14. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results... parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR... France, Germany, and Italy. DATES: Effective Date: September 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    kingdom and the Roman Catholic Church, reluctantly began to adopt Christianity. Carolingian Empire, 752-911 Charles the Great ( Charlemagne ) inherited...present-day France, parts of Spain and Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and the greater part of Italy. Charlemagne , the...founder of an empire that was Roman, Christian, and Germanic, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in the year 800. The Carolingian Empire was based

  16. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... 0.00 NTN-SNR 0.00 Volkswagen AG 0.00 Volkswagen Zubehor GmbH 0.00 Germany: Bayerische Motoren...

  17. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  18. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape formation in a gully catchment area in Northern Hesse, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Permanent gully channels under forest are common geomorphological features in Central European low mountain areas. In the Rehgraben/Fuchslöchergraben gully catchment in Northern Hesse, Germany the Late Pleistocene landscape formation is reconstructed based on periglacial cover beds. In addition...

  19. 77 FR 4762 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Final Results of the Full Third Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Final Results of the Full Third Five-Year... on brass sheet and strip from Germany, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as... and strip from Germany would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping. FOR...

  20. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  1. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  2. Approaches and practices related to hazardous waste management, processing and final disposal in germany and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, J.A.L.; Pereira, F.A.; Tomich, S. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A general overview of the existing management and processing of hazardous wastes technologies in Germany and Brazil is presented in this work. Emphasis has been given to the new technologies and practices adopted in both countries, including a comparison of the legislation, standards and natural trends. Two case studies of large industrial hazardous waste sites are described. 9 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Archaeopedological analysis of land use dynamics in marginal areas in SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkner, Jessica; Ahlrichs, Jan; Scholten, Thomas; Knopf, Thomas; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A common theory to explain human migration is climate change triggering migration and the shift of farming places. Populated areas might have been relocated or extended because of changing resources like a warming climate, soil erosion or a change in demands. But it also has to be taken into account that altered trading relations or changing religious attitudes might have caused migration into and settlement of formerly not used areas. In the case of Southwest Germany it is assumed that people migrated from the favorable Baar (more even areas, soils on loess, lower elevations) to the unfavorable Black Forest and the Swabian Jura with harsher environmental conditions (small valleys, acidic soils, steep slopes, higher elevation). Soils are generally considered as being an important resource related to human activities, especially farming, but also for using wood, water or iron ore. Colluvial deposits as geoarchives reveal the formative impact of humans on their environment: on the development of soil, relief, vegetation, and land use. Land use and therefore settlement history are inscribed in colluvial deposits, which we use as proxies for the kind and intensity of human activities. Especially in marginal areas land use and settlement dynamics are not well investigated. Important questions are how and why did people use the unfavorable land during different times? Which resources were important for different phases of settlement? In this project, soil science methods are used together with archaeological approaches, which is an essential part of archaeopedology. Using colluvial deposits from three study areas it is possible to create pedological and chronological stratigraphies reflecting land use dynamics in favorable and unfavorable areas. First AMS radiocarbon dates from the western Baar in transition to the Black Forest point to human land use with different intensity for 5500 years. Thick lower colluvial layers date back to the third millennium BC. Above

  4. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  5. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  6. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  7. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  8. A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferman, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of feral pigeons, Columba livia var. was conducted in the city of Jena, Germany, from July to December 2007. Daily censuses were conducted by walking ten transects in a selected area of the city, five transects in built up areas and five in the suburbs. Pigeon population density was higher in urban areas than in suburbs but differences were not significant. Main behavioural activities recorded were resting, preening, flying, eating, sunning and roosting. Regular locations of activities were rooftops and roof edges in urban areas, and rooftops, eaves on balconies in suburban areas. The plumage phenotype most frequently recorded in both areas was Blue bar.

  9. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  10. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, R D; Larbalestier, D; Schwall, R E; Sokolowski, R S; Suenaga, M; Willis, J E O

    1997-01-01

    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view.

  11. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees) and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In...

  12. Model-based quality management of groundwater resources - catchment area Liedern, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Christine; Hansen, Carsten; König, Christoph; Denzig, Dorothea; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Strategies of groundwater protection in agricultural dominated areas are mainly based on a general reduction of the input of nutrients like nitrate. However, preventive measures in different parts of the catchment may provide very different effects on raw water quality. Exemplified on the case study 'Liedern' (BEW GmbH Bocholt, Germany) it is shown that hydrogeochemical processes along the flow path and in the well strongly affect the results of agricultural measures in terms of modality and efficiency. Thus, a reduction of fertilization in the vicinity of the well gallery leads to a decrease of nitrate concentration in the raw water. Whereas agricultural measures in the eastern part of the catchment do not influence nitrate, but cause a reduction of the iron concentration and rate of incrustation in the wells after 18 years. In this study we present a management tool that enables assessment of future trends in raw water quality. The tool is based on a reactive transport model which considers land use dynamics as an instrument to influence groundwater/raw water quality. A thermodynamic equilibrium approach is applied for modelling hydrogeochemical processes between aqueous, solid and gaseous phases. Kinetically controlled reactions like the microbial degradation of organic carbon are expressed by multiplicative Michaelis-Menten equations.

  13. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  14. Analysis of bioavailable Ge in agricultural and mining-affected-soils in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Germanium (Ge) concentrations in different soil fraction were investigated using a sequential selective dissolution analysis and a rhizosphere-based single-step extraction method for the identification of Ge-bearing soil fractions and prediction of bioavailability of Ge in soil to plants. About 50 soil samples were collected from various soil depths (horizons A and B) and study sites with different types of land use (dry and moist grassland, arable land, mine dumps) in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany). Ge has been extracted in six soil fractions: mobile fraction, organic matter and sulfides, Mn- and Fe-oxides (amorphous and crystalline), and kaolinite and phytoliths, and residual fraction. The rhizosphere-based method included a 7-day-long extraction sequence with various organic acids like citric acid, malic acid and acetic acid. For the residue the aforementioned sequential extraction has been applied. The Ge-content of the samples have been measured with ICP-MS using rhodium internal standard and two different soil standards. Total Ge concentrations were found to be in the range of 1.6 to 5.5 ppm with highest concentrations on the tailing site in the mining area of Altenberg. The mean Ge concentration in agriculturally used soils was 2.6 ± 0.67 ppm, whereas the maximum values reach 2.9 ± 0.64 ppm and 3.2 ± 0.67 ppm in Himmelsfürst and in a grassland by the Mulde river, respectively. With respect to the fractions, the vast majority of Ge is contained in the last three fractions, indicating that the bioavailable Ge is typically low in the samples. On the other hand at the soil horizons A at the aforementioned two sites characterised by high total Ge, together with that of Reiche Zeche mine dump have also the highest concentrations of Ge in the first three fractions, reaching levels of 1.74 and 0.98 ppm which account for approximately 40% of the total Ge content. Ge concentrations of soil samples extracted with 0.01 or 0.1 M citric acid and malic acid were

  15. 75 FR 41435 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Notice of Court Decision Not in... Germany. See SKF USA Inc., v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT July 7, 2010). The Department is now... orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

  16. 77 FR 72827 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic... on certain corrosion- resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from Germany and the Republic... Reviews'' section of this notice. \\1\\ Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and...

  17. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  18. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  19. Environmental transformations and cultural changes: A multidisciplinary case study for the Late Glacial and Final Palaeolithic from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, F.; Tolksdorf, J. F.; Viehberg, F.; Schwarz, A.; von Bramann, U.; Bittmann, F.; Kaiser, K.; Schwalb, A.; Staesche, U.; Breest, K.; Pott, R.; Veil, S.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to younger periods, studies integrating archaeological and environmental records for the Palaeolithic are still rare. Especially our knowledge about interactions between the drastic climatic/environmental changes and cultural developments during the Late Glacial is very limited. This multidisciplinary case study from river Jeetzel, a western Elbe tributary in Northern Germany, combines high resolution palaeoenvironmental investigations with fine-scaled archaeological research on stratified and surface sites. Various dating methods (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen and plant macro-remains, ostracods, diatoms and green algae) on river palaeochannel sediments allow detailed reconstruction of interactions between Late Glacial climate, vegetation and fluvial developments. Biostratigraphical analyses on stratified archaeological sites and dating of charcoal / bone fragments from artefact scatters place the Late Palaeolithic occupation of Early Federmesser groups in an environmental context. Thus the former production of hitherto unknown amber art (amongst others a figurine representing a moose) can be ascribed to the Older Dryas and Early Allerød, which are the periods of main Late Glacial afforestation. Therewith our investigations suggest that Final Palaeolithic cultural changes may have been triggered by climatic and environmental transformations.

  20. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  1. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools.

  2. Parasites of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from an urban area in Germany, in relation to worldwide results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Raphael; Kuhn, Thomas; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Rueckert, Sonja; Pham, Daniel; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-12-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to the most invasive and successful mammalian species, which is distributed nearly worldwide. In Europe, they inhabit broad parts of the mainland and subsequently reached several European islands via anthropogenic diversion. Rabbits can also serve as hosts for numerous parasite species. The parasite and pathogen fauna of O. cuniculus have been well documented in various European countries, although studies in Germany are scarce. Until now, a comprehensive survey combining recent international studies over parasite fauna of wild rabbits had not been conducted. We examined 50 wild rabbits from an urban area near Aachen (Germany) to identify their metazoan parasite fauna, and then compared our findings to previous international investigations. A total of nine parasite species were isolated consisting of four endoparasite species (Cittotaenia denticulata, Graphidium strigosum, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis) and five ectoparasite species (Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ixodes ricinus, Leporacarus gibbus, Haemodipsus ventricosus, and Spilopsyllus cuniculi). Among the ectoparasites were two verifiable human pathogenic species and two potentially pathogenic species. In comparison to previous studies, a high number of similarities in composition of helminth species fauna were revealed. Furthermore, our results showed partial agreement with international surveys in prevalence and mean intensity of the parasites C. denticulata, G. strigosum, P. ambiguus, and T. retortaeformis.

  3. Composition and mixing state of the urban background aerosol in the Rhein-Main area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Barbara P.; Ebert, Martin; Barnert, Eric B.; Schneider, Johannes; Kandler, Konrad; Schütz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan

    Size-resolved aerosol particle samples in the size range 0.1-10 μm aerodynamic diameter were collected in the years 2003 and 2004 at an urban background station in Mainz, Germany. Size, morphology, chemical composition and mixing state of more than 5400 individual particles of 7 selected sampling days were analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy, aerosol mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy were applied to obtain detailed information about the mixing state of the particles. The fine particle fraction (diameterparticles (⩾90% by number) independent from air mass origin. These particles are complex internal mixtures of ammonium and sodium sulfates, nitrates, and organic material. Between 20% and 40% of the complex secondary aerosol particles contain soot inclusions. The composition of the coarse particle fraction (>1 μm diameter) is strongly dependant on air mass history with variable abundances of complex secondary aerosol particles, aged sea salt, silicates, silicate mixtures, calcium sulfates, calcium sulfate/carbonate mixtures, calcium nitrate/carbonate mixtures, biological particles, and external soot. The dominance of complex secondary aerosol particles shows that reduction of the precursor gases is a major goal for successful reduction strategies for PM 10.

  4. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Marta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In the Ruhr area there are 104 spoil tips of different origins (mine tips, slag heaps, rubbish dumps, sizes and shapes (from conical heaps, through table mountains shaped tips and intentionally shaped for landscape tips, to major tips and state of preservation. The research has shown that it is possible to use the majority of these spoil tips in the Ruhr area (87 of them as leisure facilities as they have been changed into green areas, parks, playgrounds, locations for sports activities and tourist attractions after their restoration. Furthermore, they are mostly accessible free of charge and may serve a wide range of people – from locals to visitors, from children to senior citizens etc., regardless of their income. As such they may mitigate the socio-economic polarisation tendencies in the region.

  5. Canine distemper outbreak in raccoons suggests pathogen interspecies transmission amongst alien and native carnivores in urban areas from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida; Förster, Christine; Aue, Angelika; Wittstatt, Ulrich; Wibbelt, Gudrun; König, Matthias

    2014-11-07

    From December 2012 to May 2013, an outbreak occurred among urban wild carnivores from Berlin. We collected 97 free-ranging raccoons from the city area. PCR assays, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in 74 raccoons. Phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin gene fragments (1767 nucleotides) of CDV isolated from four raccoons showed close relation to CDV isolates from foxes from Germany and a domestic dog from Hungary; all belonging to the "Europe" lineage of CDV. These study results suggest an inter-species transmission of CDV as the origin for the outbreak among the raccoon population. Implications for domestic pets and suggested interspecies transmission between urban wildlife and raccoons are discussed. This is the first major outbreak of CDV amongst free-ranging raccoons in Europe.

  6. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  7. Rare Campanian Echinoids from Höver and Misburg (Hannover Area, Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neumann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the rich and fairly diverse echinoid faunas from the Campanian marl/marly limestone facies as exposed at the large quarries of the cement industry near Höver and Misburg (east of Hannover, northern Germany, there are a few rare taxa, most of which have not been recorded previously from the Lower Saxony Basin. These include Echinogalerus peltiformis (Wahlenberg, 1821, Conulus (C. matesovi Poslavskaia & Moskvin in Moskvin 1959, Hagenowia blackmorei Wright & Wright, 1949, Diplodetus sp., and Peroniaster cotteaui Gauthier in Peron 1887. New material of another rare species, Hemiaster gr. aquisgranensis Schlüter, 1899, is here described. The palaeoecological significance of the rarity of these is briefly discussed. Of particular note, in a palaeobiogeographic context, are E. peltiformis and C. matesovi. The former is well known from Lower and Upper Campanian arenitic facies in southern Sweden, while the latter was held to be confined to the Lower Campanian of the Caucasus and Kazakhstan. These two species may have immigrated into the Lower Saxony Basin following transgressive pulses or within transgressive systems tracts. Die reiche und vergleichsweise diverse Echinidenfauna der Mergel/Mergelkalk-Rhythmite des Campans von Misburg und Höver bei Hannover enthält einige seltene Taxa, die bisher aus dem Niedersächsischen Becken nicht bekannt waren. Dazu gehören Echinogalerus peltiformis (Wahlenberg, 1821, Conulus (C. matesovi Poslavskaia & Moskvin in Moskvin 1959, Hagenowia blackmorei Wright & Wright, 1949, Diplodetus sp. und Peroniaster cotteaui Gauthier in Peron 1887. Für eine weitere Art, Hemiaster gr. aquisgranensis Schlüter, 1899, werden neue Funde beschrieben. Die paläoökologische Bedeutung der Seltenheit der vorliegenden Taxa wird diskutiert. Als besonders bedeutsam erweisen sich dabei die Vorkommen von E. peltiformis und C. matesovi. Ersterer war bisher ausschließlich aus den küstennahen Kalkareniten Südschwedens bekannt

  8. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  9. Outdoor (222)Rn-concentrations in Germany - part 2 - former mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M; Dushe, C; Müller, S; Gehrcke, K

    2014-06-01

    In the German Federal States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, centuries of mining and milling activities resulted in numerous residues with increased levels of natural radioactivity such as waste rock dumps and tailings ponds. These may have altered potential radiation exposures of the population significantly. Especially waste rock dumps from old mining activities as well as 20th century uranium mining may, due to their radon ((222)Rn) exhalation capacity, lead to significant radiation exposures. They often lie close to or within residential areas. In order to study the impact on the natural radon level, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has run networks of radon measurement points in 16 former mining areas, together with 2 networks in regions not influenced by mining for comparison purposes. Representative overviews of the long-term outdoor radon concentrations could be established including estimates of regional background concentrations. Former mining and milling activities did not result in large-area impacts on the outdoor radon level. However, significantly increased radon concentrations were observed in close vicinity of shafts and large waste rock dumps. They are partly located in residential areas and need to be considered under radiation protection aspects. Examples are given that illustrate the consequences of the Wismut Ltd. Company's reclamation activities on the radon situation.

  10. Bladder cancer survival in a former industrial area in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Emanuel; Selinski, Silvia; Schikowsky, Christian; Seidel, Thilo; Volkert, Frank; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Long-term follow-ups on bladder cancer patients from highly industrialized areas are rare. Therefore, we present a follow-up of bladder cancer patients from the greater area Lutherstadt Wittenberg, a center of the chemical industry of the former German Democratic Republic. Relapse-free survival times of 213 confirmed bladder cancer cases from the greater area Lutherstadt Wittenberg were collected between 2008 and 2009. Data on lifestyle and occupational exposure to potential carcinogens was recorded by questionnaire. Genotypes of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), rs710521, and rs9642880 were determined by standard methods. Cox models were used to evaluate differences in relapse-free survival. Clear differences in relapse-free survival could be observed for the number of relapses, multilocular tumor growth, and relapses with higher staging or grading than the primary tumor, as well as GSTT1. None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed significant impact on prognosis. This is the first study on two recently detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing that these polymorphisms may also contribute to shorter relapse-free times.

  11. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  12. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  13. Remote sensing and GIS study of an eroded Miocene volcanic area (Hegau, SW Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, J.; Theilen-Willige, B.

    2009-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques offer useful tools that can aid in evaluating the geomorphologic and geologic evolution of eroded volcanic landforms. Erosion provides insight into subsurface structural levels of a volcanic edifice, but it is difficult to correctly interpret the field observations, particularly if the exposed landforms have been modified by tectonic and fluvioglacial processes. An illustrative example is the Hegau volcanic field, located NW of Lake Constance near the northern margin of the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland (e.g., Schreiner, Samml. Geol. Führer 62, 2008). This region, situated on the periphery of the Upper Cretaceous-Quaternary mafic alkaline magmatic province in central Europe (e.g., Blusztajn and Hegner, Chem. Geol. 2002), was episodically active during the Miocene; K-Ar age determinations (mostly obtained in the 1960/70s) indicate emplacement ages ranging from about 15-7 Ma. Several eroded plugs and necks of olivine melilites and phonolites form prominent landmarks rising above the present-day Hegau landscape. The area also contains remnants of dikes, maar crater lakes, basalt flows, travertine and pyroclastic deposits (both pipe-filling and eruptive tuff sheets). The volcanic constructs were largely buried by Molasse sediments, due to continued flexural subsidence of the foreland lithosphere during the Tertiary. Since the cessation of the Molasse phase, the region has undergone exhumation and erosion of up to several hundred meters (increasing towards the Alpine front) as indicated by reconstructions of missing stratigraphic sections based on borehole studies (references in Rahn and Selbekk, Swiss J. Geosci. 2007). Pleistocene ice sheets repeatedly covered parts of the area and deposited moraines, gravel plains, and lake deposits (e.g., Fiebig and Preusser, Geograph. Helv. 2008). Furthermore, deep fluvioglacial valleys were carved out that were sequentially re-filled and partly re-eroded, resulting in a system of narrow basins and

  14. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  15. Spontaneous and initiated succession on unvegetated slopes in the abandoned lignite-mining area of Goitsche, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirmer, A.; Mahn, E.G. [Hsch Anhalt, Bernburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The colonization of unvegetated, dry slopes in the lignite-mining area of Goitsche, Germany was examined. The plots, characterized by different habitat conditions, were studied from 1994-2000. The vegetation development on treated plots was compared to untreated plots showing spontaneous succession. For initial treatments the authors used fresh plant clippings from a species-rich sandy grassland (Armerion elongatae) mowed at the end of July. Soil seed bank samples, taken at the beginning of the experiments and cultivated for 18 months, confirmed that the vegetation development on the slopes started with primary succession. The hospitable Quaternary substrate of Site I (pH = 4.1-4.7, 92% sand) supports fast vegetation development on treated and untreated plots. On treated plots, we have identified plant assemblages similar to initial stages of the Armerion elongatae community were identified. On control plots, Coryne-phorion communities have established spontaneously. At Site II (mixed Quaternary and Tertiary substrate, pH = 3.0-3.5, 40% sand) the total cover and number of psammophytic species was low. Treated plots showed development towards ruderal sandy grassland, but the establishment of Calamagrostis epigejos would eventually lead to monodominant stands. Untreated control plots showed basically the same pattern, however the development was slower. At Site III (pH = 1.8-2.8, 34% sand), the hostile Tertiary substrate impeded the succession on both treated and untreated plots because low pH and therefore high amounts of Al{sup 3+} produced elemental toxicity to plants. The application of plant clippings accelerated the vegetation development in sites with a pH exceeding 3. On plots with the initial treatment, vegetation cover and total number of species were higher than on untreated plots. The application of fresh plant clippings from areas with similar habitat conditions appears to be a viable alternative to traditional restoration methods.

  16. D-Area Sulfate Reduction Studty Comprehensive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M

    2005-02-11

    An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. A Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP) (WSRC 2001) was implemented to evaluate the potential for the sulfate reduction remediation of the DCPRB acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume. The following studies, implemented as part of the TSWP, are documented herein: Bacteria Population and Organic Selection Laboratory Testing; DTT-1 Trench Evaluation; DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 1; and DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. Evaluation of sulfate reduction applicability actually began with a literature search and feasibility report in mid 2001, which fed into the TSWP. Physical completion of TSWP work occurred in late 2004 with the completion of the DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. The following are the primary conclusions drawn based upon this 3-year effort: (1) Pure soybean oil provides a long-term, indirect, SRB carbon source that floats on top of the water table (by indirect it means that the soybean oil must be degraded by other microbes prior to utilization by SRB) for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Soybean oil produces no known SRB inhibitory response and therefore large quantities can be injected. (2) Sodium lactate provides a short-term, immediately available, direct, SRB carbon source that is miscible with the groundwater and therefore flows with the groundwater until it has been completely utilized for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Lactate at elevated concentrations (greater than 6 g/L) does produce a SRB inhibitory response and therefore small quantities must be injected frequently. (3) The use of limestone to buffer the contaminated groundwater facilitates sulfate reduction remediation through the injection of organic substrate. Additionally conclusions and

  17. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  18. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  19. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  20. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements

  1. The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2011-07-01

    Within the last decade the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. It consists of several hundred companies, including manufacturers and providers of plant components and entire plants as well as service providers, operators, etc. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of biogas plants in Germany. They are centered around the many potentials of biogas plants, among them the biogas plants' capability to support sustainable development processes, especially in rural areas. The major challenge in realizing such aims partly springs from the several unwelcome side effects which accompany the fast and steady growth of biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. The presented PhD project shows the actions and significance of family farms in Germany in order to successfully master the complex challenge of using the operation of biogas plants for multilayered sustainable development processes in rural areas. The internal sphere of influence family farms use to do so comprises of inter alia deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources as well as sustaining self-determined innovativeness. Furthermore it includes making use of a farm's ability to self-regulate. In this way the surveyed family farms pursue strategies which reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has been observed as a current repeasantization worldwide. The PhD project is methodologically based on holistic approaches using a sample of family farm case studies. (orig.)

  2. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...

  3. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Vold, E.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-07-05

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10{sup -4} Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility.

  4. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  6. L-Area Cavitation Tests Final Analysis - Limits Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.C.

    2001-06-26

    The L-Area cavitation test was designed to better define the onset of cavitation in the reactor system. The onset of gas evolution in the effluent piping and pump cavitation was measured using state-of-the-art equipment to provide data with a high confidence and low uncertainty level. The limits calculated from the new data will allow an approximate two percent increase in reactor power if the reactor is effluent temperature-limited with no compromise in reactor safety.

  7. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  8. Impact of industrialization of the California Delta Area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.B.; Giroux, H.D.; Knuth, W.A.

    1977-12-15

    A field study to investigate the potential effects of industrialization of the California Delta (Montezuma Hills) was conducted during August and September of 1976. The study consisted of meteorological and air quality observations and tracer studies. Tracer releases were made at Pinole, Matinez, and Montezuma Hills, and samples were taken within a radius of 50 to 70 km downwind. Estimates of the impact of potential emissions on downwind receptor areas were made including estimates of ozone generation resulting from potential emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons from the Montezuma Hills site.

  9. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  10. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany in view of European and global developments. Summary of the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, Joachim; Pregger, Thomas; Scholz, Yvonne [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung] [and others

    2012-03-31

    The German Federal government's ''Energy Concept'' [Energiekonzept 2010] of 28 September 2010 and the subsequent energy laws of summer 2011 presented a long-term political timetable for climate protection and the transformation of the energy supply in Germany [the ''Energiewende'']. It calls for emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany to be reduced by 80% to 95% from the 1990 level by the year 2050. For energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions alone, this target requires a reduction of at least 85%, aiming in the final result at a power supply that is almost emission-free. A transformation of the power supply to renewable sources of energy, accompanied by a substantial increase in energy efficiency, is the appropriate strategy for this. The challenges presented by this transformation of the power system are considerable, and their full extent has not yet been grasped. This study presents results of systems-analysis examinations of the transformation of electricity, heat, and fuel generation that were developed as part of a three-year research project for the Federal Ministry of the Environment (final report [Nitsch et al. 2012]). The work is based on projects carried out in previous years by the DLR with varying project partners for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA). In essence, self-consistent energy scenarios for long-term expansion of renewables and for the remaining supply of energy, and the structural and economic effects to be derived from these, were developed. In addition, the project partners, the DLR in Stuttgart and the Fraunhofer Institut fur Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES) in Kassel, performed simulations of the future electricity supply as it develops over time, some of them with spatial resolution. This enabled the scenarios for electricity generation to be validated with respect to load coverage, and also

  11. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although

  12. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  13. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  14. Final priority; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program--rehabilitation specialty areas. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years in order to fund any of the rehabilitation specialty areas listed in this notice. The specific rehabilitation specialty areas to be funded in a given year will be listed in a notice inviting applications. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality rehabilitation programs in the following nine rehabilitation specialty areas of national need: Rehabilitation Administration (84.129C); Rehabilitation Technology (84.129E); Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment (84.129F); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill (84.129H); Rehabilitation Psychology (84.129J); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Blind or Have Vision Impairments (84.129P); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (84.129Q); Job Development and Job Placement Services (84.129R); and Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (84.129W). These programs must meet rigorous standards in order to provide rehabilitation professionals the training and qualifications necessary to meet the current challenges facing State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies and related agencies and assist individuals with disabilities in achieving high-quality employment outcomes.

  15. Increase in medical knowledge during the final year of undergraduate medical education in Germany [Wissenszuwachs im Praktischen Jahr des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: In Germany, the final year of undergraduate medical education (‘practice year’ consists of three 16-week clinical attachments, two of which are internal medicine and surgery. Students can choose a specific specialty for their third 16-week attachment. Practice year students do not receive specific teaching to prepare them for the National Licensing Examination. It is unknown whether knowledge levels increase during this year. This study aimed at assessing knowledge at the beginning and the end of the final year of medical school. Methods: Three hundred pre-selected United States Medical Licensing Examination type items from ten medical disciplines were reviewed by ten recent medical graduates from the Netherlands and Germany. The resulting test included 150 items and was taken by 77 and 79 final year medical students from Göttingen and Hamburg at the beginning and the end of their practice year, respectively. Results: Cronbach’s α of the pre- and post-test was 0.75 and 0.68, respectively. Mean percent scores in the pre- and post-test were 63.9±6.9 and 69.4±5.7, respectively (p[german] Zielsetzung: In Deutschland besteht das letzte Jahr des Studiums der Humanmedizin ("Praktisches Jahr", PJ aus drei Tertialen von je 16 Wochen, von denen eines in der Inneren Medizin und eines in der Chirurgie abzuleisten ist. Die Fachrichtung des dritten Tertials von 16 Wochen kann von den Studierenden frei gewählt werden. Während des Praktischen Jahres findet keine gezielte Vorbereitung auf den schriftlichen Teil des Staatsexamens statt. Es ist unklar, inwieweit die Studierenden während des Praktischen Jahres auch neue Wissensinhalte erlernen. Ziel dieser Studie war es, zu Beginn und am Ende des Praktischen Jahres Wissensinhalte zu überprüfen. Methodik: Zehn Absolventen des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland und den Niederlanden trafen eine Auswahl aus 300 vorselektierten Fragen der US-amerikanischen Abschlussprüfung (USMLE, die zehn

  16. Tests of Climate Change Effects on the Applicability of Flood Frequency Analysis in the Fulda Catchment Area, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel Stefan Maria; Koch, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    An important aspect in hydrological engineering is the assessment of flood risk as a basis for the dimensioning of various hydraulic structures. The central element of such a risk assessment is flood frequency analysis (FFA) which itself is based on extreme value statistics theory. Despite the progress of methods in this scientific branch, the development, decision, and fitting of an appropriate distribution function still remains a challenge, particularly, when certain underlying assumptions of the theory are not met in real applications. This is, for example, the case when the stationarity-condition for a random flood time series is not satisfied anymore as could be the situation when long-term hydrological impacts of future climate change are to be considered. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of FFA's to simulated flood time series in the 21st century. The main interest is to see whether the underlying conditions for the application of extreme value statistic are still valid under the impact of long-term climate change on global and regional flood regimes resp. hydrological systems. The object of the investigation is the Fulda catchment with a size of 6930 km² in central Germany. This hydrological system is simulated with the distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Calibration and validation of the model with measured daily flow data has been carried out for the (C20) periods 1960-76 and 1977-2004, respectively, and result in a good fit (as quantified by the RN²) of the simulated to the modeled daily mean runoff. The climate data used for the hydrological predictions for the 2001-2100 time period are the results of dynamically downscaled calculations with the regional model REMO, the latter using the output of the global circulation model ECHAM5 MPI-OM. The three IPCC-scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 are tested in the subsequent SWAT hydrological simulations, using the predicted climate variables precipitation

  17. Characterization, treatment patterns, and patient-related outcomes of patients with Fragile X syndrome in Germany: final results of the observational EXPLAIN-FXS study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background As data on the phenotype, characteristics and management of patients with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) are limited, we aimed to collect such data in Germany in experienced centres involved in the treatment of such patients. Methods EXPLAIN-FXS is a prospective observational (non-interventional) study (registry) performed between April 2013 and January 2016 at 18 sites in Germany. Requirements for patient participation included confirmed diagnosis of FXS by genetic testing (>200 CGG rep...

  18. Department of the Interior : Final Environmental Statement : FES 75-76 : Proposed Desert Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a final analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the Desert Wilderness Area. Topics covered include where the...

  19. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Final Program - All Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Final...

  20. Department of the Interior : Final Environmental Statement : FES 75-4 : Proposed Cape Romain Wilderness Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a final analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the Cape Romain Wilderness Area. Topics covered include where the...

  1. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  2. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail: mandalakis@chemistry.uoc.gr; Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)

    2007-05-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm{sup -3} and they were predominately present in the gas phase ({approx}95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K{sub P}) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P{sub L}{sup o}), but the slopes obtained from logK{sub P} versus logP{sub L}{sup o} plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model.

  3. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops.

  4. The Influence of green areas and roof albedos on air temperatures during Extreme Heat Events in Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schubert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesoscale atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM with the Double Canyon Effect Parametrization Scheme (DCEP is applied to investigate possible adaption measures to extreme heat events (EHEs for the city of Berlin, Germany. The emphasis is on the effects of a modified urban vegetation cover and roof albedo on near-surface air temperatures. Five EHEs with a duration of 5 days or more are identified for the period 2000 to 2009. A reference simulation is carried out for each EHE with current vegetation cover, roof albedo and urban canopy parameters (UCPs, and is evaluated with temperature observations from weather stations in Berlin and its surroundings. The derivation of the UCPs from an impervious surface map and a 3-D building data set is detailed. Characteristics of the simulated urban heat island for each EHE are analysed in terms of these UCPs. In addition, six sensitivity runs are examined with a modified vegetation cover of each urban grid cell by -25%, 5% and 15%, with a roof albedo increased to 0.40 and 0.65, and with a combination of the largest vegetation cover and roof albedo, respectively. At the weather stations' grid cells, the results show a maximum of the average diurnal change in air temperature during each EHE of 0.82 K and -0.48 K for the -25% and 15% vegetation covers, -0.50 K for the roof albedos of 0.65, and -0.63 K for the combined vegetation and albedo case. The largest effects on the air temperature are detected during midday.

  5. 德国斯图加特地区环境史研究%Studies on the Environmental History of Stuttgart Area in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江山; 胡爱国

    2015-01-01

    Stuttgart is one of the most densely-populated cities in Germany, and many globally first-class companies and enterprises are located in the area. Its environmental issue has been drawing prevalent attention for long. In present-day Germany, the environment protection in Stuttgart area is exemplary and praiseworthy. This paper, from the perspective of environmental history, focuses on studies of the interrelationship between human and nature in terms of pre-historic civilization age, agricultural civilization age, industrial civilization age, and e-co-civilization age, and explores success and failure, loss and gain of Germanic environmental protection. In a word, “Green Germany” provides overall experience and reference for the eco-civilization construction of “Beau-tiful China.”%作为德国人口最密集的城市之一,拥有许多世界一流公司企业的斯图加特地区,其环境问题长期以来一直备受人们关注。在当今德国,斯图加特地区的环境保护堪称典范,为人们所称道。本文从环境史角度出发,着重研究该地区史前文明时代、农业文明时代、工业文明时代和生态文明时代这四个阶段人与自然环境的相互作用关系,探讨日耳曼人在生态实践中的成败得失。总之,“绿色德国”可为“美丽中国”的生态文明建设提供诸多经验和参考。

  6. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossel, W.; Stollberg, R.; Wycisk, P. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences, Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km{sup 2}. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Impact of P fertilisation on the growth performance of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in a lignite post-mining area in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kanzler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to grow on marginal sites black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. has been widely planted as a short rotation coppice (SRC system that produce a renewable biomass feedstock in several post-mining areas of East Germany. However, as most of these sites are still in an initial stage of reclamation with low humus and nutrient contents, phosphorous can play a significant role as a plant limiting factor, because legumes require more P than other plants for their development. In April 2011, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of higher rates and different applications of phosphorus fertiliser on the nutrition, survival, and biomass production of two different-aged black locust SRC plantations on the post lignite-mining site “Welzow-Süd”, situated in NE Germany. Treatments were applied as triple superphosphate (30, 60 and 120 kg P ha-1 and PK fertiliser (60 kg P ha-1 through broadcasting or banding on recently harvested or planted trees, respectively. Soil, leaf and woody biomass data were analysed utilising the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman correlation coefficient (rS. Following two growing seasons, it was observed that the total dry weight yields of the black locust seedlings were increased strongly by up to 8 times when compared to the control group, particularly when TSP was applied through banding. P fertilisation, however, did not affect the biomass yield of six-year-old black locust trees, but P concentration in leaves among treatments of both sites was still significantly increased and sufficient from a quantity upwards of 60 kg P ha-1. Taken together, a comparably moderate amount of P fertiliser (60 kg ha-1 had a strong impact on P uptake and growth performance in the examined black locust seedlings, which reveals a high potential to improve the current fertilisation practices for SRC black locust plantations grown on our research site.

  8. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...... in dissolution of open access and that the political system needs the capacity of efficiently creating legitimacy in order to sustain openness. The failure of Weimar Germany also indicates that the international political system might work as a destabilizing factor of open access and that the nation...

  9. Effective Area Effects on the Final Device Sensitivity of Ion Sensor Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jessica Colnaghi; Mulato, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) was used as the ion-sensing layer of an EGFET-pH sensor. The effective area affects the final results, as well as the sensor surface potential and sensitivity. The sensor miniaturization is highly required on medical applications, with that the effective area must be properly understood. Routine insertion and removal of total and partial surface areas in buffer solution were analyzed and compared. The results show that the routine changes considerable the sensor sensitivity. Variations in the double layer, Helmholtz plane, and Gouy-Chapman region play a significant role. The final sensitivities of the samples were compared with values available in the literature, even for other materials. The role that area normalization plays in quality assessment is discussed for proper future technological miniaturizations.

  10. Effective area effects on the final device sensitivity of ion sensor transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jessica Colnaghi; Mulato, Marcelo, E-mail: jessicacf@pg.ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) was used as the ion-sensing layer of an EGFET-pH sensor. The effective area affects the final results, as well as the sensor surface potential and sensitivity. The sensor miniaturization is highly required on medical applications, with that the effective area must be properly understood. Routine insertion and removal of total and partial surface areas in buffer solution were analyzed and compared. The results show that the routine changes considerable the sensor sensitivity. Variations in the double layer, Helmholtz plane, and Gouy-Chapman region play a significant role. The final sensitivities of the samples were compared with values available in the literature, even for other materials. The role that area normalization plays in quality assessment is discussed for proper future technological miniaturizations. (author)

  11. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Methods Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin of 91 small mammals and host-attached ticks from altogether 50 small mammals as well as questing I. ricinus ticks (n=782 were screened with a real-time PCR for DNA of CNM. Results 52.7% of the small mammals were positive for CNM-DNA. The majority of the infected animals were yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus. Small mammals with tick infestation were more often infected with CNM than small mammals without ticks. Compared with the prevalence of ~25% in the questing I. ricinus ticks, twice the prevalence in the rodents provides evidence for their role as reservoir hosts for CNM. Conclusion The high prevalence of this pathogen in the investigated areas in both rodents and ticks points towards the need for more specific investigation on its role as a human pathogen.

  12. The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) : the final band-merged catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowan-Robinson, M; Lari, C; Perez-Fournon, [No Value; Gonzalez-Solares, EA; La Franca, F; Vaccari, M; Oliver, S; Gruppioni, C; Ciliegi, P; Heraudeau, P; Serjeant, S; Efstathiou, A; Babbedge, T; Matute, [No Value; Pozzi, F; Franceschini, A; Vaisanen, P; Afonso-Luis, A; Alexander, DM; Almaini, O; Baker, AC; Basilakos, S; Barden, M; del Burgo, C; Bellas-Velidis, [No Value; Cabrera-Guerra, F; Carballo, R; Cesarsky, CJ; Clements, DL; Crockett, H; Danese, L; Dapergolas, A; Drolias, B; Eaton, N; Egami, E; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fox, M; Genzel, R; Goldschmidt, P; Gonzalez-Serrano, JI; Graham, M; Granato, GL; Hatziminaoglou, E; Herbstmeier, U; Joshi, M; Kontizas, E; Kontizas, M; Kotilainen, JK; Kunze, D; Lawrence, A; Lemke, D; Linden-Vornle, MJD; Mann, RG; Marquez, [No Value; Masegosa, J; McMahon, RG; Miley, G; Missoulis, [No Value; Mobasher, B; Morel, T; Norgaard-Nielsen, H; Omont, A; Papadopoulos, P; Puget, JL; Rigopoulou, D; Rocca-Volmerange, B; Sedgwick, N; Silva, L; Sumner, T; Surace, C; Vila-Vilaro, B; Verma, A; Vigroux, L; Villar-Martin, M; Willott, CJ; Carraminana, A; Mujica, R; van der Werf, Paul P.

    2004-01-01

    We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 mum, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed, an

  13. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills... land within the Limestone Hills Training Area (LHTA) from BLM administration. The LEIS proposes that..., mining, recreation, transportation, utility right-of-ways, and wildlife management. A limestone mine...

  14. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  15. Perfluorinated compounds in the vicinity of a fire training area--human biomonitoring among 10 persons drinking water from contaminated private wells in Cologne, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Odulf; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Bunte, Anne; Göen, Thomas; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wilhelm, Michael; Hölzer, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    In Cologne, Germany, increased concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have been observed in two private wells used for drinking water purposes. Both wells are located in the vicinity of a fire training area. Use of well water as a source of drinking water was prohibited by the Public Health Department of the City of Cologne. A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey was performed among all persons, who consumed water from these private wells (N=10). PFC concentrations in water of the private wells and in blood samples were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Repeated water analyses (seven measurements between December 2009 and November 2010) indicated a decrease of PFOS from 8.35 to 1.60 μg/l, (PFHxS: 2.36-0.15 μg/l; PFOA: 0.16-0.03 μg/l) in one private well. Although situated close together, PFC-concentrations in the other private well were significantly lower. PFOS-concentrations in blood samples of private well water consumers ranged from 4.8 to 295 μg/l (PFHxS: 12.1-205 μg/l; PFOA: 4.0-18 μg/l). Although no data on the formulation of the firefighting foams applied on the fire training area is available, firefighting foams are supposed to be the most likely source of contamination. These findings give reason to track systematically the application of PFC-containing firefighting foams in order to identify contaminations of surface, ground and drinking waters.

  16. Small-scale variability of particulate matter and perception of air quality in an inner-city recreational area in Aachen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Paas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial micro-scale variability of particle mass concentrations is an important criterion for urban air quality assessment. In this study we present results from detailed spatio-temporal measurements in the urban roughness layer along with a survey to determine perceptions of citizens regarding air quality in an inner city park in Aachen, Germany. Particles were sampled with two different approaches in February, May, July and September 2014 using an optical particle counter at six fixed measurement locations, representing different degrees of outdoor particle exposure that can be experienced by a pedestrian walking in an intra-urban recreational area. A simulation of aerosol emissions induced by road traffic was conducted using the German reference dispersion model Austal2000. The mobile measurements revealed unexpected details in the distribution of urban particles with highest mean concentrations of PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ inside the green area 100 m away from bus routes (arithmetic mean: 22.5 μg m−3 and 18.9 μg m−3; geometric mean: 9.3 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3, whereas measurement sites in close proximity to traffic lines showed far lower mean values (arithmetic mean: 7.5 μg m−3 and 8.7 μg m−3; geometric mean: 5.8 μg m−3 and 6.5 μg m−3. Concerning simulation results, motor traffic is still proved to be an important aerosol source in the area, although the corresponding concentrations declined rapidly as the distances to the line sources increased. Further analysis leads to the assumption that particularly coarse particles were emitted through diffuse sources e.g. on the ability of surfaces to release particles by resuspension which were dominantly apparent in measured PM(1;10$\\text{PM}_{(1;10}$ and PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ data. The contribution of diffuse particle sources and urban background transport to local PM(0.25;10$\\text{PM}_{(0.25;10}$ concentrations inside the

  17. An early industrial charcoal production area in Lower Lusatia (Germany) - a GIS-based reconstruction of past land use and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, M.; Müller, F.; Nicolay, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2012-04-01

    As by-product of systematic archaeological research in the prefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Lower Lusatia, Germany) archaeologists of the Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum (BLDAM) revealed Germanýs probably largest investigated charcoal production area. Until know c. 700 ground plans of circular upright kilns are excavated and additional c. 300 kilns are prospected. The numerousness of charcoal kilns and in particular the large diameters of the ground plans (up to 20 m and more) suggest an industrial charcoal production for the smelter at Peitz nearby where bog iron ore was processed since 1567. The investigation of this early industrial charcoal production is part of the collaborative work between geomorphologists, soil scientists and historians of the Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus (BTU) and archaeologists of the BLDAM. A core piece of the interdisciplinary research is the development of a new paleoenvironmental model based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The model uses airborne laser scanning data with an accuracy of 1 m, archaeological finds, geographical data like topography, soils, geology, hydrology and land use, but also historical maps from the 18th century onwards, information from historical archives as well as data from absolute and relative age determinations. The location of the charcoal hearths and other finds are examined with regard to physio-geographical settings and land tenure. The model has a scale of 1:10000 and will be calibrated and supplemented with data from ongoing archaeological, geomorphological and pedological investigations. We present the status of our model approach as well as first results. Special emphasis is given on the reconstruction of past landforms and geomorphic processes documented by buried soils and late Holocene eolian sediments. Due to the excellent outcrop situation in the open-cast mine our model results are very well proven and

  18. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  20. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  1. Three dimensional gravity modeling techniques with application to the Ennis Geothermal Area: Final report: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmens, D.

    1987-12-01

    3-D gravity modeling was done in the area of the Ennis hot spring in an attempt to determine controlling structure of the Ennis hot spring. The modeling was done in a two-step process where: 1) The topography was modeled by modeling the valley fill from the highest elevation in the modeling area to some elevation below the lowest station elevation using Talwani and Ewing's (1960) method of modeling with vertically-stacked, horizontal, n-sided polygons. Once the gravity contributions of the valley fill included in this ''topographic model'' are calculated, they were removed from the original gravity data; 2) The remaining valley fill was modeled using blocks where the 3-D algorithm for modeling with blocks results from integrating the gravity formula in the X and Z directions and approximating the integration in the Y-direction using a quadrature formula. Finally, an inverse 3-D gravity modeling program was written to automatically adjust the bedrock topography output from this two-step modeling process. The gravity data calculated from the adjusted bedrock topography, output from the inverse modeling program, should match the observed gravity data within the error of the survey. 43 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Insights to the internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Anke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Postgraduate Program Microenergy Systems

    2012-12-15

    Within the last decade, the biogas branch has become an important economic sector in Germany. Many arguments are used to support a further and rapid expansion of local biogas plants in both quantity and capacity. They are centered on the potential of biogas plants for supporting rural sustainable development processes. On the other side, the national biogas praxis is accompanied by several unwelcome and partly severe side effects. This contrast has given rise to research on how to master the complex challenge of operating biogas plants as part of overall sustainable development processes in rural Germany. The research presented in this article is mainly based on the extended case study method. It gives insight into the respective actions and significance of family farms that proactively use and develop their internal sphere of influence. These farms do so by embracing deciding factors of action such as unfolding synergies, mobilizing endogenous resources, as well as sustaining continuous innovativeness. Furthermore, they make use of a farm's capacity for self-regulation. The strategies of the surveyed family farms reflect a regrounding in a peasant type of agriculture - a development which has currently been observed as a worldwide repeasantization. Given Germany's rapid decline of family farms over the past several decades, the future role of the farms in mastering the complex challenge of supporting overall sustainable development processes, e.g., with biogas plants as a technical link, is uncertain. Making use of current repeasantization processes for expanding the sustainable use of biogas plants is an approach which, to date, seems to be hardly noticed and considerably underestimated. (orig.)

  3. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  4. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  5. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  6. Flowers culture and ecological aspects of the areas under petroleum exploitation; Aspectos floristicos e ecologicos das areas submetidas a exploracao de petroleo. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Matos, Francisca Dionisia de Almeida; Lima Filho, Diogenes de Andrade

    1995-08-01

    This document represents the final report of the brazilian Amazon Research National Institute studies on the ecological aspects of the petroleum exploitation at the Urucu river - State of Amazon - Brazil. The study aimed the determination of the vegetation of the Urucu river, in the areas of PETROBRAS petroleum exploitation activities.

  7. Final unioned polygons for the Deserado coal area, northwest Colorado (des*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shape files of final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the B and D coal zones, Lower White River coal field, Deserado...

  8. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Skilak Wildlife Recreation Area Revised Final Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purposes of this final management plan are: 1. To describe wildlife viewing, interpretation, and photography opportunities within the Skilak WRA; 2. To identify...

  9. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  10. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IX. The 90-mu m luminosity function from the Final Analysis sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serjeant, S; Carraminana, A; Gonzales-Solares, E; Heraudeau, P; Mujica, R; Perez-Fournon, [No Value; Sedgwick, N; Rowan-Robinson, M; Franceschini, A; Babbedge, T; del Burgo, C; Ciliegi, P; Efstathiou, A; La Franca, F; Gruppioni, C; Hughes, D; Lari, C; Oliver, S; Pozzi, F; Stickel, M; Vaccari, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the 90-mum luminosity function of the Final Analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending the sample size of our previous analysis (Paper IV) by about a factor of 4. Our sample extends to z = 1.1, similar to50 times the comoving volume of Paper IV, and 10(7.7)

  11. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet.

  12. Ecologically Important Areas for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict ecologically important areas that were developed through a collaborative process involving Oceana; groundfish trawl fishermen, organized by the...

  13. An Aggregate Data Archive for the Russian Area Studies Center, Louisiana State University. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter R.

    This final report announces the completion of a project, the purpose of which was to develop in coded machine retrievable form, a biographical data archive on the Soviet political elite, and in addition, to gather data on socio-economic and political factors in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The computer processed data is intended to help…

  14. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  15. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  16. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for transfer of Indian Lakes area to Churchill County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS proposes to transfer the Indian Lakes portion of the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area to Churchill County, Nevada for the purposes of fish, wildlife,...

  18. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  19. Research overview of biological and chemical conversion methods and identification of key research areas for SERI. Final task report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Connolly, J. S.; Inman, R. E.; Reed, T. B.; Seibert, M.

    1978-09-01

    A qualitative overview of the current and future research areas of the Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch is presented. The goals of the Branch and the general areas of Branch activities are mapped out: energy and petrochemical substitutes from biomass, thermochemical conversion, and photoconversion. Each of these three areas in some detail are discussed in some detail in a general overview. Specific parts of the three major areas which have been selected are discussed in the context of present Department of Energy sponsored research including the Fuels from Biomass and Office of Basic Energy Sciences programs, for initial SERI in-house research emphasis. Finally, the Branch research efforts planned through FY 79 are outlined.

  20. Cooperative geochemical investigation of geothermal resources in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, T.B.

    1973-10-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that the Imperial Valley has a large geothermal potential. In order to delineate additional geothermal systems a chemical and isotopic investigation of samples from water wells, springs, and geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas was conducted. Na, K, and Ca concentrations of nearly 200 well water, spring water, hot spring, and geothermal fluid samples from the Imperial Valley area were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fournier and Truesdell's function was determined for each water sample. Suspected geothermal areas are identified. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope abundances were determined in order to determine and to identify the source of the water in the Mesa geothermal system. (JGB)

  1. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  2. TA-60-1 Heavy Equipment Shop Areas SWPPP Rev 2 Jan 2017-Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The primary activities and equipment areas at the facility that are potential stormwater pollution sources include; The storage of vehicles and heavy equipment awaiting repair; or repaired vehicles waiting to be picked up; The storage and handling of oils, anti-freeze, solvents, degreasers, batteries and other chemicals for the maintenance of vehicles and heavy equipment; and Equipment cleaning operations including exterior vehicle wash-down. Steam cleaning is only done on the steam cleaning pad area located at the north east end of Building 60-0001.

  3. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  4. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... requirements of subpart C-Power Marketing Initiative of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program... Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE... phase of the process. Firm electric service contracts negotiated between Western and allottees...

  5. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and recontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at Los Alamos TA-54 Area L. A vapor containment structure was erected. A total of 179 cylinders was processed; 39 were repackaged; and 55 were decommissioned. This report summarizes the operation; this is Volume 1 of five volumes.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment to Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Area at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    tent sites, four picnic areas, a pavilion, a bath house, a recreation center (containing management office space, a small restaurant , a snack shop, a...concurrence or any recommendat ions at you earli est convenience . Responses on or before 9/ 16/ 2014 are appreciated. Thank you, Jim M araveli as

  7. Incidence of human dental fluorosis in the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.L.; Olson, A.E.; Peterson, H.B.

    1978-09-01

    A total of 270 school aged individuals representing 151 families living in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal area of Idaho were examined for evidence of dental fluorosis. Of these 132 had some dental anomaly. Fifty-two individuals from 45 families had lesions classified as typical dental fluorosis. Eleven of these, some of which had severe dental fluorosis recently moved into the area from other locations. Samples of the drinking waters that were likely consumed by the individuals with dental fluorosis were collected for analyses. In most instances the fluoride content of the waters were low and would not account for the tooth lesions. Possible reasons for lack of correlation are changing of the composition of the water, other sources of fluoride in the diet, and possibly analytical errors.

  8. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  9. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  10. Final technology report for D-Area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test, environmental restoration support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radway, J.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-01-24

    One method proposed for the cleanup of the D-Area Oil Seepage Basin was in situ bioremediation (bioventing), involving the introduction of air and gaseous nutrients to stimulate contaminant degradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. To test the feasibility of this approach, a bioventing system was installed at the site for use in optimization testing by the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. During the interim action, two horizontal wells for a bioventing remediation system were installed eight feet below average basin grade. Nine piezometers were also installed. In September of 1996, a generator, regenerative blower, gas cylinder station, and associated piping and nutrient injection equipment were installed at the site and testing was begun. After baseline characterization of microbial activity and contaminant degradation at the site was completed, four injection campaigns were carried out. These consisted of (1) air alone, (2) air plus triethylphosphate (TEP), (3) air plus nitrous oxide, and (4) air plus methane. This report describes results of these tests, together with conclusions and recommendations for further remediation of the site. Natural biodegradation rates are high. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane levels in soil gas indicate substantial levels of baseline microbial activity. Oxygen is used by indigenous microbes for biodegradation of organics via respiration and hence is depleted in the soil gas and water from areas with high contamination. Carbon dioxide is elevated in contaminated areas. High concentrations of methane, which is produced by microbes via fermentation once the oxygen has been depleted, are found at the most contaminated areas of this site. Groundwater measurements also indicated that substantial levels of natural contaminant biodegradation occurred prior to air injection.

  11. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  12. Integrated Pesticide Management at the Deutsche Bahn in Germany - guidelines for the sustainable vegetation management for maintenance of constructions and areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Below, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Deutsche Bahn has compiled guidelines for a sustainable vegetation management which follows the Directive 2009/128/EC. This integrated management includes tools like preventive measures, ensuring of the necessary level and check of success of applied plant protection measure. In detail, practical guidance for all constructions and areas are given where different legal regulations and requirements have to be implemented. The specific guidelines are available for unpaved surfaces, hard surfaces and railway tracks.

  13. Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Bock, Michael; Fiedler, Stefan; Mehring, Marion; Heitmann, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Traffic- and urban-influenced areas are prone to enhanced pollution with products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass such as black carbon or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon is composed of aromatic and graphitic structures and may act as a carrier for pollutants such as PAHs and heavy metals. However, little is known about possible contributions of traffic-derived black carbon to the black carbon inventory in soils. Similar uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of different pollutant sources to total PAH and black carbon contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the importance of traffic pollution to black carbon and PAH inventories in soils. PAH contamination of soils adjacent to a major German highway in the urban area of Bayreuth with about 50,000 vehicles per day was in the same order of magnitude compared to highway-close soils reported in other studies. Using molecular (black carbon and PAHs) and compound-specific stable carbon isotope evidence (PAHs) it was demonstrated that this contamination originated not only from automobile exhausts, here primarily diesel, but also from tire abrasion and tailpipe soot which significantly contributed to the traffic-caused black carbon and PAH contamination. Low molecular weight PAHs were more widely transported than their heavy molecular counterparts (local distillation), whereas highway-traffic-caused black carbon contamination was distributed to at least 30 m from the highway. On the other hand, urban fire exhausts were distributed more homogeneously among the urban area.

  14. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  15. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  16. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  17. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  18. First Results of using the Process-based Model PROMAB-GIS for Runoff a Bedload Transport Estimation in the Lainbach Torrent Catchment Area (Benediktbeuern, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, M.; Jenewein, S.; Ploner, A.; Sönser, T.

    2003-04-01

    As growing damage potential makes society more and more vulnerable to natural hazards, the pressure on the official authorities responsible for the guarantee of public safety is increasing rapidly. Modern computer technology, e.g. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), can provide remarkable help in assessing the risks resulting from natural hazards. The modelling in PROMAB-GIS, which is an user friendly software based on ESRI ArcView for assessing runoff and bedload transport in torrent catchments, is strongly based on interdisciplinary process-orientated field investigations. This paper presents results of the application of PROMAB-GIS to estimate the runoff and bedload transport potential of the Lainbach catchment area which has repeatedly been affected by heavy rain storms triggering remarkable events. The operational steps needed to gain process orientated, reproducible results for assessing design events in watersheds are highlighted. A key issue in this context is the need for detailed field-investigation of the geo-, bio-, hydro-inventory of a catchment area. The second part of the paper presents the model results for design events. The data of the event which caused severe damage in June 1990 provides a perfect basis for the evaluation of the model. The results show the potential of PROMAB-GIS for assessing runoff and bedload transport in alpine torrent systems.

  19. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  20. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  1. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  2. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  3. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  4. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  5. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  6. Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Oberlander; D. McGraw; C. Russell

    2007-10-31

    Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and

  7. STUDIES TO SUPPORT DEPLOYMENT OF EDIBLE OILS AS THE FINAL CVOC REMEDIATION IN T AREA SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B; Brian02 Looney, B; Miles Denham, M; Christopher Bagwell, C; Richard Hall, R; Carol Eddy-Dilek, C

    2006-10-31

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using edible oils for remediation of the low but persistent chlorinated solvent (cVOC) groundwater contamination at the SRS T-Area. The following studies were completed: (1) Review of cVOC degradation processes and edible oil delivery for enhanced bioremediation. (2) Column studies to investigate placing neat oil on top of the water table to increase oil saturation and sequestration. (3) Analysis of T-Area groundwater geochemistry to determine the applicability of edible oils for remediation at this site. (4) Microcosm studies to evaluate biotic and abiotic processes for the T-Area groundwater system and evaluation of the existing microbial community with and with out soybean oil amendments. (5) Monitoring of a surrogate vadose zone site undergoing edible oil remediation at the SRS to understand partitioning and biotransformation products of the soybean oil. (6) Design of a delivery system for neat and emulsified edible oil deployment for the T-Area groundwater plume. A corresponding white paper is available for each of the studies listed. This paper provides a summary and overview of the studies completed for the remediation of the T-Area groundwater plume using edible oils. This report begins with a summary of the results and a brief description of the preliminary oil deployment design followed by brief descriptions of T-Area and current groundwater conditions as related to edible oil deployment. This is followed by a review of the remediation processes using edible oils and specific results from modeling, field and laboratory studies. Finally, a description of the preliminary design for full scale oil deployment is presented.

  8. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  9. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  10. EFH Conservation Areas off Washington, Oregon, and California for NMFS' Final Rule Implementing Amendment 19 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) conservation areas off Washington, Oregon, and California. The coordinate locations are from NMFS' Final Rule to...

  11. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison; Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik. Die Diskussion in Deutschland und den Niederlanden im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [German] Die Schiefergasfoerderung mit Hilfe der sogenannten Fracking-Methode stellt fuer Gegner die Anwendung einer Hochrisikotechnologie dar, Befuerworter sehen darin hingegen einen technologischen Fortschritt und die Antwort auf derzeitige Energiefragen. Fuer die Buerger eines Landes birgt die Debatte vor allem Unsicherheiten, ist die Technologie doch mit Risiken verbunden, die nicht nur fuer den Laien schwer einzuschaetzen sind. Aufgrund dieser Unsicherheiten droht die Gefahr, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fuer politische Zwecke instrumentalisiert werden. Besonders spannend ist daher die Frage, wie die Thematik in unterschiedlichen Laendern diskutiert wird. In Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik werden die Debatten im Erdgasland Niederlande und dem Land der Energiewende, Deutschland, verglichen. Den Schwerpunkt legt Kerstin Kontny dabei auf die an der Debatte beteiligten Akteure, den Verlauf der Debatte sowie die behandelten Themen. Dabei

  12. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    completed in 2004 and 2005 addressed each of the specific objectives and this final report focuses on the biological information gathered in support of local conservation efforts. Participation in the development of the Bi-State Local Area Conservation Plan was accomplished on multiple scales. Beginning in the fall of 2002, USGS personnel began participating in meetings of local stakeholders involved in the development of a sage-grouse conservation plan for the Bi-State planning area. This included attendance at numerous local PMU group meetings and field trips as well as participating on the technical advisory committee (TAC) for the Bi-State group. Whenever appropriate, ongoing results and findings regarding sage-grouse ecology in the local area were incorporated into these working group meetings. In addition, the USGS partnered with CDFG to help reorganize one of the local PMU groups (South Mono) and edited that portion of the Bi-State plan. The USGS also worked closely with CDFG to draft a description of the state of knowledge for sage-grouse genetic information for inclusion in the Bi-State Conservation Plan. The first edition of the Bi-State Conservation Plan for Greater Sage-Grouse was completed in June 2004 (Bi-State Sage-grouse Conservation Team 2004). This report is organized primarily by PMU to facilitate the incorporation of these research findings into the individual PMU plans that compose the Bi-State plan. Information presented in this report was derived from over 7,000 radio-telemetry locations obtained on 145 individual sage-grouse during a three year period (2003-2005). In addition, we collected detailed vegetation measurements at over 590 habitat sampling plots within the study area including canopy cover, shrubs, forbs, and grasses diversity. Vegetation data collection focused on sage-grouse nests, and brood-use areas. Additionally we collected data at random sites to examine sage-grouse habitat relationships within the study area. The majori

  13. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Pipe From Germany: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order... pipe (seamless pipe) from Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the... Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Sunset Initiation. The Department received a notice...

  14. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  15. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  16. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  17. VDMA: Germany Already European Champion at ITMA ASIA + CITME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Frankfurt/Main, Shanghai, 12th June 2012 - Occupying 6,402 square meters of booked space,Germany already won the European Championship at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012, leaving all other competitors from Europe behind. The German exhibition area increased by 18 % compared with the 2010 edition of the show. Measured by square meters, Germany is the biggest foreign exhibiting nation at the major fair for the Asian market,

  18. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  19. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  20. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  1. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  2. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  3. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  4. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  5. Status of vegetation management activity in the Bald Eagle Management Area and other sites at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation management program for the Bald Eagle Management Area (BEMA) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (RMA, the Arsenal) was initiated in the...

  6. Large-scale input, inventories and transport of iodine-129 and iodine-127 in Germany. Final report; Grossflaechiger Eintrag, Inventare und Transport von Iod-129 und Iod-127 in Deutschland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebe, Beate; Daraoui, Abdelouahed; Schwinger, Mareike

    2014-03-15

    Liquid and gaseous releases of {sup 129}I from European reprocessing plants result in a continuous accumulation in the environment. Aim of the project was to quantify the inventories and input and discharges of {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I of different environmental compartments all over Germany. Aerosol, rainwater and river water samples were collected continuously over a period of 2 years. Additionally, soil samples were collected at 30 different sampling sites. For {sup 127}I no correlation of concentration or deposition rates and distance of sampling sites from the North Sea was found for aerosol and precipitation samples, whereas the results for {sup 129}I showed decreasing values with increasing distance from the coast. Also for {sup 129}I inventories of soils a trend to decrease could be observed from the northern to the southern and from the western to the eastern part of the country. However, there is a close relationship between iodine and soil properties. Comparison of results with earlier investigations does not show a current increase of isotopic ratios and deposition rates. Thus, at present {sup 129}I concentrations and isotopic ratios do not pose the risk of an increased thyroid dose for the public.

  7. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  8. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  9. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  10. A New Approach to Determine the Total Airborne N Input into the Soil/Plant System Using 15N Isotope Dilution (ITNI: Results for Agricultural Areas in Central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf W.B. Russow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in the environment is of great concern due to its impact on natural ecosystems including affecting vegetation, reducing biodiversity, increasing tree growth in forests, and the eutrophication of aquatic systems. Taking into account the average annual N emission into the atmosphere in Germany of about 2 million t N (ammonia/ammonium, NOx, and assuming homogeneous distribution throughout Germany, an average N deposition of 45 kg/ha x year can be calculated. Such high atmospheric N deposition could be confirmed by N balances from long-term field experiments in Central Germany (e.g., the Static Fertilization Experiment in Bad Lauchstädt. By contrast, estimates by standard methods indicate a deposition of only about 30 kg N/ha x year. This is because the standard methods are using wet-only or bulk collectors, which fail to take into account gaseous deposition and the direct uptake of atmospheric N by aerial plant parts. Therefore, a new system was developed using 15N isotope dilution methodology to measure the actual total atmospheric N input into a soil/plant system (Integrated Total Nitrogen Input, ITNI. A soil/plant system is labeled with [15N]ammonium-[15N]nitrate and the total input of airborne N is calculated from the dilution of this tracer by N from the atmosphere. An average annual deposition of 64 ± 11 kg/ha x year from 1994–2000 was measured with the ITNI system at the Bad Lauchst?dt research farm in the dry belt of Central Germany. Measurements in 1999/2000 at three other sites in Central Germany produced deposition rates of about 60 kg/ha x year. These data clearly show that the total atmospheric N deposition into the soil/plant system determined by the newly developed ITNI system significantly exceeds that obtained from standard wet-only and bulk collectors. The higher atmospheric N depositions found closely match those postulated from the N balances of long-term agricultural field

  11. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  12. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  13. The influence of advanced generations of equipment of information- and communication technology on the energy consumption in Germany up to the year 2010 - possibilities to increase energy efficiency and -conservation in this domains. Final report. Summary of final report. Annex; Der Einfluss moderner Geraetegenerationen der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik auf den Energieverbrauch in Deutschland bis zum Jahr 2010 - Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz und zur Energieeinsparung in diesen Bereichen. Abschlussbericht. Kurzfassung des Abschlussberichts. Summary of the final report. Anhang zum Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.; Eichhammer, W.; Friedewald, M.; Georgieff, P.; Rieth-Hoerst, S.; Schlomann, B.; Zoche, P.; Aebischer, B.; Huser, A.

    2003-01-01

    For 2001, this study ascertained an electricity demand of 38 TWh for ICT end-use appliances in households and offices and their associated infrastructure. This corresponds to a share of almost 8% of the total electricity consumption of final consumption sectors in Germany (AGEB 2002). About 50% of the power demand are accounted for by household end-use appliances, a further 20% by office end-use appliances, the remaining 30% by the infrastructure required. A clear increase in the power demand by 45% up to 55.4 TWh is anticipated up to 2010 which is primarily caused by the increasing significance of ICT infrastructure. The stock of appliances and systems of ICT infrastructure will grow noticeably and since these devices, such as servers or mobile communications systems, are continuously operated, the consumption growth in normal mode is the strongest. The consumption in standby mode shows an increasing tendency, most notably up to the middle of the decade, whereas it decreases in off-mode. However, this has less to do with efforts for greater efficiency and more to do with the expected substitution of the off- by the standby mode (especially in televisions). (orig.) [German] Fuer das Jahr 2001 wurde in dieser Untersuchung ein den IuK-Endgeraeten in Haushalten und Bueros und der zugehoerigen Infrastruktur zuzurechnender Strombedarf in Hoehe von 38 TWh ermittelt. Dies entspricht einem Anteil von knapp 8% am gesamten Stromverbrauch der Endverbrauchssektoren in Deutschland (AGEB 2002). Rund 50% des Strombedarfs entfallen dabei auf die Haushalts-Endgeraete, weitere gut 20% auf die Buero-Endgeraete, die restlichen rund 30% auf die dafuer erforderliche Infrastruktur. Bis 2010 wird mit einem deutlichen Anstieg des Strombedarfs um 45% auf 55,4 TWh gerechnet, der vor allem durch die zunehmende Bedeutung der IuK-Infrastruktur verursacht wird. Da die meisten der im Bestand deutlich wachsenden Geraete und Anlagen der IuK-Infrastruktur wie Server oder Mobilfunkanlagen dauerhaft

  14. The final disposal of radioactive wastes from Germany in foreign countries; Die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle aus Deutschland im Ausland. Eine Bewertung der Rechtslage nach dem Regierungsentwurf der 14. Novelle des Atomgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borck, Philip

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of radioactive wastes causes not only difficult questions with respect to the atomic law but is also related to constitutional questions of the polluter-pays-principle and the responsibility for the life conditions of future generations. The thesis discusses questions of the German and European atomic law and basic questions of the legal responsibility for radioactive wastes.

  15. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    planned to address these areas. Other field activities will consist of documenting (mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection...mapping) surficial extent of these areas via visual inspection & field measurements. All sampling activities will be performed with site clearance

  16. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  17. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  18. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  19. Evaluation of the electromagnetic effects due to direct lighting to nuclear explosive areas at Pantex. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the effort to quantify the electromagnetic environments in the nuclear explosive areas at Pantex due to direct lightning. The fundamental measure of the threat to nuclear safety is assumed to be the maximum voltage between any two points in an assembly area, which is then available for producing arcing or for driving current into critical subsystems of a nuclear weapon. This maximum voltage has been computed with simple analytical models and with three-dimensional finite-difference computer codes.

  20. Education after and about Auschwitz in Germany: Towards a Theory of Remembrance in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschki, Reinhold; Reichmann, Bettina; Schwendemann, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education after and about Auschwitz (Holocaust education) in Germany in both theory and practice, with particular attention to three critical areas. The first is the status of research in, as Adorno famously phrased it, "education after Auschwitz" within the context of contemporary Germany. German…

  1. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

  2. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  3. Attaining New Heights With Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  4. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... and dry whey for manufacturing plants located in Federal milk marketing areas. The established... prices for milk used in Class III products from surveyed cheese and dry whey prices; and a nonfat solids... cheese, whey powder, butter, and nonfat dry milk plants (located outside of California). The...

  5. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  6. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources Division office in Towson , MD, and from the Edgewood Area RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and other studies conducted...A, •"S31 P AX. A. : %i$ October 27, 1992 Mr. Wayne Mandell Mr. Dave Stein Jacobs Enqinearlnq 1212 N.Y. Avenue, NW Suite 1050 Washington, D.C

  7. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Laser-Firing Tank Range and Artillery Maneuver Area Arnold Air Force Base Tullahoma Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    hispidus* hairy jointgrass Significant Bromus japonicus Japanese bromegrass Significant Bromus secalinus Rye brome Significant Carduus nutans Musk ... thistle Significant Clematis ternifolia Leatherleaf clematis Significant Coronilla varia Crown vetch Significant Daucus carota Queen Anne’s-lace...eliminated. Procedures would include identification and use of areas for maneuvers that would be least likely to be disturbed by vehicular traffic, as well

  8. Research on Experiences of Eco-technology Management of Abandoned Land in Ruhr Industrial Area, Germany, and the Application in Tangshan%德国鲁尔区工业废弃地生态治理经验及在唐山市中心区的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀云

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing experiences of eeo-technology management of abandoned land in Ruhr industrial area, Germany, the paper discussed ecological concept and effective methods to manage industrial negative environment take based on ecological restoration project in Tangshan Nanhu mining subsidence area, with the aim to provide reference for the transformation from resource-based city to ecotypic city.%通过对德国鲁尔工业区采用生态技术治理工业废弃地的经验总结,结合唐山市南湖采煤沉陷区的生态恢复实例,分析探讨环境治理的生态理念和有效方法,为资源型城市向生态型城市转型提供参考。

  9. L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne (The Teaching of French in the Federal Republic of Germany). L'enseignement du francais dans les classes terminales des lycees allemands (The Teaching of French in the Final Year in German Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Fritz; Lang, Jurgen

    Two papers describe two aspects of French foreign language instruction in West Germany. The first, "L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne" by Abel, deals with the institutional framework for French instruction in West Germany. A discussion of the instructional situation looks first at the history of French instruction since…

  10. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  11. Final Range Environmental Assessment for Test Areas C-87 and D-51 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    your commemorative book now and save $15.00 off the $44.95 retail price. Order online or mail in the order form below! 2105674 Public NotificatioN In...into the soils would increas, e , but as discussed under Alternative 1, RDX would still be largely confined within the boundary of the test areas and...conventional weapons and electronic systems and to support multi-service air and ground training of operational units. Naval School Explosive Ordnance

  12. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang;

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  13. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...

  14. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  15. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  16. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  17. Effects of nitrogen and strain age embrittlement on toughness of MMA welds. A final report on the joint reserach project - GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany, and Oerlikon Welding Ltd., Zurich, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung; Achar, D.R.G.; Evans, G.M. [OERLIKON Welding Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    A detailed literature review has been carried out on the topic to identify the areas requiring further investigations. Based on this investigations have been carried out to evaluate the influence of dissolved nitrogen in weld metals on their toughness and strain aging behaviour through fracture mechanics as well as conventional impact testing approaches. MMA C-Mn steel weld metals bearing nitrogen between 80 to 210 ppm were investigated under four different post-weld conditions, namely: 1. as welded, 2. stress relieved, 3. artificially strain aged and 4. artificially strain aged and stress relieved. Quantitative metallography and low load microhardness studies of microphases were integral part of these investigations. The results demonstrate the highly detrimental effect of nitrogen on the toughness behaviour of C-Mn steel weld metal particularly under strain aging conditions. This is substantiated through decrease of acicular ferrite with the accompanying increase in primary ferrite and ferrite with second phases in the microstructures. Also, there is a distinctive increase in acicular ferrite microhardness. Post-weld stress relieving heat treatment under these conditions effects only marginal improvement in toughness and shifts the fracture behaviour from brittle to ductile or quasi-ductile only in the case of low nitrogen weld metals. Comparing the results of the CTOD and Charpy tests, it is observed that both methods measure the influence of nitrogen on toughness behaviour in the same trend but the magnitudes of the effect measured are different whereby the fracture mechanics method appears very conservative. (orig.) [Deutsch] Untersucht werden der Einfluss von Stickstoff im Bereich von 80-120 ppm auf die Zaehigkeit und Reckalterungsversproedungs-Verhaeltnisse des C-Mn-Strahlschweissgutes. Die Pruefungen erfolgen mit technologischen Kerbschlagbiege- und CTOD-Versuchen an Schweissguetern, die durch mehrlagiges Lichtbogenschweissen hergestellt wurden, unter vier

  18. Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: Area specific studies, final report for the period June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, Dennis T.; Koeing, Brian A.; Flynn, Thomas; Bruce, James L.; Ghusn, George Jr.

    1981-08-30

    The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Trexler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aeromagnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters (395 ft). A positive gradient is observed

  19. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  20. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  1. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  2. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  3. Monday 8th June 2009-Germany-President of München Technical University,Prof. Wolfgang A. Herrmann-visiting ATLAS underground area with M. Hauschild and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1 : CERN Director-General,R Heuer and W. A. Herrmann Tirage 2 : Visit ATLAS underground area with R. Voss Tirage 3 : Visit ATLAS underground area with M. Hauschild Tirage 4-20:W. A. Herrmann signing the Guest book with R. Heuer and the Coordinator for External Relations,F. Pauss Tirage 21-27: Visit ATLAS underground area

  4. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  5. Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada, area specific studies. Final report, June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Texler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aero-magnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters (395 ft). A positive gradient is observed

  6. Are in vitro methods for the detection of endocrine potentials in the aquatic environment predictive for in vivo effects? Outcomes of the Projects SchussenAktiv and SchussenAktivplus in the Lake Constance Area, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Henneberg

    Full Text Available Many studies about endocrine pollution in the aquatic environment reveal changes in the reproduction system of biota. We analysed endocrine activities in two rivers in Southern Germany using three approaches: (1 chemical analyses, (2 in vitro bioassays, and (3 in vivo investigations in fish and snails. Chemical analyses were based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For in vitro analyses of endocrine potentials in water, sediment, and waste water samples, we used the E-screen assay (human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and reporter gene assays (human cell line HeLa-9903 and MDA-kb2. In addition, we performed reproduction tests with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to analyse water and sediment samples. We exposed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario to water downstream of a wastewater outfall (Schussen River or to water from a reference site (Argen River to investigate the vitellogenin production. Furthermore, two feral fish species, chub (Leuciscus cephalus and spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus, were caught in both rivers to determine their gonadal maturity and the gonadosomatic index. Chemical analyses provided only little information about endocrine active substances, whereas the in vitro assays revealed endocrine potentials in most of the samples. In addition to endocrine potentials, we also observed toxic potentials (E-screen/reproduction test in waste water samples, which could interfere with and camouflage endocrine effects. The results of our in vivo tests were mostly in line with the results of the in vitro assays and revealed a consistent reproduction-disrupting (reproduction tests and an occasional endocrine action (vitellogenin levels in both investigated rivers, with more pronounced effects for the Schussen river (e.g. a lower gonadosomatic index. We were able to show that biological in vitro assays for endocrine potentials in natural stream water reasonably reflect reproduction and endocrine

  7. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  8. Biotechnology Indonesia-Germany (BTIG). Phase 4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-06

    In total 516 lines of populations and parental lines were tested for Al-tolerance in glass house trials. A quantitative inheritance of relative root growth under Al-stress conditions could be observed in the populations. Due to a segregation deviating from normal distribution and a very high environmental variance it could be concluded that only few genes might be involved in the inheritance of Al-tolerance. Based on diversity analysis and observations on Al-tolerance with different methods the cultivars 'Doko RC' and 'Willis' were selected as parental lines for a new population. It was clearly shown that this population is well suited for a marker-trait correlation. An international spectrum of soybean cultivars was tested on three field sites in Indonesia and related to results in glass house trials. In total three cultivars from Nigeria and Brazil were identified showing a higher Al-tolerance on acid soils. These cultivars will be used in coming breeding programs in Indonesia. A method for direct selection on a physiological tolerance reaction was developed in form of a dyeing method for Al-containing agarose gels. 18{sup th} Abridged Version: Molecular mechanisms of the features of Al-resistance of the plants are at present not known. Conventional breeding programmes have been deployed to increase the Al-resistance, as in the past technical genetic strategic did not lead to agriculturally useable increases in the resistance. The aim of the project was to look into the molecular mechanisms of the Al-resistance of soy plants and to examine the possibilities of a genetic increase in resistance. Accordingly the molecular stress-reply of Al-sensitive and tolerant soy cultivates was examined at a nucleic acid level. Numerous partial cDNA sequences could be isolated, which only showed a higher expression with tolerant cultivates under Al-stress load. Through the transformation of gene sequences in yeast and arabidopsis plants, a genetic increase in the Al-resistance could be achieved. The enormous advantage of transgenic plants with regards to their survival under Al-stress conditions, favours the biotechnological strategy for a practice-relevant increase in the resistance with regard to the stressor AL in comparison to conventional breeding programmes. (orig.)

  9. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  10. The Linkage of Urban and Energy Planning for Sustainable Cities: The Case of Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies in Europe, because buildings are responsible for a major share of the final energy consumption. It is at local scale where policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures get...... implemented. Municipalities, as local authorities and responsible entity for land-use planning, have a direct influence on urban patterns and energy use, which makes them key actors in the transition towards sustainable cities. Hence, synchronizing urban planning with energy planning offers great potential...... to increase society’s energy-efficiency; this has a high significance to reach GHG-reduction targets. In this paper the actual linkage of urban planning and energy planning in Denmark and Germany was assessed; substantive barriers preventing their integration and driving factors that lead to successful...

  11. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  12. No evidence of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain or enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC found in cattle faeces in northern Germany, the hotspot of the 2011 HUS outbreak area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieler Lothar H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruminants, in particular bovines, are the primary reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, but whole genome analyses of the current German ESBL-producing O104:H4 outbreak strain of sequence type (ST 678 showed this strain to be highly similar to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Strains of the EAEC pathotype are basically adapted to the human host. To clarify whether in contrast to this paradigm, the O104:H4 outbreak strain and/or EAEC may also be able to colonize ruminants, we screened a total of 2.000 colonies from faecal samples of 100 cattle from 34 different farms - all located in the HUS outbreak region of Northern Germany - for genes associated with the O104:H4 HUS outbreak strain (stx2, terD, rfbO104, fliCH4, STEC (stx1, stx2, escV, EAEC (pAA, aggR, astA, and ESBL-production (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV. Results The faecal samples contained neither the HUS outbreak strain nor any EAEC. As the current outbreak strain belongs to ST678 and displays an en-teroaggregative and ESBL-producing phenotype, we additionally screened selected strains for ST678 as well as the aggregative adhesion pattern in HEp-2 cells. However, we were unable to find any strains belonging to ST678 or showing an aggregative adhesion pattern. A high percentage of animals (28% shed STEC, corroborating previous knowl-edge and thereby proving the validity of our study. One of the STEC also harboured the LEE pathogenicity island. In addition, eleven animals shed ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions While we are aware of the limitations of our survey, our data support the theory, that, in contrast to other Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, cattle are not the reservoir for the O104:H4 outbreak strain or other EAEC, but that the outbreak strain seems to be adapted to humans or might have yet another reservoir, raising new questions about the epidemiology of STEC O104:H4.

  13. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  14. Fabrication of stable, large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Final subcontract report, May 10, 1991--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, T.X. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    During the period of this subcontract, May 1991 through February 1995, Solar Cells, Inc. has developed and demonstrated a low-cost process to fabricate stable large-area cadmium telluride based thin-film photovoltaic modules. This report summarizes the final phase of the project which is concentrated on process optimization and product life tests. One of the major post-deposition process steps, the CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment, has been experimentally replaced with alternative treatments with vapor chloride or chlorine gas. Material and device qualities associated with alternative treatments are comparable or superior to those with the conventional treatment. Extensive experiments have been conducted to optimize the back-electrode structure in order to ensure long term device stability. Numerous small-area cells and minimodules have been subjected to a variety of stress tests, including but not limited to continuous light soak under open or short circuit or with resistive load, for over 10,000 hours. Satisfactory stability has been demonstrated on 48 cm{sup 2} and 64 cm{sup 2} minimodules under accelerated tests and on 7200 cm{sup 2} large modules under normal operating conditions. The conversion efficiency has also been significantly improved during this period. The total area efficiency of 7200 cm{sup 2} module has reached 8.4%, corresponding to a 60.3W normalized output; the efficiency of 64 cm{sup 2} minimodules and 1.1 cm{sup 2} cells has reached 10.5% (aperture area) and 12.4% (total area), respectively.

  15. Report on Final Workshop results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Valentino; Dyer, John; Robertson, Dale;

    The SERENATE project held its Final Workshop in Bad Nauheim, Germany on 16-17 June 2003. More than ninety representatives of research and education networking organisations, national governments and funding bodies, network operators, equipment manufacturers and the scientific and education...

  16. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  17. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  18. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  19. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  20. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  1. Fluorine prescribing practice of paediatricians in Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelsdorf, Arlette

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study was to find out about paediatricians' approach towards fluoride within the municipal area of Berlin, Germany. For this purpose, an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 14 questions had been mailed; it was answered by a total number of 33 paediatricians. Basically, the survey indicates that they all prescribe fluorine in tablet form, but they differ about initiation and duration. About 30% prescribe fluorine between the age of 30 days and 6 years. All of ...

  2. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  3. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  4. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)

    2015-10-16

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  5. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  6. A vast medieval dam-lake cascade in northern central Europe: review and new data on late Holocene water-level dynamics of the Havel River, Berlin-Brandenburg area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Knut; Keller, Nora; Brande, Arthur; Dalitz, Stefan; Hensel, Nicola; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Kappler, Christoph; Michas, Uwe; Müller, Joachim; Schwalbe, Grit; Weiße, Roland; Bens, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study was carried out in order to trace the human transformation of the medium-scale Havel River in northeastern central Europe during the last c. 2000 years. This research was driven by the hypothesis that the present-day riverscape is widely a legacy of medieval and modern human transformation of the drainage system initiated essentially by damming for the operation of water mills. Recent opportunities to investigate the extent of this human impact arose during the course of archaeological rescue excavations and palaeoecologic studies, which significantly enhanced the amount of respective high-quality data. Along the middle course of the Havel, sedimentary sequences were analysed in order to explore the potential for reconstructing regional water-level dynamics. The river, draining the Berlin metropolitan area, forms a chain of dammed lakes and meandering river sections which were strongly modified by hydraulic engineering in the past. We have not only recorded new sections but also re-evaluated older ones, forming a total of sixteen sedimentary sequences along the river. Chronological control is provided by a multitude of palynological, dendrochronological, archaeological, and radiocarbon data. The sections upriver from the Brandenburg/H. and Spandau weirs, representing sites with historic water mills, reveal substantial water-level changes during the late Holocene. Generally, lower water levels before and higher levels parallel to the medieval German colonisation of that area (c. 1180/1250 AD) can be inferred. This water-level increase, which is attributed to be caused by medieval mill stowage, took place rapidly and amounted to a relative height of c. 1.5 m. It has caused the widening of river sections and the enlargement of existing lakes or its secondary formation when already aggraded, and thus a flooding of large portions of land. The rising water level has even influenced the settlement topography to a large degree. Several medieval

  7. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    -structured key-informant telephone-interviews on the application of ICU diaries. RESULTS: According to the survey, 8 out of 152 ICUs in the two federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Schleswig-Holstein had implemented ICU diaries and another six were planning implementation. Another 35 ICUs in other areas...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...... in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears...

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  9. Regionalisation of statistical model outputs creating gridded data sets for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpp, Simona Andrea; Rauthe, Monika; Deutschländer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the German research program ReKliEs-De (regional climate projection ensembles for Germany, http://.reklies.hlug.de) is to distribute robust information about the range and the extremes of future climate for Germany and its neighbouring river catchment areas. This joint research project is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and was initiated by the German Federal States. The Project results are meant to support the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of future climate change. The aim of our part of the project is to adapt and transfer the regionalisation methods of the gridded hydrological data set (HYRAS) from daily station data to the station based statistical regional climate model output of WETTREG (regionalisation method based on weather patterns). The WETTREG model output covers the period of 1951 to 2100 with a daily temporal resolution. For this, we generate a gridded data set of the WETTREG output for precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km x 12.5 km, which is common for regional climate models. Thus, this regionalisation allows comparing statistical to dynamical climate model outputs. The HYRAS data set was developed by the German Meteorological Service within the German research program KLIWAS (www.kliwas.de) and consists of daily gridded data for Germany and its neighbouring river catchment areas. It has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km for the entire domain for the hydro-meteorological elements precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity and covers the period of 1951 to 2006. After conservative remapping the HYRAS data set is also convenient for the validation of climate models. The presentation will consist of two parts to present the actual state of the adaptation of the HYRAS regionalisation methods to the statistical regional climate model WETTREG: First, an overview of the HYRAS data set and the regionalisation

  10. Orthopedic workforce planning in Germany - an analysis of orthopedic accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Peter; Maier, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, orthopedic workforce planning relies on population-to-provider-ratios represented by the 'official degree of care provision'. However, with geographic information systems (GIS), more sophisticated measurements are available. By utilizing GIS-based technologies we analyzed the current state of demand and supply of the orthopedic workforce in Germany (orthopedic accessibility) with the integrated Floating Catchment Area method. The analysis of n = 153,352,220 distances revealed significant geographical variations on national scale: 5,617,595 people (6.9% of total population) lived in an area with significant low orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = -4.0), whereas 31,748,161 people (39.0% of total population) lived in an area with significant high orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = 8.0). Accessibility was positively correlated with the degree of urbanization (r = 0.49; p<0.001) and the official degree of care provision (r = 0.33; p<0.001) and negatively correlated with regional social deprivation (r = -0.47; p<0.001). Despite advantages of simpler measures regarding implementation and acceptance in health policy, more sophisticated measures of accessibility have the potential to reduce costs as well as improve health care. With this study, significant geographical variations were revealed that show the need to reduce oversupply in less deprived urban areas in order to enable adequate care in more deprived rural areas.

  11. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  12. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  13. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz

    1990-01-01

    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  14. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan L. Thomsen; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  15. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  16. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.

  17. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado (United States); Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) program: - Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. - DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. - DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with

  18. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

  19. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  20. 德国“多代屋”项目在我国农村留守儿童管理中的应用探索%An Applied Exploration of Germany Multi-generational Housing Project in the Management of Left-behind Children in Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣志

    2013-01-01

    The problem of left-behind children in rural areas in China is a product of both the country’s modern-ization and urbanization. It is not only the innate cost of social development, but it also brings opportunities to the innovation of social management. Germany multi-generational housing project was first widely used for providing for the aged, and the specific operation mode was intended for the elderly, whose diverse needs could not be met by their families. The project brought together different groups in the same region, creating a new pension environ-ment conducive to life and health of old persons. The core idea is to mobilize social resources to establish a holis-tic social management system so as to serve vulnerable groups. The children left behind in rural areas belong to a vulnerable group, whose management calls for the positive attention and involvement of the whole society. The es-tablishment of multi-generational housing project can mobilize social resources in every aspect to help rural left-behind children to learn happily and grow healthily.%农村留守儿童问题是现代化、城市化进程的产物,它本身既是社会发展的代价,同样也给社会管理创新带来了机会。德国“多代屋”项目最早被广泛地运用到养老领域中,它把同一社区内不同的群体聚集在一起,创造一个有利于老年人快乐生活和健康养老的社交场所,其核心理念是动员社会资源为弱势群体服务,形成整体社会管理。农村留守儿童作为弱势群体,其管理也需要全社会的积极关注与介入;多代屋的建立,可以调动社会各方面资源为留守儿童服务,帮助其快乐学习与健康成长。

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  2. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. [The height target prediction by the Tanner method infra evaluates the final height in youths from the rural area of South East Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Rafael; Bosch, Vicente; Santonja, Fernando; López, José Manuel; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-10-16

    Introducción: Conocer la talla final de un individuo antes de finalizar el crecimiento presenta utilidad clínica para el seguimiento de la salud infantil. Objetivo: Calcular la talla diana de una población rural del sudeste de España y comparar con la talla final alcanzada. Métodos: Fueron incluidos 50 jóvenes de 18 a 22 años (44% hombres) y 100 progenitores. La selección de los jóvenes se realizó en 2 fases: 1. Estudio retrospectivo a partir de historias clínicas. 2. Estudio prospectivo: reclutamiento y determinaciones antropométricas. Se calculó talla diana y el desvío de talla. Resultados: La talla final de los chicos fue de 4,44 cm superior a la talla diana (p.

  4. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Frye, C.; Hoelscher, B.; Meyer, I.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Schneller, H.; Wjst, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt

  5. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  6. The Nonutilization of Special Transport Services by the Elderly in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Washington, D.C. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Deborah L.; Lipowitz, Isaac

    Improving the mobility of older adults has been a major goal of transportation programs and policies for the elderly at both the federal and local levels. To examine reasons why eligible elderly individuals in urban areas do not use available special transport services, 140 elderly persons in the Washington, D.C. area were surveyed on the extent…

  7. Rural energy in the EU. Country studies for France, Germany, Italy, Poland and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Deng, Y.; Noothout, P.; Van den Bos, A.; Van Melle, T.

    2011-09-15

    A sustainable energy future for the European Union is important for all its citizens. Some areas within Europe are still deprived of access to a secure supply of clean and affordable energy. Gas and electricity networks are less well developed in rural areas, so the choice of fuel is more limited. Yet, these areas have also a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% in 2020. To date, the role of energy in the development of rural areas in the EU has been less well considered than other aspects. A better insight is required into energy consumption patterns in these areas, and in differences between areas, to provide an evidence base for developing regional policies on sustainable energy supply. This report provides that insight based on analysis of national and subnational energy data and on interviews with national energy experts. It presents energy demand patterns in rural, intermediate, and urban areas and areas. We also provide an insight into the way lower economic activity in rural areas plays a role in energy demand patterns. The study shows how differences in the fuels used can lead to different emission levels, for greenhouse gases and for air pollutants such as SOx, NOx, and particulate matter (PM). Differences in the fuel mix will also have an economic effect because of different fuel prices, although detailed consideration of this effect was outside the scope of this study. The focus of this study was on five of the larger EU Member States: France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom. These countries represent 61% of the EU population, 61% of total final energy consumption in the EU, and 62% of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In this study, the transport and industry sectors were not analysed in detail. There are very few differences in the fuel mix used in the transport sector in urban and rural areas. In industry, differences in fuel mix are due primarily to the nature of an industry rather than its

  8. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Report for the Waste Loading Area, Former Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.C. Weaver

    2008-08-19

    The objective of the verification survey was to obtain evidence by means of measurements and sampling to confirm that the final radiological conditions were less than the established release criteria. This objective was achieved via multiple verification components including document reviews to determine the accuracy and adequacy of FSS documentation.

  9. Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Saxenhofer, Moritz; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Binder, Florian; Cuypers, Fabian; Schlegel, Mathias; Röhrs, Susanne; Heckel, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Human hantavirus disease cases, caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), are mainly recorded in western and southern areas of Germany. This bank vole reservoir survey confirmed PUUV presence in these regions but its absence in northern and eastern regions. PUUV occurrence is associated with the presence of the Western bank vole phylogroup. PMID:27983499

  10. Rebuilding Physical Education in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany, 1945-1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    After the Second World War, the British, American and French believed education could be used to promote democracy in Germany. The Western powers faced particular difficulties with the field of physical education because of the strong Nazi influence in this area during the Third Reich. The premier pre-war physical education teacher training…

  11. Modeling of the putative distribution of the arbovirus vector Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaun, Christian; Werblow, Antje; Cunze, Sarah; Zotzmann, Sina; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Dörge, Dorian D; Huber, Katrin; Tackenberg, Oliver; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-03-01

    Today, international travel and global freight transportation are increasing and have a direct influence on the introduction and establishment of non-native mosquito species as well as on the spread of arthropod (mosquito)-borne diseases inside Europe. One of the mosquito species that has become invasive in many areas is the Asian rock pool or bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (synonyms: Aedes japonicus japonicus or Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica). This species was detected in Germany in 2008 for the first time. Until today, three different Oc. j. japonicus populations have been documented. Laboratory studies have shown that Oc. j. japonicus can act as a vector for a variety of disease agents. Thus, the knowledge on its current distribution is essential for different measurements. In the present study, ecological niche models were used to estimate the potential distribution of Oc. j. japonicus in Germany. The aim was to detect areas within Germany that could potentially function as habitats for this species. According to our model, areas in western, southern, and central Germany offer suitable conditions for the mosquito and may therefore be at risk for an invasion of the species. We strongly suggest that those areas should be monitored more intensively in the future. For this purpose, it would also be essential to search for possible dispersal routes as well as for natural barriers.

  12. (Flash) Floods on 27 Augustus 2010 in lowland catchments in The Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, C.C.; Teuling, A.J.; Overeem, A.; Velde, van der Y.; Hazenberg, P.; Warmerdam, P.M.M.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Hobbelt, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events. Over an area of 740 km2 more than 120 mm of rainfall were observed in 24 h. This extreme event resulted in local flooding of city centres, highways and agricultural fie

  13. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI); Final report, January 1, 1987--June 30, 1988: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ``Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)`` for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987.) Quaternary Tectonics, Geochemical, Mineral Deposits, Vulcanic Geology, Seismology, Tectonics, Neotectonics, Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Assessments, Geotechnical Rock Mass Assessments, Basinal Studies, and Strong Ground Motion.

  14. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  15. Wind energy use in Germany. Status 31.12.2012; Windenergienutzung in Deutschland. Stand 31.12.2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, C. [DEWI GmbH, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    2012 has been a good year for the development of wind energy world-wide and also for Germany. All in all, the global installed wind power capacity in 2012 was 44,712 MW, which is an increase of 8.4 % compared to last year's figures (Tab. 1). Of the new installations, about 59 per cent were realized in China (13.2 GW) and the USA (13.1 GW), followed by Germany and India. It is interesting to note that for the first time Romania has made it among the TOP 10 countries in 2012. With 923 MW new installed capacity the country achieved the tenth position. [1] The positive market development for Germany was already foreseeable when evaluating the figures for the first six months of 2012, and it was confirmed at the end of the year. Based on the average share of the first half year in the annual result over the last five years, new installations of up to 2,350 MW could be expected. The final installation figures of 2,440 MW even exceeded the forecast. This result is the fourth best in the history of the DEWI-Statistics, only beaten by the installations of the record years 2001 to 2003. The good result is probably partly due to projects promoted because of the Energiewende, but also to repowering projects which are contributing an increasing share in the wind energy development. Older wind turbines from the 1990s have now reached an age where replacement may be considered. This applies especially to turbines that were erected after 1998 and are located in wind priority areas. In concrete figures, according to information supplied by wind turbine manufacturers1 altogether 1,003 new wind turbines (WTGS) with 2,439.66 megawatt (MW) were installed in Germany in 2012 (Fig. 1). This means an increase of 21.5 % compared to the year before. As already mentioned, repowering projects have made a significant contribution to the development. Their share in the new installations is approx. 22 %, plus the use of repowering bonus certificates for 117 dismantled wind turbines. Apart

  16. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  17. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  18. The IMEMME 1992 travelling scholarship to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.A. (British Coal Corporation (United Kingdom). Littleton Colliery)

    1993-04-01

    The author describes a visit to Germany funded by the Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers' 1992 Travelling Scholarship. Details are given of visits to the Walsum, Niederberg and Lohberg collieries, Rheinberg shaft. Borth salt mine, Mulheim an der Ruhr Stadtbahn, Emscher Aufbereitung coal pulverization plant and various mining equipment manufacturers. 8 figs.

  19. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  20. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  1. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  2. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  3. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  4. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  5. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIACOMO; CORNEO

    2015-01-01

    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  6. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  7. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  8. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  9. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  10. Financial Market Regulation in Germany - Capital Requirements of Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Karl Detzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines capital adequacy regulation in Germany. The first part reviews capital adequacy regulation from the 1930s up to the financial crisis and identifies two main trends: a gradual softening of the eligibility criteria for equity and increasing reliance on internal risk models. While the first trend has been reversed following the financial crisis, internal risk models still play a central role. Therefore, the second part discusses the problems with the use of internal risk models and discusses the potentials of Basel 2.5 and Basel III to alleviate the identified problems. It is concluded that the relevant problems are not resolved. Therefore, in the final part some suggestions of how the problems could be addressed properly are given.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...... of magnitude and the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in Schleswig-Holstein. Experiments with copies of Ertebølle vessels yielded reference material for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis. Food crusts, terrestrial samples and fishbones from two Ertebølle inland sites were...... analysed as well. It could be shown that the inland pottery most probably has the same age as the coastal pottery. Furthermore, I will present some methodological considerations about pottery dating and a pilot study where food crusts as well as total lipid extracts were dated....

  12. GLOBAL IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY, CASE STUDY - GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Caralicea Marculescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is a socially and politically defined category of energy sources. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 3% and are growing rapidly. This paper seeks is aimed at presenting the impact solar energy could have on a world level given the finitude, reachability and ever increasing prices of fossil fuels. As a case study we will present the solar energy industry in Germany emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages this form of energy has in this country and worldwide.

  13. Characterization of ichthyoplankton within the U.S. Geological Survey's Northeastern Gulf of Mexico study area - based on analysis of Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) Sampling Surveys, 1982-1999. NEGOM ichthyoplankton synopsis final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyczkowski-Shultz, Joanne; Hanisko, David S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dennis, George D.

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis was undertaken to characterize the occurrence and abundance of fish eggs and larvae in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM) and to assess the region's relative importance in the early life history of fishes as compared to the entire U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Data for 66 selected taxa from 1,166 bongo and neuston net samples at 72 localities [comprising the UGSG NEGOM Ichthyoplankton Synopsis (UNIS) Study Area] were analyzed. These data were taken during annual Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) gulfwide surveys from 1982-1999, and were summarized by the NMFS to accomplish this objective. Comparison of the UNIS Study Area with the overall SEAMAP survey area revealed that the larvae of 16 taxa occurred more frequently and were relatively more abundant in the UNIS Study Area than the entire SEAMAP survey area while for other taxa occurrence and relative abundance were comparable. These taxa represented fishes from mesopelagic, continental shelf, and reef assemblages reflecting the wide diversity of habitats available in the NEGOM and included the young of two important resource taxa, Rhomboplites aurorubens (vermilion snapper) and Seriola spp. (amberjacks). Distinct distribution patterns were observed among larvae in the UNIS Study Area that appear to be associated with the presence of the DeSoto Canyon. One notable pattern was the predominance of certain taxa to either the west or east of longitude 86.5-87.0o W. Larvae of several characteristic reef-fish families were most common to the east of this apparent zoogeographic faunal discontinuity. An alternative pattern was seen among taxa whose larvae occurred primarily at locations over depth contours outlining the canyon. Additionally, the UNIS Study Area contributed more fish eggs, total larvae, and zooplankton to survey totals than would be expected from the number of samples taken in the study area. This pattern was more evident during spring than fall surveys. It may relate to

  14. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, B, C, and D, Colorado. Volume I. Detail area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the Durango A, Durango B, Durango C, and Durango D Detail Areas of southwestern Colorado. The Durango A Detail Area is within the coverage of the Needle Mountains and Silverton 15' map sheets, and the Pole Creek Mountain, Rio Grande Pyramid, Emerald Lake, Granite Peak, Vallecito Reservoir, and Lemon Reservoir 7.5' map sheets of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). The Durango B Detail Area is within the coverage of the Silverton 15' map sheet and the Wetterhorn Peak, Uncompahgre Peak, Lake City, Redcloud Peak, Lake San Cristobal, Pole Creek Mountain, and Finger Mesa 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango C Detail Area is within the coverage of the Platoro and Wolf Creek Pass 15' map sheets of the NTMS. The Durango D Detail Area is within the coverage of the Granite Lake, Cimarrona Peak, Bear Mountain, and Oakbrush Ridge 7.5' map sheets of the NTMS. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, gridded, and contoured to produce maps of the radiometric variables, uranium, potassium, and thorium; their ratios; and the residual magnetic field. These maps have been analyzed in order to produce a multi-variant analysis contour map based on the radiometric response of the individual geological units. A geochemical analysis has been performed, using the radiometric and magnetic contour maps, the multi-variant analysis map, and factor analysis techniques, to produce a geochemical analysis map for the area.

  16. [DRGs in psychiatric hospital financing exemplified by Hungary. A model for Germany?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylath, E

    2000-12-01

    One of the most important provisions incorporated in the reform of the German health sector has been the introduction of a per case prospective payment system for hospitals with the exception of admissions to psychiatric care. The reasons for the exclusion of psychiatric care are unclear, but it is as a result all the more interesting to look at the experience of Hungary, where in-patient psychiatric care has been financed on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for the past seven years. The article describes how in the early 1990's the funding of the Hungarian health service was reorganized from being a state-financed system with a set budget to a system financed by contributions. Parallel to this development, service-related financing was introduced. In the hospital sector this involved DRGs. At the beginning of 1993 the Hungarian DRGs comprised only 437 categories, but this has since increased to 758. Furthermore, other characteristics are listed which, apart from the number of groups, differentiate the Hungarian DRGs from the AP-DRGs. Among other things, service-related financing includes non-typical areas such as psychiatry. In this case, it covers in-patient psychiatric care in an unusual combination of DRGs in the acute case category (50% of all beds in psychiatric units in Hungary are for acute cases) with daily nursing charges in the chronic case category. An analysis is given in the article of 16 homogeneous diagnostic categories in psychiatric care, followed by experiences gathered in conjunction with the application of this approach in this particular sphere, with special reference to three problem areas. These are as follows: the trend towards diagnoses with a relatively high weighting; the practice of charging for psychiatric DRGs in somatic wards; and, finally, the perpetuation of poor service structures and practices through DRGs. In general, evidently the introduction of psychiatric DRGs may also be recommended in Germany because of the

  17. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    the drought event from 1971-1974 was the largest drought event since 1950 based on the monthly soil moisture drought index. The event from 1962-1965 was the largest drought event since 1950 based on the monthly runoff drought index. The event from 2003-2004 was quite severe within the time scale of 3-6 months but its areal extension covered less than 50% Germany's land area.

  18. Characterization of groundwater flow and transport in the General Separations Area, Savannah River Plant: Effect of groundwater withdrawals on the Tuscaloosa-Congaree aquifer head reversal in H Area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, C.P.; Duffield, G.M.; Shaw, S.T. [GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has maintained a number of sites used for land disposal of various waste materials. The General Separations Area at SRP, located between the Upper Three Runs and Four Mile Creeks, has served as an active area for waste storage for about thirty years. The Tuscaloosa aquifer, which lies beneath the General Separations Area, is a water source for SRP and the surrounding area. The isolation of the Tuscaloosa aquifer has been maintained by an upward hydraulic gradient from the Tuscaloosa aquifer to the overlying Congaree aquifer. This upward gradient is referred to as a hydraulic head reversal in the General Separations Area, i.e., hydraulic heads in the upper Tuscaloosa are higher than hydraulic heads in the Congaree. This head reversal has declined in recent years due to increased groundwater pumping in the upper and lower Tuscaloosa formations. The objective of this investigation is to assess the effects of pumping within the General Separations Area on the Congaree/upper Tuscaloosa head reversal. Methods of maintaining future Tuscaloosa aquifer isolation through the optimization of groundwater withdrawal location and rate were studied. Steady-state and transient groundwater flow models were used to characterize past and potential future groundwater conditions. Future groundwater conditions were simulated for a variety of pumping scenarios.

  19. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  20. Development of a Fully Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model for the A/M Area Using Data Fusion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-11-18

    SRS was established in the 1950s to produce plutonium, tritium, and other nuclear materials. The purpose of this work was to obtain the distribution of the parameters that effect groundwater flow and to calibrate a model for subsequent use in the development of corrective action programs in the A/M area.

  1. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  2. A Novel Passive Millimeter Imager for Broad-Area Search - Final Report on Project PL09-NPMI-PD07 (PNNL-55180)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Harris, Robert V.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Knopik, Clint D.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Mendoza, Albert; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2011-12-31

    This report describes research and development efforts toward a novel passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) electromagnetic imaging device for broad-area search. It addresses the technical challenge of detecting anomalies that occupy a small fraction of a pixel. The purpose of the imager is to pinpoint suspicious locations for cuing subsequent higher-resolution imaging. The technical basis for the approach is to exploit thermal and polarization anomalies that distinguish man-made features from natural features.

  3. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.E. [ed.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  4. Low Cost Solar Array Project cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material. Final report, November 26, 1980-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The primary objective of the work reported was to investigate high-risk, high-payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-Czochralski sheet material. These tasks were addressed: technical feasibility study of forming front and back junctions using liquid dopant techniques, liquid diffusion mask feasibility study, application studies of antireflective material using a meniscus coater, ion implantation compatibility/feasibility study, and cost analysis. (LEW)

  5. Final Environmental Assessment: For the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Expanded Training Use Areas at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais...hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla Hymenachne amplexicaulis West Indian marsh grass Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass...garnoti) are some amphibian and reptile species that occur within the built up areas of APAFR (U.S. Navy, 2004). Sub-tropical bird species noted to

  6. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  7. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  8. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive and specifically address (migrant specific migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

  9. Boom in Germany; Boom in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2013-02-15

    In the year 2012, the expansion of the wind energy in Germany has newly gained a rise: 1,008 wind power plants with a total performance of 2,439 megawatt. The average performance of new wind turbines increases further. The average rotor diameter amounts 88.5 metres, while the average hub height amounts 109.8 metres. Above all, the southern Federal States of the Federal Republic of Germany jeopardise on large hub heights: With a hub height of 133.9 metres, Bavaria is in the vanguard of all Federal States followed by Baden-Wuerttemberg with a hub height of 129.9 metres. The wind power plants in Schleswig-Holstein have the lowest average hub height of 81.7 metres. Meanwhile, the repowering occurs in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen because there are the oldest wind power plants.

  10. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio- Economic Panel (GSOEP).To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  11. Micro modeling of retirement : decisions in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Kohnz, Simone; Schnabel, Reinhold

    2002-01-01

    Early retirement in Germany is very costly and amplifies the burden which the German public pension system has to carry due to population aging. This paper shows that the German pension system provides strong incentives to retire early. The paper provides relatively robust econometric evidence for the strength of incentive effects on old age labor supply, using several specifications of incentive variables. The econometric estimates are used to simulate the individual responses to policy chan...

  12. Turkish Slang and Rap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Safiye

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to analyze the emergence of Turkish Slang amongst the young turkish immigrants and its importance. Rap music is where Turkish Slang is mostly used. Since the midst of the 80s, Rap Music has become a medium of expression for the young immigrants who live in Germany. The correlation between Turkish Slang and Rap Music will be discussed in that sense.Keywords: Turkish slang, Turkish migrants, Hip hop – culture, Rap music, Migrant workers

  13. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  14. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  15. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  16. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  17. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  18. [Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)--distribution, biology and vector for Babesia canis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heile, Cornelia; Heydorn, Alfred-Otto; Schein, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus). Until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern Germany. Its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. With the exception of northern Germany it is now covering large areas of Germany. This is particularly the case in the Upper Rhine Valley, Saarland and the Mark Brandenburg. However, it is endemic in many other areas of Germany as well. The transformation of agricultural land into fallow land, an increase in host reservoirs and climatic changes are discussed as main contributors to this change. Little is known about the role of this species as a vector for virus, rickettsia, bacteria and protozoa as well as its medical and veterinary importance. D. reticulatus is a vector for Babesia canis canis. It is reported here about a case of autochthonous babesiosis in a dog from Berlin/Brandenburg.

  19. Climate suitability for the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassnau, R; Daugschies, A; Lendner, M; Genchi, C

    2014-09-15

    Recently concerns are increasing that dirofilarial nematodes may spread from endemic areas in southern, eastern and central Europe to countries in northern regions of Europe. The increasing number of autochthonous cases of canine Dirofilaria repens infections in Germany indicates that worms of this genus may invade new areas, and climate change may be a key factor in this scenario. Thus analysis of long term development of regional temperature is a pivotal factor in risk analysis related to transmission of these worms. Such information is important for suggestions of counteracting strategies, such as definition of periods of increased transmission risk and, consequently, time slots most suited for preventative measures. In this study, mean daily temperature data from 34 geographical clustered weather stations representing all parts of Germany were analyzed. It is concluded that the increasing trend for average daily temperatures observed in the period from 1984 to 2013 has led to climatic conditions that allow the completion of dirofilarial life cycles in large parts of Germany between May and October. Autochthonous infection with D. repens is already established in some regions and targeted diagnosis and medical prophylaxis is advisable for dogs assumedly exposed during risk of transmission periods. It appears likely that global warming will support further spread of D. repens. Furthermore for the population of dogs the spread of the more pathogenic species D. immitis in hitherto non-endemic Germany is a potential risk if mean temperatures rise to a level suitable for parasite development in the abundant vector mosquitoes during the warmer seasons.

  20. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  1. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  2. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ee cc: WWP ONDA Senator llarry Reid Jul 31 09 03:52p Fri€nds Or N€vada Wild€rn 775-324-2677 July 30, 2009 366t11 Fighter Wing Public Affairs...riparian areas, water quality, fisheries, and other natural resources and ecological values of watersheds throughout the West. ONDA is a non-profit...public interest organization dedicated to preserving and protecting the public lands of eastern Oregon. ONDA has a long history of interest and

  4. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  5. Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bormann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

    While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  7. Development of highly efficient large-area a-Si PV module. Final report; Entwicklung hocheffizienter grossflaechiger a-Si-Photovoltaikmodule. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, H.; Frammelsberger, W.; Lechner, P.; Geyer, R.; Schade, H.; Psyk, W.

    1998-06-01

    This project was focused on the development of stable PV modules based on a-Si, and on the process transfer from a laboratory scale to a large-area production level. Central to these efforts is the economic relevance that requires reasonable module efficiencies obtained with high throughput and yield. Our modules contain p-i-n/p-i-n (a-Si/a-Si) cell structures that are based on deposition procedures developed at ISI, i.e. low-temperature deposition and high hydrogen dilution for the top cell, and microdoping between the p-layer and the buffer layer for the cottom cell. The maximum stabilized (1800 h) module efficiency obtained by production-relevant processes is 6.5% for the aperture area of 5445 cm{sup 2}. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Arbeiten im Rahmen des Projekts konzentrierten sich auf die Entwicklung moeglicht stabiler a-Si-PV-Module und auf die Umsetzung vorhandener Labortechniken in einen industriellen Fertigungsmassstab. Mitbestimmend fuer die Entwicklungsarbeiten war die kommerzielle Relevanz, die brauchbare Modulleistungen verknuepft mit hohem Durchsatz bei hoher Ausbeute. Die Basis fuer unsere jetzige Zellstruktur im Modul sind die a-Si/a-Si-(p-i-n/p-i-n)-Technologie und die Technologiekonzepte des ISI (Tieftemperaturabscheidung bei hoher H-Verduennung fuer die Topzelle sowie Feindotierung des Uebergangs von der p-Schicht in den Puffer hinein fuer die Bottomzelle). Das beste mit einem fertigungsrelevanten Prozess hergestellte Modul erreicht nach 1800 h Lichtalterung einen stabilisierten Aperturwirkungsgrad von 6.5%. (orig.)

  8. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  9. Forests and the national greenhouse gas inventory of Germany. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland). 28-30 Sep 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Baritz R.; Strich S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995, experiences have been gathered with the calculation of National Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Germany. Because only marginal changes of the total forested area occur in Germany, relevant changes of the balance of greenhouse gases in the forest sector are related to forest management. It was found that the increment of wood by far exceeds the harvested timber volume. Therefore, forests in Germany currently represent a significant sink for carbon (8-9 Mt C per year). In the context ...

  10. [Sex education in practice and science in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielert, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Sex education in Germany has a history full of conflict and ideological change between emancipatory, reforming, and repressive tendencies. As a science, sex education has only recently gained independence from its mother disciplines theology, medicine, psychology, and sociology and at the same time has taken a critically constructive position towards sexual science. Its topics range from dissemination of knowledge about biological processes and contraception to relationship concerns, sexual orientation, gender issues, sexual transgression, moral, and ethical questions. Sexual socialization happens nearly everywhere. Sexual education takes place mainly in families, elementary education, and school, but increasingly also in all other areas of education, social work, and health service. Its clientèle are no longer exclusively children and adolescents but increasingly adults of every age group. Subjects such as AIDS, sexual abuse, and teenage pregnancy have contributed to governmental funding of projects and training in sex education. Thus, sex education still reaches from mere protection from dangers to fostering or maintaining psychological health.

  11. France and Germany nuclear energy policies revisited: A veblenian appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy policy should have been a major area of cooperation for France and Germany, playing a lead role in the energy policy of the EU. Yet they have retained different options, especially regarding nuclear energy while the EU energy policy remained very indicative. These two “coordinated economies” should have been able to cooperate more closely on this issue. While the reasons for this difference in behavior have much to do with the specificities of the nuclear energy, they are more precisely related to the continuously rising level of security requirements, a learning process in which the magnitude of risks and time lengths appeared, even before Fukushima, to go beyond rational boundaries on which cooperation (as well as market ventures could be based. This raises the issue in the present state of the technologies of the possibility of an international governance of this nuclear industry.

  12. Traditional 'air-dried' fermented sausages from Central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, Friedrich-Karl; Vogeley, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Traditional varieties of fermented pork sausages from Central Germany are different from related meat products in various aspects. First, they are prepared from "warm" pork immediately after slaughter. The meat is then minced, mixed with spices and minimal amounts of sugars, salt and nitrate, and the stuffed sausages ripen for a minimum of 6-8 weeks at temperatures below 15 °C. Second, surface mould growth during ripening is regularly removed or suppressed. The manufacturing methods require a minimum of investments and labour and reflect the socio-economic situation in the manufacturing area. The sausages have a good record of safety, and a preliminary risk assessment indicates that pathogens are kept under sufficient control by the extended ripening at low temperatures. Small-scale (artisanal) manufacture of these products is only possible with a flexible interpretation of the hygienic principles set up in current legislation.

  13. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  14. FINAL REPORT – CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE SPRU LOWER LEVEL HILLSIDE AREA AT THE KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK DCN 5146-SR-01-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-08-29

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) is located within the boundary of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) at 2425 River Road, Niskayuna, Schenectady County, New York (Figure A-1). SPRU was designed and developed to research an efficient process to chemically separate plutonium and uranium from processed fuel. Buildings H2 and G2 were the primary research and process facilities. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953 at which time the research was successful in developing useable reduction oxidation and plutonium uranium extraction processes. These processes were subsequently moved to the Hanford and the Savannah River sites for full-scale operations. Building H2 was used by KAPL after the SPRU process ceased until the late 1990s for radioactive wastewater processing and Building G2 was utilized for offices. Process areas and equipment were maintained in a safe condition under a surveillance and maintenance program.

  15. Detailed microearthquake survey of Long Valley, California, known geothermal resource area, July-September 1981. Final technical report, 30 September 1980-31 June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, C.H.; Stierman, D.J.; Lee, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed microearthquake survey of the geothermal area at Long Valley, California. High quality digital data from a dense 3-component array covering a three-month period during the summer of 1981 have been processed for locations, velocity structure, magnitudes, focal mechanisms, and source parameters. Hypocenter locations determined from this array have estimated errors of 0.5 km in epicenter and 1.0 km in depth relative to one another. Detailed hypocentral locations show two complex zones of seismicity beneath the south moat of the caldera which seems associated with the major hot spring activity within the caldera and could be part of the conduit system feeding hydrothermal waters to these hot springs. Seismic activity at Long Valley appears to be influenced by both regional tectonic stresses and local volcanotectonic activity.

  16. Reprocessing of seismic shear wave and tidem data collected at the A&M areas of the Savannah River Plant. Final report, September 1992--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The upper aquifers in the A&M area of the Savannah River Site are known to be contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Remediation plans depend critically on continuity of a confining zone known as the Crouch Branch Confining Unit (C8CU), which occurs at depths between about 250 feet and 300 feet. Under DOE Contract No: DE-AC21-92MC29, administered by Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) surface and borehole geophysical methods were tested and further developed between 1993 and 1995 to map the lithology (clay content) and stratigraphy of the CBCU. It was found that time domain electromagnetics (TDEM) soundings were effective in mapping lithology and changes in lithology, and shear (S-) wave reflection surveys were effective in mapping stratigraphy. An integrated interpretation of the two methods yielded a rather complete image of lithology and stratigraphy of the CBCU.

  17. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  18. The restructuring of Germany`s hard coal industry - political and corporate challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K.F. [RAG Group (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    With the termination of the so-called `Century Contract` in 1995, the steam coal market in German is liberalised with competition from imported coal being the driving force. German coal is still subsidised, according to the Artikelgesetz. The deregulation of the electricity market may lead to a more fierce competition in fuels for power generation. A recent survey by the Progress Research Institute showed however that the total use of coal in Germany will remain fairly constant until 2020. The article discusses the strategy adopted particularly by the RAG group which holds 80% of all German hard coal mining activities, to increase market attractivity of German coal now and in the future. There is a move afoot to integrate RAG with Saarbergwerke, Germany`s second largest hard coal producer. RAG already has developed many non-mining divisions - energy (STEAG), Chemicals (Ruetgers), trade and services (Ruhrkohle Handel) environment, and real estate and mining technology (DBT). 6 figs.

  19. Mining-Induced Seismicity in the Saarland, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Coal mining in the Saar mine, Germany, is accompanied by mining-induced seismic events. Strong events occur only in certain areas of the mine, other areas exhibit almost no seismicity. Shear events occur simultaneously to non-shear events. The shear events occur in different depths but their epicenters do concentrate in bands. The strike of the bands coincides with the strike of larger regional faults in the area. The seismic events of the Saar mine show some characteristics which distinguish them from seismic events observed in other German coalfields. The Gutenberg-Richter relation, for example, does not hold for these events. Furthermore, radiated seismic energy and extracted coal volume are not correlated. In the Primsmulde field a strong seismic event was observed even before mining in that region started. The event was triggered just by driving roadways into the field. The shear events cannot be explained by the mining process alone. They are presumably induced in certain regions (bands) under tectonic load by an interaction of mining-induced and tectonic stresses. In February 2008, extraction in the Primsmulde field induced a seismic event of magnitude 4, which led to surface vibrations reaching 93 mm/s. After this event, the Primsmulde field had to be abandoned. Future extraction of the Saar mine will be restricted to some small areas not intersected by the event bands found in the Dilsburg Ost and Primsmulde fields. The Saar mine will close in 2011.

  20. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  1. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  2. Feasibility studies for the development of petroleum areas-integrated exploitation project of the fields in the area north of Santa Cruz. Volume 1. Text. Export trade information (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 1 of 4, contains the main text which discusses: Objectives and Scope; Deliverables; Geology (Well Logs, Core Data, Dipmeters, Mudlogs, Database and Data Availability Problems, Procedure, Mapping, Results, Stratigraphic Considerations); and Petrophysics (Objectives, Database Preparation, Core Data Analysis, Log Normalization, Parameter Selection, Log Processing and Results, Reservoir Summation, Conclusions and Recommendations, Production Engineering, Reservoir Engineering and Simulation, Pipeline and Facilities Design, Economics).

  3. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  4. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  5. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  6. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  7. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    policy in order to aid its steel industry. Motor Vehicles In mid-May 1981 in Puebla , Mexico, Volkswagen produced its 20 millionth car, thereby surpassing...Unlike France’s policy in the 1960s under President Charles de Gaulle, however, West Germany has rejected the vision of a Europe independent of the...Woman or man, however, the West German left-wing terrorist has not articulated a clear-cut vision of what the future should be like; they seem to

  8. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  9. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  10. Origin of Mobile Cellular Network Technologies and Markets in Germany and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The inventive foundation of mobile cellular technologies was laid about 100 years ago. Wireless voice service was Bundespost in the late 1950s and the first analogue cellular network called C-Netz emerged in the mid-1980s. In China, the first mobile cellular networks called TACS-A and TACS-B were installed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication in the late 1980s. While describing the events in Germany and China, this paper concentrates on discussing the related technologies and their impacts in the marketplace. A comparison summarises some important findings. Japan and Europe's Nordic countries were the first nations to commercialise the I st generation analogous cellular technologies. There existed A-and B-Network in Germany and China, but the network nature of them is quite different. The market development in Germany and China was similar. The enlarged network capacity accommodated gradually more subscribers and prices related to the cellular services fell continuously. However, China's fee system was more complicated and has adopted the RPP regime, while Germany has been using the CPP billing. The article concludes that implications such as the relationship between science and technology, time lag between scientific discovery and technological applications and technology spillover from military to civilian area are the economic lessons learnt from the story of cellular origin.

  11. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  12. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  13. Return of the vitrified residues of France to Germany; Retour des residus vitrifies de France en Allemagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The return of the vitrified residues from France to Germany fits into framework of the spent fuels reprocessing contracts, signed between COGEMA and german electric power companies. These contracts preconize the return in the origin country of the ultimate wastes after their processing and conditioning. This document proposes nine information cards on this topic: why France returns vitrified residues in Germany; what is a vitrified residues container; the quality and the safety control; the containers transportation; the regulatory framework applied to these transports; the interim storage before and after the transport; the final disposal of vitrified residues in Germany; concerned societies, experts and authorities; the risks bound to the radiation exposure during the transport. (A.L.B.)

  14. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  15. The impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Tobias [Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    This paper estimates the impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. Since old people display different consumption patterns than young people, an increase in the proportion of old people affects overall consumption patterns. Micro data from a household survey are used to identify age-specific consumption patterns and to project the impact of demographic change on the structure of total consumption expenditure up to the year 2030. The resulting final demand vectors are entered into an environmental input-output model, which allows the calculation of sectoral production, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The model results suggest that until 2030, demographic change raises the share of methane in total greenhouse gas emissions and does not contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. The model is also used to explore the effects of redistributing income between age groups and a policy-induced switch from motor vehicle use to public transport. (author)

  16. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  17. Macroeconomic potentials of intelligent networks in Germany. Abstract; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Potenziale intelligenter Netze in Deutschland. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the contribution under consideration the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) determines the total economic effects of intelligent networks for the German economy. For the first time, the contributions of the different areas (energy, health, traffic, education, administration) are shown detailed. On the whole, it arises a societal total benefit of intelligent networks of 55.7 billion Euro per year.

  18. [Multi-family group therapy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Multi-family therapy, common group therapy with several families per one index patient, has been gaining popularity recently. This has occasioned an exploratory study of the status of implementation and common factors in all multi-family therapy programs in Germany. In a survey conducted across Germany, all providers of multi-family therapy interventions were requested to give a detailed description of their intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and verbal data were summarized categorically with qualitative content analysis. Of the 25 intervention programs examined 21 are directed at emotionally disturbed children and young people and their families; mainly with disturbances in social behavior. Over 4,000 families per year are treated in multi-family therapy, and five programs were systematically evaluated. MFT is characterized by systematically oriented group therapy methods. Those surveyed traced the effect of this form of intervention back to activating problems in the group, activating resources, changing perspective, learning models, experiencing self-efficacy, and the therapeutic relationship. Systematic studies of multi-family therapy in evaluations and in random controlled study designs are recommended.

  19. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  2. Opening speech annual meeting on nuclear technology 2013, 14 to 16 May 2013, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueldner, Ralf [Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Germany is an important location for nuclear technology also in the face of the 'Energiewende'. Our industry is not merely the object of political decisions, but it also continues to make its reliable and safe contribution to supplying energy and to this country's prosperity. The 9 nuclear power plants connected to the grid are a pillar of the energy supply especially for baseload generation, with an installed power of 12,700 MW at an average availability of over 90 %. With almost 100 billion kilowatt hours generated annually, they contributed 1/6 of the electricity generated in Germany in 2012 and made Germany the second largest nuclear power producer in the European Union. The nuclear power plants ensure, as do the other large power plants, the regional voltage and frequency stability and with their good controllability and the large standard service volume make an important contribution to integrating the production of electricity from renewables which is very high by international comparison. Nuclear technology in Germany is not restricted to the dismantling, final storage and remaining operations of plants, but rather it is made up of a vigorous, competitive nuclear industry that is among the best in the world. That does not merely show in the ranking of the nuclear power plants with the highest output rates, which placed 4 German plants in the top ten in the world also in 2012. It also becomes apparent when nuclear technology Made in Germany is sought after all over the world, in particular where the level of safety is concerned, e.g. worldwide in improving the safety of plants after the accident at Fukushima. Quite a number of safety components that are just being ordered elsewhere have been tried and tested for years already in Germany, and are supplied, installed and serviced by German suppliers and service providers. The broad range of the nuclear industry in Germany and its backing in a diverse research landscape means that the products

  3. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    resource can only be used in regions where a suitable aquifer is situated in an industrialized and densely populated area. A much wider application of geothermal energy in Germany can be expected when techniques for geothermal energy production from tight sediments or igneous rock are available. This resource is by at least two orders of magnitude larger than that of the aquifers and is available at almost any location.

  4. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, J.; Brings, C.; Lassu, T.; Iserloh, T.; Senciales, J. M.; Martínez Murillo, J. F.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Seeger, M.; Ries, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards are one of the most German conditioned eco-geomorphological systems by human activity. Precisely, the vineyards of the Ruwer Valley (Germany) is characterized by high soil erosion rates and rill problems on steep slopes (between 23-26°) caused by the increasingly frequent heavy rainfall events, what is sometimes enhanced by incorrect land use managements. Soil tillage before and after vintage, application of vine training systems and anthropic rills generated by wheel tracks and footsteps are observed along these cultivated area. The objective of this paper is to determine and to quantify the hydrological and erosive phenomena in two chosen vineyards, during diverse seasons and under different management conditions (before, during and after vintage). For this purpose, a combined methodology was applied. Investigating climatic, pedological, geomorphological and botanic-marks variables was suggested on the two experimental plot in the village of Waldrach (Trier, region of Rhineland-Palatinate). First, high infiltration rates (near 100%) and subsurface flow was detected by rainfall simulations performed at different times of the year. The second method to investigate the geomorphological response of slope inclination, two 10 m and one 30 m long rills were measured using geometrical channel cross-section index, depth and width. The highest variations (lateral and frontal movements) were noted before and during vintage, when footsteps occurred in a concentrated short time. Finally, two maps were generated of soil loss, indicated by the botanic marks on the graft union of the vines. As results 62.5 t-1 ha-1 yr-1 soil loss rate was registered (one year) on the experimental plots of the new vineyards, while 4.3 t-1 ha-1 yr-1 on the old one.

  5. Beowawe Geothermal Area evaluation program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J. L

    1981-03-01

    Several exploration programs were conducted at the Beowawe Geothermal Prospect, Lander and Eureka County, Nevada. Part I, consisting of a shallow temperature hole program, a mercury soil sampling survey, and a self-potential survey were conducted in order to select the optimum site for an exploratory well. Part II consisted of drilling a 5927-foot exploratory well, running geophysical logs, conducting a drill stem test (2937-3208 feet), and a short-term (3-day) flow test (1655-2188 feet). All basic data collected is summarized.

  6. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  7. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  8. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  10. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  11. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  12. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.

  13. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  14. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    of these consumers' lives, and are essential for achieving such basic values as self-fulfilment, recognition, social togetherness and security. This gives rise to an interested-cr shopping behaviour, which is characterized by a strong interest in product information, price, and such major quality aspects...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  15. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  16. Career situation of female astronomers in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Fohlmeister, J; 10.1002/asna.201211656

    2012-01-01

    We survey the job situation of women in astronomy in Germany and of German women abroad and review indicators for their career development. Our sample includes women astronomers from all academic levels from doctoral students to professors, as well as female astronomers who have left the field. We find that networking and human support are among the most important factors for success. Experience shows that students should carefully choose their supervisor and collect practical knowledge abroad. We reflect the private situation of female German astronomers and find that prejudices are abundant, and are perceived as discriminating.We identify reasons why women are more likely than men to quit astronomy after they obtain their PhD degree. We give recommendations to young students on what to pay attention to in order to be on the successful path in astronomy.

  17. A Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi Kalia, Andre; Frei, Michaela; Lege, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    SAR Interferometry is a powerful technique able to detect and monitor various surface displacements caused by e.g. gravitative mass movement, subrosion, groundwater extraction, fluid injection, natural gas extraction. These processes can e.g. cause damage to buildings, infrastructure, affect ecosystems, agriculture and the economic use of the geological underground by influencing the hydro(geo)logical setting. Advanced techniques of interferometric processing (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, PSI) allow highly precise displacement measurements (mm precision) by analyzing stacks of SAR imagery. The PSI mapping coverage can be increased to entire nations by using several adjacent satellite tracks. In order to assist the operational use of this technique a German-wide, officially approved, PSI dataset is under development. The intention of this presentation is to show i) the concept of the Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany and ii) a pilot study to exemplarily demonstrate the workflow and potential products from the Copernicus downstream service. The pilot study is focusing on the built up of an officially approved wide-area PSI dataset. The study area covers an area of more than 30.000 km² and is located in the Northwest German Basin. Several natural processes (e.g. compaction of marine sediments, peat loss) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. natural gas extraction, rock salt mining) are causing surface displacements in the study area. The PSI analysis is based on six ERS-1/-2 data stacks covering the timespan from 1992 until 2001. Each data stack consists of 49 to 73 ERS-1/-2 SAR images. A comparison of the PSI results with thematic data (e.g. volume and location of extracted natural gas) strongly indicates that a part of the detected land subsidence is caused by natural gas extraction. Furthermore, land subsidence caused by e.g. fluid injection and rock salt mining were successfully detected by the PSI analysis.

  18. Political consumer behaviour among university students in Brazil and Germany: The role of contextual features and core political values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzur, Patrick F; Torres, Cláudio V; Kedzior, Karina K; Boehnke, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between political consumerism and core political values (CPVs) among university students in Brazil (N = 414) and Germany (N = 222). Despite the prerequisite to endorse values that are compatible with political consumerism, contextual features of one's immediate environment might affect overall levels of political consumerism. Our results show that political consumerism is significantly associated with higher income in Brazil (but not in Germany). After controlling for income, political consumerism was practised more frequently in Germany than in Brazil, in urban compared with rural areas, and was not dependent on gender. The urban-rural split was stronger in Brazil than in Germany. These results confirm our hypothesis that contextual features are associated with political consumerism. Furthermore, the political value Equality positively predicted political consumerism in both countries. In contrast, Traditional Morality and support of Free Enterprise negatively predicted political consumerism, although the effect sizes of these relationships were only small. These results suggest that political consumerism among university students is widespread in Germany but not in Brazil. Interestingly, regardless of its low prevalence in Brazil, political consumerism is positively associated with the CPV of Equality among university students in both countries.

  19. Prevalence of dementia in a rural nursing home population in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hutsteiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We sought to obtain data about the prevalence of dementia in rural nursing homes in Germany. Methods: We conducted our data between 2007 and 2009 in the diocese of Passau, Germany. By using a questionnaire we asked all nursing homes in the area to provide information about patients with dementia. We obtained detailed data from three nursing homes by personal visits, telephone calls and mail. Results: Out of 72 nursing homes, 40 provided the requested data. The 40 facilities included in our study house a total of 3,928 residents, 1,892 of whom are diagnosed with dementia (48%. Three nursing homes provided us with more detailed information. Conclusions: We conclude that the prevalence of dementia in nursing homes in Germany is comparable to those rates reported in other countries. As there is a lack of information globally on rural populations affected by dementia, further international research in this area will give important insights into the risk factors, the variables influencing the course of the disease, and the special care needs of this population.

  20. Funding ATLAS 2012 key indicators for publicly funded research in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

    2013-01-01

    The Funding ATLAS is a reporting system (previously referred to as the Funding Ranking) employed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to provide information in the form of indicators of key developments in publicly funded research in Germany every three years. This English version of the Funding ATLAS 2012 presents selected findings from the more comprehensive German edition. At the core of the report are indicators that provide information on which subject areas have received funding at higher education and other research institutions in the period 2008-2010. This report also includes, as a supplement not found in the German edition, the decisions on the Excellence Initiative, which were taken shortly after the German edition of the Funding ATLAS 2012 was published. The report also addresses the subject of internationality by presenting selected indicators that show how attractive Germany's research institutions are for visiting scientists. In summary, the DFG Funding ATLAS furnishes reliable indicators o...

  1. Which factors support the occurrence of Chenopodium album in maize fields in Northern Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Redwitz, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The area cultivated with maize in Germany is continuously increasing throughout the last years. Nevertheless weeds in maize get small notice, probably since they are still easy to control. If maize cropping frequency and intensity continue to increase, problems with adapted weeds are likely to occur. To face these effects, it is worthwhile to know more about the appearance of typical maize weeds. In 2011 and 2012 a weed survey took place in four regions of Northern Germany. Weed species were identified and counted on 169 fields cropped with maize. Data about management of these fields was collected. One of the most wide spread weeds was Chenopodium album, which can also cause high yield losses. With a generalized linear mixed model five parameters were identified which influence the emergence of C. album: precipitation, cropping maize in the previous year, fertilizing with manure, soil organic matter and plant available phosphorous.

  2. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  3. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  4. Actual geomorphological processes on steep hillslope vineyards. A comparison of Ruwertal (Germany) with the Montes de Málaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; María Senciales González, José; Guerra Merchán, Antonio; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, steep hillslope viticulture areas are one of the most complex agricultural eco-geomorphological systems in Europe. Precisely, the vineyards of the Ruwer-Mosel valley (Germany) and Montes de Málaga-Axarquía (Spain) are one clear example. Both regions are characterized by frequent heavy rainfall events, concentrated in summer (Germany) and autumn-winter (Spain), and intensive and not conservative land use managements on the soil (application of vine training systems, herbicides, non ecological amendments, anthropic rills generated by wheel traffic, footsteps in Germany and built by hoes or shovels in Spain). The goals of this work were: i) to determine and to quantify the hydrological and erosive phenomena in two traditional hillslope vineyards in Waldrach (Ruwer-Mosel valley, Germany) and Almáchar (Montes de Málaga-Axarquía, Spain); ii) to compare the geomorphological and hydrological dynamics of these study areas during diverse seasons and under different management conditions (Mediterranean and Continental climatic contexts, application of machineries, traditional protection measures...). For this purpose, a combined methodology performed by Trier and Málaga Universities with soil analysis, sediment traps, rainfall simulations and Guelph permeameter were applied. The main results showed high soil erosion and similar variations in the runoff and infiltration rates. In both study areas, geomorphological and hydrological dynamics registered several spatiotemporal variations along the upper, middle and foot slope, and during different seasons (before and after the vintage, and between the dry and humid period).

  5. Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie M; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2010-11-01

    Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies) and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex) causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios) were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley) and west (Cologne Bight) of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

  6. Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records - provided by worldclim - and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011- 2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley and west (Cologne Bight of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

  7. dicomPACS: PACS Leader in Germany - Kodak Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziyar Shakeri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History of Distributor: We are PDP Co. (Pardazesh Danesh Pezeshki founded in 1998 with more than 8 years Experiments in Diagnostic Medical Imaging Market .we launched our New Division in 2002 for Digital Imaging and Softcopy under name of PDP View . We studied our market demands and PACS Provider Companies for 2 years and finally we signed the Contract with the first leader German PACS Provider named dicomPACS ® ."nWe are the only company who their 3 engineers well trained in the PACS provider company and Certified for sales and after sales services . "ndicomPACS ® History: dicomPACS ® software house, was founded in Germany in 1991 - 16 years experiences -"nThe company's main business is the development, design, sale, installation and support of medical In-formation Technology systems, concentrating on total digital solution including :"n• Complete digital Image processing solutions (PACS"n• Provider and supplier of all necessary digital equipment like CR and Film Digitizers "ndicomPACS and Kodak relationship: Due to dicomPACS High quality and good price , Not expensive as Kodak original PACS, dicomPACS is the partner and PACS Provider for Kodak CR , DR and Laser Imagers in Germany , Iran and many other countries ."nIntroducing dicomPACS: The company's customers are Hospitals and Clinics ."ndicomPACS is a market leader in Germany with about 5000 PACS workstations during last 15 years an dit has Worldwide activities in more than 30 countries .so it is very professional in responding to change client requirements and client specific pro-gramming ."n• Company philosophy: To achieve an honest and transparent working with customers "n• Company aim: To be the best and to guarantee its customers a tailor-made, optimal solution"n• The company is certified in accordance with ISO 13485:2003 and the CE Mark , MED CERT . ( Medical Certificate and FDA "ndicomPACS Main Features"n• Close co-operation with doctors to develop this

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  9. Modelling and Validating Agricultural Biomass Potentials in Germany and Austria using BETHY/DLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum, Markus; Niklaus, Markus; Günther, Kurt P.

    2010-05-01

    solar zenith angle. Information about the vegetation condition are delivered by time series of LAI, which are currently derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data available in a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km as so called 10-day composites. Land cover information is also derived from VEGETATION data (Global Land Cover 2000, GLC2000). The GLC2000 is representative for the year 2000 and provides 24 vegetation classes, which have to be translated into the currently 33 inherent vegetation types of BETHY/DLR, differing in plant-physiologic parameters, i.e. the maximum electron transport rate and the maximum carboxylation rate, as well as the plant height and rooting depth. In order to validate the modelled NPP, data of crop yield estimates derived from national statistics of Germany and Austria are used to calculate above and below ground biomass by using conversion factors of corn to straw and leaf to beet relations. Furthermore conversion factors of above to below ground biomass are used. Finally the carbon content of dry matter is estimated. To correlate the modelled data with statistical results, they are aggregated to NPP per administrative district (NUTS-3 level). With this method a coefficient of determination (r²) of about 0.67 combined with a slope of 0.83 is found for Germany. For Austrian NUTS-3 units an even slightly higher coefficient of determination is found (0.74) combined with a slope of 1.08. The results show that modelling NPP using the process model BETHY/DLR and remote sensing data and meteorological data as input delivers reliable estimates of above ground biomass when common agricultural conversion factors are taking into account.

  10. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Seppelt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  11. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  12. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  13. Orthopedic workforce planning in Germany – an analysis of orthopedic accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Maier, Werner; Groneberg, David A.

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, orthopedic workforce planning relies on population-to-provider-ratios represented by the ‘official degree of care provision’. However, with geographic information systems (GIS), more sophisticated measurements are available. By utilizing GIS-based technologies we analyzed the current state of demand and supply of the orthopedic workforce in Germany (orthopedic accessibility) with the integrated Floating Catchment Area method. The analysis of n = 153,352,220 distances revealed significant geographical variations on national scale: 5,617,595 people (6.9% of total population) lived in an area with significant low orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = -4.0), whereas 31,748,161 people (39.0% of total population) lived in an area with significant high orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = 8.0). Accessibility was positively correlated with the degree of urbanization (r = 0.49; p<0.001) and the official degree of care provision (r = 0.33; p<0.001) and negatively correlated with regional social deprivation (r = -0.47; p<0.001). Despite advantages of simpler measures regarding implementation and acceptance in health policy, more sophisticated measures of accessibility have the potential to reduce costs as well as improve health care. With this study, significant geographical variations were revealed that show the need to reduce oversupply in less deprived urban areas in order to enable adequate care in more deprived rural areas. PMID:28178335

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-06-22

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  15. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  16. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  17. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  18. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  19. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  20. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  2. Duesseldorf :An Attractive City for Investments in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ At the 3rd Chinese Enterprises Outbound Investment Conference,a seminar was sponsored by Duesseldorf municipal government,a city of 600,000 inhabitants in Germany,in hopes of attracting Chinese investments.

  3. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  4. EMI in Germany - Qualitative Differentiation in a Tracked Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  5. Local acceptance of wind energy. A comparison between Germany, Argentina and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno, Moira [Freie Univ. Berlin (DE). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (ffu)

    2011-07-01

    Commercial exploitation of wind parks started in the early 1990s in Germany, and in the mid 1990s in Spain and Argentina. Then, there have been an incremental use of wind turbines in rural areas. Many of them are characterised in economic terms by a diversified economic structure with a marginal significance. In the ''innovative democracy and concrete institutional economy'' approach one of the key problems regarding wind turbines, is the local acceptance. This raises the following questions: how is local acceptance, from the perspective of the innovative democracy, of the wind regions in Germany and Spain and why it was developed in this way. Another central question concerning the local acceptance of wind energy is how wind regions in Argentina (as an example of an emerging country investing in renewable energy) can learn from the European experiences. Based on this, I would like to make a comparative analysis between Germany, Spain and Argentina on the basis of various regions with the corresponding wind parks, within regional differences and similarities are to be worked out. First results tend to demonstrate that wind energy promotion programs will be most successful (in terms of their higher level of social acceptance) in locales that have participatory decision making structures and incorporate wind energy development into broader local or regional development programs. For example in touristic programs. In order to verify this the case study approach is focused on comparing selected regions based on the three countries. (orig.)

  6. [Is rehabilitation worth it? : Review of economic evaluations of rehabilitation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Christian; Bartling, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Because of demographic change, the rehabilitation sector in Germany is going to face increasing demands in the future. Limited budgets make the optimal allocation of resources a top priority. To support decisions about the optimal scope and design of rehabilitation, studies on health economics are of utmost importance. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evaluation of rehabilitation with regard to health economics in Germany.Based on a comprehensive literature research, 17 studies on the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation in Germany were identified. The health economics evaluation focuses on four main topics: patient education (5 studies), the comparison of outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation (7 studies), medico-occupational rehabilitation programs (2 studies) and aftercare programs (3 studies). All four topics show that innovative rehabilitation technologies can be cost-effective. Significant potential savings in program costs of 25-35% are demonstrated in outpatient rehabilitation (with comparable effectiveness with inpatient care). Designated patient education programs often lead to significant savings with indirect costs, by reducing periods of unfitness to work and extending the long-term ability to work. This review article also points out that some relevant areas of rehabilitation, such as the flexibilization of rehabilitation programs or the efficient organization of access to rehabilitation, have not been evaluated sufficiently on the basis of health economics. This article ends with the requirement to carry out more economics-based rehabilitation studies.

  7. The Economic Performance of Germany's East European Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Germany has experienced a substantial influx of German immigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II and expects several million more as a consequence of the demise of socialism. This paper analyses the economic performance of ethnic German migrants to West Germany in comparison with native born West Germans. Ethnic German immigrants from Eastern Europe display lower levels of education, lower rates of self-employment and higher unemployment rates than natives and immigrants from East Ger...

  8. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany. We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany. We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their s...

  9. Study on the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ruqiong; LI Bing; ZHENG Lina

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure for spatial information is an important part of our national information construction that is the subject of essentials on the social of spatial information. As an EU member, Germany has an obligation for the European spatial information infrastructure to provide its spatial data. The relevant experience of the Germany in the organization, design and implementation of spatial information infrastructure wil be a good reference to build our geospatial framework construction.

  10. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  11. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  12. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  13. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  14. The key role of meteorological preconditions in triggering large-scale floods in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The key role of meteorological preconditions in triggering large-scale floods in Germany Central Europe has seen some major flood events over recent year. In Germany, for example, the severe flooding in 2002 caused total loss amounting to 11.2 Billion Euros, representing the costliest natural disaster ever. In 2013, another disastrous flood event was responsible for losses of 8 Billion Euros. In November 2015, an exceptional heavy rain event affected mainly southern Germany with widespread rain amounts between 50 and 200 mm within 36 hours across an area of roughly 100.000 km² (federal states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg). Usually such a rain event inevitably would trigger several floods, but in that case, surprisingly only a few gauges exceeded flood stages and only marginal damage has been caused. Due to exceptional dry weather conditions in the previous months, most of the precipitation drained with the consequence that surface runoff was very low. Within CEDIM's (Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology) forensic disaster analysis Task Force we examined the relation between event precipitation, preconditions, and water levels for that and other events in Germany. Such information helps to rapidly evaluate ongoing flood events and to assess their potential severity as an important component of disaster response activities. Furthermore, closely monitoring and documenting the hydro-meteorological factors that are most decisive for the generation and triggering of flood events is one part of CEDIM's approach. The investigation of meteorological preconditions (e.g., Antecedent Precipitation Index) and the combination with expected rain amounts provides a valuable basis for the in-depth analysis and improved understanding and forecasting of floods and their key drivers.

  15. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  16. Piloting a National Programme for the Digitization of Medieval Manuscripts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fabian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An initiative to develop a concerted national programme for the digitization of medieval manuscripts in Germany was launched by five German manuscript centres in January 2013. This new proposal aims at the development of a master plan for the digitization of nearly all surviving medieval manuscripts in Germany and at the establishment of a new funding programme of the DFG (German Research Foundation, the largest research funding organization in Germany.Besides this fundamental financial aspect, other objectives are the diffusion of technical standards and know-how to less experienced cultural heritage institutions and the creation of a nationwide network of competent partners, e.g. in the areas of digitization itself, long-term storage of digital data, the administration of persistent identifiers, and the internet presentation of digital collections. An important role will be played by the German manuscripts portal, Manuscripta Mediaevalia, which is intended as the central hub for both the presentation of digital collections of German manuscripts, but also of the relevant metadata, that is, digital and ideally searchable full-text versions of scholarly, in-depth manuscript descriptions. Of course, this centralization and aggregation will also facilitate the exchange of data with other institutions.The pilot phase will lead to the definition of a national digitization strategy with a clear prioritization of projects to be approached. It also aims at the creation of a sustainable technical infrastructure for the integration of both primary and secondary digital data. In this way, the current fragmentation of information in a plethora of local digitization projects is to be superseded by a unitary and complete virtual research environment for all those interested in medieval manuscripts from Germany.

  17. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany’s European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Knodt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  18. [Model calculation to explain the BSE-incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Radulf C

    2004-01-01

    The future development of BSE-incidence in Germany is investigated using a simple epidemiological model calculation. Starting point is the development of the incidence of confirmed suspect BSE-cases in Great Britain since 1988, the hitherto known mechanisms of transmission and the measures taken to decrease the risk of transmission as well as the development of the BSE-incidence in Germany obtained from active post mortem laboratory testing of all cattle older then 24 months. The risk of transmission is characterized by the reproduction ratio of the disease. There is a shift in time between the risk of BSE transmission and the BSE incidence caused by the incubation time of more than 4 years. The observed decrease of the incidence in Germany from 2001 to 2003 is not a consequence of the measures taken at the end of 2000 to contain the disease. It can rather be explained by an import of BSE contaminated products from countries with a high BSE incidence in the years 1995/96 being used in calf feeding in Germany. From the future course of the BSE-incidence in Germany after 2003 a quantification of the recycling rate of BSE-infected material within Germany before the end of 2000 will be possible by use of the proposed model if the active surveillance is continued.

  19. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  20. [Cleaning and disinfection in nursing homes. Data on quality of structure, process and outcome in nursing homes in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S; Samoiski, Y; Voigt, K

    2012-08-01

    Due to the Infectious Disease Prevention Act, public health services in Germany are obliged to check the infection prevention in hospitals and other medical facilities as well as in nursing homes. In Frankfurt/Main, Germany, standardized control visits have been performed for many years. In 2011 focus was laid on cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. All 41 nursing homes were checked according to a standardized checklist covering quality of structure (i.e. staffing, hygiene concept), quality of process (observation of the cleaning processes in the homes) and quality of output, which was monitored by checking the cleaning of fluorescent marks which had been applied some days before and should have been removed via cleaning in the following days before the final check. In more than two thirds of the homes, cleaning personnel were salaried, in one third external personnel were hired. Of the homes 85% provided service clothing and all of them offered protective clothing. All homes had established hygiene and cleaning concepts, however, in 15% of the homes concepts for the handling of Norovirus and in 30% concepts for the handling of Clostridium difficile were missing. Regarding process quality only half of the processes observed, i.e. cleaning of hand contact surfaces, such as handrails, washing areas and bins, were correct. Only 44% of the cleaning controls were correct with enormous differences between the homes (0-100%). The correlation between quality of process and quality of output was significant. There was good quality of structure in the homes but regarding quality of process and outcome there was great need for improvement. This was especially due to faults in communication and coordination between cleaning personnel and nursing personnel. Quality outcome was neither associated with the number of the places for residents nor with staffing. Thus, not only quality of structure but also quality of process and outcome should be checked by the public health

  1. Gender- and age-related treatment compliance in patients with osteoporosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadji P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peyman Hadji,1 Louis Jacob,2 Karel Kostev3 1Department of Bone Oncology, Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Nordwest Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris, Paris, France; 3Epidemiology, IMS Health GmbH & Co. Ohg, Darmstädter Landstraße, Frankfurt, Germany Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze treatment compliance in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications in Germany.Methods: Patients included in the analysis had been diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fractures and started anti-osteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonates, denosumab, or strontium ranelate between 2011 and 2014 in a general (GP or orthopedic practice (OP setting in Germany. Data pertaining to 6,221 individuals followed in GP and 4,044 individuals followed in OP were analyzed retrospectively. The last follow-up was in December 2015. The main outcome measure was the compliance within the one-year period after the index prescription date. Compliance was measured indirectly and was based on the mean possession ratio (MPR. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between MPR (dependent variable and age, gender, type of practice, type of osteoporosis treatment, therapy frequency, and history of fracture (covariates.Results: The mean age of the study group was 73.3 years, and 13.2% of subjects were men. Regarding type of practice, 60.6% of individuals were followed in GP and 39.4% in OP. Noncompliance was observed in 55.2% of the patients. Patients in the age group ≤60 years were at a higher risk of being noncompliant when compared to those in the age group of 61–70 years. Men and patients who received oral drugs were also more likely to be noncompliant than women and patients who received injectable or intravenous drugs. Finally, therapies that were given every three or six months were associated with a decrease in the risk of noncompliance when compared to weekly therapy

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment as a key for understanding the neotectonics of northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Steffen, H. [Lantmaeteriet (IGR), Gaevle (Sweden); Plenefisch, T.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Northern Germany is regarded as a typical low strain intraplate area, but historic sources report significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker, 2009). The trigger mechanism for the seismic events is not well understood so far. In a pilot project we analysed the Mesozoic Osning Thrust, which is located at the southern margin of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Osning Thrust underwent a polyphase tectonic evolution in the Mesozoic, which ranged from extensional movements in the Jurassic to reverse faulting and thrusting during inversion in the Late Cretaceous. New outcrop data give evidence for Lateglacial tectonic activity along the Osning Thrust (Brandes et al., 2012). In the vicinity of the fault trace, several complex metre-scale faults and related fold structures are developed in Pleniglacial to Lateglacial alluvial-aeolian sediments of the Upper Senne. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of the fault-related growth strata (Roskosch et al., 2012) imply that the faults were active between 16-13 ka. Independent numerical simulations of the deglaciation seismicity related to the glacial isostatic adjustment also point to the probability of seismic events with a thrust mechanism in the study area between 15.5-12.3 ka. The association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial earthquake had a Richter magnitude of at least 5. In the autumn of 1612, an earthquake took place in this area that caused distinct damage (Leydecker, 2009). It is the first time in northern Germany, that repeated seismicity over a time span of c. 16 000 years can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial together with the 17{sup th} century seismicity indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. (orig.)

  3. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of fox rabies cases in Germany 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eckardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve new insights into rabies dynamics, this paper is the first to investigate fox rabies in Germany from a space-time pattern perspective. Based on a locally restricted dataset covering a fourteen month period, our findings indicate a strongly aggregated spatiotemporal point pattern resulting from an inhomogeneous stochastic process. In contrast to spatial or temporal approaches or cellular automata, our analysis focuses on the disease dynamics in time and space in a continuous time domain. Our findings confirm existing theories regarding fox rabies control highlighting the potential risk of urban areas and the need for effective rabies vaccination.

  6. Increase in medical knowledge during the final year of undergraduate medical education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Tobias; Vogel, Daniela; Schiekirka, Sarah; Keijsers, Carolina; Ten Cate, Olle; Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In Deutschland besteht das letzte Jahr des Studiums der Humanmedizin ("Praktisches Jahr", PJ) aus drei Tertialen von je 16 Wochen, von denen eines in der Inneren Medizin und eines in der Chirurgie abzuleisten ist. Die Fachrichtung des dritten Tertials von 16 Wochen kann von den Studierenden frei gewählt werden. Während des Praktischen Jahres findet keine gezielte Vorbereitung auf den schriftlichen Teil des Staatsexamens statt. Es ist unklar, inwieweit die Studierenden während des Praktischen Jahres auch neue Wissensinhalte erlernen. Ziel dieser Studie war es, zu Beginn und am Ende des Praktischen Jahres Wissensinhalte zu überprüfen. Methodik: Zehn Absolventen des Medizinstudiums in Deutschland und den Niederlanden trafen eine Auswahl aus 300 vorselektierten Fragen der US-amerikanischen Abschlussprüfung (USMLE), die zehn verschiedenen Fachrichtungen zugeordnet waren. Die ausgewählten 150 Fragen wurden im Rahmen zweier Tests PJ-Studierenden aus Göttingen und Hamburg vorgelegt: einmal zu Beginn (n=77 Studierende) und einmal am Ende des Praktischen Jahres (n=79). Ergebnisse: Die interne Konsistenz der beiden Tests (Cronbach’s α) betrug 0,75 (Prätest) bzw. 0,68 (Posttest). Der Anteil richtig beantworteter Fragen betrug im Prätest 63,9±6,9 und im Posttest 69,4±5,7 (p<0,001; Effektstärke als Cohen’s d: 0,87). Individuelle Studierende schnitten bei denjenigen Fragen besonders gut ab, die sich auf Inhalte ihres Wahlfachs bezogen.Schlussfolgerung: Der in dieser Studie verwendete Wissenstest eignet sich als externes Instrument zur Messung des Wissenszuwachses von Studierenden im Praktischen Jahr. Zudem kann der Prätest genutzt werden, um Studierende bei der Planung ihres Lernverhaltens während des Praktischen Jahres zu unterstützen.

  7. GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Environmental Technology Atlas for Germany; GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Umwelttechnologie-Atlas fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Ralph; Henzelmann, Torsten; Wiedemann, Andrea [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The environmental engineering and resource efficiency has been developed into a driver of growth globally as well as in Germany. Companies operate in a highly dynamic environment being characterized by a technical progress and changes in the political and social conditions. Innovative products, processes and services which focus on environmental sustainability and efficiency are sought after on the international markets as never before.

  8. A new body mass estimation of Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History (Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Gunga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Body mass and surface areas are important in several aspects for an organism living today. Therefore, mass and surface determinations for extinct dinosaurs could be important for paleo-biological aspects as well. Based on photogrammetrical measurement the body mass and body surface area of the Late Jurassic Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch, 1914 from Tendaguru (East Africa, a skeleton mounted and exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin (Germany, has been re-evaluated. We determined for a slim type of 3D reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai a total volume of 47.9 m3 which represents, assuming a mean tissue density of 0.8 kg per 1,000 cm3, a total body mass of 38,000 kg. The volume distributions from the head to the tail were as follows: 0.2 m3 for the head, neck 7.3 m3, fore limbs 2.9 m3, hind limbs 2.6 m3, thoracic-abdominal cavity 32.4 m3, tail 2.2 m3. The total body surface area was calculated to be 119.1 m2, specifically 1.5 m2 for the head, 26 m2 neck, fore limbs 18.8 m2, hind limbs 16.4 m2, 44.2 m2 thoracic-abdominal cavity, and finally the tail 12.2 m2. Finally, allometric equations were used to estimate presumable organ sizes of this extinct dinosaur and to test whether their dimensions really fit into the thoracic and abdominal cavity of Brachiosaurus brancai if a slim body shape of this sauropod is assumed. doi:10.1002/mmng.200700011

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, John Martin [UF; Mitselmakher, Guenakh [UF; Korytov, Andrey [UF; Avery, Paul [UF; Furic, Ivan [UF; Acosta, Darin [UF; Konigsberg, Jacobo [UF; Field, Richard [UF; Matchev, Konstantin [UF; Ramond, Pierre [UF; Thorn, Richard [UF; Sikivie, Pierre [UF; Ray, Heather [UF; Tanner, David [UF

    2013-10-10

    We report on progress in a series of different directions within high energy physics research. 1. Neutrino research in hardware and software on the Minerva and MiniBooNE experiments 2. Experimental particle physics at the hadron colliders, with emphasis on research and development and data analysis on the CMS experiment operating at the CERN LHC. This includes research on the discovery and properties on the Higgs Boson. 3. Educational outreach through the Quarknet program, taking physics research into High School classrooms. 4. Theoretical and Phenomenological High Energy research, covering a broad range of activities ranging from fundamental theoretical issues to areas of immediate phenomenological importance. 5. Experiment searches for the Axion, as part of the ADMX experiment.

  10. Quality of Life in Rural Areas: Processes of Divergence and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Annette; Huschka, Denis; Habich, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In Germany, processes can be observed that have long been out of keeping with the principle of equality of opportunity. Unemployment is concentrated in the structurally weak peripheral areas, in Eastern Germany in particular; emigration of young and better-educated people to the West is not diminishing, but contrary to expectation is again on the…

  11. Improvements on flood alleviation in Germany: lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H; Kreibich, Heidi; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich; Merz, Bruno

    2006-11-01

    The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a "Lessons Learned" study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states (Laender) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for "unthinkable extreme events" beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

  12. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  13. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations. The Southern Study Area, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M. [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Manobianco, John [MESO, Inc., Troy, NY (United States); Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). National Wind Inst.; Ancell, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Atmospheric Science Group; Brewster, Keith [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms; Basu, Sukanta [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences; Banunarayanan, Venkat [ICF International (United States); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Isabel [Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This Final Report presents a comprehensive description, findings, and conclusions for the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) -- Southern Study Area (SSA) work led by AWS Truepower (AWST). This multi-year effort, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), focused on improving short-term (15-minute - 6 hour) wind power production forecasts through the deployment of an enhanced observation network of surface and remote sensing instrumentation and the use of a state-of-the-art forecast modeling system. Key findings from the SSA modeling and forecast effort include: 1. The AWST WFIP modeling system produced an overall 10 - 20% improvement in wind power production forecasts over the existing Baseline system, especially during the first three forecast hours; 2. Improvements in ramp forecast skill, particularly for larger up and down ramps; 3. The AWST WFIP data denial experiments showed mixed results in the forecasts incorporating the experimental network instrumentation; however, ramp forecasts showed significant benefit from the additional observations, indicating that the enhanced observations were key to the model systems’ ability to capture phenomena responsible for producing large short-term excursions in power production; 4. The OU CAPS ARPS simulations showed that the additional WFIP instrument data had a small impact on their 3-km forecasts that lasted for the first 5-6 hours, and increasing the vertical model resolution in the boundary layer had a greater impact, also in the first 5 hours; and 5. The TTU simulations were inconclusive as to which assimilation scheme (3DVAR versus EnKF) provided better forecasts, and the additional observations resulted in some improvement to the forecasts in the first 1 - 3 hours.

  14. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gerke

    Full Text Available Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A and Abelisauridae (morphotype K. This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  15. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  16. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A—R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America. PMID:27383054

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  18. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  19. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed A. Naseem, Husam H. Abu-Safe

    2007-02-09

    The purpose of this project was to investigate metal-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon at low temperatures using excitation sources such as laser and rapid thermal annealing, as well as, electric field. Deposition of high quality crystalline silicon at low temperatures allows the use of low cost soda-lime glass and polymeric films for economically viable photovoltaic solar cells and low cost large area flat panel displays. In light of current and expected demands on Si supply due to expanding use of consumer electronic products throughout the world and the incessant demand for electric power the need for developing high grade Si thin films on low cost substrate becomes even more important. We used hydrogenated and un-hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering techniques (both of which are extensively used in electronic and solar cell industries) to fabricate nano-crystalline, poly-crystalline (small as well as large grain), and single-crystalline (epitaxial) films at low temperatures. We demonstrated Si nanowires on flat surfaces that can be used for fabricating nanometer scale transistors. We also demonstrated lateral crystallization using Al with and without an applied electric field. These results are critical for high mobility thin film transistors (TFT) for large area display applications. Large grain silicon (~30-50 µm grain size for < 0.5 µm thick films) was demonstrated on glass substrates at low temperatures. We also demonstrated epitaxial growth of silicon on (100) Si substrates at temperatures as low as 450°C. Thin film Si solar cells are being projected as the material of choice for low cost high efficiency solar cells when properly coupled with excellent light-trapping schemes. Ar ion laser (CW) was shown to produce dendritic nanowire structures at low power whereas at higher powers yielded continuous polycrystalline films. The power density required for films in contact with Al

  1. Development of heat and drought related extreme weather events and their effect on winter wheat yields in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttger, Andrea B.; Feike, Til

    2017-02-01

    Climate change constitutes a major challenge for high productivity in wheat, the most widely grown crop in Germany. Extreme weather events including dry spells and heat waves, which negatively affect wheat yields, are expected to aggravate in the future. It is crucial to improve the understanding of the spatiotemporal development of such extreme weather events and the respective crop-climate relationships in Germany. Thus, the present study is a first attempt to evaluate the historic development of relevant drought and heat-related extreme weather events from 1901 to 2010 on county level (NUTS-3) in Germany. Three simple drought indices and two simple heat stress indices were used in the analysis. A continuous increase in dry spells over time was observed over the investigated periods from 1901-1930, 1931-1960, 1961-1990 to 2001-2010. Short and medium dry spells, i.e., precipitation-free periods longer than 5 and 8 days, respectively, increased more strongly compared to longer dry spells (longer than 11 days). The heat-related stress indices with maximum temperatures above 25 and 28 °C during critical wheat growth phases showed no significant increase over the first three periods but an especially sharp increase in the final 1991-2010 period with the increases being particularly pronounced in parts of Southwestern Germany. Trend analysis over the entire 110-year period using Mann-Kendall test revealed a significant positive trend for all investigated indices except for heat stress above 25 °C during flowering period. The analysis of county-level yield data from 1981 to 2010 revealed declining spatial yield variability and rather constant temporal yield variability over the three investigated (1981-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010) decades. A clear spatial gradient manifested over time with variability in the West being much smaller than in the east of Germany. Correlating yield variability with the previously analyzed extreme weather indices revealed strong

  2. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Meng Tao

    2010-12-22

    The objective of this DOE SAI project is to demonstrate the feasibility of electrodeposited and solution-doped transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) such as zinc oxide with resistivity in the mid-10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm range. The target application is an 'on-top' TCO which can be deposited on semiconductors in thin-film and future solar cells including amorphous silicon, copper indium gallium selenide and emerging solar cells. There is no solution-prepared on-top TCO currently used in commercial solar cells. This project, if successful, will fill this gap. Our technical objectives include electrodeposited TCOs with (1) resistivity in the mid-10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm range, (2) post-deposition annealing below 300 C and (3) no-vacuum processing or low-vacuum processing. All the three research objectives listed above have been accomplished in the 14-month period from July 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010. The most noticeable accomplishments of this project are (1) identification of a terawatt-scale dopant for zinc oxide, i.e. yttrium, whose known reserve is enough for 60 peak terawatts of thin-film solar cells; (2) demonstration of a record-low resistivity, 6.3 x 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm, in solution-deposited zinc oxide with an abundant dopant; and (3) the record-low resistivity was accomplished with a maximum process temperature of 300 C and without vacuum annealing. Industrial applications of the new yttrium-doped zinc oxide are being pursued, including (1) green deposition of yttrium-doped zinc oxide to reduce water consumption during deposition and (2) search for an industrial partner to develop an electrochemical tool for large-area uniform deposition of yttrium-doped zinc oxide.

  3. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  4. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. This development especially experienced an enormous upswing in the last two years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, FRG).

  5. The use of IMRT in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Ambulanzzentrum des UKE GmbH, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bereich Strahlentherapie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [German] Intensitaetsmodulierte Bestrahlungstechniken (IMRT) werden oft eingesetzt. Es gibt jedoch keine Daten ueber deren Haeufigkeit in Abhaengigkeit von den Tumorentitaeten und welche Geraete fuer die Qualitaetssicherung (QA) zum Einsatz kommen. Der Arbeitskreis IMRT (AK IMRT) der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) hat von April bis Oktober 2014 eine Online-Umfrage zu diesem Themenbereich

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    -scales, and hyper-Rayleigh scattering at the microscopic level, and synchrotron radiation-based x-ray scattering and x-ray spectroscopy, cold neutron scattering, molecular dynamics simulation, and optical harmonic generation at the macroscopic level. This overall approach has some distinct advantages, compared to more traditional approaches, for example, those based on organic polymers, biopolymers or undressed cofactors. The resulting functional ensembles thereby have potential for important device applications in the areas of optical communications and photovoltaics. The approach also has an absolute requirement for a tightly coupled collaborative effort necessary to span the rigorous demands for the design, synthesis and characterization of such novel photonic and electronic biomolecular materials.

  7. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETER, GARY F. [UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2014-07-16

    Excellent progress was made in standardizing three complementary methods: Magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray micro CT, and MALDI imaging linear ion trap mass spectroscopy to image biomass and chemical, anatomical and functional changes that occur during pretreatment and hydrolysis. Magnetic resonance microscopy provides excellent images with as low as 5 uM resolution with hydrated biomass samples. We visualized dramatic changes in signal associated with the hydrolysis of the carbohydrates by strong acids. Quantitative diffusion approaches were used to probe more subtle structural changes in biomass. Diffusion tensor calculations reflect diffusion anisotropy and fractional anisotropy maps clearly show the longer range diffusion within the vessels compared to within the fiber cells. The diffusion is increased along the cell walls of the vessels. Suggesting that further research with NMR imaging should be pursued. X-ray CT provides excellent images at as low as 3.5 uM resolution from dried biomass. Small increases in surface area, and decreases in local density have been quantified in with wood after mild pretreatments; these changes are expected to be underestimates of the hydrated wood, due to the ~12% shrinkage that occurs upon drying untreated wood. MALDI-MS spectra show high ion intensities at most mass to charge ratios in untreated and pretreated woody material. MALDI-MSn is required to improve specificity and reduce background for imaging. MALDI-TOF is not specific enough for carbohydrate identification. Using MALDI-LIT/MSn we can readily identify oligomeric glucans and xylans and their fragmentation patterns as well as those of the glucuronic acid side chains of birch 4-O-methyl glucuronxylan. Imaging of glucan and xylan oligomers show that many contain isobaric ions with different distributions, indicating again that MSn is needed for accurate imaging of lignocellulosic materials. We are now starting to integrate the three imaging methods by using the same set

  8. Ectrodactyly and Germany's eugenics law of 14 July 1933

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Roland; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt

    2002-01-01

    The family reported herein serves as a genetically and historically important vignette on the issues of nonpenetrance (versus germinal mosaicism) in nonsyndromic autosomal dominant ectrodactyly and the Eugenics Law of Germany of 14 July 1933, which was used to coerce the sterilization of the prop......The family reported herein serves as a genetically and historically important vignette on the issues of nonpenetrance (versus germinal mosaicism) in nonsyndromic autosomal dominant ectrodactyly and the Eugenics Law of Germany of 14 July 1933, which was used to coerce the sterilization...

  9. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  10. Are There Austerity Related Policy Changes in Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Hassel, Anke

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the existence and the extent of austerity‐oriented policies in Germany in the aftermath of the 2008‐9 recession. In contrast to the intensive phase of labour market and welfare state reforms in the early 2000s aimed at 'welfare readjustment', we do not see austerity policies in Germany, rather a continuation of the path that was adopted earlier. This can be explained by the economic conditions which were, and still are, much more favourable than in many other EU Member Sta...

  11. China Folk Shadow Play Performing Group in Austria and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sent by the CPAFFC,the Daoqing Shadow Play Performing Group(alias Shi Family Troupe) of Huanxian County,Gansu Province made a performance tour in Austria and Germany from October 22 to November 5,2007,during which it attended the International Puppet Theatre Festival in Mistelbach of Austria and gave performance at the opening ceremony of the International Puppet Art Festival in Bad Kreuznach of Germany.The performance tour was made at the invitation of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China(AAPFCRC).

  12. Estimated prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides in northern Brandenburg, Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine SCHWARZ; Astrid SUTOR; Christoph STAUBACH; Roswitha MATTIS; Kirsten TACKMANN; Franz Josef CONRATHS

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human alveolar echinococcosis,caused by the larval stage of the small fox tapeworm,is a lethal zoonotic infection if left untreated.F,multilocularis is distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and lives in the small intestines of carnivores,mainly canids.The main definitive host of E.multilocularis in European countries is the red fox Vulpes vulpes and in the last ten years new endemic areas for the parasite in Central Europe have been identified.In some areas,for instance in Germany,the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides-a spreading neozoon-must be regarded as an additional definitive host for E.multilocularis.In 2001 this parasite was found for the fast time in raccoon dogs in the Federal State of Brandenburg,Germany.Between 2000 and 2008,1,252 raccoon dogs from Brandenburg were examined by the Intestinal Scraping Technique.The majority of samples were obtained in five northern counties and all 60 animals that tested positive for E.multilocularis were located there.The estimated true prevalence calculated by a beta-binomial-model ranged from 6%-12% [Current Zoology 57 (5):655-661,2011].

  13. Farmsteads in early medieval Germany – architecture and organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreg, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in the Middle Ages. However, even today it is difficult to understand the changes in rural architecture as there are distinct regional differences. Probably the 5th century on the one hand and the period of village formation between the 10th and 13th centuries on the other hand were the most innovative periods. This article provides a short characteristic of buildings and settlement organisation. He gives an outline of research history and identifies some recent trends and future perspectives of research.Tenemos conocimiento de los asentamientos rurales de la alta Edad Media en Alemania gracias a un número creciente de excavaciones arqueológicas. La arquitectura rural es una arquitectura de madera, reservándose la piedra para las iglesias. Las alquerías comprendían varias edificaciones: la casa principal y varias construcciones destinadas a fines económicos, como las viviendas semienterradas y almacenes. Antes de los años 80 del siglo pasado, cuando las excavaciones a gran escala se hicieron más habituales, se conocía poco sobre la evolución de la historia de los asentamientos rurales. Las aldeas que aún permanecen se formaron a finales de la Edad Media e incluso hoy resulta difícil entender los cambios que se produjeron en la arquitectura rural cuando existen diferencias regionales. Es probable que el periodo comprendido entre el siglo V, por una parte, y los siglos X y XIII por otra fue la de mayor innovación. El presente artículo ofrece un

  14. Trends in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among birth cohorts of 1926-1970 in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Mons, U

    2005-10-01

    This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is more incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting.

  15. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal Watson,1 Christine Prosser,2 Sebastian Braun,2 Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg,3 Erika Gleissner,4 Sarah Naoshy1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Global Market Access, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Real World Evidence, Xcenda GmbH, Hanover, Germany; 3Applied Data Analytics, Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USA; 4Market Access, Biogen, Ismaning, Germany Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, greatly impacts the quality of life and economic status of people affected by this disease. In Germany, the total annual cost of MS is estimated at €40,000 per person with MS. Natalizumab has shown to slow MS disease progression, reduce relapses, and improve the quality of life of people with MS.Objective: To evaluate MS-related and all-cause health care resource utilization and costs among German MS patients during the 12 months before and after initiation of natalizumab in a real-world setting.Methods: The current analysis was conducted using the Health Risk Institute research database. Identified patients were aged ≥18 years with ≥1 diagnosis of MS and had initiated natalizumab therapy (index, with 12-month pre– and post–index-period data. Patients were stratified by prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT usage or no DMT usage in the pre-index period. Outcome measures included corticosteroid use and number of sick/disability days, inpatient stays, and outpatient visits. Health care costs were calculated separately for pre- and post-index periods on a per-patient basis and adjusted for inflation.Results: In a final sample of 193 natalizumab-treated patients, per-patient MS-related corticosteroid use was reduced by 62.3%, MS-related sick days by 27.6%, and inpatient costs by 78.3% from the pre- to post-index period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with MS-related hospitalizations decreased from 49.7% to 14.0% (P<0.001; this reduction was seen for patients with and without prior DMT use

  16. Coal Bed Methane Production in the Münsterland Basin, Germany - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösle, B.; Kukla, P.; Stollhofen, H.; Preuße, A.

    2009-04-01

    Growing demands on energy and high energy prices have lead to a re-evaluation of the coal bed methane (CBM) potential in Germany. For research reasons the Technical University of Aachen is holding a concession area in NW Germany, located in the Münsterland Basin. This concession covers an area of about 3460 km2. The southern part of the concession area involves one of the most developed, densely populated mining districts in Western Europe, the Ruhr Area. The Upper Carboniferous coal measures there are covered by northward thickening Cretaceous strata which not only limits the coal mining activity to the south of the basin but also represents a challenge to CBM production technology. This is currently restricted to a depth of about 1200 m. Mine gas has been successfully produced in the Ruhr Area for decades. With the successive closure of coal mines, gas production rates will decrease and consequently production of CBM will become more important. The Münsterland Basin contains a large portion of known Carboniferous coals in western Germany and the production of mine gas proofs that there is a significant resource of natural gas in place. Estimates of the amount of gas in place are at about 3 Trillion m3 in Germany's mining districts of which 2 Trillion m3 are expected to occur in the Ruhr Area alone. First exploration efforts on CBM were made by a consortium of Ruhrgas AG and Conoco-Phillips Inc. in the 1990s. Because of low production rates, relatively high exploration and production costs, and the low gas prices at that time this project was stopped. The present study investigates the reservoir quality and geometry in order to better estimate the potential gas content for a general economic benefit assessment. The structural inventory of the study area comprises NE-SW trending folds and thrusts which are crossed obliquely by faults. Potential gas accumulations may be found in anticlinal structures paired with thrusts. However, these gas accumulations will add

  17. Voices: An Inclusive Choir in Dortmund, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Merkt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept and work with an inclusive choir, in which students of the Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences at TU Dortmund University sing together with adult mentally challengedpeople. The choir ‘Voices’ was founded in 2010, as a part of the project Dortmunder Modell: Musik (DOMO: Musik. The choir and project are committed to realising the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, particularly in developing models of cultural participation, relevant both for people with and without disabilities. After describing the DOMO: Musik project and its principles, newly developed ideas for inclusive choir work are presented, together with imminent difficulties and positive results. Special attention is drawn to the selection of the pieces under the aspect of artistic variety. Five pieces of the artistic interdisciplinary repertoire are presented. Finally, the student choirmembers reflect on their experiences in the inclusive choir and make clear the importance of joint activities leading to an inclusive society.

  18. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  19. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  20. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  1. An empirical investigation of the demand for bananas in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Henningsen, A.

    2001-01-01

    We use econometric methods to investigate consumer demand for bananas and for other fruit in Germany. Monthly household survey data for the period 1986-1998 are analysed. Demand for bananas is significantly responsive to own price, suggesting that policy-induced price increases generate the usual de

  2. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  3. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  4. Green roofs in Germany : yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R. [Anhalt Univ., Bernburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation provided a historical overview of the development of green roofs in Germany. Real interest in green roof technology in Germany began in the 1970s at which time specific guidelines for correct installation were established. In the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of green roofs. The main market drivers were ecological concerns, energy and cost saving potential, as well as the need to manage storm water. Green roofs have an insulating effect, leading to energy savings. Some cities in Germany have implemented an incentive program whereby reductions on city water fees are allocated to owners of green roofs. Many business opportunities have been created by an increased interest in green roofs. The demand for lava, pumice, expanded clay, recycled roof tiles, crushed brick and other materials is being met by a new industry. There has been a noted increase in green roof systems and components, as well as installation and maintenance companies. It is expected that the ever increasing price for land in German cities along with an increasing population density will spur an even greater demand for green roofs. Germany is considered one of the greenest countries in the world, due to public concern for all forms of pollution, the maintenance of ecological balance, the preservation of flora and fauna, and a respect for nature. 6 refs.

  5. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  6. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  7. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  8. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the conte...

  9. CIFCA Delegation Visits Germany,Romania and Macedonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Bo

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of INTERKULTUR,Association of Communes of Romania(ACOR)and Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe(NALAS),a China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA)delegation led by CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan visited Germany,

  10. Germany, the United States, and Future Core Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schulz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, much attention has been paid to the nature of the emerging new world order. By what criteria will power and influence be measured in this new era? Who will be the winners and losers? What types of allegiances will develop? Or is Francis Fukuyama's argument correct that, with the collapse of communism, we have reached the "...endpoint of man's ideological evolution" and thus "the end of history". Unlike Marx, who saw socialism at the end of humanity's arduous journey, Fukuyama tells us that the search is off because we have already arrived at our evolutionary destination: liberal capitalism...Other analysts envision less optimistic scenarios...One of the most popular scenarios over the past few years has been to anticipate growing tensions between the three main core powers: the US, Germany, and Japan... The first task of this paper, then, is to look at Germany within the context of the radically altered post-Cold War period... We argue that Germany, based on a multitude of factors which will be outlined below, is not now, nor will it ever become in the foreseeable future, a global hegemon... Indeed, as will be asserted in the second part of this paper, Germany will enter into a close alliance with the United States to form a reinvigorated trans-Atlantic marriage in which the common bonds of "culture and civilization" will replace a virulent anti-communism as the common vow.

  11. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  12. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  13. [Living kidney transplantation. A comparison of Scandinavian countries and Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, R; Schrem, H; Neipp, M; Nashan, B; Klempnauer, J

    2003-06-01

    The discussion of compensating for shortages of cadaveric donation with increased living donation often reveals differences between the Scandinavian countries and Germany. Possible adoption of Scandinavian structures to improve the rate of living donations in Germany warrants analysis of the actual differences between these two regions. Close examination reveals that significantly higher rates of living donation are achieved only in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, a frequently postulated negative effect on cadaveric donation due to very high rates of living donation could not be confirmed. In contrast to Germany and as a consequence of Norwegian geography, kidney transplantation has been regarded in Norway as the first-line therapy for endstage renal disease for more than 35 years. Living donation has since been actively pursued and is traditionally the transplantation of first choice. In Germany, living donation is still regarded as the second choice after cadaveric donation, due to legal regulations. Significant improvements in living donation frequencies could be achieved there by adopting the active Norwegian approach to living donor identification.

  14. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany. Design/methodology/appro

  15. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3) "Tomorrow's Education in…

  16. Modeling the hydrological effect on local gravity at Moxa, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, S.; Troch, P.A.A.; Boll, J.; Kroner, C.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting gravimeter has observed with high accuracy (to within a few nm s¿2) and high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the earth¿s gravity field near Moxa, Germany, since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are obtained by time averaging and correcting for earth tides, polar motion, b

  17. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  18. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  19. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  20. Responses of England, Germany and Switzerland to Declining School Enrolments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Catherine

    Results of interviews with educators in England, Germany, and Switzerland are combined with statistical data in this study of the effects of declining enrollment and the development of multicultural programs in those countries. In all three countries, the author encountered a prevailing resistance to program change in the face of declining…

  1. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  2. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  3. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    , I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  4. Coordination of EU Policy Positions in Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Jopp, Mathias; Nedergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the coordination mechanisms, in Germany and Denmark, which develop negotiation positions for the Council in the European Union (EU). The analysis studies these mechanisms through the lens of the ‘politics of institutional choice’ approach, which previous scholars have applie...

  5. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  6. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  7. Regression analysis of time trends in perinatal mortality in Germany 1980-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, H; Weigelt, E; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    2000-02-01

    Numerous investigations have been carried out on the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of anomalies at birth and on perinatal mortality. In many cases the studies were aimed at the detection of differences of pregnancy outcome measurements between regions or time periods. Most authors conclude that there is no evidence of a detrimental physical effect on congenital anomalies or other outcomes of pregnancy following the accident. In this paper, we report on statistical analyses of time trends of perinatal mortality in Germany. Our main intention is to investigate whether perinatal mortality, as reflected in official records, was increased in 1987 as a possible effect of the Chernobyl accident. We show that, in Germany as a whole, there was a significantly elevated perinatal mortality proportion in 1987 as compared to the trend function. The increase is 4.8% (p = 0.0046) of the expected perinatal death proportion for 1987. Even more pronounced levels of 8.2% (p = 0. 0458) and 8.5% (p = 0.0702) may be found in the higher contaminated areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), including West Berlin, and of Bavaria, respectively. To investigate the impact of statistical models on results, we applied three standard regression techniques. The observed significant increase in 1987 is independent of the statistical model used. Stillbirth proportions show essentially the same behavior as perinatal death proportions, but the results for all of Germany are nonsignificant due to the smaller numbers involved. Analysis of the association of stillbirth proportions with the (137)Cs deposition on a district level in Bavaria discloses a significant relationship. Our results are in contrast to those of many analyses of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident and contradict the present radiobiologic knowledge. As we are dealing with highly aggregated data, other causes or artifacts may explain the observed effects. Hence, the findings

  8. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  9. Mining lakes in Germany; Tagebauseen in Deutschland. Gegenwaertiger Kenntnisstand ueber wasserwirtschaftliche Belange von Braunkohlentagebaurestloechern - ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, B.; Hemm, M.; Schlundt, A.; Kapfer, M.; Krumbeck, H. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Gewaesserschutz]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    More than 500 mining lakes of different age and maturity have formed in the lignite mining areas in Germany during the last hundred years. Compared to natural lakes mining lakes have a complex and diverse morphometry. They will be among the largest and deepest lakes in Germany (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and have good chance of avoiding eutrophication. About 100 mining lakes will be greater than 50 ha. 230 lakes are documented in this report concerning morphometry, flooding and mixis regime, hydrochemistry, limnology, colonization, use and development of water quality. They are among the largest (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and most acidic lakes in Germany. The extremely high acidity is from both iron and hydrogen ions due to pyrit oxidation. It influences trophic situation and food webs in mining lakes and reduces a diverse use of these lakes. (orig.) [German] Die Seelandschaft Deutschlands wird durch den Braunkohlenbergbau um ueber 500 Seen reicher. Technologiebedingt herrscht dabei eine grosse morphologische Vielfalt innerhalb der Tagebauseen vor, welche die groessten und tiefsten Seen Deutschlands hervorbringen wird (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal), aber auch zahlreiche kleine, meist flachere Gewaesser miteinschliesst. Etwa 100 Taugebauseen sind groesser als 50 ha. Kleinere Tagebauseen wie z.B. die der Ville in Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden ebenfalls ausfuehrlich dokumentiert. In dieser Dokumentation wurden ueber 490 Seen erfasst, 230 davon wurden in der Dokumentation nach folgenden Kriterien beschrieben: Entstehung, Flutungsregime, Morphometrie und Mixis, Chemismus und Gewaesserentwicklung, Besiedlung und Nutzung. Dem Problem der Versauerung durch die Verwitterung sulfidischer Mineralien (Pyrit, Markasit) wurde besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet, weil sich biologische Komponenten und Gewaesserzustaende (Trophie, Nahrungsketten) abweichend zu den normalen Hartwasserseen Deutschlands verhalten und

  10. Selected papers from the 23rd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2012) (Ilmenau, Germany, September 9-12, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    In September 2012, the 23rd MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME) took place in Ilmenau, Germany. With about 120 participants from 20 countries and 76 accepted presentations, the workshop series turned out to be a successful platform for young scientists to present their work to our scientific community. Traditionally, the interaction is an important aspect of this workshop: while short presentations introduce the posters, an extended poster session allows intensive discussion which is quite useful to the participants. The discussion very often extends into the breaks and the evening events. It is also encouraging for them that the best presentations are selected and invited to submit a full paper to this journal. Thanks to the support of IOP Publishing, this next logical step to present work to the scientific world is made possible. In this issue, you can find the best papers that have been selected by a committee during the workshop taking the written workshop contribution, the poster and the presentation into account. Again, all areas of micromechanics from new technology developments up to systems integration were presented at the workshop at different levels of completion. The selected papers present those results which are almost complete. Nevertheless, it is nice to see that in some cases topics grow over the years from 'nice ideas' to realized system concepts. And although this is the 23rd workshop, it is clear that micromechanics is a topic that is not running short of new ideas. First, I would like to thank the authors of the selected papers for each of their individual excellent contributions. My gratitude also goes to my fellow members in the programme committee (Per Ohlckers, Martin Hill and Sami Franssila) for their cooperation in the selection of invited speakers and submitted papers, as well as the anonymous Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) reviewers for their careful selection of the final papers presented here. Last, but not

  11. Managing Cultural Diversity in Federal Germany: Bavaria and Berlin as Classic Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the type of federalism applied in Germany the level of analysis best suited for studying integration is that of the 16 Länder. For comparing the approaches of two of these - Bavaria and Berlin - in managing migration-related diversity, the paper uses a double differentiation as analytical starting point. The first refers to the bulk of literature of different national models of integration and proposes two ideal types of integration/diversity policy. The second differentiation seizes the suggestion that integration in some areas of life is socially much more consequential than in others with the consequence that state intervention in these areas is much easier to justify from a normative point of view. From the descriptive comparison it becomes clear that both Länder, though coming from rather diverging starting points, by now employ hybrid strategies to accommodate or manage different aspects of cultural diversity.

  12. [Surgical research in Germany. Organization, quality and international competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, M D; Laschke, M W

    2012-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany is performed within surgical clinics by individual working groups or in surgical research divisions. Additionally, a few independent institutes and departments of surgical research have been established at medical faculties. The number of these institutions, however, is too small. To increase productivity in surgical research, structural changes are necessary, including additional establishment of further institutes and professorships. The quality of clinical research in surgery in Germany is critically discussed. International comparison shows that Germany has a low ranking with respect to the number of clinical studies published in leading surgical journals. However, there has been some improvement in the quality of clinical studies performed in surgical departments during the last 15 years. The establishment of the study center of the German Society of Surgery shows that excellent clinical studies with adequate numbers of patients can also be performed in Germany and can be published in leading journals. Accordingly, there is need to distribute the structures and the competence necessary to perform clinical studies in a standardized manner to all surgical departments involved in clinical research. The experimental surgical research in Germany is not adequately visible, although over the last 10 years the most relevant publications from institutions for surgical research have been placed in journals with a mean impact factor of 8. This may be due to the fact that 85% of these top publications are published in non-surgical journals. The aim for the future must therefore be to increase the impact factor and, thus, the attractiveness of surgical journals. This may be achieved by publishing the highest quality results from experimental surgical research not in non-surgical but in surgical journals.

  13. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  14. Monitoring a repository for high-level radioactive waste in Germany. Possibilities and limits; Ueberwachung eines Endlagers fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle in Deutschland. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Haverkamp, B. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Eilers, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Pursuant to the new BMU safety requirements of September 2010 imposed upon the final storage of radioactive waste generating heat, the operator of a repository in Germany must establish a monitoring program which furnishes relevant measured information during the operations phase and for a defined period of time after closure of the repository. Within the framework of a feasibility study, an assessment basis was established to show in what format information about the status of a closed repository mine could be obtained technically without impairing the safety of barriers, for instance, by cable ducts. As a conceptual design basis, processes and measured quantities relevant to monitoring were attributed to the components of the current safety demonstration concept. For one model variant, monitoring possibilities of these processes were shown on the basis of monitoring modules. Some first experiments are being carried out in European underground laboratories about the use of wireless transmission systems in the repository area. On the basis of those activities, experiments could also be designed in the German exploratory mine of Gorleben in order to examine to what extent information obtained by monitoring could be transmitted in a wireless mode in rock salt formations. As far as the autonomous supply of electricity to measurement systems is concerned, which must be guaranteed on a long-term basis, there is now a possibility of using thermoelectric isotope generators or betavoltaic batteries. (orig.)

  15. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  16. Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

  17. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  18. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    efforts to combat transnational terrorism is magnified. The increase in domestic cooperation in Italy and international cooperation in Germany further...Today Germany still sees a terrorist threat from extremism characteristic of transnational terrorism, especially as Germany has become more and...demarcation,” where ideas of fascism, feminism , internationalism, separatism, and communism are used by multiple, often mutually antagonistic

  19. 76 FR 20951 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See... from Germany, covering two respondents, Mitsubishi and Koehler. See Initiation of Antidumping...

  20. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  1. 76 FR 10335 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect... parts thereof from Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings,...

  2. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of... thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We..., 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  3. 76 FR 76360 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... adjustment. See LWTP Decision Memo, at Comment 3. \\7\\ See Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany. For the period November...

  4. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH... spherical plain bearings and parts thereof from Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

  5. 75 FR 11135 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR), November 20, 2008, through October 31, 2009... from Germany, covering two respondents, Mitsubishi and Koehler. See Initiation of Antidumping...

  6. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  7. 77 FR 73615 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010... duty order on lightweight thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany for the period November 1, 2010, through... Germany and the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 70959 (November 24, 2008) (Orders). Methodology...

  8. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  9. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... from Germany, Italy, and Mexico \\2\\ would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... with respect to stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, and Mexico, and Commissioner...

  10. 77 FR 22560 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011.\\1... from Germany, covering two respondents, Mitsubishi and Koehler.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Initiation of...

  11. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  12. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

  13. 78 FR 15376 - Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea On the basis... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany and... Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany and Korea: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-350 and...

  14. XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Since the last quarter of the XXth century, the rules of the historic criticism are applied in the study of the past earthquakes thanks to the collaboration between seismologists and historians. Various monographs have already been published on the historic seismicity of Belgium, Netherlands and nearby regions but few about the XIXth century. The list of the shocks arisen in those regions is not clearly established. For the major earthquakes, we can find useful monographs that where published at the time of the events. However there is a lack of information about smaller earthquakes that are mentioned in the Belgian, Dutch, French and German catalogs. For those smaller events it is often not possible to determine the zone of perceptibility. Sometimes we cannot even take for sure that the reported event is a real one. The aim of our study is to overcome this gap. Taking into account the rules of historical criticism, we read all the available bibliography, undertook researches in the archives and made an analysis of the press in order to establish a reliable list of earthquakes. Several categories of sources were used: narrative and administrative sources, contemporaneous studies, letters sent to the scientific institutions and press. We could confirm that 84 earthquakes are real and determine a list of fake earthquakes that are unfortunately present in the traditional catalogs. In the list of fake earthquakes, we highlighted several events that we consider doubtful and that require additional researches, especially several earthquakes in mining zone. We compiled our results as a four-column table providing the date of the earthquake, the supposed epicenter, the number of founded sources and the number of macroseismic datapoints. Based on the macroseismic datapoints, we estimated the intensities for every great phenomenon according to EMS-98 scale. The map of the epicenters indicates that the most active zone in the area during the XIXth century is the Lower Rhine

  15. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pollmann-Schult

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam. All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in general than their childless peers. Increased life satisfaction is observed in particular in the first years following the birth of a child. The satisfaction of parents is, however, dependent upon different contextual factors. Parents in the medium and higher income ranges report a comparatively high degree of life satisfaction, whereas only a weak association is observed between parenthood and life satisfaction among low-income persons. Moreover, the life satisfaction of mothers, but not of fathers, varies with their employment status. For instance, only non-employed and part-time employed mothers report a greater life satisfaction than childless women. Finally, fathers whose family formation was presumably unplanned record no higher level of satisfaction than men without children.

  16. Schopfloch kindergarten, Leonberg-Ezach, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M. [Trans Solar GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This two-classroom kindergarten with a gym was optimized with regard to both the total solar contribution from passive solar gains through a large glazed area facing south and active solar air heating. The active system consists of a collector, hypocaust-floor storage elements and a rock-bed storage. It offers the advantages of low heating temperatures without the problems, such as dry air or air movements, that occur with a direct air heating system. The 20 m{sup 2} rock bed stores heat from a 38 m{sup 2} solar air collector for the night and the next morning. Experience since occupancy in 1988 has shown that this system works well, provided that the control system is well adjusted. As might have been anticipated, the light building construction does result in some overheating. (author)

  17. Future trends and geographical distribution of potential evapotranspiration in Germany throughout the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E.; Panferov, O.; Doering, C.

    2009-04-01

    Recent climate projections for the 21st century (e.g. ECHAM5-MPIOM) show strong changes of the global climate. Forests in Germany are exposed to these changes, which include increase of temperature, changes of seasonal precipitation patterns and possibly the increase of frequency of extreme meteorological events as droughts, rain and wind storms. Present study focuses on the characterization of possible future developments of potential evapotranspiration (PET) throughout the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The FAO-56-Penman-Monteith (ALLEN et al., 1998) was implemented. Climate scenario data were downscaled by the regional climate model Climate Local Model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of about 0.2°*0.2° and used to calculate PET for Germany. The spatial and temporal variability of PET in Germany during the 21st century is examined and causes of variation discussed. Areas within Germany with particularly stronger - hot spots - and weaker - cold spots - changes in PET are identified and analyzed in detail. Two hot spots, the Saarland and the Black Forest, and a cold spot, East Brandenburg, were identified. The deviating development of the hot/cold spots are traced back to the stronger or weaker development of the energy balance, which is higher in the hot spots and lower in the cold spot. The spatially differential development of PET could be traced back to the regionally different development of the meteorological variables. The contributions of various meteorological variables to the temporal trend detected in the PET are then determined. Clear trends in the annual sums or means could be described for several component variables of PET. Some variables do not show any noteworthy trend in annual mean but changes in their seasonal variability. The annual PET sums do not increase so much as expected when seen in relation to the temperature increase predicted for the 21st century, particularly in SRES A1B. PET in B1 does not evolve as

  18. Germany's lignite industry in 2012; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany). CEA-W Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    From 2011 to 2012, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up to 5.1% from 176.5 mill. t to 185.4 mill. t. This figure is equivalent to a net calorific value of 57.2 mill. tce. Of the total output, 166.3 mill. t, or some 90%, was used in utility power plants for the public supply, i.e. 5.7% more than in the previous year. In addition, 15.1 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 3.0 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 25.7% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2012. In 2012, lignite had a 12.1% share in primary-energy consumption balance after mineral oil (33.1%), natural gas (21.6%) and hard coal (12.2%). Renewable resources cover 11.6%, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.0% and other energy sources for 1.4%. With output of 57.2 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38.4% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 149 mill. tce in 2012. The contributions made by other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2012 were as follows: 11.1 mill. tce hard coal, 13.3 mill. tce gas, 3.8 mill. tce mineral oil, 54.0 mill. tce renewables, and 9.5 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity amount that Germany produced in 2012, 25.7% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2012, followed by renewables with 22.1%, hard coal with 19.1%, nuclear energy with 16.1% and gas with 11.3%. Other energy sources made a 5.7% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply are shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 5.1% from 173.9 mill. t in 2011 to 182.8 mill. t in 2012. In the total period from 1990 to 2012, a decline of 159.4 mill. t, or

  19. 赫德与英德续借款%Hart and Loan Renewal from Britain and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇

    2014-01-01

    The Qing Government paid Japan reparations with three large sums of loans: loans from Russia and France, loans and loan renewal from Britain and Germany. After his contribution to getting loans from Britain and Germany, Hart gave counsel to HSBC Bank, proposing to Yano Ryukei, Japanese ambassador to China, that China pay back remaining reparations in 10-year installment, in order to prevent loans from falling into hands of Russia and France, but his proposal was rejected. Finally, Zongli Yanmen had to entrust loan financing to Hart. Hart managed to get loan renewal from Britain and Germany and assisted the Qing Government to pay off reparations to Japan with loan renewal from Britain and Germany.%中国对日赔款的赔付主要是通过三次大借款来完成的,它们分别为俄法借款、英德借款及续借款。赫德帮助英德借款取得成功后,为了防止剩余对华借款落入俄法手中,赫德继续为汇丰银行出谋划策,并向日本驻华公使矢野文雄提出了分10年还清剩余赔款的方案,但未取得成功。最终在向各方借款无着、日本拒绝赔款展期的情况下,总理衙门不得不仍将借款事宜交给赫德办理,赫德从而帮助英德续借款取得成功,同时也帮助清政府利用英德续借款偿清了对日赔款。

  20. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.