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Sample records for area central ethiopia

  1. Prevalence of malaria infection in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia

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    Woyessa Adugna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, the Ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. The programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. Global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. However, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. The objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland areas of south-central Ethiopia, designated as the Butajira area. Methods Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 750 households were selected. All consenting family members were examined for malaria parasites in thick and thin blood smears. The assessment was repeated six times for two years (October 2008 to June 2010. Results In total, 19,207 persons were examined in the six surveys. From those tested, 178 slides were positive for malaria, of which 154 (86.5% were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 22 (12.4% for Plasmodium falciparum; the remaining two (1.1% showed mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The incidence of malaria was higher after the main rainy season, both in lower lying and in highland areas. The incidence in the highlands was low and similar for all age groups, whereas in the lowlands, malaria occurred mostly in those of one to nine years of age. Conclusion This study documented a low prevalence of malaria that varied with season and altitudinal zone in a highland-fringe area of Ethiopia. Most of the malaria infections were attributable to Plasmodium vivax.

  2. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

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    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  3. Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia

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    Jaleta Debello, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces cro

  4. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

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    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  5. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  6. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  7. Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia

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    Habtamu Assefa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02% sheep and 17 (6.80% goats. In sheep 13 (4.96% of the lungs, 10 (3.81% livers and 1 (0.381% heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0% and 8 (3.2% respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85% and 15 (31.91% respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%] was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]. For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients followed by spleen (11.1% and kidney (7.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05 as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8. This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.

  8. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

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    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  9. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

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    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  10. Performance assessment of smallholder irrigation in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Halsema, van G.E.; Lencha, B.K.; Assefa, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in smallholder irrigation schemes in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia has been associated with the overexploitation of water resources, while the economic viability of these schemes has been questioned. This paper assesses water use efficiencies of the Haleku Irrigation Scheme

  11. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

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    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  12. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  13. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

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    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  14. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

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    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  15. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopia...

  16. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

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    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis...... of A.dembeensis reached high values in the grassland. Breeding was seasonal and related to rainfall periods: extended rainy seasons resulting in longer periods with breeding females and higher litter sizes and, consequently, population size increases. These observations suggest that rodent population...

  17. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  18. Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence in Ethiopia

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    Negussie Deyessa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. Setting: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. Design: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married women. Methods: A standardised WHO questionnaire was used to measure physical violence, residency, literacy of the woman and her spouse, and attitudes of women about gender roles and violence. Analyses present prevalence with 95% confidence intervals and odds ratios derived from bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: In urban and rural areas of the study area, the women were of varying ages, had varying levels of literacy and had spouses with varying levels of literacy. Women in the overall study area had beliefs and norms favouring violence against women, and women living in rural communities and illiterate women were more likely to accept such attitudes. In general, violence against women was more prevalent in rural communities. In particular, violence against rural literate women and rural women who married a literate spouse was more prevalent. Literate rural women who were married to an illiterate spouse had the highest odds (Adj. OR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.7–6.9 of experiencing physical violence by an intimate partner. Conclusion: Semi-urban lifestyle and literacy promote changes in attitudes and norms against intimate partner violence; however, within the rural lifestyle, literate women married to illiterate husbands were exposed to the highest risks of violence.

  19. Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Adimassu Teferi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion     is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia.     Nevertheless, investments in land management t

  20. Competing claims for water resources in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Global drivers and local opportunities

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    Hengsdijk, H.; Jansen, H.C.; Driel, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to favourable policies for agricultural investments, both small scale and large scale irrigated agriculture has expanded rapidly in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. This closed river basin encompasses a chain of three lakes with unique hydrological and ecological characteristics including

  1. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

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    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably

  2. Community Perception on Beekeeping Practices, Management, and Constraints in Termaber and Basona Werena Districts, Central Ethiopia

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    Abadi Berhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate forage availability coupled with favorable and diversified agroclimatic conditions of Ethiopia creates environmental conditions conducive to the growth of over 7000 species of flowering plants which have supported the existence of large number of bee colonies in the country. Despite its potential of honey production, the contribution of apiculture to state GDP is far below its expectation and not well estimated yet. The objective of this study was to assess community perception in beekeeping management and constraints in central Ethiopia. 384 household heads were randomly selected from eight sentinel kebeles. Semistructured questionnaire, in-depth interview, and focus group discussions were employed to gather data. Chi-square (χ2 test was used to determine association. Three beekeeping management systems, namely, traditional, transitional, and modern beekeeping, were documented. Beekeeping was reported to create job opportunity for landless men and women for their livelihood and needs low capital to start. Significant difference (p<0.05 in beekeeping management activities between two districts was reported. Even though honey production is increasing, the trends of transferring traditional beekeeping to modern beekeeping practice showed a decline. Training and building capacity for hive management, colony feeding, and honey harvesting should be put in place in order to improve honey production.

  3. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia

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    Seada Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis and its associated factors among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective review of standardized 222 HIV-positive patient records between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. A data sheet was used to collect relevant variables. Data were entered, organized and analysed using SPSS Version 16.0 Software. A p-value 15 years (18.95%. Among 45 TB/HIV cases, 26.7% had smear-positive pulmonary TB; 62.2% had smear-negative pulmonary TB; and 11.1% had extra-pulmonary TB. Malnutrition (OR= 45.7, CD4+ T-cell count <200/μl (OR= 5.4 and WHO clinical stage III or IV (OR= 4.12 were associated with tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection at Butajira Zonal Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia was high. The co-infection was associated with malnutrition, low CD4 + T-cell count and WHO clinical stage III or IV. Therefore, compulsory TB screening among HIV-positive patients is mandatory. Besides, public awareness, community mobilization should be encouraged. Moreover, large scale studies on the trends in TB/HIV co-infection and associated factors should also be implemented across the country.

  4. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

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    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  5. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  6. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

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    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  7. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

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    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  8. Assessing the costs and benefits of improved land management practices in three watershed areas in Ethiopia

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    Abonesh Tesfaye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable land use management and the resulting soil erosion are among the most pervasive problems in rural Ethiopia, where most of the country’s people live, jeopardizing food security. Despite various efforts to introduce soil conservation measures and assess their costs and benefits, it is unclear how efficient these measures are from an economic point of view in securing food production. This paper examines the costs and benefits of three soil conservation measures applied in the country in three different rural districts facing different degrees of soil erosion problems using survey data collected from 750 farm households. A production function is estimated to quantify the costs and benefits of more sustainable land use management practices. We show that the soil conservation measures significantly increase productivity and hence food security. Comparing the costs and benefits, the results indicate that implementing soil conservation measures would benefit farm communities in the case study areas through increased grain productivity and food security.

  9. Non-timber forest products and household incomes in Bonga forest area, southwestern Ethiopia

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    Ermias Melaku; Zeleke Ewnetu; Demel Teketay

    2014-01-01

    We identified the major non-timber forest products (NTFPs), their contributions to household incomes, and the determinants influenc-ing engagement of households in using NTFPs in the Bonga forest area of Gimbo and Decha Districts of Kaffa Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Six Kebeles (the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia) were sampled from two Districts and 150 households were randomly sampled using propor-tional-to-size techniques based on the number of farm households in each Kebele. Secondary data were collected from and focus group discussions were conducted with selected individuals. The farmers diversified liveli-hood activities such as crop and livestock production, collection of NTFPs and off-farm activities. NTFPs played a significant role in household incomes. The contribution from the major NTFPs (forest coffee, honey and spices) accounted for 47% of annual household in-come. The role of NTFPs was influenced by a number of factors. Vari-ables including being native to the area (+), total land holding (+), pos-session of livestock (+) and access to extension (+) significantly affected forest coffee production. Age of household head (-), land holding (+) and distance of the market from the residence (-) significantly affected honey production. Size of landholding (+), distance to market (-) and distance of the forest from the residence (-) were significant variables determining the NTFP incomes derived by the households. Attention is needed in the design of policies and strategies for the well-being of households to the contribution of NTFPs to local incomes and the variables that affect the collection of NTFPs must be considered.

  10. Searching for evidence of changes in extreme rainfall indices in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Muluneh, Alemayehu; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Keesstra, Saskia; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-02-01

    Extreme rainfall events have serious implications for economic sectors with a close link to climate such as agriculture and food security. This holds true in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia where communities rely on highly climate-sensitive rainfed subsistence farming for livelihoods. This study investigates changes in ten extreme rainfall indices over a period of 40 years (1970-2009) using 14 meteorological stations located in the CRV. The CRV consists of three landscape units: the valley floor, the escarpments, and the highlands all of which are considered in our data analysis. The Belg (March-May) and Kiremt (June-September) seasons are also considered in the analysis. The Mann-Kendall test was used to detect trends of the rainfall indices. The results indicated that at the annual time scale, more than half (57 %) of the stations showed significant trends in total wet-day precipitation (PRCPTOT) and heavy precipitation days (R10mm). Only 7-35 % of stations showed significant trends, for the other rainfall indices. Spatially, the valley floor received increasing annual rainfall while the escarpments and the highlands received decreasing annual rainfall over the last 40 years. During Belg, 50 % of the stations showed significant increases in the maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in all parts of the CRV. However, most other rainfall indices during Belg showed no significant changes. During Kiremt, considering both significant and non-significant trends, almost all rainfall indices showed an increasing trend in the valley floor and a decreasing trend in the escarpment and highlands. During Belg and Kiremt, the CDD generally showed increasing tendency in the CRV.

  11. Maize Response to Fertilizer Dosing at Three Sites in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Getachew Sime

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the agronomic response, efficiency and profitability of fertilizer microdosing in maize. An experiment with the following treatments was conducted: control without fertilizer, microdosing treatments, with the rate of 27 + 27, 53 + 53 and 80 + 80 kg ha−1, and banding of fertilizer with 100 + 100 kg ha−1 of di ammonium phosphate (DAP + urea, applied at planting and jointing, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 cropping seasons at Ziway, Melkassa and Hawassa in the semiarid central rift valley region of Ethiopia. Compared to the control, the fertilizer treatments had higher yield and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE profitably. The 27 + 27 kg ha−1 fertilizer rate increased the grain yield by 19, 45 and 46% at Hawassa, Ziway and Melkassa, respectively, and it was equivalent to the higher rates. The value cost ratio (VCR was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between seven and 11 in the treatment with 27 + 27 kg ha−1, but two and three in the banding treatment. Similarly, FUE was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between 23 and 34 kg kg−1 but 7 and 8 kg kg−1 in the banding treatment. The improved yield, FUE, VCR and gross margin in maize with microdosing at the 27 + 27 kg ha−1 of DAP + urea rate makes it low cost, low risk, high yielding and profitable. Therefore, application of this particular rate in maize may be an option for the marginal farmers in the region with similar socioeconomic and agroecological conditions.

  12. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

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    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  13. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

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    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  14. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Getachew Million

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9% were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007, those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01 and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001 had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, PAscaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care

  15. Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

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    Frieder Pfäfflin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. Methods The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3.5 million in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. Compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care was measured by direct observation before and starting from six weeks after the intervention, which consisted of a four day workshop accompanied by training sessions and the provision of locally produced alcohol-based handrub and posters emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. A second follow up was conducted three months after handing over project responsibility to the Ethiopian partners. Health-care workers’ perception and knowledge about hand hygiene were assessed before and after the intervention. Results At baseline, first, and second follow up we observed a total of 2888, 2865, and 2244 hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. Compliance with hand hygiene was 1.4% at baseline and increased to 11.7% and 13.1% in the first and second follow up, respectively (p < 0.001. The increase in compliance with hand hygiene was consistent across professional categories and all participating wards and was independently associated with the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval 6.61-12.76; p < 0.001. After the training, locally produced alcohol-based handrub was used in 98.4% of all hand hygiene actions. The median hand hygiene knowledge score overall was 13 (interquartile range 11–15 at baseline and increased to 17 (15–18 after training (p < 0.001. Health

  16. Impact of predicted changes in rainfall and atmospheric carbon dioxide on maize and wheat yeilds in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Muluneh, A.; Biazin, B.; Stroosnijder, L.; Bewket, W.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses potential impacts of climate change on maize and wheat yields in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. We considered effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and changes in rainfall during the main (Kiremt) and the short (Belg) rainfall cropping seasons during th

  17. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  18. Community knowledge, attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225 (57.4%) of the participants were males and 167 (42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265 (67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127 (32.4%) responded that they did not know CL. Based on the scoring results, 265 (67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215 (54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL. Approximately, 215 (54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net. Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized com-munity awareness creation through various means.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  20. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia

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    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

    2014-11-01

    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in

  1. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between farmers and cattle in central Ethiopia.

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    Gobena Ameni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis complex could be possible between farmers and their cattle in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted in mixed type multi-purposes cattle raising region of Ethiopia on 287 households (146 households with case of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and 141 free of TB and 287 herds consisting of 2,033 cattle belonging to these households to evaluate transmission of TB between cattle and farmers. Interview, bacteriological examinations and molecular typing were used for human subjects while comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT test, post mortem and bacteriological examinations, and molecular typing were used for animal studies. Herd prevalence of CIDT reactors was 9.4% and was higher (p<0.01 in herds owned by households with TB than in herds owned by TB free households. Animal prevalence was 1.8% and also higher (p<0.01 in cattle owned by households with TB case than in those owned by TB free households. All mycobacteria (141 isolated from farmers were M. tuberculosis, while only five of the 16 isolates from cattle were members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC while the remaining 11 were members of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM. Further speciation of the five MTC isolates showed that three of the isolates were M. bovis (strain SB1176, while the remaining two were M. tuberculosis strains (SIT149 and SIT53. Pathology scoring method described by "Vordermeier et al. (2002" was applied and the average severity of pathology in two cattle infected with M. bovis, in 11 infected with NTM and two infected with M. tuberculosis were 5.5, 2.1 and 0.5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that transmission of TB from farmers to cattle by the airborne route sensitizes the cows but rarely leads to TB. Similarly, low transmission of M. bovis between farmers and their cattle was found, suggesting requirement of ingestion of contaminated milk from

  2. Determinants of satisfaction with health care provider interactions at health centres in central Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

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    Woldie Mirkuzie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary health care, provider-patient interaction is fundamental platform and critically affects service delivery. Nevertheless, it is often ignored in medical research and practice and it is infrequently subjected to scientific inquiry, particularly in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with health care provider interactions and its influencing factors among out-patients at health centers in West Shoa, Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on 768 out-patients of six health centers in West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia. The total sample size was allocated to each of the six health centers based on patient flow during the ten days prior to the start of data collection. Pre-tested instruments were used for data collection and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Factor score was computed for the items identified to represent the satisfaction scale by varimax rotation method. Using this regression factor score, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed and the effect of independent variables on the regression factor score was quantified. Results Seventy three percent of the respondents perceived that provider's empathy was good and 35% complained that providers were not technically competent enough. In addition, 82% of the respondents rated non-verbal communication by the providers to be good, very good or excellent on a five-point ordinal scale. Regardless of the process, only 34.1% of the patients implied that the consultations made a difference in understanding their illness and coping with it. Generally speaking, 62.6% of the patients reported that they have been satisfied with their visit. Perceived empathy, perceived technical competency, non-verbal communication, patient enablement, being told the name of once illness, type and frequency of visit, knowing the providers and educational status were main independent

  3. A study on seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis under three livestock production systems in southern and central Ethiopia.

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    Asmare, Kassahun; Megersa, Bekele; Denbarga, Yifat; Abebe, Girma; Taye, Anley; Bekele, Jemere; Bekele, Tesfaye; Gelaye, Esayas; Zewdu, Endrias; Agonafir, Abebe; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein

    2013-02-01

    Caprine brucellosis in Ethiopia is less commonly reported with limited information on the disease status in the country. The objective of this study was therefore to highlight the status of goat brucellosis in three distinctly different livestock production systems of southern and central Ethiopia. A total 3,315 goats of different age and sex, living with other animals in variable flock size, were sampled from 448 flocks raised in sedentary, pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems. Goats were bled aseptically and sera were collected for serial testing using Rose Bengal Plate Test as screening test and subsequently complement fixation test as confirmatory test. Questionnaire and laboratory data were analysed for descriptive, univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis both at individual and flock level (STATA 11). The study revealed an overall animal level seroprevalence of 1.9 % (95 % CI 1.5, 2.4). In sedentary production system, the observed seroprevalence was 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.2, 0.9) while 1.9 % (95 % CI 1.1, 2.7) and 7.6 % (95 % CI 5.1, 10.1) were the proportion of seroreactors for agro-pastoral and pastoral production systems, respectively. The observed prevalence difference between the three production systems was statistically significant (P goat among themselves. Like individual level analysis, the highest prevalence of 32.5 % (95 % CI 21.9, 43.0) was recorded for pastoral production system, followed by agro-pastoral, 13.0 % (95 % CI 7.0, 19.0) and sedentary production system, 3.6 % (95% CI 1.3, 6.0). Accordingly, the odds of Brucella seropositivity were higher (OR = 12.8) in pastoral followed by agro-pastoral (OR = 4.0) in relation to sedentary production system. Large numbers of seroreactors were observed in adult age living in larger flocks with other livestock species. However, no difference was noted between male and female goats. Finally, the need for nationwide survey and subsequent designing and implementation of appropriate

  4. Edible oil crops and their integration with the major cereals in North Shewa and South Welo, Central Highlands of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical perspective.

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    Geleta, Mulatu; Asfaw, Zemede; Bekele, Endashaw; Teshome, Awegechew

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1050 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and tef (Eragrostis tef) fields distributed in six study sites within north Shewa and south Welo (Central Highlands of Ethiopia) were systematically surveyed to examine the status of integration of edible oil crops into the cereal-based farming system. Farmers' criteria for, and perception on, integration between edible oil crops and the major cereals at field level as well as integration between the cereal grains and the oilseeds in food making at home were studied and analyzed based on formal semi-structured interview and informal discussion with local expert farmers as key informants. Farmers' traditional space optimization technique has been instrumental in rightly fitting edible oil crops (as intercrops and border crops) into the cereal-based system. Six species of edible oil crops are integrated (70.3%) in various proportions in fields of sorghum and tef. At least one oil crop was significantly intercropped and/or border cropped in sorghum fields. Noog (Guizotia abyssinica) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) were the most important edible oil crops of the study area having strong integration with sorghum both at field and home level. On average, noog was more frequently intercropped with sorghum (8.3%) than with tef (4.5%), while it was more frequently border cropped with tef (32.4%) than with sorghum (19%). Sorghum was more frequently inter/border cropped with sesame (39/2%) than with tef (10.1/0.5%). The stronger the integration of a given oilseed with sorghum-based foods, the higher the companionship between sorghum fields and the oil crop in the landscape. This cultural practice by farmers has positive contributions to on-farm conservation of oil crops along with tef and specific sorghum landraces. The central theme of this paper therefore converges on the issue of on-farm in-situ agrobiodiversity conservation that was shaped by successive ancestral generations and passed on to the present.

  5. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

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    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  6. Risky sexual behaviors among female youth in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojjam Tadesse

    Full Text Available Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia.A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15-29 years in September 2011.711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3% used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6% had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6% had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1% did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%, and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3% participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing 'khat', watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex.Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended.

  7. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  8. Pastoralist Community’s Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Melaku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8% of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3% of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community.

  9. Impact of Predicted Changes in Rainfall and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Maize and Wheat Yields in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, A.; Biazin, B.; Stroosnijder, L.; Bewket, W.; Keesstra, S.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on maize and wheat yields in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. We considered effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and changes in rainfall during the main (Kiremt) and the short (Belg) rain and cropping seasons. Crop yield simulations were made with the FAO AquaCrop model using baseline climate data and climate change scenarios projected by the ECHAM5 General Circulation Model under A2 (high) and B1 (low) emission scenarios. The MarkSimGCM daily weather generator was used to generate projected daily values of precipitation and temperature. The projected rainfall during Kiremt shows an increase by about 12-69% while projected Belg rainfall decreases by up to 68%. The mean onset of the Belg cropping season for maize is projected to be delayed by 2-9 weeks and the mean cessation is expected to be extended by more than a month in sub-humid/humid areas of the CRV. In most of the sub-humid/humid areas, the 90 day maize and wheat growing periods will not have dry spells lasting longer than 10 consecutive days. However, in the semiarid areas dry spells could last longer than 15 days. The mean simulated maize yield increased by up to 30% due to changes in the projected seasonal rainfall alone, and by up to 14% due to elevated CO2 alone. The combined effect of elevated CO2 and projected climate factors increased maize yields by up to 59% in sub-humid/humid areas, but resulted in a decrease of up to 46% in the semiarid areas. Wheat yield showed no significant response to the projected rainfall changes, but increased by up to 40% due to elevated CO2. Our results suggest that climate change will increase crop yields in the sub humid/humid regions of the CRV. However, in semi-arid areas the overall projected climate change will affect the yield negatively.

  10. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea...... and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  11. Low prevalence of Leishmania infection in post-epidemic areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4-15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0-4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary.

  12. Low Prevalence of Leishmania Infection in Post-Epidemic Areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4–15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0–4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary. PMID:22665599

  13. The effect of long-term Maresha ploughing on soil physical properties in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.; Temesgen, M.; AdulKedir, A.; Sterk, G.

    2011-01-01

    For thousands of years, smallholder-based crop farming in Ethiopia has been practiced with oxen ploughing using the traditional Maresha ard plough where consecutive tillage operations are undertaken perpendicular to each other. Despite its wide acceptance by smallholder farmers, long-term use of the

  14. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  15. Determinants of adaptation choices to climate change by sheep and goat farmers in Northern Ethiopia: the case of Southern and Central Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Fikeremaryam Birara; Berhe, Melaku; Gebru, Getachew; Hoag, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector serves as a foremost source of revenue for rural people, particularly in many developing countries. Among the livestock species, sheep and goats are the main source of livelihood for rural people in Ethiopia; they can quickly multiply, resilient and are easily convertible to cash to meet financial needs of the rural producers. The multiple contributions of sheep and goat and other livestock to rural farmers are however being challenged by climate change and variability. Farmers are responding to the impacts of climate change by adopting different mechanisms, where choices are largely dependent on many factors. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the determinants of choices of adaptation practices to climate change that causes scarcity of feed, heat stress, shortage of water and pasture on sheep and goat production. The study used 318 sample households drawn from potential livestock producing districts representing 3 agro-ecological settings. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistical tools, a multivariate probit model and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). Most of the respondents (98.6 %) noted that climate is changing. Respondents' perception is that climate change is expressed through increased temperature (88 %) and decline in rainfall (73 %) over the last 10 years. The most commonly used adaptation strategy was marketing during forage shock (96.5 %), followed by home feeding (89.6 %). The estimation from the multivariate probit model showed that access to information, farming experience, number of households in one village, distance to main market, income of household, and agro-ecological settings influenced farmers' adaptation choices to climate change. Furthermore, OLS revealed that the adaptation strategies had positive influence on the household income.

  16. Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  17. Adapting to climate variability and change: experiences from cereal-based farming in the central rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions-the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers' perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  18. Prevalence of ovine fasciolosis and its economic significance in basona worana district, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zeleke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional andretrospective study was conducted from February-May, 2012 to determine theprevalence of ovine fasciolosis. A total of 1528 sheep were selected andsampled by using systematic simple random sampling, Sedimentation technique,haematocrite centrifugation and postmortem examination were employed during thestudy period. Overall prevalence of ovine fasciolosis based on farm, abattoirand retrospective clinical study was 62.7%, 52.6% and 59.1%, respectively.There was no statistically significant variations (p>0.05 by sex and age ofsheep in both farm and abattoir study. The association of ovine faciolosis withdifferent breeds of sheep was statistically significant variation (p<0.05was observed in farm, abattoir and retrospective veterinary clinical dataanalysis. The prevalence of fasciolosis was different among FAMACHA eye-colourscores, body condition, mean PCV value, liver pathology, types of Fasciolaspecies and worm burden (p<0.05. The prevalence of ovine fasciolosis basedon FAMACHA eye-colour scores was highest (100% in pink white and lowest in red(51.9%. The mean PCV value of Fasciola species in infected and uninfectedsheep were 24.04 ± .381 and 25.87 ± .516, respectively. The mean worm burden oflightly, moderately and severely affected livers was 21.00 ± 1.889, 34.30 ±2.662 and 105.09 ± 9.741, respectively. The average mean worm burden per affectedliver was 56.79 ± 4.635. The predominant species identified in the study areawas Fasciola hepatica (68.8%. The mean fluke burden of each Fasciola speciescounted was 47.17 ± 4.737, 25.50 ± 4.912 and 93.02 ± 12.139 for Fasciolahepatica, Fasciola gigantica and mixed Fasciola species infection,respectively. The prevalence of ovine fasciolosis in the study area should bereduced by sustainable and integrated control programmes which includestrategic application of anthelmintics, efficient farm and grazing managementby Veterinarians and sheep owners in the study area.

  19. Analysing the temporal water quality dynamics of Lake Basaka, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumana Dinka, Megersa

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the general water quality status and temporal quality dynamics of Lake Basaka water in the past about 5 decades. Water samples were collected and analysed for important physico-chemical quality parameters following standard procedures. The result showed that Lake Basaka water is highly saline and alkaline and experiencing a general reducing trends in ionic concentrations of quality parameters due to the dilution effect. About 10-fold reduction of total ionic concentration occurred in the Lake over the period of 2 decades (1960-1980). There was a sharp and fast decline in EC, Cl, SO4, Na, and K ions from early 1960s up to the late 1980s, and then became relatively stable. Some ions (eg. Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4) are showing increment in recent years. This characteristics of the lake water is terrible in relation to its potential to inundate the nearby areas in the near future. The expansion of such quality water has negative effects on the water resources of the region, especially soil quality, drainage and groundwater, in terms of salinity, sodicity and specific ion toxicity. The regimes of soil moisture, solute and groundwater could be affected, concurrently affecting the productivity and sustainability of the sugar estate. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the potential sources of water and chemicals to the lake and devise an appropriate mitigation and/or remedial measures.

  20. Community knowledge,attitude and practice towards cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello,Gamo Gofa Zone,South Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigatu Kebede; Alemayehu Worku; Ahmed Ali; Abebe Animut; Yohannes Negash; Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes; Abhay Satoskar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community related to cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in an endemic area Ochello, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia.Methods: We conducted community based cross-sectional survey among residents in Ochello from November to December 2014. The study area was purposely selected based on previous reports on endemicity of CL. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 392 household participants were selected in the study area Ochello. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data were double entered and analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software.Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results.Results: In total, 392 individuals were participated in our study where 225(57.4%) of the participants were males and 167(42.6%) were females. Of all the total participants, 265(67.6%) had heard of the disease, and 127(32.4%) responded that they did not know CL.Based on the scoring results, 265(67.6%) participants were knowledgeable about CL. Out of 265 participants who heard about CL, most of them [215(54.8%)] had the attitude that CL was a problem in their area and had no positive attitude towards the treatment of CL.Approximately, 215(54.8%) replied that CL was preventable. Majority of the respondents did not sleep outdoors and did not practice sleeping near vegetation with or without bed net.Conclusions: The current finding indicated that the inhabitants of Ochello developed good awareness and encouraging attitude regarding CL. However, their prevention and control practice was very low. Hence, the result of this study calls for organized community awareness creation through various means.

  1. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  2. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  3. Floristic diversity, regeneration status, and vegetation structure of woodlands in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia Our objective was to describe plant species composition,diversity,regeneration status,and population structure by a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats (each for 25 m × 25 m,spaced at intervals of 150-200 m) were sampled along established transect lines following the homogeneity of the vegetation.Vegetation data including cover-abundance,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),and numbers of seedlings and saplings of woody species were analyzed using Excel spreadsheet,Shannon Weiner diversity index,and PAST version 1.62.A total of 87 vascular plant species of 74 genera and 36 families were recorded.The dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 16 (18.39 %) species of 13 genera.Shannon Weiner diversity and evenness were 3.67 and 0.82,respectively,which showed that the area was endowed with rich floral diversity evenly distributed.The vegetation structure,as quantified by cumulative diameter class frequency distribution,plotted as an interrupted inverted-J- shape pattern with a sharp decrease in the 2nd diameter class.This indicated poor vegetation structure.The diameter classes frequency distributions of selected species plotted in four general patterns i.e.,interrupted Inverted-J-shape,J-shape,Bell-shape and Irregular-shape.In conclusion,although the area showel high floral diversity and evenness,woody species including Sterculea setigera,Boswellia papyrifera,and Pterocarpus lucens showed lowest recruitment of seedlings and saplings.

  4. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Associated Factors among Pre-School Children in Butajira Town, South-Central Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teha Shumbej

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH remain a major public health problem, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Though infections are prevalent among all age groups, the world health organization (WHO considers Pre-school age children (PSAC, school-aged children, and pregnant women as segments of population at high risk of STH morbidities.This study aimed at determining the prevalence and infection intensity of STH and associated factors among PSAC in Butajira Town, south-central Ethiopia.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June, 2014 in Butajira Town. The PSAC were selected by systematic sampling technique and invited to participate in the present study. McMaster technique was employed for parasitological analysis of stool samples. Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed where appropriate to identify any association between STH infection and independent factors. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent predictors of STH among the PSAC. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 377 (with 96% compliance rate PSAC were able to provide complete data (socio-demographic information and stool sample. The study showed that 23.3% (88/377 PSAC were infected with one or more species of STH. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH (14.9% followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.4%. The overall infection intensity, expressed as geometric mean for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworms were 229, 178, and 154 eggs per gram of stool, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model estimated that being in the age group of 36-47 months (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.3, P = 0.016, untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.5, P < 0.001, and not washing hands before a meal (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.4, P < 0.001 were independent predictors of STH infections among the children.The present study showed that STH was a

  5. Soil erosion in the archaeological area of Aksum, Ethiopia: a multi-site, spatio-temporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Sernicola, Luisa; Billi, Paolo; Ferrari, Giovanni; Borselli, Lorenzo; Follain, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize previous works on soil erosion evaluation in response to soil conservation strategies practiced in the area of Aksum (Tigray, northern Ethiopia) throughout the last three millennia. This location presents favourable conditions for the implementation of a long-term approach for assessing soil conservation techniques that have been used for centuries (i.e., since the Aksumite kingdom, 2400 y BP to 1200 y BP). These techniques have been maintained until present and parts of the terraced systems of the area are still in use. The study is based on an archaeologically based reconstruction of the ancient settlement pattern of the whole area which provided significant information on the changes occurred in land occupation, exploitation and management throughout the Aksumite civilization. In such context, the rate of soil erosion was evaluated on the basis of the analyses of the presently exposed, deep scratches (plough marks) left on the rocks in the soil by the maresha, the ard-plough pulled by oxen used in agricultural practices of the area; further considerations have been done by the means of associated patinas, varnishes and weathering rinds on the boulders exposed by soil loss. Analyses for the assessment of soil erosion have been focused on three terraced areas where evidence of occupation and ploughing could be traced back since at least the beginning of the Aksumite kingdom, and where the plough marks are still well preserved. The plough marks method indicates average rates of soil erosion of 3.1, 2.8 and 1.2 tha-1 y-1, respectively. Recent changes in land-management in one of the sites, shifting from soil conservation conditions under traditional agriculture (long-term observations) to accelerated erosion after abandonment (short-term observations) occurred during the land use reorganisation in the 70s, produced a high soil erosion of about 62.6 t ha-1 y-1. These data lead up to a new survey phase able to provide a

  6. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  7. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  8. Modern variety adoption and risk management in drought prone areas: insights from the sorghum farmers of eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavatassi, R.; Lipper, L.; Narloch, U.

    2011-01-01

    Adoption rates of improved or modern varieties (MV) of sorghum in eastern Ethiopia are generally low. Although these MV may represent an effective means of coping with droughts, given their early maturing traits, landraces could prove to be more drought-tolerant and better adapted to marginal produc

  9. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gessesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, P<0.001. Besides, the computed significant value of the model suggests that all the considered predictor variables jointly influenced the farmers' decision to plant trees as a land management strategy. In this regard, the finding of the study show that local land-users' willingness to adopt tree growing decision is a function of a wide range of biophysical, institutional, socioeconomic and household level factors, however, the likelihood of household size, productive labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  10. Determinants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, Berhan; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices is one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explored the major determinants of farm-level tree-planting decisions as a land management strategy in a typical farming and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree-planting decisions (χ2 = 37.29, df = 15, P labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system had a critical influence on tree-growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land-use conversion and land degradation were serious, which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, the study recommended that devising and implementing sustainable land management policy options would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  11. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, B.; Bewket, W.; Bräuning, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, Plabour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  12. The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to dif

  13. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. Results The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8–12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3–25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0–23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1–17.7]. Conclusion Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART. PMID:28301592

  14. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among University Students in Ambo, Central Ethiopia: Implication to Improve Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekariyas Sahile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ethiopia has one of the lowest HIV prevalence rates in East Africa, but there are still more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among university students. Methodology. A cross-sectional comparative study was done with quantitative and qualitative data collection with a stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data were edited, coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Result. Both comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention method were higher in the intervention group (75.8% and 48.5% than comparative group (68.6% and 42.5% which had a significant difference (P<0.05. Life time sexual intercourse was higher in the intervention group (40.8% as compared to the comparative group (34.6%. But sexual condom utilization in the past 12 months was higher in the intervention group (73.2% as compared to the comparative group (56.9% which had a significant difference (P<0.05. Similarly, history of sexual transmitted disease report was higher in the comparative group (6.3% as compared to the intervention (4.6%. Among sexual experience respondents in the last 12 months, 32% of them in the intervention and 35.5% of them in the comparative group have had multiple sexual partners. Conclusion. The intervention group had higher comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and condom utilization. But a higher percentage of students were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Therefore, emphasis should be given on designing different strategy to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  15. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among University Students in Ambo, Central Ethiopia: Implication to Improve Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahile, Zekariyas; Mekuria, Mulugeta; Yared, Abenezer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the lowest HIV prevalence rates in East Africa, but there are still more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among university students. Methodology. A cross-sectional comparative study was done with quantitative and qualitative data collection with a stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data were edited, coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Result. Both comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention method were higher in the intervention group (75.8% and 48.5%) than comparative group (68.6% and 42.5%) which had a significant difference (P sexual intercourse was higher in the intervention group (40.8%) as compared to the comparative group (34.6%). But sexual condom utilization in the past 12 months was higher in the intervention group (73.2%) as compared to the comparative group (56.9%) which had a significant difference (P sexual transmitted disease report was higher in the comparative group (6.3%) as compared to the intervention (4.6%). Among sexual experience respondents in the last 12 months, 32% of them in the intervention and 35.5% of them in the comparative group have had multiple sexual partners. Conclusion. The intervention group had higher comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and condom utilization. But a higher percentage of students were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Therefore, emphasis should be given on designing different strategy to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  16. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  17. Communication by euro area central bankers : structure, information and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an empirical study of communication by euro area central bankers. Its remainder is structured as follows: chapter 2, ECB communication during the first years of the EMU, describes communication by euro area central bankers during the period January 1999 to May 2002. Amongst other thin

  18. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting properties of rhizobacteria isolated from chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.) producing areas of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Midekssa, Mulissa J.; Löscher, Carolin; Ruth A Schmitz; Assefa, Fassil

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea is one of the major legume crops widely grown in Ethiopia. The low availability of phosphorus in soil is among the stresses that constrain the production of this crop in the country. However, there are rhizobacteria capable of solubilizing insoluble forms of phosphorus in soil and make it available to the plant. Thus, this study was aimed at isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from chickpea rhizosphere. Fifty phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were...

  19. Forest decline and its causes in the south-central rift valley of Ethiopia: human impact over a one hundred year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Gessesse; Christiansson, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Forest decline in Ethiopia is highlighted by several authors but there is no consensus on its causes and consequences. The objective of this study is to investigate, from sociopolitical and geographical perspectives, the linkage between the trend of forest decline and changes in the social, economic, and political pattern in the Awassa watershed over a 100-year perspective. Field observations, satellite image and map analyses, interviews, and literature studies were employed, and natural indicators were analyzed. The findings indicate that the forest area declined from about 40% at the turn of the 19th century to less than 3% in the year 2000. Forest decline in the study area during the elected time period is the result of the combination of biophysical and social conditions. Important causes are geographic properties, sociopolitical changes, population growth, unstable land tenure principles, agricultural development, and the improvement of transport capacity. The main conclusions are as follows: Already in the early 20th century forest decline was in progress and forests were attributed an insignificant economic classification. Large areas of forest were cut down during periods of political transition when as a result of the political vacuum, interest in the protection of resources including forests was lacking. Long-term planning efforts to manage forests were obstructed by uncertainty resulting from land tenure principle change during each political period. The sparse area of forest land that remains is becoming increasingly attractive as potential land for arable agriculture because of improved road access between the study area and distant markets.

  20. Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%. In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03. The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3% followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%. The primary sources were dogs (93.4% followed by cats (2.6%. Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9% than adults (88.7% (p=0.01. The most common way of coming in contact with animals was ‘walking by’ (83.9%. Children came in contact with animals while ‘playing with’ (10.7% more often than adults (1.1% (p<0.001. All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population.

  1. Technical Vocational Education and Training for Micro-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia: A Solution or Part of the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift

    2010-01-01

    Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…

  2. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  3. Determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia, unmatched case -control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Omer; G/Mariam, Yemane; Fekadu, Abel; Wasihun, Yitbarek; Endris, Kedir; Bitew, Abebayehu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. Objective To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. Methods A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G.C. The sample size was determined by using Epi Info version 7.1.5.2. Study subjects were selected using consecutive sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, entered using Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to see the determinants of anemia. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-valueanemia. Conclusions Inadequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables, inadequate consumption of chicken, trimester of the current pregnancy, HIV infection and medication were the determinants of anemia among pregnant women. Therefore, anemia prevention strategy should include promotion of adequate intake of dark green leafy vegetables and chicken, increase meal pattern during the entire pregnancy and strengthen the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission/antenatal care programs. PMID:28288159

  4. Dynamics of poverty in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the persistence is a key feature of urban poverty. The paper also discusses household characteristics that are correlated with the inciden...

  5. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Yamindou, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) has made an impressive commitment to biodiversity conservation, with a total of 15 protected areas covering about 10.9% of the country. This study critically examines the status of these protected areas in light of their potential for long-term protection of biodiv

  6. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  7. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  8. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  9. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded.

  10. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  11. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  12. Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.; Asseng, S.; Rotter, R.P.; Hengsdijk, H.; Ruane, A.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation option

  13. Plant community and ecological analysis of woodland vegetation in Metema Area, Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haile Adamu Wale; Tamrat Bekele; Gemedo Dalle

    2012-01-01

    We studied woodland vegetation in broad-leaved deciduous woodlands of Metema in northwestern Amhara regional state,Ethiopia to determine plant community types and species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental variables,including altitude,pH,cation exchange capacity,electrical conductivity (EC),and moisture.We used a selective approach with a systematic sampling design.A total of 74 quadrats,each 25m × 25m at intervals of 150-200 m were sampled along the established transect lines.For herbaceous vegetation and soil data collection,five subquadrats each 1m × 1m were established at the four corners and the center of each quadrat.Three community types were identified using TWINSPAN analysis.All three community types showed high diversity (Shannon-Weiner index),the highest in community type Ⅱ at 3.55.The highest similarity coefficient was 0.49 (49%) between community types Ⅱ and Ⅲ,reflecting 0.51 (51%) dissimilarity in their species richness.The canonical correspondence ordination diagram revealed that the distribution pattern of community type Ⅰ was explained by moisture while that of community types Ⅲ and Ⅱ was explained by EC and altitude and moisture,respectively.Altitude was the most statistically significant environmental variable,followed by moisture and EC in determining the total variation in species composition and distribution patterns while pH and cation exchange capacity were non significant.In conclusion,we recommend that any intervention should take into account these three discrete community types and their environmental settings to make the intervention more successful.

  14. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  15. Field-based evaluation of a reagent strip test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in urine in low endemic area in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a reagent strip test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in urine were evaluated using 184 stool and urine samples collected from schoolchildren living in relatively low endemic area of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ethiopia. A combined result of stool samples processed by Kato and formol-ether concentration methods was used as gold standard. The results showed that detection of CCA in urine using reagent strip test was slightly higher than the combined results of the stool techniques (65.2% vs 42.4%, p > 0.05 in suggesting the prevalence of the disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the reagent strip test were 76.9%, 43.4%, 50% and 71.9%, respectively. The result of egg counts using Kato method suggested that detection of urine CCA could be used to indicate the intensity of infection. Nevertheless, like that of stool examination, the reagent strip test was found to be less sensitive in case of light to moderate infections. About 23.1% of the study children who were excreting the eggs of the parasite were found negative by the reagent strip test. The relative insensitivity of a reagent strip test in low intensity of infection necessitates for the development of more sensitive assay that can truly discriminate schistosome-infected from non-infected individuals.

  16. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  17. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  18. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis.

  19. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Gary Eilerts,; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  20. Landslide hazard assessment in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy

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    F. Guzzetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the application of a recently proposed model to determine landslide hazard. The model predicts where landslides will occur, how frequently they will occur, and how large they will be in a given area. For the Collazzone area, in the central Italian Apennines, we prepared a multi-temporal inventory map through the interpretation of multiple sets of aerial photographs taken between 1941 and 1997 and field surveys conducted in the period between 1998 and 2004. We then partitioned the 79 square kilometres study area into 894 slope units, and obtained the probability of spatial occurrence of landslides by discriminant analysis of thematic variables, including morphology, lithology, structure and land use. For each slope unit, we computed the expected landslide recurrence by dividing the total number of landslide events inventoried in the terrain unit by the time span of the investigated period. Assuming landslide recurrence was constant, and adopting a Poisson probability model, we determined the exceedance probability of having one or more landslides in each slope unit, for different periods. We obtained the probability of landslide size, a proxy for landslide magnitude, by analysing the frequency-area statistics of landslides, obtained from the multi-temporal inventory map. Lastly, assuming independence, we determined landslide hazard for each slope unit as the joint probability of landslide size, of landslide temporal occurrence, and of landslide spatial occurrence.

  1. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

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    Liza Nyantekyi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  2. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia.

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality.

  4. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

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    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  5. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

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    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  7. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  8. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.Methods:Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique.Results:Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years.Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  9. Use of Correlation Relationships to Enhance Understanding of Pedogenic Processes and Use Potential of Vertisols and Vertic Inceptisols of the Bale Mountain Area of Ethiopia

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    Verdoodt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five Vertisols and two Vertic Inceptisols developed from basalt and alluvial materials were characterized for physical and chemical properties. Correlative statistical relationships were established among physical and chemical properties including cation exchange capacity (CEC, percent total clay, electrical conductivity (EC, base saturation % (BS, pH-H2O, pH-KCl, CaCO3 equivalent, organic carbon (OC, total nitrogen (TN, P-Bray and P-Olsen. Correlative relationships were established among parameters for all horizons of the soils studied as well as among parameters within individual horizons. P-Olsen was highly correlated with OC and TN; simple coefficients of determination (r2 were 0.81 and 0.69, respectively. CaCO3 was highly correlated with pH-H2O and pH-KCl; r2 values were 0.68 and 0.60, respectively. Similar correlations were obtained for pHKCl vs pH-H2O and pH-KCl vs EC, with r2 values of 0.92 and 0.70, respectively. Total nitrogen was also very highly correlated with OC (r2= 0.88. Base saturation was highly correlated with pH-KCl and pH-H2O giving r2 values of 0.62 and 0.64, respectively. When correlative relationships were carried out among parameters within individual horizons very high correlation coefficients were obtained for OC vs TN (r= 0.98 - 1.00, OC vs P-Olsen (r= 0.96 - 0.99, BS vs pH-KCl (r= 0.82 - 1.00, BS vs pH-H2O (r= 0.86 - 1.00. Most of the simple correlation coefficients obtained for EC with pH-KCl and pH-H2O were > 0.81. High correlation coefficients (0.80 - 1.00 were obtained for % clay vs total CEC for most soils studied. Regression relationships developed constitute useful predictive indices for estimating agronomic properties from existing physical and chemical data and soil survey reports of the Bale Mountain area of Ethiopia. This study has demonstrated that statistical correlation can be used to cross-check the quality of analytical data both among horizons of different soil profiles and within individual soil

  10. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  11. Antibiotic-resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow’s milk in the Hawassa area, South Ethiopia

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    Daka Deresse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quarter milk samples from cows were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA and different antibiotic resistant pattern were determined in a cross-sectional study design. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from samples of cow’s milk obtained from Hawassa area and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Method A total of 160 milk (CCP1-CCP5 samples were collected and screened for the presence of S. aureus. Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, DNase, haemolysis and coagulase tests were employed for bacterial identification. Results All the samples were contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 78 S. aureus isolates were obtained during this study. The levels of contamination with S. aureus were higher in milk obtained from CCP1, CCP2, CCP3, CCP4 and CCP5 at Hawassa area farms (18.0%, 25.6%, 27.0%, 21.8% and 7.7% respectively. A large percentage of the S. aureus isolates (25.6% and 27.0% were from CCP2 and CCP3. All strains were resistant to Penicillin G (PG (10 μg, Ampicillin (AP (10 μg, Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (AC (30 μg, Ciprofloxacin (CIP (5 μg, Erythromycin (E (15 μg, Ceftriaxone (CRO (30 μg, Trimethoprime-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ (25 μg Oxacillin (Ox (1 μg and Vancomycin (V (30 μg, 67.9%, 70.9%, 30.9%, 0%, 32.1%, 23.1%, 7.7%, 60.3% and 38.5% respectively. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to CIP, TMP-SMZ, CRO, AC, E and V were low compared to AP, PG and Ox. S. aureus is normally resident in humans; therefore, the S. aureus present in the cow’s milk may have resulted from transmission between the two species, emphasizing the need to improve sanitary conditions in the milking environment.

  12. Undernutrition and associated factors among 24–36-month-old children in slum areas of Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Abie, Dagninet Derebe

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess undernutrition and associated factors among 24–36-month-old children in the slum areas of Bahir Dar city. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 children from May 1 to 26, 2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for analysis. The prevalence of undernutrition was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were also carried out to identify the association between the independent and dependent variables and the predictors of undernutrition, respectively. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant in the final model. Result The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting was 42%, 22.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Independent predictors for stunting were illness in the preceding two weeks, having two children under three years old, taking prelacteal feeding, and early or late initiation of complementary feeding. Illness in the preceding two weeks, lack of latrine utilization, and lack of hand washing practice were independent predictors for underweight. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of undernutrition in this study. Thus, health extension workers and health professionals in Bahir Dar city should educate mothers/caretakers on the health impact of giving prelacteal feeding, hand washing practice, time of initiation of complementary feeding, and birth interval.

  13. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

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    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  14. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  15. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in the southern nations of Ethiopia, 2007–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Hailegiorgis, Yonas; Asha, Anjelo

    2017-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, measles case-based surveillance was introduced in 2004 as one strategy for measles control by laboratory confirmation of suspected cases. In this article, epidemiological distribution of laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported from the Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia between 2007 and 2014, as the region is one of the highly measles affected areas in Ethiopia. Method A serum sample was collected from all measles suspected ca...

  16. The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizachew, Lemma; Smit, G N

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pasture management, season and soil nutrient status on crude protein (CP) and macro mineral concentration of native pasture was studied in the Vertisol areas of the central Ethiopian highland. Soil and herbage samples from 18 continuously grazed (CG) and 12 seasonally grazed (SG) pasture sites were analyzed for N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Soil and dry season CG pasture samples were collected in January and February 2001 (dry season: November-February), while wet season CG and SG pasture samples were collected during September 2001 (wet season: April-October). The Potassium concentration (2.55%) of mixed herbage samples from SG pasture exceeded the K values (1.80%) from CG pasture (P macro minerals concentrations were noted among forage species. The mean CP and K concentrations of herbage from CG pasture were higher (P macro minerals and the corresponding herbage macro mineral concentrations, significant (P macro mineral composition. The levels of CP in CG pasture and that of P and Na in both CG and SG pastures may fall below the requirements of grazing livestock. Resting at critical stages of the growth cycle of the forage species encouraged the recovery of desirable species. For this reason resting of pasture can contribute significantly to the quality of the native pastures of the Vertisols of the central Ethiopian highlands and should be encouraged.

  17. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

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    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  18. Starnet, a fiber optic metropolitan area network with centralized control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacilieri, P.; Caccia, B.; Cardarelli, R.; Carlucci, G. P.; Ciaffoni, O.; Coli, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ghiselli, A.; Martini, A.; Medici, G.; Mirabelli, G.; Pace, E.; Santonico, R.; Trasatti, L.; Valente, E.; Valentini, S.

    1989-12-01

    We present here a project involving a new long distance, high speed, fiber optic network with a passive star topology. The medium access mechanism is based on a centralized controller allowing channel reservation. This controller is connected to each station through an independent pair of optical fibers. It grants access using a deterministic scheme (DAMA/ICCC, demand assignment multiple access by independent centrally controlled channel) by means of a Round Robin algorithm allowing a simple implementation of priority levels and very high data channel efficiency. An overview of the first implementation design is given and some experimental results are presented.

  19. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  20. Some risk factors for reproductive failures and contribution of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats of Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Agonafir, Abebe; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Tilahun, Getachew; Medhin, Girmay; Vitale, Maria; Di Marco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Reproductive failure has a negative impact on animal production, health and welfare and ultimately rural economies. In Ethiopia, the factors affecting small ruminant reproductive efficiency are inadequately investigated. A cross-sectional survey was done from November, 2010 to May, 2011 to investigate risk factors of reproductive failures including Toxoplasma gondii infection. Analysis of 1372 sera (787 sheep and 585 goats) from 409 flocks using ELISA showed high flock (59.7%) and animal (31.8%) level T. gondii seroprevalence. An overall 24.9% (341/1372) annual abortion rate (19.6% in sheep and 32.0% in goats) was recorded. Animal level T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly associated with abortion in Ambo and Ada'a-Liben districts (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 3.76; P = 0.001). Questionnaire survey on 199 households of Ambo, Ada'a-Liben and Fentale districts revealed high flock level abortion (57.5%), still birth (28.9%) and neonatal losses (47.9%), which are significantly different between study districts (Pabortions was significantly higher in goat than in sheep flocks (Incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87; P = 0.012). It is also significantly higher in pastoral (IRR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.83; P = 0.008) and agro-pastoral production systems (IRR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.86; P = 0.001) than in sedentary production system. Prevention of toxoplasmosis, improved husbandry practices and further epidemiological studies to identify causes of reproductive failures are recommended.

  1. Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Sorenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in Käfa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to env

  2. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation technologi

  3. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  4. The Dynamics of People Movement Systems in Central Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zacharias

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain pedestrian facilities, by their nature and the spatial imperatives they impose, exert a powerful role in organizing and promoting the development of associated central places. The need for an expanded public space in the city has found expression in the new public spaces that have emerged in relation to this transport infrastructure within long developed urban environments. In contemporary, advanced urban society, such new spaces need to have polyvalent purposes and to respond to emergent demands. It is proposed that certain characteristics of these pedestrian systems support intensification and multiplication of activities over a particular spatial environment defined by activities. In the three cases—the Underground system of Montreal, Tokyo Station City and the Central Mid-levels Escalator area—common characteristics proposed as important to the achievement of the developmental goals include specific spatial relations, system open-endedness and structural complexity.

  5. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] to Tillage, Nutrient, and Weed Management Practices in Dura Area, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahunegn, Gebreyesus Brhane

    2014-01-01

    The low average grain yield (0.7 ton ha(-1)) of tef in Ethiopia is mainly attributed to low soil fertility, and inappropriate tillage and weeds control practices. Despite this, limited scientific information has been documented so far on their interaction effects on tef crop productivity in northern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the separate and interaction effects of tillage, fertilizer, and weed control practices on tef yield and yield components in the conditions of northern Ethiopia. A two-year study (2008-2009) was conducted using split-split-plot design with three replications. In the main plot, three tillage treatments: conventional tillage (6 times tillage passes) (T1), four times tillage passes (T2), and reduced tillage (single tillage pass at sowing) (T3) were applied. The fertilizer treatments in the subplots were: no fertilizer (F1); 23 kg N ha(-1) (F2); 23 kg N ha(-1) and 10 kg P ha(-1) (F3); 23 kg N ha(-1) and 2.5 ton manure ha(-1) (F4); and 2.5 ton manure ha(-1) (F5). The sub-subplot weed control treatments included farmer weed control practice or hand weeding (W1); 2,4 D at 0.75 kg ha(-1) at five-leaf stage; 2,4 D at 0.75 kg ha(-1) at six-leaf stage; 2,4 D at 1.5 kg ha(-1) at five-leaf stage; and 2,4 D at 1.5 kg ha(-1) at six-leaf stage. This study showed that the separate and interaction effects of tillage, fertilizer, and weed control practices significantly affected tef crop yield and yield components in both crop seasons. T2 increased tef yield by >42% over the other tillage and F3 increased yield by >21% over the other fertilizer treatments. Grain yield increased by >23% due to W1. This study thus suggested that promising treatments such as T2, F3, and W1 should be demonstrated at on-farm fields in order to evaluate their performance at farmers' conditions.

  6. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were digitized...

  7. The Transformations of the Central Area of Nora: the 3D Reconstruction of the Central Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capuzzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of the Central Baths of Nora has required a long and reasoned analysis. On the basis of precise comparisons, a planimetric study of the complex has been first carried out, followed by the more difficult one of the elevations and the roofs, in order to create a model that allows to appreciate the building not only in its structural complexity, but also in the relationship with the spatial context in which it stood. This work represents only a part of a larger project that lead to the creation of a 3D model of the whole central district of Nora.

  8. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  9. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population,relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region,restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this,major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed,such as large population of farmers,great development pressure on agricultural area,serious shortage of agricultural inputs,relatively low education level,backward infrastructure in agricultural area,and relatively backward non-agricultural development. In order to accelerate the rising of central area and to promote the rapid development of central agriculture,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,including increasing the financial support for the construction of agricultural areas,vigorously setting up multi-level rural education,strengthening the infrastructure construction of agricultural areas,consolidating the construction of rural organizations,reinforcing the management function of government,and increasing the research and extension of agricultural science and technology.

  10. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  11. The role of health extension workers in improving utilization of maternal health services in rural areas in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhanyie Araya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. Since 2003 the government of Ethiopia has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community based health workers named health extension workers (HEWs. This initiative has been called the health extension program. Very few studies have investigated the role of these community health workers in improving utilization of maternal health services. Methods A cross sectional survey of 725 randomly selected women with under-five children from three districts in Northern Ethiopia. We investigated women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care, birth assistance, postnatal care, HIV testing and use of iodized salt and compared our results to findings of a previous national survey from 2005. In addition, we investigated the association between several variables and utilization of maternal health services using logistic regression analysis. Results HEWs have contributed substantially to the improvement in women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care and HIV testing. However, their contribution to the improvement in health facility delivery, postnatal check up and use of iodized salt seems insignificant. Women who were literate (OR, 1.85, listened to the radio (OR, 1.45, had income generating activities (OR, 1.43 and had been working towards graduation or graduated as model family (OR, 2.13 were more likely to demonstrate good utilization of maternal health services. A model family is by definition a family which has fulfilled all the packages of the HEP. Conclusions The HEWs seem to have substantial contribution in several aspects of utilization of maternal health services but their insignificant contribution in improving health facility delivery and skilled birth attendance remains an important problem. More effort is needed to improve the effectiveness of HEWs in these regards. For example, strengthening HEWs

  12. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  13. Groundwater discharge areas for Antelope, Kobeh, and Monitor Valleys, Central Nevada, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of a groundwater reconnaissance effort in four valleys in central Nevada and published in 1964. The data...

  14. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1993...

  15. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  16. Effects of land use and land cover on selected soil quality indicators in the headwater area of the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferi, Ermias; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Simane, Belay

    2016-02-01

    Understanding changes in soil quality resulting from land use and land management changes is important to design sustainable land management plans or interventions. This study evaluated the influence of land use and land cover (LULC) on key soil quality indicators (SQIs) within a small watershed (Jedeb) in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine different SQIs. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples with four replications were collected from five main LULC types in the watershed (i.e., natural woody vegetation, plantation forest, grassland, cultivated land, and barren land) and at two elevation classes (upland and midland), and 13 soil properties were measured for each replicate. A factorial (2 × 5) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that LULC and altitude together significantly affected organic matter (OM) levels. However, LULC alone significantly affected bulk density and altitude alone significantly affected bulk density, soil acidity, and silt content. Afforestation of barren land with eucalypt trees can significantly increase the soil OM in the midland part but not in the upland part. Soils under grassland had a significantly higher bulk density than did soils under natural woody vegetation indicating that de-vegetation and conversion to grassland could lead to soil compaction. Thus, the historical LULC change in the Jedeb watershed has resulted in the loss of soil OM and increased soil compaction. The study shows that a land use and management system can be monitored if it degrades or maintains or improves the soil using key soil quality indicators.

  17. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating...... smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  18. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Razowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

  19. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  20. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o

  1. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  2. Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Artist: Rick Guidice Space Colonization - Bernal Sphere - The residential area is in the central sphere. Farming regions are in the 'tires.' Mirrors reflect sunlight into the habitat and farms. The large flat panels radiate away extra heat into space, and panels of solar cells provide electricity. Factories and docks for spaceships are at either end of the long central tube. (NOTE: art printed in Book 'Space Colony - Frontier of the 21st Century by Franklyn M. Branley)

  3. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  4. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health......Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...

  5. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  6. The dispersal of ash during explosive eruptions from central volcanoes and calderas: an underestimated hazard for the central Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Caron, Benoit; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Santacroce, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Giaccio, Biagio [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Via Bolognola 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Paterne, Martine [LSCE, Laboratoire Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Siani, Giuseppe [IDES-UMR 8148, Universite Paris-XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.

  7. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Lindsey, David A.; Bruce, R.M.; Soulliere, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of geologic studies in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness Study Area in the Rio Grande and San Isabel National Forests, south-central Colorado. The area was designated as a wilderness study area under Public Lay 96-560 in 1980. 

  8. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    by the recent rush for large-scale agricultural land acquisition in most developing countries, often described as "land grabbing," because contract farming and outgrower schemes can result in the same advantages as large-scale farming, but avoid its main drawback-namely the displacement of the current land......-users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...... prior to joining sugarcane outgrower schemes, we use genetic matching and propensity score matching to make the two groups comparable based on their observable characteristics. Our results indicate that compulsory participation in an outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks...

  9. Urban Risk Assessment of Lahar Flows in Merapi Volcano (Study Case: Muntilan Urban Area, Central Java)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to analyse probability of lahar flows occurrence in Muntilan urban area, Central Java. By using integrated methods, which involve the numerical simulation program, Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and field verification to produce lahar flows Hazard Map and Risk Map. Muntilan urban area located at western flank of Merapi volcano, and in down stream of Lamat river. The river is Lahar River that is endangering from Merapi vol...

  10. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  11. Stability of rain forest margin areas in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia (Storma)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keßler, P.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The German Research Council (DFG) supports an extensive interdisciplinary research programme to be implemented in the area of the Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. The first phase of the programme is scheduled for 3 years (July 2000-June 2003). Up to four successive phases of 3 years’ dura

  12. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122 461...

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Central Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 175oW-140oW (central...

  14. Collaborative Governance of Protected Areas: Success Factors and Prospects for Hin Nam No National Protected Area, Central Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam de Koning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative governance of protected areas has emerged as a response to failures of, and ethical concerns about, centralised environmental governance. This paper assesses the governance of the Hin Nam No National Protected Area in central Laos to identify the conditions that support successful collaborative governance. Our analysis is based on the argument that collaborative governance is more likely to be successful under conditions that provide incentives for community engagement, formal mechanisms for power sharing, local ownership of resources, downward accountability, mechanisms for building trust, and an adaptive approach to performance assessment and improvement. We show that collaborative governance in Hin Nam No demonstrates the potential for a more decentralised and democratic system of governance based on customary rights, but requires ongoing political will to consolidate and sustain these arrangements. The findings of this study contribute to the growing literature on collaborative governance of protected areas in Asia and elsewhere.

  15. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  16. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  17. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.

  18. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  19. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  20. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional in......Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...

  1. Ideas from the Women’s Liberation Movement during the Period of the Central Soviet Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanjiu; LIU; Junsi; LIANG

    2013-01-01

    During the period of the Central Soviet Area,the women’s liberation movement flourished,greatly improving the living environment and space for women in the Soviet Area,and providing important implication for resolving issues concerning the development of women left behind in the current rural areas. Based on the useful exploration in the women’s liberation movement during the period of the Central Soviet Area, and the field research data concerning the Gannan area,we conduct research on the women’s liberation movement during the period of the Central Soviet Area from two dimensions ( family and society) . At the same time,we conduct analysis on current issues concerning the women left behind: in terms of family dimension,the patriarchal tendency of family interests is the core issue shackling the development of women left behind,extension of the family division of labor further restricts the space for the development of women left behind,and the weakening of family function is the key factor influencing the development of women left behind; in terms of social dimension,system isolation is the direct reason for restricted development of women left behind,weak economic foundation is the root cause of restricted development of women left behind, and the existence of discriminatory attitudes is the deep-seated reason for restricted development of women left behind. From the level of human development,we point out that the first step for the development of women left behind lies in the transformation of ideas. In order to solve issues concerning the women left behind,it is necessary to eliminate the property of individual family as the economic unit of society,and make all the women back to the common cause again.

  2. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  3. Two-dimensional basement modeling of central loop transient electromagnetic data from the central Azraq basin area, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeshwar, P.; Tezkan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Thick sedimentary sequences are deposited in the central area of the Azraq basin in Jordan consisting mostly of hyper-saline clay and various evaporates. These sediment successions form the 10 km × 10 km large Azraq mudflat and are promising archives for a palaeoclimatical reconstruction. Besides palaeoclimatical research, the Azraq area is of tremendous importance to Jordan due to groundwater and mineral resources. The heavy exploitation of groundwater has lead to a drastic decline of the water table and drying out of the former Azraq Oasis. Two 7 and 5 km long transects were investigated from the periphery of the mudflat across its center using a total of 150 central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The scope of the survey was to detect the thickness of sedimentary deposits along both transects and to provide a basis for future drilling activities. We derive a two-dimensional model which can explain the TEM data for all soundings along each profile simultaneously. Previously uncertain depths of geological boundaries were determined along both transects. Particularly the thickness of the deposited mudflat sediments was identified and ranges from 40 m towards the periphery down to approximately 130 m at the deepest location. Besides that, the depth and lateral extent of a buried basalt layer was identified. In the basin center the groundwater is hyper-saline. The lateral extent of the saline water body was determined precisely along both transects. In order to investigate the detectability of the basement below the high conductive mudflat sediments an elaborate two-dimensional modeling study was performed. Both, the resistivity and depth of the basement were varied systematically. The basement resistivity cannot be determined precisely in most zones and may range roughly between 1 and 100 Ωm without deteriorating the misfit. In contrast to that, the depth down to the basement is detected accurately in most zones and along both transects. Varying

  4. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  5. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  6. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a

  8. Features and trends of the environmental change in the arid areas in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU KeFa; ZHANG Qing; CHEN Xi; SUN Li

    2007-01-01

    RS-monitoring index systems of ecological environment changes at a large scale, based on empirical data and trends in environmental change in Central Asia, are developed using NOAA and MODIS data.Moreover, with the help of mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis, the degrees, hazards and distribution extent of various possible ecological problems are discussed, environmental changes in Central Asia in 1990 and 2005 are separately evaluated, and dynamic changes in the environment in Central Asia over a 15-year period are analyzed. The results reveal that during the 15-year period from 1990 to 2005, areas of degenerated vegetation in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan were enlarged by 0.069×105 km2, 0.081×105 km2, 0.296×105 km2, 0.022×105 km2 and 0.112×105 km2, respectively. The ecological environment in Central Asia was in the state of significant degeneration and even deterioration. This study proves that NOAA and MODIS data can be used to successfully monitor the environment and provide useful results.

  9. Phleboviruses associated with sand flies in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachraoui, K; Fares, W; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Beier, J C; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Lamballerie, X de; Chelbi, I; Charrel, R N; Zhioua, E

    2016-06-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in 2014 at two sites located in Central Tunisia, one irrigated and another non-irrigated situated in arid bio-geographical areas. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius namely Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are the most abundant sand fly species in the irrigated site. However, in the non-irrigated site, Phlebotomus papatasi of the Phlebotomus genus is the most abundant species. A total of 3191 sand flies were collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection date, were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the polymerase gene and sequenced. Of a total of 117 pools, 4 were positive, yielding a minimum infection rate of sand flies with phleboviruses of 0.12%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that these phleboviruses belonged to four different clusters corresponding to Toscana virus (TOSV), Saddaguia virus (SADV), Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV) and Utique virus (UTIV). This study provides more evidence that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia which may have led to the emergence of phleboviruses. We report the first detection of TOSV from sand flies collected from Central Tunisia.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Transitional Tube with Constant Sectional Area along Derivative Central Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-bao; TONG Bao-guo; PAN Zi-jian; LI Hai-xing

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, sample square-circular transition tube along straight central route was modeled on CATIA software. The parameters are as follows: let the tube length is L, and the constant cross section area is S, and S = πR^2 = a2, in which R stands for the circle radius on one end, and a the square side length on the other end; set up the coordinate system with OX axis on the central route in which the origin O is on centroid of the square end and assume the cross section size at x as the square shaped with all four comers filleted in radius r which is proportional to x, that is, the linear slope of r is R/L, thus, both values r and square side length ax can be attained on the constant cross section area assumption. Secondly, some sample polygonal-circular transition tubes along straight, circular and helical central route were implemented similarly. Thirdly, numerical analysis of stress and displacement of these tubes were carried out on MSC/PATRAN software which are important to the distribution of turbulent flow and the layout of these transitional tube structures.

  11. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  12. Phenology in central Europe--differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T; Wittenzeller, M; Haeckel, H; Nekovar, J

    2000-08-01

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  13. Report on expedited site characterization of the Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhr, L. [Technos Inc., Miami, FL (United States); Wonder, J.D.; Bevolo, A.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report documents data collection, results, and interpretation of the expedited site characterization (ESC) pilot project conducted from September 1996 to June 1997 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nye County, Nevada. Characterization activities were limited to surface sites associated with deep well drilling and ancillary operations at or near three emplacement well areas. Environmental issues related to the underground nuclear detonation (Project Faultless) and hydrologic monitoring wells were not addressed as a part of this project. The CNTA was divided into four functional areas for the purpose of this investigation and report. These areas include the vicinity of three emplacement wells (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) and one mud waste drilling mud collection location (Central Mud Pit; CMP). Each of these areas contain multiple, potentially contaminated features, identified either from historic information, on-site inspections, or existing data. These individual features are referred to hereafter as ``sites.`` The project scope of work involved site reconnaissance, establishment of local grid systems, site mapping and surveying, geophysical measurements, and collection and chemical analysis of soil and drilling mud samples. Section 2.0 through Section 4.0 of this report provide essential background information about the site, project, and details of how the ESC method was applied at CNTA. Detailed discussion of the scope of work is provided in Section 5.0, including procedures used and locations and quantities of measurements obtained. Results and interpretations for each of the four functional areas are discussed separately in Sections 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. These sections provide a chronological presentation of data collected and results obtained, followed by interpretation on a site-by-site basis. Key data is presented in the individual sections. The comprehensive set of data is contained in appendices.

  14. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  15. Glacier area changes in the Rio Olivares catchment, Central Andes 1955-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmros, Jeppe.; Wilson, Ryan; Mernild, Sebastian; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-05-01

    Here, we present a new glacier inventory for the Rio Olivares catchment (531 km2), Central Chilean Andes (33°14`44 S, 70°07`26 V). Area changes for 145 glaciers were analyzed for the period 1955 through 2013 based on terrestrial photogrammetry, aerial photography, and satellite imagery. The results show that glacier area not including rock glaciers reduced by ~18 % - from 93.8 (1955) to 75.9 km2 (2013), equivalent to an estimated volume loss of 40 % (2.9 km3) based on volume-area scaling functions. Rock glacier area increased from 10.4 (1955) to 10.7 km2 (2013). Additionally, a detailed area, hypsometry, and elevation time series analysis for the five largest glaciers in the catchment was conducted, showing that terminus positions ascended by an average of 351 ± 8 meters and slope increased 0.7° on average. A comparison between changes in glacier area and variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation index indicates a significant climatic link.

  16. Central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine microinjected into ventrolateral medullary autonomic areas of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2016-09-01

    Elevated L-homocysteine concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are related to cardiovascular and neuronal diseases, and could contribute to disease development. However, the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine in two important autonomic regulating areas remain unknown: the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), including pre-sympathetic neurons, and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including interneurons projecting to pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of L-homocysteine microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM areas on changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats, as well as the influence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors on the central actions of L-homocysteine. L-Homocysteine solutions were microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM, which were defined according to pressor and depressor responses to L-glutamate microinjections, respectively. ABP and HR increased in the RVLM and decreased in the CVLM after microinjection with L-homocysteine, similar to L-glutamate, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting mediation of EAA receptors. Prior microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) iEAA receptor antagonist MK801, but not the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX, abolished the observed responses to L-homocysteine in both the RVLM and CVLM. These results indicate the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine via MK801-sensitive receptors of the medullary autonomic neurons in the rat RVLM and CVLM. It remains unknown if the central cardiovascular actions are related to cardiovascular diseases after endogenously and locally augmented L-homocysteine production by disordered metabolism. Further studies on functional significance of L-homocysteine may provide some clue to understand its toxic mechanism.

  17. Discovery of eclogite and its geological significance in Qiangtang area, central Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cai; ZHAI Qingguo; DONG Yongsheng; HUANG Xiaopeng

    2006-01-01

    Eclogite is first discovered from Qiangtang area, central Tibet, which occurs as a lens in the high-pressure metamorphic belt comprising glaucophane-muscovite schist and garnet-muscovite schist, along the south margin of Lungmu Co-Shuanghu Paleo-Tethys suture. A glaucophane 40Ar/39Ar age of 220 Ma and a phengite 40Ar/39Ar age of 221.9 Ma have been obtained from blueschists associated with eclogite. The rock consists of garnet, omphacite, amphibole, phengite, and rutile, etc, and the jadeite content in omphacite ranges from 32.7% to 38.95%. It is estimated that the temperature of the eclogite is <500℃ and pressure varies in the range of 1.56―2.35 GPa. The discovery of Qiangtang ecologite further supports that there is a suture zone of Indo- Chinese epoch in central Qiangtang area, and is very important for discssing the evolution of the paleo-ocean and paleo-plate tectonics in this area.

  18. Suitability of Wind Potential in Some Areas of Central Moldavian Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Apostol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period, the most important element in sustaining and developing the society, under all its aspects, is represented by energy. Due to the fact that in society consumption is increasing, the actual preoccupation is to reduce the energy consumption and also to find clean, alternative sources to produce energy. The theme of this article is directed towards the concepts of increased availability and energetic independency and concerns estimations over the wind potential in certain areas of Central Moldavian Plateau. For this purpose there were analyzed genetic factors of the wind in the analyzed area and those parameters of wind speed, useful to the justification of the wind potential study. The obtained results confirm the fact that in Central Moldavian Plateau, in many areas, especially those of high altitude, are favorable conditions to use wind energy. Along with the remoteness from the Eastern Carpathians and the proximity of the Black Sea, the conditions become more and more favorable. Unfortunately, the lack of meteorological stations on the top of hills (besides the Barnova station, situated in the woods. Increased wind speed in the meaning of what was stated, was approved only on high valleys and upper terraces in the main valleys, especially on the Prut.

  19. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  20. Paleoclimate from Tree Rings of Picea morrisonicola in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Wright, W. E.; Wei, K.; Cook, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost no dendrochronology has been reported internationally from Taiwan, despite the existence of many dendrochronologically appropriate tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the regional paleoclimate using a multi-century tree ring-width chronology developed from Picea morrisonicola ( the endemic Taiwan Spruce), a subtropical species growing in the Ta-Ta-Chia subalpine mountain areas of central Taiwan. Picea morrisonicola in Taiwan is the only member of the Picea genus whose distribution crosses the Tropic of Cancer. Statistical analysis of the climate signal demonstrates that both the temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth.

  1. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  2. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p

  3. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  4. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  5. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  6. A Probabilistic Estimation of Strong Earthquakes' Occurrence in Aeghion Area, Central Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros M. Tsapanos; Odysseus Ch. Galanis

    2003-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of strong ( Mw ≥ 6.0) earthquakes in the area of Aeghion(Central Greece) is determined by Bayes statistics. A catalogue of strong shocks around thecity of Aeghion since 1794 is used. For the purposes of our study two distributions ofearthquakes' occurrence are considered. In applying the Bayes approach, a Poissondistribution, which is a memoryless one, is assumed. In order to reinforce the result a time-dependent model (normal distribution) is also used. An effort is made to find the probabilitiesof earthquake occurrence for successive decades are determined by both distributions. Theestimated probability for a strong earthquake to occur during 1996 ~ 2005 in relation to theBayes approach shows that the year 2004 is the most likely for this future event. A pattern isalso revealed which suggests that the earthquakes in the examined area occurred in clusters (intime). The strong earthquakes in these clusters occurred in quadruplets.

  7. Surface Area Variability of a North-Central Tanzanian Crater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Higgins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A history of modern (1973–2015 surface area variability for Lake Basotu in north-central Tanzania has been reconstructed using archived Landsat images from the dry season between June and October. This record was compared to local weather data as well as larger scale weather patterns. The lake has been in a state of decline interrupted by major flood events since the beginning of the satellite record. From 1973 to 1997, the lake area was between 0.97 km2 and 4.28 km2. Lake extent abruptly increased to 13.86 km2 in 1998, when a co-occurrence of El Niño and a positive Indian Ocean Dipole led to extensive flooding. It is hypothesized that local agricultural practices leading to soil erosion and subsequent basin sedimentation have most likely increased the sensitivity of Lake Basotu to climatic fluctuations.

  8. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  9. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rice growing area of central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Baliraine, Frederick N; Musani, Solomon; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme and surrounding areas in Central Kenya, under different agricultural systems. This study was motivated by observed differences in malaria transmission indices of An. arabiensis within the scheme compared with adjacent nonirrigated areas. Agricultural practices can modify local microclimate and influence the number and diversity of larval habitats and in so doing may occasion subpopulation differentiation. Thirty samples from each of the three study sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Seven microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism but revealed no genetic differentiation (FST = 0.006, P = 0.312) and high gene flow (Nm = 29-101) among the three populations. Genetic bottleneck analysis showed no indication of excess heterozygosity in any of the populations. There was high frequency of rare alleles, suggesting that An. arabiensis in the study area has a high potential of responding to selective pressures from environmental changes and vector control efforts. These findings imply that An. arabiensis in the study area occurs as a single, continuous panmictic population with great ability to adapt to human-imposed selective pressures.

  10. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action.

  11. Soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Borie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic ecology is an emerging and poorly known field of research. Soundscape has been used to infer the behavior of several species in different environments and can serve as a reliable indicator of the habitat type and quality; also, it is believed that it is an important factor for larvae orientation in settlement areas. We used the passive acoustic method to evaluate the soundscape of a management and exploitation area of benthic resources, a rocky reef area in central Chile. It was possible to hear a continuous cracking sound during recording and underwater observations. We detected two distinct frequency bands with similar parameters during the night and day, a band between 90 and 300 Hz, which corresponded to the effects of sea waves (geophony, and a frequency band with a range of 1,500 to 2,700 Hz (biophony, with a fundamental frequency of 2,070 Hz. Both bands had similar energy (~88.0 dB re: 1V/µPa. These results show the relevant acoustic activity in the area, which may have important ecological implications for the recruitment of commercially important benthic resources.

  12. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  13. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance.

  14. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines......, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  15. Ethiopia: The Search for Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    University, op. cit., p.70. 13 ••"> The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic which is spoken by about half of the population. However, in the...language, Amharic , and English. About 907c of the Ethiopian people are engaged in agriculture. The remaining are principally functionaries of the...alphabet, and the unfamiliarity by about half of the population with the official state language, Amharic . Although considerable progress has been

  16. Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    drought that affected most of the countries of the African Sahel . The late 1970s again brcught signs of inteasifying drought. By the early 1980s, large...minerals. In the nortY, the Great Rift Vdlley broadens into a fhnnel-shaped saline plain. The Denakil D)epression, a large, triangle-shaped basin that...hot, arid, and treeless strip of coastal lard six- teen to eighty kilometers wide. These coastal hills drain inland into saline lakes, from which

  17. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio...

  18. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  19. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  20. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  1. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  3. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  7. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  9. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  10. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  11. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  12. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  13. Sr isotopes and U series radionuclides in the Sangemini area (Central Italy: Hydrogeology implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strontium isotopic ratio (expressed as 87Sr/86Sr of groundwater represents a useful method for studying and understanding the groundwater circulations, also, the U and Ra isotopic compositions can vary as function of the groundwater residence time. This paper reports an evaluation of the probable recharge area of the Sangemini mineral water springs (Terni-Umbria Central Italy and an estimate of the residence time of the aquifer by coupling Sr and U series isotopic systematics. For this study have been analyzed four water sample for the isotope ratio of 87Sr/86Sr, and eleven samples, shallow waters and groundwaters, for U and Ra, furthermore were determined the values of isotopic ratio for sample of typical rocks of the area. The results of this study allow to identify: a recharge area in a restricted sector of the Meso-Cenozoic carbonates a longer and more effective water/rock interaction in the Quaternary series. U and Ra recoil models allow to estimate a groundwater residence time of about 350 years and a total water volume whose value (64*106 m3 agrees with the limited extension of the aquifer. The extension of the aquifer was constrained by comparing Sr isotopic composition of waters and local geological formations. Groundwaters seem mainly to circulate in clayey sandy Quaternary series characterized by low redox conditions.

  14. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  15. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed E

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  16. Structural and hydrogeological features of Pleistocene shear zones in the area of Rome (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faccenna

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The last tectonic episode observed in the Latium Tyrrhenian margin (Central Italy, few km cast of Rome, is represented by a set of middIe-upper Pleistocene N-S shear zones, characterised by complex geometric and kinematic setting. The easternmost of these shear zones displays a strike-slip component of motion and is located at the boundary between the Apennine carbonate chain and the volcanic areas. The distribution of travertine deposits and hydrothermal springs suggests that this fault zone acts as an impermeable barrier for lateral flow derived from superficial karstic circuit, and as a preferential upwelling surface for deep hydrothermal fluids. We propose that high fluid pressure could develop inside these fault zones favouring the reactivation of buried pre-existing crustal discontinuities and the local re-orientation of the stress field, as testified by the geometry and the kinematics of the surface fault pattern.

  17. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  18. Spike timing and the coding of naturalistic sounds in a central auditory area of songbirds

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, B D; Bialek, W; Doupe, A J; Wright, Brian D.; Sen, Kamal; Bialek, William; Doupe, Allison J.

    2002-01-01

    In nature, animals encounter high dimensional sensory stimuli that have complex statistical and dynamical structure. Attempts to study the neural coding of these natural signals face challenges both in the selection of the signal ensemble and in the analysis of the resulting neural responses. For zebra finches, naturalistic stimuli can be defined as sounds that they encounter in a colony of conspecific birds. We assembled an ensemble of these sounds by recording groups of 10-40 zebra finches, and then analyzed the response of single neurons in the songbird central auditory area (field L) to continuous playback of long segments from this ensemble. Following methods developed in the fly visual system, we measured the information that spike trains provide about the acoustic stimulus without any assumptions about which features of the stimulus are relevant. Preliminary results indicate that large amounts of information are carried by spike timing, with roughly half of the information accessible only at time resol...

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area CAU No. 417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to US Highway 6, about 15 kilometers (10 miles) northeast of Warm Springs. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purpose of this test was to gauge the seismic effects of relatively large, high-yield detonations completed outside of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test was also used to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 1994c).

  20. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  1. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  2. Climatic patterns and extreme rainfalls on coastal areas in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, M. C.; Tarragoni, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the extreme values analysis to estimate the rainfall return levels for some Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas in central Italy. Two approaches are mainly considered: the first one is based on the maximum annual daily rainfall series (1-day, 2-day and 3-day) for which suitable probability distributions are fitted, whereas the second one is based on the series of peaks over annual thresholds (POT) for which the best fitting Generalized Pareto distribution is identified. Spectral analysis and appropriate tests for stationarity and homogeneity are run in order to verify the hypothesis under which the analysis performed is valid. From the density plots and the parameter estimates of the fitted distributions to the various annual maximum rainfall series we can conclude that there is a different pattern in the occurrence of extreme events for the western coast with respect to the eastern coast. Specifically, on the Tyrrhenian side extreme rainfalls are more likely to happen in correspondence of longer time spans (i.e. 3-day series) as the effect of cumulated stable rainfalls over time. On the opposite, for the Adriatic coast extremes are more frequent in shorter time spans (1-day). A vector autoregressive model is then estimated and through a causal ordering the identifying restrictions are set. The impulse response analysis shows a lag in the transmission of rainfall shocks of the central Adriatic coast to the Tyrrhenian one. This paper is prepared as a background paper to the SECOA N1.2 Report: Assessment of frequency-magnitude of extreme rainfall events and flooding. Project SECOA (Solutions for Environmental contrast in Coastal Areas) is funded by the EU Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013).

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  4. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele Dawit G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

  6. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  8. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of...

  9. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area, an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500. Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic, and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60. The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  10. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  11. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  12. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  13. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  14. MINERALIZATION CONTROLS AND PETROGENESIS OF THE RARE METAL PEGMATITES OF NASARAWA AREA, CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Akintola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pegmatites of Nasarawa area occur in the central part of Nigeria. They are mainly hosted by phyllonites in a NNE-SSW trending shear zone lying east of some foliated Pan-African and West of Jurassic Afu Complex Younger Granites. A geological mapping of the area was followed by petrographic and mineralogical studies of selected rock and mineral samples. A total of 72 samples consisting of 25 rocks, 22 feldspars and 25 white micas were analyzed for various elements.

    The pegmatites are peraluminous and are genetically linked to the late Pan-African leucogranite with the shear zone. The Pan-African granites have very low REE abundances and non-chondritic ratios of Zr/Hf and Y/Ho and low Nb/Ta ratios indicating crystallization from a liquid-rich melt. Barren pegmatites are closely associated with the primitive hornblende biotite Pan-African synorogenic granites while Sn- Nb - Ta mineralized granites are correspondingly enriched in pegmatites spatially associated with Pan-African synorogenic granites with enhanced values of rare lithophile elements such as Rb, Cs, Mn, Sn and Nb-Ta. The primary control of rare metal mineralization in the pegmatites is the composition of the source rock since the Ta-Nb-Sn-Li-Be-W mineralized pegmatites crystallized from fluid (H2O-B-P-F rich melts. It is hereby proposed that the late Pan-African tectonic granite which is parental to the highly mineralized pegmatites in this area originated from anatexis of undepleted mica-rich metasediments at depth, followed by a magmatic fractionation of the fluid rich melt as it ascended through reactivated ancient fractures. The heat for the partial melting might have been supplied mainly by the reactivation of ancient fractures, which controlled the emplacement of the fertile granites and the related pegmatites

  15. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-03-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  16. Fluorination of edges and central areas of monolayer graphene by SF6 and CHF3 plasma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjiang; Qiu, Caiyu; Zhou, Haiqing; Yang, Huaichao; Yu, Fang; Sun, Lianfeng

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we report the fluorination of edges and central areas of monolayer graphene by SF6 and CHF3 plasma treatments. After fluorination by SF6 plasma, G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy for the edges have upshifts, which are much bigger than the upshifts for central areas of monolayer graphene. For the intensity ratio of I(2D)/I(G), it becomes smaller after SF6 plasma treatments and magnitude of change is similar for the edges and that of the central areas. These observations indicate that the fluorination by SF6 plasma treatments can induce p-doping to graphene, which is more significant for the edges comparing to the central areas. Moreover, the ratio of I(D)/I(G) becomes larger both for the edges and the central areas. For CHF3 plasma treatments, although similar results can be obtained, the p-doping to graphene is less and more defects are introduced comparing to SF6 plasma treatment. Therefore, for fluorination of monolayer graphene, SF6 plasma is better than CHF3 plasma.

  17. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Anteneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8% and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia

  18. Contemporary stress field in the area of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Mariucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We update the last present-day stress map for Italy relatively to the area of 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy taking into account a large number of earthquakes occurred from August 24 to October 3, 2016. In particular in this paper, we discuss the new stress data from crustal earthquake focal mechanisms selecting those with Magnitude ≥ 4.0; at the same time, we revise the borehole data, analyze the stratigraphic profiles and the relative sonic logs in 4 deep wells located close to the Amatrice sequence along the Apennine belt and toward east along the Adriatic foredeep. From these data we consider the P-wave velocity trend with depth and estimate rock density following an empirical relationship. Then we calculate the overburden stress magnitude for each well. The new present-day stress indicators confirm the presence of prevalent normal faulting regime and better define the local stress field in the area, highlighting a slight rotation from NE-SW to ENE-WSW of extension. The analysis evidences that the lithostatic gradient gradually changes from ~26 MPa/km in the belt to less than 23 MPa/km along the Adriatic foredeep. Finally, at a depth of 5 km we estimate the vertical stress magnitude varying from 130 MPa to 114 moving from the Apennine belt to the Adriatic foredeep. Although the wells are very close each other they show different P wave velocities from the belt to the foredeep with values ~7km/s and ~4 km/s at 5 km depth, respectively.

  19. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  20. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  1. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  2. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  3. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  4. Field Features And Mode Of Emplacement Of Pegmatites Of Keffi Area North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into 1 Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and 2 Granitoids orthogneisses hosted pegmatites and the granites into 1 the Bakin Ayini biotite granites 2 the Angwan Madugu biotite-muscovite granites and 3 the Sabongida biotite-muscovite granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from 400-2000m and 2-20m respectively some are huge isolated sill-like and flat-lying whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow ranging in length 40-1000m and width 1-4m crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones which suggest passive emplacement

  5. Hydrogeochemical investigations in a drained lake area: the case of Xynias basin (Central Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charizopoulos, Nikos; Zagana, Eleni; Stamatis, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    In Xynias drained Lake Basin's area, central Greece, a hydrogeochemical research took place including groundwater sampling from 30 sampling sites, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis. Groundwaters present Ca-Mg-HCO3 as the dominant hydrochemical type, while their majority is mixed waters with non-dominant ion. They are classified as moderately hard to hard and are characterized by oxidizing conditions. They are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, siderite, and magnesite and oversaturated in respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. Nitrate concentration ranges from 4.4 to 107.4 mg/L, meanwhile 13.3 % of the samples exceed the European Community (E.C.) drinking water permissible limit. The trace elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cd present values of 30, 80, 57, and 50 %, respectively, above the maximum permissible limit set by E.C. Accordingly, the majority of the groundwaters are considered unsuitable for drinking water needs. Sodium adsorption ratio values (0.04-3.98) and the electrical conductivity (227-1200 μS/cm) classify groundwaters as suitable for irrigation uses, presenting low risk and medium soil alkalization risk. Factor analysis shows that geogenic processes associated with the former lacustrine environment and anthropogenic influences with the use of fertilizers are the major factors that characterized the chemical composition of the groundwaters.

  6. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  7. Opportunities and constraints of adopting market governance in protected areas in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona M. Otto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the transition from the traditional hierarchical governance of natural resources in Central and Eastern Europe towards the new forms of market governance of protected areas, including the introduction of fees and compensation. Our conceptual framework suggests that markets can be effective in governing transactions that involve low asset specificity and low frequency of disturbances. However, the introduction of markets should be accompanied by appropriate rules of market organization that particularly regulate their monitoring and impose sanctions in cases of mismanagement. The analysis of market governance in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia reveals that in the face of decreasing funding for biodiversity protection and state budgetary problems, markets are more a necessity than a means to improve resource management. Although markets should complement rather than substitute traditional forms of governance, for certain types of transactions, markets are useful. They can be effectively implemented, provided that property rights are recognized and legal settings that regulate the monitoring and enforcement of market rules are set up.

  8. Global Cardiovascular Risk in Women from a Health Area in Central Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suilbert Rodríguez Blanco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: global cardiovascular risk is a person’s probability of developing an adverse cardiovascular event of atherosclerotic origin over a defined period of time. Cuban women have surpassed men in mortality due to heart disease. Objective: to identify the global cardiovascular risk in women from doctor’s offices number 9 and 10 of the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Central Havana municipality from August 2012 to August 2013. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in women aged 35 to 74 years from an area of the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic during August 2012-August 2013. Global cardiovascular risk was identified by means of the following variables: age, systolic blood pressure, smoking, presence of diabetes mellitus and body mass index; non-laboratory-based charts developed by Gaziano were used. Results: the most frequent risk factors were: smoking, increased body mass index and elevated systolic blood pressure. Global cardiovascular risk was low in 74.6 % of patients. Conclusions: global cardiovascular risk increases with age, presence of diabetes mellitus and increased body mass index.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi,

  10. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  11. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  12. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  13. Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia : a system of knowledge in danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes some findings of research on plant names and plant use of the Suri people (more widely known by outsiders as "Surma"), a relatively isolated group of agro-pastoralists in the border area of Southwest Ethiopia and Sudan. The research was carried out as part of a long-term anth

  14. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the co

  15. Competing practices of drinking and power : alcoholic 'hegemonism'in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and dilemmas of changing alcohol use among the Surma, a group of lowland agropastoralists in Maji, southern Ethiopia. The area under discussion is inhabited by indigenous agriculturalists, descendants of northern immigrants of mixed origin, and Surma and Me'en agropast

  16. Nutritional aspects in the EDGET project : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; report of a mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van M.

    2014-01-01

    A mission was implemented to advise SNV project management and project staff on how to integrate human nutritional considerations into the EDGET project that aims at increasing the production of milk and dairy products in selected areas in Ethiopia. The EDGET project already also identified the obje

  17. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  18. Literacy and Development: A Study of Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostrom, Margareta; Sjostrom, Rolf

    The Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia, begun in 1962 and concentrated in rural areas for the benefit of adults, was evaluated in a study of 466 program participants and 66 additional adult villagers. The study focused on student achievement, teaching methods, benefits experienced by participants, and the literacy campaign's role…

  19. The Emergence of the National Language in Ethiopia: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Mulugeta

    Modern Ethiopia has made progress that has altered the status and functions of its various languages. With modernization, the reasons for and means of interethnic contact have multiplied, creating the need for a common language. Amharic, once confined to a rather small area, has spread geographically and grown in status in the last thousand years,…

  20. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  1. MINERALIZATION POTENTIALS OF PEGMATITES IN THE NASARAWA AREA OF CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintola O. F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatites in Nasarawa area of Central Nigeria lie within a fracture-controlled east-north-east trending rare metal pegmatite belt closely associatedwith late PanAfrican peraluminous granites inNigeria. Trace elements of feldspars andmuscovites of pegmatites inNasarawa area of CentralNigeriawere analyzed to determine the raremetalsmineralization potentials of the pegmatites. The minerals show fractionation even within units of complex mineralizedpegmatites as indicated by the wide ranges of K/Rb in Na-feldspars (albites, muscovites and K-feldspars and the wide range of K/Tl in the latter two minerals. Cs, Rb and Tl and the rare earth elements (REEs Ce, La, Pr and Y are enriched in the K-bearing muscovites and K-feldspars; K-feldspars have the highest average values of Tl, Ce, La, Pr and Y while the muscovites have the highest average values of Sn, Nb, Ga, F and Zn. Average values of Ta, Sr, Ba,Wand Zr are highest in the albites,which also have the lowest averageNb/Ta ratio. This is an indication that these elementsare enriched along lateNa-rich raremetalmineralizing fluids. The rare alkalisRb and Cs and Tl are positively correlated with the rare lithophile elements (Ta, REEs, Pb, Bi and Y, in both the pegmatite K-feldspars and muscovites, strongly positively correlated with Sn in the muscovites but negatively correlated with Nb in the minerals. Inthe pegmatitic albites, Nb has very strong positive correlations with Ta (0.868 and Zr (0.847, which is indicative of the incorporations/substitution of these elements in the crystal lattice of the ore minerals. There is a general enrichment of the rare elements towards themiddle and inner zones of the complexmineralized pegmatites. Fluorine, phosphorus and boron-rich fluids played significant roles in the magmatic complexation/fractionation and concentration of Sn-Ta-Li-Cs-Be in the albitized zones of the highly evolved pagmatites.K/Rb versusCs in theK-feldspars classify the pegmatites into

  2. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  3. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  4. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jia-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR, human blood index (HBI, and the parous rates (M. Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of

  5. Agricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of EthiopiaAgricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yihun, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Title of the PhD Thesis: ‘Agricultural Water Productivity Optimization for Irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water Scarce Semi-Arid region of Ethiopia’ Yenesew Mengiste Yihun In water stressed regions such as the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, increasing Crop Water Productivity (CWP)

  6. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  7. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Consuelo López

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia.A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181. PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181, discriminated as 23.2% (42/181 that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181 for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181 for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181 of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay.This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E. moshkovskii may have.

  9. Characterization of short white matter fiber bundles in the central area from diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magro, Elsa [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Cavale Blanche, Service de Neurochirurgie, Pole Neurolocomoteur, Brest (France); Moreau, Tristan; Gibaud, Bernard [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); Seizeur, Romuald [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Cavale Blanche, Service de Neurochirurgie, Pole Neurolocomoteur, Brest (France); INSERM UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Morandi, Xavier [INSERM U 1099/Universite de Rennes 1, Equipe MediCIS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes Cedex (France); CHU Pontchaillou, Service de Neurochirurgie, Rennes (France)

    2012-11-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography allow studying white matter fiber bundles in the human brain in vivo. Electrophysiological studies and postmortem dissections permit improving our knowledge about the short association fibers connecting the pre- and postcentral gyri. The aim of this study was first to extract and analyze the features of these short fiber bundles and secondly to analyze their asymmetry according to the subjects' handedness. Ten right-handed and ten left-handed healthy subjects were included. White matter fiber bundles were extracted using a streamline tractography approach, with two seed regions of interest (ROI) taken from a parcellation of the pre- and postcentral gyri. This parcellation was achieved using T1 magnetic resonance images (MRI) and semi-automatically generated three ROIs within each gyrus. MRI tracks were reconstructed between all pairs of ROIs connecting the adjacent pre- and postcentral gyri. A quantitative analysis was performed on the number of tracks connecting each ROI pair. A statistical analysis studied the repartition of these MRI tracks in the right and left hemispheres and as a function of the subjects' handedness. The quantitative analysis showed an increased density of MRI tracks in the middle part of the central area in each hemisphere of the 20 subjects. The statistical analysis showed significantly more MRI tracks for the left hemisphere, when we consider the whole population, and this difference was presumably driven by the left-handers. These results raise questions about the functional role of these MRI tracks and their relation with laterality. (orig.)

  10. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  11. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  12. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    Two infiltration trenches were constructed in a densely built-up area in central Copenhagen and equipped with on-line sensors measuring rain, runoff flow from the connected surfaces and water level in the trenches. The paper describes the field site, the measuring system and the results from an i...

  13. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  14. 78 FR 35957 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Central Yukon Planning Area Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Planning Area Alaska and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... on issues, planning criteria, and management questions and concerns related to the Central Yukon RMP... wildlife management. 8. The RMP will be consistent with the Bureau's H-1601-1 Land Use Planning...

  15. Genetically divergent types of the wheat leaf fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a center of tetraploid wheat diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. ...

  16. Groundwater Discharge Area for the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  17. Evapotranspiration Units for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  18. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  19. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  20. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  2. Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Ali Sabieh area (Republic of Djibouti and Ethiopia): constraints on the mechanism of Aden ridge propagation into southeastern Afar during the last 10 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, L.; Quidelleur, X.; Coulié, E.; Courtillot, V.; Gilder, S.; Manighetti, I.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Tapponnier, P.; Kidane, T.

    2004-07-01

    A new detailed palaeomagnetic study of Tertiary volcanics, including extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, helps constrain the deformation mechanisms related to the opening processes of the Afar depression (Ethiopia and Djibouti). Much of the Afar depression is bounded by 30 Myr old flood basalts and floored by the ca 2 Myr old Stratoid basalts, and evidence for pre-2 Ma deformation processes is accessible only on its borders. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of several mineral phases from rhyolitic samples from the Ali Sabieh block shows indistinguishable ages around 20 Myr. These ages can be linked to separation of this block in relation to continental breakup. Different amounts of rotation are found to the north and south of the Holhol fault zone, which cuts across the northern part of the Ali Sabieh block. The southern domain did not record any rotation for the last 8 Myr, whereas the northern domain experienced approximately 12 +/- 9° of clockwise rotation. We propose to link this rotation to the counter-clockwise rotation observed in the Danakil block since 7 Ma. This provides new constraints on the early phases of rifting and opening of the southern Afar depression in connection with the propagation of the Aden ridge. A kinematic model of propagation and transfer of extension within southern Afar is proposed, with particular emphasis on the previously poorly-known period from 10 to 4 Ma.

  3. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  4. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Ketema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/μl was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/μl. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/μl. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

  6. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  7. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  8. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  9. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  10. Structural interpretation of seismic data of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area, Northern Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2016-12-01

    The 2D and 3D seismic data are interpreted to evaluate the subsurface geologic structures in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri area that occupy the northern central part of the Gulf of Suez. The 2D seismic data are used for determination of the structural configurations and the tectonic features which is analyzed through the study of interpretation with the available geologic data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting tops (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations) are represented. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area is an asymmetrical NW-SE trending anticlinal feature dissected by a set of NW-SE fault system (clysmic). Added, the Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where the area is of NE dip and affected by severe faulting through varying stratigraphic levels.

  11. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Appleton area, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven P.

    1976-01-01

    Supplemental irrigation of well-drained sandy soils has prompted an evaluation of ground water in the Appleton area. Glacial drift aquifers are the largest source of ground water. The surficial outwash sand and gravel is the most readily available and the most areally extensive drift aquifer, and it underlies much of the sandy soil area. Saturated thickness of the outwash is more than 80 feet (24 m) in places, and potential well yields may exceed 1,200 gal/min (76 1/s) in some areas. In about 17 percent of the area, yields of more than 300 gal/min (19 1/s) are obtainable.

  12. Mangrove plants in coastal area of Central Java: 2. Floristic composition and vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSUMO WINARNO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to observe the vegetation composition and structure of mangrove plants on southern and northern coast of Central Java Province. This research was conducted in July till December 2003, at 20 sites. Laboratory assay was done in Laboratory of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and Central Laboratory of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University (UNS Surakarta. Data was collected by using belt transect method, from coast line into landward. The result indicated that in common, the trees strata which also have shoots strata and strata of germs (seedlings; and bushes strata which also have strata of germs (seedlings, if they were compared to the same species then their important value tend to be stable. So it was predictable that in the disturbance condition, the preservation of mangrove was guaranteed, as long as there was no great change on a broad scale.

  13. New data on Berriasian biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and sedimentology in the Belogorsk area (Central Crimea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadiev, V. V.; Baraboshkin, E. Yu.; Bagaeva, M. I.; Bogdanova, T. N.; Guzhikov, A. Yu.; Manikin, A. G.; Piskunov, V. K.; Platonov, E. S.; Savel'eva, Yu. N.; Feodorova, A. A.; Shurekova, O. V.

    2015-03-01

    The most complete composite Berriasian bio- and magnetostratigraphic section of central Crimea is characterized for the first time with a description of the contact between the carbonate Bedenekyr and terrigenous Bechku formations. The section contains all the standard ammonite zones: jacobi, occitanica, and boissieri. The Malbosiceras chaperi Beds are attributed to the occitanica Zone. The Berriasian section is characterized by six foraminiferal assemblages, ostracods (Costacythere khiamii-Hechticythere belbekensis and Costaythere drushchitzi-Reticythere marfenini beds), and dinocysts (Phobercysta neocomica Beds). The magnetostratigraphic section contains analogs of Chrons M17 and M16 reliably correlated with ammonite zones. On the basis of paleomagnetic data, the Berriasian section of central Crimea is correlated with coeval sections of the Mediterranean Region. The sedimenological analysis confirms accumulation of Berriasian sediments mostly in shallow shelf environments of the carbonate platform.

  14. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  15. Estimating the surface area of non-convex particles from central planar sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; H.Rafati, Ali; Kiderlen, Markus

    . In this section plane a modification of the area tangent count method is used. The Morse type estimator generalizes Cruz-Orive's pivotal estimator for convex objects to non-convex objects. The advantages of the Morse type estimator over existing local surface area estimators are illustrated in a simulation study......In this paper, we present a new surface area estimator in local stereology. This new estimator is called the 'Morse type surface area estimator' and is obtained using a two-stage sampling procedure. First a plane section through a fixed reference point of a three-dimensional structure is taken....... The Morse type estimator is well suited for computer assisted confocal microscopy and we demonstrate its practicability in a biological application: the surface area estimation of the nuclei of giant-cell glioblastoma from microscopy images. We also present an interactive software that allows the user...

  16. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  17. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  18. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  19. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  20. Magnetic interpretation of north Gebel El Shallul area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Khameis

    2010-06-01

    The interpretation of the basement tectonic map of the area indicated the presence of a set of unexposed subsurface basic dykes running generally in NNW–SSE direction controlling the courses of major wadis in the study area. This set of NNW–SSE basic dykes are dissected by a NE–SW fault system. These two sets of fault systems were found to be matched well with that obtained from the Landsat image and geological map. It was found that the pronounced NNW direction is a predominant structural trend controlling the structural framework of the area.

  1. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients.

  2. Heat flow and its coalbed gas effects in the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield, eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the present geo-temperature field and the thermal conductivity (K) of 62 samples from the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield in eastern China, we calculated the heat flow and plotted its distribution map. The results show that the average heat flow in the research area is about 60 mW/m2. It is different from other major energy basins in the North China Plate, but has close relationship with the regional geology and the deep geological setting. The heat flow is comparatively higher in the southeastern, central, and northwestern areas than in the northeastern and southwestern areas. The geo-temperature distribution map of the bottom interface of the Permian coal measure was drawn by calculating its embedding depth and geo-temperature gradients. Finally, the present gas generation condition of the Permian coal measure is discussed by associating with the temperature condition, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro), the metamorphism of coal and tectonic-burial evolution. The study indicates all present characters of the Permian coal measure, such as lower present temperature, higher Ro value, middle-high rank coals, and uplift and extension events after the coal measure sediment, are favorable for the generation of secondary biogenic gas, but not thermogenic gas or primary biogenic gas.

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  4. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the (surface area) /...

  5. Geology and geochemistry characteristics of the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (Central Area), Chiapas Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. C.; Jaimes-Viera, M. C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Layer, P. W.; Pompa-Mera, V.; Godinez, M. L.

    2007-04-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in the northwest direction between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the northwest and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast. The CVA is located in a complex zone marking the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos plates, near the Motagua-Polochic fault system, the boundary between North American and Caribbean plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 10 volcanic structures generally lying along NNW-SSE-trending faults splayed from the Motagua-Polochic system. Among the structures there are seven volcanic domes (Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza and Santotón), one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), and one dome complex (Tzontehuitz). In the majority of the structures there is a clear resurgence with the formation of several domes in the same structure, with the destruction of previous domes (Navenchauc) or with the formation of new explosion craters or collapse structures (Apas). The volcanic activity in the CVA was mainly effusive accompanied by explosive and phreatomagmatic events and is characterized by volcanic domes accompanied by block-and-ash-flows, ash flows with accretionary lapilli, falls, and pumice flows. The volcanic structures and deposits are calcalkaline in composition with a medium to high content of potassium. CVA volcanic rocks vary from andesite to dacite with SiO 2 between 57 and 66 wt.%, show low concentrations of Ti, P, Nb and Ta, are enriched in Light Rare Earths, depleted in Heavy Rare Earths, and show a small Eu anomaly; all indicative of arc-related volcanism associated with subduction of the Cocos plate under the North American plate, but complicated by the geometry of the plate boundary fault system.

  6. Species composition and vegetation structure in Pakuli area, Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    RAZALI YUSUF; PURWANINGSIH

    2005-01-01

    Forest ecological studies on some different altitude in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi have been carried out with quadrate method. The plots were in altitude 500, 750 and 1000 m asl each 0.3 ha. This study would be covered on species composition, vegetation structure and potential plant species which used by locally people. The result from three plots recorded the totally species number as ± 85 species, consist of 64 genera and 38 families. The common species in three plots were D...

  7. Mapping Glacial Lake Changes in Mountain Areas of Central Asia with Landsat Imagery during 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Junli; Chen, Xi; Bao, Anming

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is one of the world most vulnerable areas responding to global change. Glacier lakes in alpine regions remain sensitive to climatic change and fluctuate with temperature and precipitation variations. Study shows that glaciers in Central Asia have retreated dramatically, leading to the expansion of the existing glacial lakes and the emergence of many new glacial lakes. The existence of these lakes increases the possibility of outburst flood during the ice melting season, which can bring a disaster to the downstream area. Mapping glacial lakes and monitoring their changes would improve our understanding of regional climate change and glacier related hazards. Glacial lakes in Central Asia are mainly located at the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with average elevation more than 1500 meters. Most of these lakes are supplied with the glaciers and snowmelt water during the summer seasons. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient and objective tool to analyse the status and variations of glacial lakes. The increased availability of remote sensing sensors with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, broad coverage makes lake investigations more feasible and cost-effective. The paper intends to map glacier lake changes in the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with Landsat imagery. About 400 scenes of Landsat images in circa 1990, circa 2000 and 2010 are used to map the glacial lakes over the Central Asia, and the temporal processes and spatial patterns of these lake changes are also analysed, so as to find the relations between lake changes and region climate change. Over 12 000 glacial lakes were mapped in circa 2010, and the most of them are located the Altai Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains. The result shows that the numbers and areas of the glacial lakes in the Altai Mountain remain stable. The Tianshan Mountain have experienced changes in the last two decades, and about a half number

  8. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  9. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belotti

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx, more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  10. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  11. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  12. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  13. Demand for money and shortages in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the long-run monetary conditions in Ethiopia in the last three decades. These decades can be characterized by large political changes, leading to shocks on income and population growth, and two serious periods of drought. Both affected inflation and real demand for M-1 through sh

  14. Determinants of southeast Ethiopia seasonal rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    The bi-modal climate of SE Ethiopia shares attributes with East Africa, notably that El Niño enhances rainfall, particularly in Sep-Nov season. In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. A statistical forecast algorithm for the Sep-Nov short rains accounts for 54% of variance in 1980-2010. The Apr-Jun predictors include South Atlantic sea surface temperature, east Indian Ocean sea level air pressure and China upper zonal wind. Cooling in the South Atlantic coincides with a strengthened sub-tropical anticyclone, and later to changes in low level winds that bring orographic convection to SE Ethiopia. The slower El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interacts with the faster Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but both signals mature too late for direct use in statistical prediction of Sep-Nov rainfall. Composite differences of the upper divergent circulation exhibit a global wave-2 pattern consistent with satellite-observed convection. One key feature is a zonal gradient in upper velocity potential over the Indian Ocean corresponding with a zonal atmospheric circulation. One outcome of this research is useful forecasts of SE Ethiopia Sep-Nov rainfall that will assist in agricultural planning.

  15. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  17. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between...

  18. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  19. Dentognathic remains of Australopithecus afarensis from Nefuraytu (Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia): Comparative description, geology, and paleoecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Levin, Naomi E; Saylor, Beverly Z; Deino, Alan; Mundil, Ronald; Scott, Gary; Mulugeta Alene; Gibert, Luis

    2016-11-01

    Australopithecus afarensis is the best-known and most dimorphic species in the early hominin fossil record. Here, we present a comparative description of new fossil specimens of Au. afarensis from Nefuraytu, a 3.330-3.207 million-years-old fossil collection area in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. These specimens include NFR-VP-1/29, one of the most complete mandibles assigned to the species thus far and among the largest mandibles attributed to Au. afarensis, likely representing a male individual. NFR-VP-1/29 retains almost all of the distinctive archaic features documented for Au. afarensis. These features include a posteriorly sloping symphysis, a low and rounded basally set inferior transverse torus, anterosuperiorly opening mental foramen, a lateral corpus hollow bound anteriorly by the C/P3 jugae and posteriorly by the lateral prominence, and the ascending ramus arising high on the corpus. Dental morphology and metrics of the Nefuraytu specimens also falls within the range of Au. afarensis. The presence of this species at Woranso-Mille between 3.330 and 3.207 million years ago confirms the existence of this species in the area in close spatial and temporal proximity to other middle Pliocene hominin taxa such as the one represented by the Burtele foot (BRT-VP-2/73) and the recently named species Australopithecus deyiremeda. This has important implications for our understanding of middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

  20. Increased parasitism of limpets by a trematode metacercaria in fisheries management areas of central Chile: effects on host growth and reproduction : management areas and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Marcela; Pulgar, José M; Orellana, Nathalie; Patricio Ojeda, F; García-Huidobro, M Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The rapid increase in body size and abundance of most species inside Management and Exploitations Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs) has led to the proposal of these areas as a good complement for achieving the conservation objectives of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, when evaluating MEABRs and MPAs as conservation and/or management tools, their impact upon parasite populations has rarely been considered, despite the fact that epidemiological theory suggests an increased susceptibility to parasitism under high population abundance. We evaluated the effects of MEABRs on the parasite abundance of Proctoeces lintoni and its impact on the growth of the host limpet Fissurella crassa in central Chile. Parasitic magnitude was higher inside MEABRs than in Open-Access Areas, and parasitized limpets showed a greater shell length, muscular foot biomass, and gonadosomatic index compared to non-parasitized limpets of the same age. Our results suggest that the life cycle of P. lintoni and, consequently, its trophic links have been strengthened inside MEABRs. The increased growth rate could reduce the time required to reach the minimum catch size and increase the reproductive and muscular output of the host population. Thus, parasitism should be considered in the conservation and management of economically important mollusk hosts.

  1. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline.

  2. Modelling rainfall interception in unlogged and logged forest areas of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Asdak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception losses were monitored for twelve months and related to vegetation and rainfall characteristics at the Wanariset Sangai on the upper reaches of the Mentaya river, Central Kalimantan. The rainfall interception losses were quantified for one hectare each of unlogged and logged humid tropical rainforests. The results show that interception loss is higher in the unlogged forest (11% of total gross rainfall than in the logged forest (6%. Interception loss was also simulated by the modified Rutter model and Gash's original and revised models. Both the Rutter and revised Gash models predicted total interception loss over a long period adequately, and resulted in estimates of the interception loss that deviated by 6 to 14% of the measured values, for both the unlogged and logged plots.

  3. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  4. Cyto-embryological studies on Astragalus glycyphyllos L. from the areas of northern and central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijok

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports karyolagical investigations on Astragalus glycyphyllos L. from sites in Poland, including development of pollen, embryo sac, process of fecundation, development of embryo and endosperm. These plaints have been examined by various authors, from the karyological aspect, but not from the area of Poland. As regards embryology, this species 'has so far not been studied.

  5. Traditional Uses of Plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate Area (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Guarrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge of local plant uses is rapidly fading away, especially in rural Mediterranean areas. We carried out ethnobotanical research in 2010-2011 in order to investigate the local knowledge of wild plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate area of Italy (Latium, district of Rome. We carried out a total of 45 semi-structured interviews with farmers, herders, and fishers. Here, a simple diachronic comparison is made between the current study and a previous one conducted in some of the villages of the study area to highlight potential losses of traditional knowledge of local plants. We documented a total of 102 plant species, belonging to 48 families, along with their uses (excluding food uses. We also reported some non-plant based remedies that were primarily used in veterinary medicine. Some plant uses, especially for making handicrafts, have not been reported previously (e.g., those of Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae, Betula pendula Roth Betulaceae. Many plant uses are no longer remembered in the area, which indicates a loss of local ethnobotanical knowledge.

  6. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity.

  7. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  8. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  9. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  10. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba

    2016-01-01

    management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  11. A novel species within the Fusarium graminearum complex from Ethiopia detected by a multilocus genotyping assay and molecular phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; O’Donnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...

  12. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  13. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Gebremichael, Desta

    2007-01-01

    Since two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field pa...

  14. Seasonal egg output of gastro-intestinal parasites in wild ungulates in a mediterranean area (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seasonal egg (or oocyst output of gastro-intestinal parasites of wild ungulates was studied in a Mediterranean protected area, the Monti Livornesi Park (Livorno, Tuscany region, Central Italy. Samples of faeces of wild boars (Sus scrofa and mouflons (Ovis ammon were collected monthly for one year. The observed trends of egg output were analysed taking into account seasonal variations of temperature and rainfall, life-cycle and survival strategy of parasites, and health condition of hosts. In our Mediterranean study area, the peaks of egg output appear in different months according to different biology and survival strategies of parasites. Riassunto Emissione stagionale di uova di parassiti gastrointestinali in cinghiali (Sus scrofa e in mufloni (Ovis ammon di un’area mediterranea (Italia centrale. E' stata studiata l'emissione stagionale di uova (o oocisti di parassiti nelle feci di ungulati selvatici in una zona mediterranea protetta, il Parco dei Monti Livornesi (Livorno, Toscana, Italia Centrale. Per un anno sono stati raccolti mensilmente campioni di feci di Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e di Muflone (Ovis ammon. Gli andamenti osservati di emissione di uova sono stati analizzati tenendo conto delle variazioni di temperatura e piovosità stagionali, del ciclo biologico e della strategia di sopravvivenza dei parassiti, e delle condizioni sanitarie dell'ospite. E’ risultato che in una zona mediterranea come quella considerata i picchi di emissione di uova appaiono in mesi differenti in relazione alla biologia e alle strategie di sopravvivenza dei diversi parassiti.

  15. Characteristics and ontogeny of oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunberg, A.K.; Blomqvist, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    1999-12-01

    This is the first part of a report characterising the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area.The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny should also be identified. This first part of the study identifies and describes one of the most common lake types in the area, the oligotrophic hardwater lake. The geology in the catchments of the Forsmark area includes a bedrock dominated by granites and gneisses, covered by calcareous glacial till and postglacial clay. The catchments are dominated by forest, and the oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota;, the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites;, and the light exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. The oligotrophic hardwater lakes have their origin as depressions in the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which are successively transported upwards due to the land-rise process in the area. As the basins are isolated from the sea , a gradual change from a brackish to freshwater conditions occur. When the lakes have become completely isolated, the oligotrophic hardwater stage follows, due to inflow of carbonate-rich and well buffered groundwater. In the next successional stage, Sphagnum mosses start to

  16. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  19. Volcanic succession of the Borovnik Member (Mohorje Formation, Bloke Plateau area, Central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Dozet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75 m thick volcanic succession of the Borovnik Member, Mohorje Formation in the Bloke Plateau area consistsof dacitic and rhyolitic rocks deposited in a shallow-marine environment. Volcanic activity begun with lavaflows that underwent extensive disintegration, autobrecciation and mixing with the underlying unconsolidated fine-grained clastic sediments producing dacite/rhyolite-siltstone peperites. Peperites are very rich in fractured plagioclase phenocrysts, and owing to the incorporation of clastic material, they are commonly depleted in silica.The overlying fining-upward pyroclastic sequence is monotonous. Basal parts mainly consist of coarse-grained vitric tuffs that may contain some smaller pumice lapilli. The overlying volcaniclastics are fine-grained vitric tuffs,and in the uppermost parts of the sequence, they are interbedded with cherts.The study confirms the existence of primary volcaniclastic succession in the Bloke Plateau area and excludes its epiclastic or reworked origin.

  20. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  1. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulations of central nervous system during surgery of gliomas near eloquent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report our experiences of direct cortical stimulation in surgery of gliomas located in eloquent areas. Methods Clinical data of 157 patients with gliomas underwent awake craniotomy with the direct electrical stimulation for functional mapping of the eloquent areas were analysed retrospectively. Results Negative cortical stimulation was found in 4 patients, and positive cortical stimulation was achieved in 153 patients (97.45% . Four hundred and ninty -six cortical sites in 139 patients were detected for motor response by direct electrical stimulation, 70 sites in 21 patients for sensory, 112 sites in 91 patients for language (such as counting and naming. The positive areas of counting disturbance were mainly seen at the lower part of left precentral gyri operculum of left inferior frontal gyri, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyri, posterior part of left middle frontal gyri, and posterior part of left superior frontal gyri. Postoperative MRI showed 92 patients (58.60% achieved total resection, 55 cases (35.03% subtotal and 10 cases (6.37% partial. One hundred and ten patients (70.06% were diagnosed as having low grade glimas, including 71 cases of astrocytoma, 26 cases of oligodendroglioma, and 13 cases of mixed astro ? oligodendroglioma, 47 patients (29.94% were high grade gliomas, including 19 cases of glioblastoma, 15 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, and 13 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. After operation 53 patients (33.76% occurred transient postoperative paralysis, 39 patients (24.84% transient language disturbance and 4 patients (2.55% permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation is a reliable, precise and safety method for functional mapping of the eloquent areas. This technique allows us to achieve 'maximal safety resection' in glioma surgery.

  2. For public service or money: Understanding geographical imbalances in the health workforce in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Serneels, Pieter; Lindelow, Magnus; Garcia Montalvo, José; Barr, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Geographical imbalances in the health workforce have been a consistent feature of nearly all health systems, and especially in developing countries. In this paper we investigate the willingness to work in a rural area among final year nursing and medical students in Ethiopia. Analyzing data obtained from contingent valuation questions, we find that household consumption and the student’s motivation to help the poor, which is our proxy for intrinsic motivation, are the main determinants of wil...

  3. Poverty Dynamics and Vulnerability: Empirical Evidence from Smallholders in Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsehay, Abrham Seyoum; Bauer, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    This study is primarily intended to examine the dynamics and determinants of rural household poverty and vulnerability in Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. The data for this research is mainly based on the Ethiopian Household Survey (ERHS). Results from disaggregation of the poor indicate that ultra poverty is predominant in the area. Similarly, using a three steps feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) we found that many of the households in the region are vulnerable to poverty. However, th...

  4. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  5. Strategy and organizational performance in automotive companies of Ecuador central area sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tatiana Valle Alvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to approach the study of organizational strategy and the profitability in the companies of the companies that represent the automotive sector of the Central Zone of Ecuador for the years 2013 to 2015. Based on the generic typology proposed by Miles and Snow regarding the strategy and the study of profitability, measured by ROI and EBITDA, seven companies have been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated, identifying initially characteristics around five factors: market, efficiency, innovation and structure, which were the base to differentiate strategic archetypes in the companies, that identify them as: Prospective, Analyzer or Defensive. There was no evidence of obvious cases of Reactive companies in the studied population. The main results of the research show through descriptive analysis that the characterization of the companies Prospective and Analyzer, identified in most of the studied companies, is linked to higher levels of profitability, even close to those reported by the industry, than in those that have applied a Defensive character strategy, with comparatively  lower ROI and EBITDA performance.

  6. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: composition and adult phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras C. Bispo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, is presented as well as data of some factors that could affeet the temporal distribution of the adults. For checking adult phenology, light sources were used in three stations from June 1993 to Jully 1994. The sampled individuais were identified to species or morphospecies, as possible. In this study, 301 individuais belonging to the perlid genera Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909, Kempnyia Klapálek, 1916 and Macrogynoplax Enderlein, 1909 were collected. Adults of most species were collected along the studied period, except for those of Kempnyia that were restricted to the warm-rainy season, the same pattern for this genus in southeastern Brazil. Although adults of most species were collected along most of the studied period, the largest number of adults was collected in the months with larger mean temperatures, showing a clear seasonality in abundance.

  7. Petrochemistry and origin of basalt breccia from Ban Sap Sawat area, Wichian Buri, Phetchabun, central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Limtrakun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Asia collision during theLate Cenozoic, and basaltic volcanism took place in this extensional period. This volcanism generated both subaqueous andsubaerial lava flows with tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic magma. The subaqueous eruptions represented by the studied WichianBuri basalts, Ban Sap Sawat in particular, are constituted by two main types of volcanic lithofacies, including lava flows andbasalt breccias. The lava flows are commonly porphyritic with olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and microphenocrysts,and are uncommonly seriate textured. The basalt breccias are strongly vitrophyric texture with olivine and plagioclasephenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Chemical analyses indicate that both lava flows and basalt breccias have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were solidified from the same magma. Their chondrite normalized REE patternsand N-MORB normalized patterns are closely analogous to the Early to Middle Miocene tholeiites from central Sinkhote-Alinand Sakhalin, northeastern margin of the Eurasian continent which were erupted in a continental rift environment. The originfor the Wichian Buri basalts show similarity of lava flows and basalt breccias, in terms of petrography and chemical compositions, signifying that they have been formed from the same continental within-plate, transitional tholeiitic magma.

  8. Identification of a hyperendemic area for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Guzmán-Gómez, Daniel; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Limón-Flores, Yairh; Dumonteil, Eric

    2010-07-01

    The state of Veracruz, Mexico, is a well-recognized endemic region for Chagas disease, but the geographic distribution of the disease and its magnitude are still poorly documented. We evaluated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the sanitary jurisdictions of Cordoba and Cosamaloapan in central Veracruz. A total of 654 serum samples from 19 rural localities were tested by using four tests: two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an indirect immunofluorescent, and Western blotting. Overall, 110 (16.8%) of 654 samples were positive for T. cruzi by >/= 2 tests (95% confidence interval = 14.2-19.9%). The municipality of Tezonapa in the jurisdiction of Cordoba was identified as a potential hyperendemic region with seroprevalence rates

  9. Identification of a Hyperendemic Area for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Guzmán-Gómez, Daniel; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Limón-Flores, Yairh; Dumonteil, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The state of Veracruz, Mexico, is a well-recognized endemic region for Chagas disease, but the geographic distribution of the disease and its magnitude are still poorly documented. We evaluated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the sanitary jurisdictions of Cordoba and Cosamaloapan in central Veracruz. A total of 654 serum samples from 19 rural localities were tested by using four tests: two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an indirect immunofluorescent, and Western blotting. Overall, 110 (16.8%) of 654 samples were positive for T. cruzi by ≥ 2 tests (95% confidence interval = 14.2–19.9%). The municipality of Tezonapa in the jurisdiction of Cordoba was identified as a potential hyperendemic region with seroprevalence rates ≤ 45% in young children. No cases were detected in the jurisdiction of Cosamaloapan. Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi transmission dynamics in Tezonapa. The magnitude of T. cruzi infection rate in this region calls for the urgent implementation of extensive epidemiologic surveillance and control programs. PMID:20595496

  10. Species composition and vegetation structure in Pakuli area, Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZALI YUSUF

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecological studies on some different altitude in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi have been carried out with quadrate method. The plots were in altitude 500, 750 and 1000 m asl each 0.3 ha. This study would be covered on species composition, vegetation structure and potential plant species which used by locally people. The result from three plots recorded the totally species number as ± 85 species, consist of 64 genera and 38 families. The common species in three plots were Dracontomelon da’o, Aglaia odoratissima, Aglaia tomentosa, Palaquium obovatum, Planchonella nitida, and Pterospermum celebicum. Species regeneration in this location showed that sapling recorded 93 species consists of 74 genera and 46 families. The common species of sapling were Mallotus laevigatus, Antiaris toxicaria, Celtis philippensis, Macaranga hispida, Dendrocnide stimulans, Aglaia tomentosa, and Syzygium policephalloides. The forest structure could be seen from diameter and height stem classes, where commonly small trees but there have been still some big tree with diameter > 100 cm and height 50 m tall.

  11. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  12. Tracking potential source areas of Central European loess: examples from Tokaj (HU), Nussloch (D) and Grub (AT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Qi, Yue; Siebel, Wolfgang; Wu, Jiade; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    There are several competing hypotheses for the origin of loess in Europe but quantitative evidence is still rare. Here, Sr-Nd isotopic and bulk elemental composition of loess from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 from three study regions in Central Europe - Nussloch (Germany), Grub (Austria) and Tokaj (Hungary) - are analyzed. This study aims at examining differences and similarities of loess deposits throughout Europe, correlating loess with potential source rocks from major mountain ranges and comparing loess with floodplain sediments from main rivers as integrated samples of the drainage areas. The results show that European loess deposits are largely uniform and that sediment sources have been rather stable in the Southern and Eastern parts of Central Europe and more variable in West Central Europe. However, the methods used are not sufficient to unequivocally confirm and reject potential sediment sources but, in combination, help to identify the most likely sediment origins. While a direct correlation of loess and potential source rocks is dif- ficult, the comparison with floodplain sediments is most promising and confirms previous hypotheses. Loess from Tokaj and Grub is most likely a mix of material transported by the Danube River and sediments from the surrounding mountains. Rhine River sediments are probably the main source of loess at Nussloch.

  13. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND FRACTAL MODELING ON THE MOSAIC STRUCTURE OF LANDSCAPE IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF SHANGHAI METROPOLIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-hua; AI Nan-shan; CHEN Yong; MEI An-xin; LIAO Hong-juan

    2003-01-01

    The mosaic structure of landscape of the central area of Shanghai Metropolis is studied by quantitative methods of landscape ecology based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in this pa-per. Firstly, landscapes are classified into eight categories: residential quarter, industrial quarter, road, other urban landscape, farmland, village and small town, on-building area, river and other water bodies (such as lake, etc.). Sec-ondly, a GIS is designed and set up based on the remote sensing data and field investigation, and a digital map of landscape mosaic is made. Then the indexes of diversity, dominance, fragmentation and isolation, and fractal dimen-sion of each type of landscape in different periods are calculated by using spatial analysis method of GIS. With refer-ence to the calculated results, a series of relative issues are discussed.

  14. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  15. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  16. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  17. Glacial geology of the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    During middle and late Wisconsin time in the Shingobee River headwaters area, the Laurentide Wadena lobe, Hewitt and Itasca phases, produced terminal and ground moraine along with a variety of associated glacial features. The stratigraphic record is accessible and provides details of depositional mode as well as principal glacial events during the advance and retreat of middle and late Wisconsin ice tongues. Geomorphic features such as tunnel valleys, stream terraces, and postglacial stream cuts formed by erosional events persist to the present day. Middle Wisconsin Hewitt phase deposits are the oldest and include drumlins, ground moraine, boulder pavements, and outwash. Together, these deposits suggest a wet-based, periodically surging glacier in a subpolar thermal state. Regional permafrost and deposition from retreating ice are inferred between the end of the Hewitt phase and the advance of late Wisconsin Itasca phase ice. Itasca phase glaciation occurred as a contemporaneous pair of adjacent ice tongues whose contrasting moraine styles suggest independent flow modes. The western (Shingobee) portion of the Itasca moraine contains composite ridges, permafrost phenomena, hill-hole pairs, and debris flows. By contrast, eastern (Onigum) moraine deposits generally lack glaciotectonic features and consist almost exclusively of mud and debris flows. Near the end of the Itasca phase, large-scale hill-hole pairs developed in the Shingobee division, and debris flows from the Onigum division blocked the preexisting Shingobee tunnel valley to form glacial lake Willobee. Postglacial streams formed deep valleys as glacial lake Willobee catastrophically drained. Dates based on temperature trends in Greenland ice cores are proposed for prominent glacial events in the Shingobee area. This report proposes that Hewitt phase glaciation occurred between 27.2 and 23.6 kiloannum and Itasca phase glaciation between 22.8 and 14.7 kiloannum. Des Moines lobe (Younger Dryas) glaciation

  18. A revisit to vityaz transform fault area, Central Indian Ridge: Isotopic evidence of probable hydrothermal activity.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Banerjee, R.; Xiao, Y.K.

    into the liquid phase during water -rock interactions at high temperatures [1,2]. Boron is one of the major elements of seawater and is significantly involved in the marine biogeochemical cycles. The two stable isotopes of boron, 10B and 11B, with a relative... in the mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) area leads to rifting and crustal generation and creates severe deformities in the oceanic crust, giving rise to hydrothermalism. The basalt-seawater interaction at the ridge sites brings about further changes...

  19. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  20. An annotated checklist of Odonata (Insecta of Kanha Tiger Reserve and adjoining areas, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odonates were recorded from Kanha Tiger Reserve and its adjoining areas during January-December 2010. Thirty eight species were recorded belonging to seven families and 26 genera. Twelve species distribution is first time recorded from the reserve. With the addition of these newly recorded species with the previous records the species richness of the reserve increased up to 48 species, belonging to eight families. Among the collected Anisopterans Orthretum sabina sabina (Drury was the most abundant species. A detailed annotated checklist of recorded odonates with the previous records is presented in the Table.

  1. Costs of urban area retrofit to district heating and cooling systems: north-central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D J; Davis, A A; Marder, S M

    1978-03-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of six U.S. cities (Washington, D.C.; St. Louis; Cleveland; Milwaukee; Detroit; Chicago) to arrive at reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district heating and cooling systems. Only costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 39 refs., 12 figs., 14 tables.

  2. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  3. Leaf-litter microfungal community on poor fen plant debris in Torfy Lake area (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wilk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to initially evaluate the species diversity of microfungi growing on litter of 15 plant species occurring on the poor fen and neighbouring area of the Torfy Lake, Masovian voivodeship, Poland. The lake is located near the planned road investment (construction of the Warsaw southern express ring road S2. The place is biologically valuable as there are rare plant communities from Rhynchosporion albae alliance protected under the Habitats Directive adopted by the European Union. On the examined plant debris 73 taxa of fungi were recorded (3 basidiomycetes, 13 ascomycetes, 2 zygomycetes, 43 anamorphic ascomycetes, 12 unidentified. Two of them, Dicranidion sp. and Wentiomyces sp. are presented here as new to Poland. Among the plant species examined, the litter of Rhododendron tomentosum harbored the highest number of fungal taxa (16. The highest percents of substrate-specific microfungi (i.e. recorded only on one plant species was noted on R. tomentosum (81.3 %, and Pteridium aquilinum (75%. It is emphasized that the lake area should be protected not only because of rare plant community but also because of the uniqueness and diversity of mycobiota.

  4. Mapping of Marine Area Boundary of Central Java Province using Differential GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Khakhim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of GPS (Global Positioning System technology which is measuring position by satellite, has taken a great metodology aspect of position on surface of earth. The standard GPS measurement takes an absolute positioning. To develop the accurate abd precision, it is used the differential method. Differential GPS measurement can be much more accurate than standard GPs measurement, wherever the method uses one receiver as base station/ reference and the other receiver as field station in a same time. That could reduce and eliminate drifts and errors. The aim of research is use the differential method of GPS survey to map the ocean boundary of Central Java Province. Physical data which neede are base line and base point. Base line were taken from obsrvation of longtime Landsat TM image band 5th based o opinion that shore line are clear seems and easy to interpreted at 10.00 am according to Landsat satellite reording time and the lowest tide time as base line. Location of lowest tide were selected at conspicuous place, such as cape, dry shore, etc and measured base on the BPN (Badan Pertahanan Nasional base/ reference point (orde 2 and 3 on the district, with GPS differential metod. Twelve miles distance from base line of ocean bounddary is belong to province and 1/3 of is belong to district. Characteristic of marine landform as cape, bay, estuaria, attended to international rules. Final report of the research were 1 oean boundary map of Center Java Province, 2 the location and base/ reference points (orde 2 and 3 that could be reference as a base point differential method.

  5. Influence of hydropedology on viticulture and oenology of Sangiovese vine in the Chianti area (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture requires the knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of available soil water. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (central Italy on Sangiovese vine to test the prediction capacity of selected hydropedological models for two soil series cultivated with grape and for delineating hydrological functional units within two vineyards. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soils were mapped with a geophysical survey and six plots were selected in different morphological positions: summit, backslope and footslope. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, and yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes were determined. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of water stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the tested hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water differed considerably between the vineyards and increased significantly along the three positions on slope in both vineyards and in every year, even during the very dry 2006. However, both the response of Sangiovese to water stress and the quality of wine were influenced by the interaction between transpirable water and salinity. The installation of IRIS tubes allowed confirmation of the occurrence of redox processes, although discoloration was influenced more by soil temperature, rather than by moisture. The map produced by once only geophysical survey mirrored only

  6. Environmental change in the mid-Boteti area of north-central Botswana: Biophysical processes and human perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Susan; Chanda, Raban; Nkambwe, Musisi; Sefe, Francis

    1996-05-01

    Increased interest in environmental change issues has led researchers to consider more integrated approaches to change dynamics. This paper examines change in terms of land degradation in north-central Botswana from both biophysical and human perspectives. Although seasonal and periodic droughts were prevalent, analysis of rainfall data over the past 70 years revealed no downward trend. However, indicators of declining productivity such as soil erosion, loss of vegetation cover, and a declining groundwater table were amply evident. The GIS analysis of remotely sensed data has shown that complete vegetation recovery after drought is not taking place, particularly in the south-central part of the study area. These areas contained the highest human and livestock population densities. The local people acknowledged facing increasing resource depletion and indicated drought as the main cause. Pressures on available resources, particularly during drought periods, appeared to have impeded the regenerative capacity of the natural vegetation cover, thereby inducing land degradation. This situation may not easily be rectified because of widespread poverty and inappropriate local perceptions of the solutions. Both of these hinder the adoption of sustainable land management.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  8. Effect of High Receiver Thermal Loss Per Unit Area on the Performance of Solar Central Receiver Systems Having Optimum Heliostat Fields and Optimum Receiver Aperture Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Charles L.

    Recent efforts in solar central receiver research have been directed toward high temperature applications. Associated with high temperature processes are greater receiver thermal losses due to reradiation and convection. This dissertation examines the performance of central receiver systems having optimum heliostate fields and receiver aperture areas as a function of receiver thermal loss per unit area of receiver aperture. The results address the problem of application optimization (loss varies) as opposed to the problem of optimization of a design for a specific application (loss fixed). A reasonable range of values for the primary independent variable L (the average reradiative and convective loss per unit area of receiver aperture) and a reasonable set of design assumptions were first established. The optimum receiver aperture area, number and spacings of heliostats, and field boundary were then determined for two tower focal heights and for each value of L. From this, the solar subsystem performance for each optimized system was calculated. Heliostat field analysis and optimization required a detailed computational analysis. A significant modification to the standard method of solving the optimization equations, effectively a decoupling of the solution process into collector and receiver subsystem parts, greatly aided the analysis. Results are presented for tower focal heights of 150 and 180 m. Values of L ranging from 0.04 to 0.50 MW m('-2) were considered, roughly corresponding to working fluid temperatures (at receiver exit) in the range of 650 to 1650 C. As L increases over this range, the receiver thermal efficiency and the receiver interception factor decrease. The optimal power level drops by almost half, and the cost per unit of energy produced increases by about 25% for the base case set of design assumptions. The resulting decrease in solar subsystem efficiency (relative to the defined annual input energy) from 0.57 to 0.35 is about 40% and is a

  9. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  10. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Darge Delbiso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective: To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Design: Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI of 6,334 adult women aged 20–49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS. A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32–1.90 than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km. Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. Conclusions: The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended.

  11. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and

  12. Rural poverty and delayed presentation to tuberculosis services in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambanis, Alexis; Yassin, Mohammed A; Ramsay, Andy; Bertel Squire, S; Arbide, Isabel; Cuevas, Luis E

    2005-04-01

    To measure time to initial presentation and assess factors influencing the decision to seek medical attention, we interviewed 243 patients undergoing sputum examination for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at a rural health centre near Awassa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used. Median (mean+SD) patient delay was 4.3 (9.8+12.4) weeks. Delays over 4 weeks were significantly associated with rural residence, transport time over 2 h, overnight travel, transport cost exceeding US $1.40, having sold personal assets prior to the visit, and use of traditional medicine. The majority of patients cited economic or logistical barriers to health care when asked directly about causes of delay. Case-finding strategies for TB must be sensitive to patient delay and health systems must become more accessible in rural areas.

  13. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  14. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    Full Text Available Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  15. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  16. Haliç, the urban sea Landscape and transformation of the central areas of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Frediani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haliç (The Golden Horn is a mythical place that belongs not only to the history of Istanbul but to the whole of Europe. At Haliç land and sea merge: the natural harbour of ancient Constantinople, home to the naval arsenal and place of delights, it saw its natural and urban state change completely in the final phases of the Ottoman Empire. Its recent history has been marked by a process of intense industrialization, developing uncontrollably on its banks between the 19th and 20th centuries. Its importance as a production centre -the country’s most important industrial area – grew in time in parallel with pollution levels in the surrounding environment. The climax of this process of transformation took place in the first decades after World War II when, due to heavy industrial pollution and the saturation of coastal spaces, Haliç became the productive heart but also the most run-down and densely populated urban area of the city. The history of the subsequent redevelopment of Haliç is fairly well known, having been the subject of numerous essays describing its socio-economic, cultural and political development. Less attention, despite the many publications on the subject, has been devoted to the analysis of this extensive process of de-industrialization and renewal from the point of view of architectural and urban design. The purpose of this essay is to contribute to the debate from this point of view, briefly reconstructing the major changes taking place in the urban landscape and updating the overview of critical reflection on the current urban situation, analyzed through some of the most important interventions carried out in recent years and the changes they induced.

  17. Seismic refraction surveys for coal exploration in the Homehills, Hawkdun and Roxburgh areas of Central Otago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, M.

    1982-09-01

    Seismic refraction surveys were made during 1979 and 1980 in the Homehills, Hawkdun, and Roxburgh basins formed in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks of Central Otago. They were made to help define the extent of Tertiary coal deposits by determining thicknesses of Cenozoic rocks. The extent of the surveys in the three basins were 12.1, 8.8, and 8.2 line kilometres distributed over 9, 6 and 7 lines respectively. The seismic observations and sonic logs from drill holes were used to derive vertical sections showing distributions of compressional wave velocity with depth. Velocities detected in the Homehills and Hawkdun basins of below 0.5 k/s were usually associated with soil layers, those from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s with Quaternary sediments which are not water saturated, from 1.6 to 1.9 km/s with Tertiary lacustrine or littoral sediments, those from 2.1 to 2.6 km/s with late Tertiary or Quarternary gravels, and those exceedings 3.2 km/s with Mesozoic basement rocks. No overall one-to-one relationship between velocities detected in the range 2.6 to 3.2 km/s and rock types was evident. Velocities encountered at Roxburgh included those between 0.5 and 1.5 km/s which were associated with non-saturated Cenozoic sediments, those between 1.5 and 2.3 km/s representing saturated Cenozoic sediments, those over 3.0 km/s representing Paleozoic schist, and those between 2.3 and 3.0 km/s for which a clear relationship with rock type was not established. Survey results indicate that most of the western boundary of the Homehills basin is unlikely to be associated with a major fault, but the north-east boundary of the basin is associated with a reverse fault having a throw of between 160 and 170 metres. A fault of throw exceeding 300 m has been detected separating the Cenozoic filled Homehills basin, with its base at about 500 m above sea level, from the much deeper Ida Valley basin. The maximum thickness of Cenozoic sediments in the Homehills basin is about 250 m. (16 refs.)

  18. Investigation of the Reasons for the Unique Growth and Development of Agave Species (Agave sisalana and Agave americana Crop Plants at the Southern, Central, North Western and Eastern Parts of Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite topsoil samples from 16 study sites were taken and then their physical as well as chemical attributes were determined at the National Soil Testing Center (NSTC. Moreover, plant attributes such as Leaf Length (LL, Leaf Biomass (LB, Fiber Length (FL and Tensile Strength (TS were measured. Data analysis was carried out using JMP5 (version 5.0 and SPSS (version 12.0 statistical softwares. The one way analysis of variance (ANOVA for Leaf Length (LL, Leaf Biomass (LB, and Tensile Strength (TS showed statistical significance with respect to the study sites ( p0.05 with respect of blocks. On the other hand, the one way ANOVA for both soil chemical and physical attributes with respect to blocks found statistically insignificant (p>0.05. The rainfall, sunshine, and temperature situations as well as the soil chemical and physical attributes being inline with the requirements of Agave species could be reasons for the unique growth and development of A. americana and A. sisalana crop plants in the study area.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  20. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  1. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  2. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.

    2016-06-27

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  3. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  4. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  5. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  6. Assessment of centralized grid connected wind power cost in coastal area of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Uqaili, Mohammad A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Mirza, Umar K. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    This work presents an assessment of per unit cost of electricity generated from 15 MW wind farm at 40 locations in the coastal areas of Pakistan using the method of net present value analysis. The Nordex N43/600 wind turbine has been selected and used as reference wind turbine. Wind duration curves were developed and utilized to calculate per unit cost of electricity generated from chosen wind turbine. In Sindh province, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 4.2 cents /kWh at Jamshoro, while the corresponding maximum was 7.4 cents /kWh at Kadhan site. In Balochistan, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 6.3 cents /kWh at Aghore, while the corresponding maximum was 21.0 cents /kWh at Mand site. The study concludes that at most of the locations especially in Sindh province, wind power is competitive to conventional grid connected thermal power even without considering the externalities. (author)

  7. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Tephra layers from Holocene lake sediments of the Sulmona Basin, central Italy: implications for volcanic activity in Peninsular Italy and tephrostratigraphy in the central Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, B.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Voltaggio, M.; Zanchetta, G.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.; Santacroce, R.

    2009-12-01

    "Pomici di Avellino" eruptions. Alternatively, since at present there is no evidence of a similar significant activity in the proximal area of this well-known volcano, a hitherto unknown origin of these tephras cannot be role out. The results of the present study provide new data that enrich our previous knowledge of the Holocene tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology in central Italy, and a new model for the recent explosive activity of the Peninsular Italy volcanoes and the dispersal of the related pyroclastic deposits.

  9. THE "CARTA DELLA NATURA" MAPPING PROJECT IN THE SUPRAMONTE AREA (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BRUNDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the Italian framework law on protected areas, has been calling for the editing of a national Nature Map, an instrument for the assessment of the state of the environment in Italy. The methodology applied in Sardinia is comparable with those applied in the other regions of Italy, with the necessary modifications, generalizations and integrations. Satellite imagery represents the fundamental informative layer to provide a synoptic view of the whole territory. In a second proceeding step, supervised classification is thematically enhanced by using logical niche models of species and habitats derived from assessed relationships between species-habitats known distributions patterns and available predictors, i.e. GIS thematic layers. This has resulted in the production of a habitat map with 24 habitat and land use classes. The environmental assessment procedure delivered four maps, the ecological value, the environmental sensitivity, the anthropic pressure and the land vulnerability (fragility. A reduction from 70 to 24 habitat/land use types, is coherent with the aims of the projects and planned deliverables. These 24 classes have been detected with semi-automatic procedures and with a high level of reliability. It is a reasonable compromise between thematic resolution and the possibility to record a synoptic view of the whole land in an acceptable lap of time. Various stakeholders will benefit from knowing the current condition of habitats distribution. Described deliverables are powerful tools for monitoring at regional level future land-use and habitat changes on a solid quantitative basis, for environmental conservation and habitat management.

  10. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...... indicates that moisture stress is the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia....

  11. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alemi Kebede,1 Kalkidan Hassen,2 Aderajew Nigussie Teklehaymanot1 1Department of Population and Family Health, 2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home.Objective: The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test.Results: People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68, with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively, who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39, and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57 showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization.Conclusion and recommendation: Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available

  12. Ethiopia: An agrarian economy in transition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia has experienced rapid economic growth since 2005. Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average rate of 10.5 per cent per annum for the period between 2004-05 and 2013-14. Public investment in key infrastructure and interventions in the agriculture sector have made important contributions to GDP growth. This growth has been accompanied by a process of capital deepening and signs of structural shift away from traditional and primary sectors towards secondary and tertiary sector...

  13. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Gezira area Central Sudan and analysis of cytokine profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagla Mustafa Eltayeb; Moawia Mohamed Mukhtar; Ahmed Babiker Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    .S. haematobium has disappeared from the area.

  14. Total existing area and projected (years 2006–2099) area of primary waterbird habitat in the Central Valley of California for 17 climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset summarizes total area (km2) and proportion of Central Valley waterbird habitat, summed across individual waterbird habitats (i.e., wetland and cropland...

  15. Ethiopia : Well-Being and Poverty in Ethiopia, The Role of Agriculture and Agency

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A decade and a half of relative peace and political stability, broad economic reforms, and far-reaching political decentralization have brought Ethiopia back from one of its lowest levels of income per capita to one of its highest levels over the past forty years. At the same time, Gross Domestic Product per capita today is still only slightly above the levels reached in the early 1970 underscoring the deep-rooted and complex nature of poverty in Ethiopia. The positive developments at the mac...

  16. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  18. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulat Yimer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  19. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  20. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Deneer, J.W.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small

  1. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  2. Tectonomagnetic study in the seismoactive area of Narmada–Son lineament, central India: Preliminary results on repeat field observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Waghmare; S D Pimprikar; P B Gawali; L Carlo; A G Patil

    2009-06-01

    Repeated measurements of the total geomagnetic field on the five profiles have revealed a picture of stress-induced tectonomagnetic effect in the form of secular variation of the total geomagnetic field in the tectonically and seismically active area of Jabalpur and adjoining areas of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL),central India.For this experiment,a reference base station was established within the study area at Jabalpur.Using proton precession magnetometers with a sensitivity of 0.1 nT, simultaneous measurements of total geomagnetic field were made annually at the base and all field stations.Five cycles of repeated observations have been performed between 2003 and 2007.For data analysis,a difference method has been applied and the residuals have been calculated as secular variations of the total geomagnetic field with values ranging from ± 0.1nT to about > ± 14.6nT/yr over the different stations.The anomalies in secular variation of the total geomagnetic field may be related to anomalous accumulation of tectonic stresses and tensions on the deep fault zones and crustal blocks due to recent geodynamic processes and active geological inhomogeneities in the NSL.

  3. Groundwater quality and water-well characteristics in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 1948--2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, compiled historical groundwater-quality data collected from 1948 to 2011 and water-well completion information in parts of Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties in central Oklahoma to support the development of a comprehensive water-management plan for the Tribe’s jurisdictional area. In this study, water-quality data from 155 water wells, collected from 1948 to 2011, were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database; these data include measurements of pH, specific conductance, and hardness and concentrations of the major ions, trace elements, and radionuclides that have Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in public drinking-water supplies. Information about well characteristics includes ranges of well yield and well depth of private water wells in the study area and was compiled from the Oklahoma Water Resources Board Multi-Purpose Well Completion Report database. This report also shows depth to water from land surface by using shaded 30-foot contours that were created by using a geographic information system and spatial layers of a 2009 potentiometric surface (groundwater elevation) and land-surface elevation. Wells in the study area produce water from the North Canadian River alluvial and terrace aquifers, the underlying Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that compose the Garber–Wellington aquifer, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. Water quality varies substantially between the alluvial and terrace aquifers and bedrock aquifers in the study area. Water from the alluvial aquifer has relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids and generally is used for livestock only, whereas water from the terrace aquifer has low concentrations of dissolved solids and is used extensively by households in the study area. Water from the bedrock aquifer also is used extensively by

  4. The fusiform face area responds equivalently to faces and abstract shapes in the left and central visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; White, Rachel C

    2013-12-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is widely believed to be specialized for processing faces. Although the FFA is most responsive to faces, this region also consistently responds to non-face items. This suggests that the FFA may be tuned to a feature that is shared by faces and non-face items. Based on the known left visual field face-processing bias along with evidence that the FFA responds to the visual feature of shape, we hypothesized that the FFA may be particularly tuned to shapes presented in the left visual field. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a face localizer run, participants viewed blocks of faces or objects. In a separate run, blocks of intact or scrambled abstract shapes were presented in the left, the central, or the right visual field. Within each of the eleven face-processing regions-of-interest (identified by contrasting faces and objects), the magnitude of activity associated with faces was compared to the magnitude of activity associated with intact shapes. Consistent with previous results, collapsing over shape visual field location, the magnitude of activity associated with faces was greater than the magnitude of activity associated with shapes in the FFA. However, separating by shape visual field location revealed an equivalent magnitude of activity associated with faces and shapes in the FFA when shapes were presented in the left and central visual fields. These findings indicate that the FFA, rather than being specialized for holistic face processing, mediates shape processing in the left and central visual fields.

  5. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans.

  6. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  7. Well Installation Report for Corrective Action Unit 443, Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-01-01

    A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites, Corrective Action Unit 443'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first phase involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data, and inputting the data into a three-dimensional numerical model to depict groundwater flow. The output from the groundwater flow model was used in a transport model to simulate the migration of a radionuclide release (Pohlmann et al., 2000). The second phase of modeling (known as a Data Decision Analysis [DDA]) occurred after NDEP reviewed the first model. This phase was designed to respond to concerns regarding model uncertainty (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). The third phase of modeling updated the original flow and transport model to incorporate the uncertainty identified in the DDA, and focused the model domain on the region of interest to the transport predictions. This third phase culminated in the calculation of contaminant boundaries for the site (Pohll et al., 2003). Corrective action alternatives were evaluated and an alternative was submitted in the ''Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for CAU 443 is Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and will control inadvertent exposure to contaminated groundwater at CAU 443.

  8. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  9. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  10. Fault zone controlled seafloor methane seepage in the rupture area of the 2010 Maule earthquake, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geersen, Jacob; Scholz, Florian; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Lange, Dietrich; Behrmann, Jan H.; Völker, David; Hensen, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Seafloor seepage of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids has been identified in a number of marine fore arcs. However, temporal variations in seep activity and the structural and tectonic parameters that control the seepage often remain poorly constrained. Subduction zone earthquakes, for example, are often discussed to trigger seafloor seepage but causal links that go beyond theoretical considerations have not yet been fully established. This is mainly due to the inaccessibility of offshore epicentral areas, the infrequent occurrence of large earthquakes, and challenges associated with offshore monitoring of seepage over large areas and sufficient time periods. Here we report visual, geochemical, geophysical, and modeling results and observations from the Concepción Methane Seep Area (offshore Central Chile) located in the rupture area of the 2010 Mw. 8.8 Maule earthquake. High methane concentrations in the oceanic water column and a shallow subbottom depth of sulfate penetration indicate active methane seepage. The stable carbon isotope signature of the methane and hydrocarbon composition of the released gas indicate a mixture of shallow-sourced biogenic gas and a deeper sourced thermogenic component. Pristine fissures and fractures observed at the seafloor together with seismically imaged large faults in the marine fore arc may represent effective pathways for methane migration. Upper plate fault activity with hydraulic fracturing and dilation is in line with increased normal Coulomb stress during large plate-boundary earthquakes, as exemplarily modeled for the 2010 earthquake. On a global perspective our results point out the possible role of recurring large subduction zone earthquakes in driving hydrocarbon seepage from marine fore arcs over long timescales.

  11. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  12. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, Munsiari–Milam area of the Kumaun Greater Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Verma; A R Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    During large scale ductile shear deformation, linear features of the rocks tend to be reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. This is demonstrated in a crustal scale shear zone of the Himalaya, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), typically exposed in the Munsiari–Milam area of eastern Kumaun Greater Himalaya. Along the MCT, the crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalaya are thrust over the younger sedimentary belt of the Lesser Himalaya. In the study area, the scatter of lineation orientation in the vicinity of the MCT has been observed to drastically reduce within 27° in a zone of about 18 km (about 13 km in the crystalline rocks and about 5 km in the sedimentary rocks). Beyond this zone, the scatter is very high, up to 70° or more. The low scatter of lineation orientation around the MCT could be related to the strong ductile shear deformation associated with the movement along this thrust due to which the linear features got reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. Away from this zone, ductile shearing had negligible or no effect on the rocks and, therefore, the scatter of lineation remains very high.

  13. Surficial Geologic Map of the Ashby-Lowell-Sterling-Billerica 11-Quadrangle Area in Northeast-Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of eleven 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 505 mi2) in northeast-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  14. Winter temperatures in the second half of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bullón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the winter temperatures of the second part of the sixteenth century in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. A large number of historical documents that are stored in many different Spanish archives were consulted in order to carry out this research. The data was first arranged and weighted according to the intensity and significance of the meteorological phenomena described and, subsequently, these values were assigned an ordinal index ranging from +4 to −4. The statistical treatment applied is based on the reconstruction of temperatures equivalent to this ordinal index, expressed as anomalies of the 1961–1990 period, belonging to a reference station located at the approximate geographical center of the area under study. The results show winter thermal conditions different from current ones that, for the most part, stay below the reference average and that occurred with a wide range of variability. The influence that thermal conditions had on the evolution of some environmental aspects are considered based on the forest exploitation problem information and on the wine harvest production.

  15. Surficial Geologic Map of the Clinton-Concord-Grafton-Medfield 12-Quadrangle Area in East Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; Stone, Byron D.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 660 square miles) in east-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (12 PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), scanned topographic base maps (TIF), metadata for the GIS layers, and a readme.txt file.

  16. Jurassic (uppermost Sinemurian - Aalenian sequence stratigraphy and geodynamic evolution of the Ait Bou Guemmez area (Central High Atlas, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bchari, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Ait Bou Guemmez region (Central High Atlas, Morocco, five formations are recognised within the Jurassic (Late Sinemurian - Aalenian record. They are organised into seven third order sequences involved in three second order cycles. Three stages characterise the geodynamic evolution of the considered area: 1 Upper Sinemurian -Lower Carixian: lagoonal area; 2 Middle Carixian - Upper Domerian: NE dipping open carbonate platform; and 3 Late Domerian - Aalenian: tectonic activity of the Jbel Tizal -Jbel Azourki fault leading to the setting up of a mosaic sedimentary environments in the study area.Dans la région d’Ait Bou Guemmez (Haut Atlas central, Maroc, la série Jurassique (Sinémurien terminal - l’Aalénien à été subdivisée en cinq formations sédimentaires distinctes. Ces dernières s’organisent en sept séquences de troisième ordre, elles mêmes comprises dans trois cycles de deuxième ordre présentant les maxima de régression au sommet du Carixien inférieur et au Domérien supérieur. L’évolution géodynamique comporte trois étapes successives: 1 Sinémurien terminal - Carixien inférieur: un milieu de lagon limité par des zones émergées ou faiblement subsidentes situées le long de l’accident J.Tizal - J.Azourki; 2 Carixien moyen - Domérien supérieur: vaste plateforme carbonatée ouverte vers le NE; 3 Domérien terminal - Aalénien: intensification dans l’activité tectonique de l’accident de Jbel Tizal - Jbel Azourki, conduisant à la mise en place d’une mosaïque d’environnements sédimentaires dans l’ensemble du secteur étudié.

  17. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  18. Malaria-related perceptions and practices of women with children under the age of five years in rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. Methods This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Adami Tulu District, south-central Ethiopia. Total samples of 2087 rural women with children less than five years of age from 18 rural kebeles (the smallest administrative units were interviewed about their perceptions and practices regarding malaria. In addition, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted on similar issues to complement the quantitative data. Results Malaria, locally known as busaa, is perceived as the main health problem in the study area. Mosquitoes are perceived to be the main cause of the disease, and other misperceptions were also widespread. The use of prevention measures was very low. Most mothers were familiar with the main signs and symptoms of mild malaria, and some of them indicated high grade fever, convulsions and mental confusion as a manifestation of severe malaria. Very few households (5.6% possessed one or two nets. More than 60% of the mothers with recent episodes of malaria received initial treatment from non-public health facilities such as community health workers (CHWs (40% and private care providers (21%. Less than 40% of the reported malaria cases among women were treated by public health facilities. Conclusion Malaria was perceived as the main health problem among women and children. The use of malaria preventive measures was low. A significant proportion of the respondents received initial malaria treatments from CHWs, private care providers and public health facilities. Concerted effort is needed to scale-up the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and improve the knowledge of

  19. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  20. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  1. Influence of strong electromagnetic discharges on the dynamics of earthquakes time distribution in the Bishkek test area (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tosi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From 08/01/1983 to 28/03/1990, at the Bishkek ElectroMagnetic (EM test site (Northern Tien Shan and Chu Valley area, Central Asia, strong currents, up to 2.5 kA, were released at a 4.5 km long electrical (grounded dipole. This area is seismically active and a catalogue with about 14100 events from 1975 to 1996 has been analyzed. The seismic catalogue was divided into three parts: 1975-1983 first part with no EM experiments, 1983-1990 second part during EM experiments and 1988-1996 after experiments part. Qualitative and quantitative time series non- linear analysis was applied to waiting times of earthquakes to the above three sub catalogue periods. The qualitative approach includes visual inspection of reconstructed phase space, Iterated Function Systems (IFS and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. The quantitative approach followed correlation integral calculation of reconstructed phase space of waiting time distribution, with noise reduction and surrogate testing methods. Moreover the Lempel- Ziv algorithmic complexity measure (LZC was calculated. General dynamics of earthquakes’ temporal distribution around the test area, reveals properties of low dimensional non linearity. Strong EM discharges lead to the increase in extent of regularity in earthquakes temporal distribution. After cessation of EM experiments the earthquakes’ temporal distribution becomes much more random than before experiments. To avoid non valid conclusions several tests were applied to our data set: differentiation of the time series was applied to check results not affected by non stationarity; the surrogate data approach was followed to reject the hypothesis that dynamics belongs to the colored noise type. Small earthquakes, below completeness threshold, were added to the analysis to check results robustness.

  2. Subsurface Structure and Fluid Flow Analysis Using Geophysical Methods in the Geothermal Manifestation Area of Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Seyawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The indication of an active geothermal system is shown by the presence of surface manifestations such as the hot spring in Kedungoleng, Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java. The temperature of the largest hot spring reaches 74o C and there is an assumption that this is an outflow of Mount Slamet geothermal system. DC-resistivity, Spontaneous Potential (SP and Shallow Surface Temperature surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface structure as well as its correlation with the distribution of thermal fluid flow and shallow surface temperature. The subsurface resistivity has been investigated using 5 points of the Schlumberger configuration with 400 m separation for each point. For the fluid and temperature pattern, a measurement using 15 m interval in 3 lines of conducting fixed electrode configuration has been carried out, along with a 75 cm of depth of temperature measurement around the manifestation area. The thermal fluid is assumed by the low resistivity of 0.756 to 6.91Ωm and this indicates sandstone that has permeable characteristic. The fluid flows in two layers of Sandstone at more than 10 meter from surface of the first layer. Accordingly, the SP values have a range between -11- 11 mV and a depth interval of 13.42- 28.75 m and the distribution of temperature is between 24o-70oC at a tilting range of 46.06o-12.60o. Hence it can be inferred that the thermal fluid moves in the Northwest direction and is controlled by a fault structure stretching from Northwest to Southeast. Article History: Received Feb 3, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted August 13, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Setyawan, A., Triahadini, A., Yuliananto, Y., Aribowo, Y., and Widiarso, D.A. (2016 Subsurface Structure and Fluid Flow Analyses Using Geophysical Methods in Geothermal Manifestation Area of Paguyangan, Brebes, Central Java. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 171-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.171-177

  3. Geology and stratigraphy of the Challis Volcanic Group and related rocks, Little Wood River area, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Richard F.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2005-01-01

    The southwestern part of the Challis volcanic field occupies the valley of the Little Wood River and its tributaries in the Hailey and Idaho Falls 1??2? quadrangles of south-central Idaho. The Little Wood River area is a structurally controlled topographic basin that is partly filled by Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and younger rocks. Rock types in the Challis Volcanic Group of the Little Wood River area include, in order of decreasing abundance, andesite lava flows and tuff breccia, dacite lava flows and flow breccia, volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, lithic tuff, nonvolcanic conglomerate, and rhyolite dikes. A basal nonvolcanic conglomerate, that locally rests on upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks at a regional unconformity, was deposited prior to eruption of volcanic rocks. Andesite was the first volcanic rock erupted and is a voluminous sequence as thick as 3,000 ft (1,000 m). Locally thick volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks accumulated in topographic lows. A sharp transition marks the beginning of dacite eruption from fissures and flow-dome complexes. Dacite flows and breccias are as thick as 2,000 ft (600 m). An upper volcaniclastic unit was deposited in paleotopographic lows following emplacement of the main dacite unit. Next, a widespread, distinctive, lithic rich ash flow tuff, correlated with the tuff of Stoddard Gulch, was deposited over much of the area. Deposition of the tuff was followed by eruption of thin andesite and dacite lava flows and deposition of conglomeratic sedimentary rocks. The entire sequence was then intruded by a dacite flow-dome complex composed of at least three separate intrusions. The Challis Volcanic Group in the study area is calcalkaline. Andesitic rocks are typically high potassium basaltic andesite, high potassium andesite, shoshonite, and banakite (latite). Dacitic rocks are high potassium dacite and trachyte. Tuffs and vitrophyres range in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte. The paleotopographic basin in which the

  4. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    character from calc-alkaline to alkaline. Pyroclastic flow deposits (i.e. ignimbrites with rhyolitic to dacitic compositions) and low-viscosity sub-alkaline/alkaline basaltic lava fields are widely exposed in the study area. Geomorphology of the region is controlled by strike-slip faults related to the neotectonics of Central Anatolia and the erosion/deposition of the Kızılırmak River. Quaternary terraces which are composed of coarse-grained thick sedimentary beds are the products of the Kızılırmak River. In this study, we will present the preliminary results of our new studies in the northwest of the Gülşehir area, specifically aiming to reveal the geology, petrology and tectonic evolution of this part of Central Anatolia.

  5. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  6. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 μg/L, replacing the old standard of 50 μg/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner’s responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented January 2013 in 13 towns of central Maine with the goal of understanding the population’s testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported their well has been tested, for half it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing regularly testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

  7. Source parameters of small and moderate earthquakes in the area of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake sequence (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Neri, Giancarlo; Wu, Wen-Nan; Sandu, Ilie; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.

    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence (central Italy). The analysis was performed by using data coming from the permanent Italian seismic network run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the “Cut And Paste” (CAP) method based on broadband waveform inversion. Focal mechanisms, source depths and moment magnitudes are determined through a grid search technique. By allowing time shifts between synthetics and observed data the CAP method reduces dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and on earthquake location. We computed seismic moment tensors for 312 earthquakes having local magnitude in the range between 2.7 and 5.9. The CAP method has made possible to considerably expand the database of focal mechanisms from waveform analysis in the lowest magnitude range (i.e. in the neighborhood of magnitude 3) without overlooking the reliability of results. The obtained focal mechanisms generally show NW-SE striking focal planes in agreement with mapped faults in the region. Comparisons with the already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to proper interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. Results are compatible with the major tectonic domain. We also obtained a relation between moment and local magnitude suitable for the area and for the available magnitude range.

  8. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  9. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  10. Variscan Collisional Magmatism and Deformation In The Viseu Area (northern Central Portugal) - Constraints From U-pb Geochronology of Granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, M. R.; Aguado, B. V.; Scaltegger, U.; Nolan, J.; Martins, M. R.; Medina, J.

    The Viseu area is located in the innermost zone of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt (the Central Iberian Zone). It consists of abundant post-thickening, collision related grani- toids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D2) and is coeval with D3 dextral and sinis- tral crustal-scale transcurrent shear zones. In the northern part of the area, the presence of a well preserved Upper Carboniferous tectonic basin filled with deformed conti- nental clastic sediments, bounded by contemporaneously exhumed deep crustal rocks and intruded by late-tectonic granites documents an episode of extension involving basin subsidence, uplift and erosion of the basement and granite magmatism in a post- thickening, but syn-convergent scenario. Convergence is manifested by strike-slip tec- tonics and basin inversion. According to structural criteria, the Variscan granitoids can be subdivided into two major groups: (1) syn-D3 granitoids including two dif- ferent petrological associations, highly peraluminous leucogranite and granodiorite- monzogranite intrusions and (2) late-D3 granitoids comprising slightly metaluminous to peraluminous granodiorites and monzogranites. Four plutons representing the syn- D3 leucogranites (Junqueira) and monzogranites (Maceira and Casal Vasco) and the late-D3 biotite granites (Cota) yielded U-Pb zircon + monazite or monazite ages of 310 Ma, 311 Ma, 311 Ma and 306 Ma, respectively. This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-D3 plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-D3 granites and suggests that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 5 myr. Stratigraphic markers show that the oldest continental sediments in the Carboniferous basin are Westphalian whilst field relationships in- dicate that the deformation occurred prior to the intrusion of the late-D3 granitoids. Precise U-Pb geochronology proves that basin

  11. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). New information Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys. PMID:27660533

  12. The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field, central Patagonia Argentina: Extending the exploration to surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Martínez, O.; Orgeira, M. J.; Prezzi, C.; Corbella, H.; González-Guillot, M.; Rocca, M.; Subías, I.; Vásquez, C.

    2012-10-01

    The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field is a huge domain of enigmatic circular structures located in central Patagonia. Three more localities are herein described, adding to the first area studied so far. Taking into consideration the four areas, a single, blurred crater dispersion ellipse has been identified. The four sectors now have been investigated, mapped, and georreferenced. Their circular structures, with a total of 185 (some of which are partially obliterated by erosion or sediment accumulation), were identified by remote sensing techniques, but many have been evaluated in situ and interpreted as impact craters. Moreover, two of the structures have been surveyed in detail in the field using a total station instrument. In addition to the previously known occurrence of circular structures on the Eruptive Complex Quiñelaf (Miocene basalts), the Pampa Sastre Fm. (Pliocene conglomerates), and of the Pleistocene pediment gravels and sands, and the geomorphological inferences that have suggested the extra-terrestrial origin of this event, we should now add that the recurrent absence of the cited Pliocene stratigraphic unit at the bottom of the craters is found in the pediment gravel and sands. Its removal has been interpreted as directly related to the impact, according to the magnetometric record of existing magnetic anomalies. Other preliminary observations on the collected samples (glass, breccias, and, most relevant, Fe-Ni-bearing spherules picked up within the impact zones) are herein discussed. Two hypotheses have been put forward about the nature of the possible impacting object that formed these astroblemes which, fragmented into hundreds of pieces, hit the surface of the Earth most likely in middle Pleistocene times. One of these hypotheses is related to the impact of a disintegrated asteroid of the rubble pile type, whereas a second hypothesis refers to the collision of a split comet with the Earth surface. The latter hypothesis is favoured since

  13. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata, characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular Principal Components Analysis, PCA and was then imported into Geographic Information System (GIS, to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  14. Flood-Inundation Maps of Selected Areas Affected by the Flood of October 2015 in Central and Coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Painter, Jaime A.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2016-02-22

    Heavy rainfall occurred across South Carolina during October 1–5, 2015, as a result of an upper atmospheric low-pressure system that funneled tropical moisture from Hurricane Joaquin into the State. The storm caused major flooding in the central and coastal parts of South Carolina. Almost 27 inches of rain fell near Mount Pleasant in Charleston County during this period. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages recorded peaks of record at 17 locations, and 15 other locations had peaks that ranked in the top 5 for the period of record. During the October 2015 flood event, USGS personnel made about 140 streamflow measurements at 86 locations to verify, update, or extend existing rating curves (which are used to compute streamflow from monitored river stage). Immediately after the storm event, USGS personnel documented 602 high-water marks, noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Later in October, 50 additional high-water marks were documented near bridges for South Carolina Department of Transportation. Using a subset of these high-water marks, 20 flood-inundation maps of 12 communities were created. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, and water depth rasters are all available for download.

  15. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  16. Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Area 1 in east-central New Jersey was mandated in the early 1980s to address large drawdowns caused by increases in groundwater withdrawals. The aquifers involved include the Englishtown aquifer system, Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Groundwater levels recovered as a result of mandated cutbacks in withdrawals that began in the late 1980s. Subsequent increased demand for water has necessitated an analysis to determine the effects of full-allocation withdrawals, which supplements an optimization analysis done previously. A steady-state regional groundwater flow model is used to evaluate the effects of 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (7.3 million gallons per day greater than for 2003) on simulated water-levels. Simulation results indicate that the range of available withdrawals greater than full-allocation withdrawals is likely between 0 and 12 million gallons per day. The estimated range of available withdrawals is based on: (1) an examination of hydraulic-heads resulting from each of the two simulations, (2) an examination of differences in heads between these two simulations, (3) a comparison of simulated heads from each of the two simulations with the estimated location of salty groundwater, and (4) a comparison of simulated 2003 water levels to observed 2003 water levels. The results of the simulations also indicate that obtaining most of the available water would require varying the distribution of withdrawals and (or) relaxing the mandated hydrologic constraints used to protect the water supply.

  17. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo ("Val Vibrata"), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  18. Opinions from teachers in the Fresno area of Central California regarding the influence of mobile technology on their students’ learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaridas, Fermín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant results of a study in which opinions of the teachers in the area of Fresno (Central California, USA about the effects of the integration of mobile devices into the teaching-learning process. Among other objectives, this study has tried to analyze the influence of mobile learning over three very important learning factors: affective-emotional (motivation, ethic-social (social skills and the cognitive one (cognitive skills. In order to carry out this study, a descriptive methodological approach was adopted, using the survey technique as the most adequate method to collect teachers´ opinions in a relatively fast and precise way. Obtained results show a widespread agreement among teachers about the pedagogical potential of mobile devices as a tool to improve learning quality. In general terms, conclusions suggest an improvement in the students’ interest on educational tasks, an increase during study activities, a better collaborative work, as well as an improvement of creativity and information acquisition.

  19. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the Rohtas Limestone (Vindhyan Supergroup) in the Son valley area, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S K Bhattacharya; S Sarkar

    2005-02-01

    The early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Limestone in the Son valley area of central India represents an overall shallowing-upward carbonate succession. Detailed facies analysis of the limestone reveals outer- to inner-shelf deposition in an open marine setting. Wave-ripples, hummocky cross strat- ifications and edgewise conglomerates argue against a deep marine depositional model for the Rohtas Limestone proposed earlier. Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution seams. Band-wise isotopic analysis reveals systematic short-term variations. Comparative enrichment of the heavier isotopes in the upper bands is attributed to early cementation from sea water and water derived from the lower band undergoing dissolution because of lowering of pH at depth. The short-term positive shifts in isotopic compositions in almost every upward gradational transition from a seamed band to a non-seamed band support the contention that dissolution seams here are of early diagenetic origin, although their formation was accentuated under overburden pressure.

  20. Noble gas constraints on hydrocarbon accumulation and groundwater flow in the central area of Western Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊然学

    2001-01-01

    The noble gas concentrations and isotope ratios of seven natural gas samples from the central area of the Western Sichuan Basin were measured. The samples all have 40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric values, and the 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra) are entirely consistent with the crustal radiogenic He values. The vertical variation of the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios with depth clearly indicates that the CH4and 36Ar are intimately associated, indicating a common reservoir intermediate to the sampled reservoirs, where they are well mixed and stored together prior to entrapment into gas reservoirs. Meanwhile, the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios range between 8×106 and 64×106 very much greater than the CH4/36Ar values for pure water and 5 mol/L NaCI brine at low temperature and hydrostatic conditions, reflecting the presence of "excess" thermogenic CH4 over that supplied by a CH4-saturated groundwater at low temperature, and the excess CH4 saturation and dissolution to be at depth greater than the sampled reserv

  1. Temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central Namibia stock-ranching area, 1986-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, F; Carpenter, T E; Paskin, R D; Chomel, B B

    2000-01-05

    Eleven years (1986-1996) of wildlife- and domestic-rabies data from the agriculture stock-ranching area of central Namibia were studied using time-series analysis. Nine hundred and sixty three rabies cases were observed in domestic ruminants (5.4 cases/mo), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas, 1.3 cases/mo), domestic dogs (0.5 case/mo), and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis, 0.1 case/mo). The incidence of rabies for all species did not change significantly over the whole study period. However, seasonal variations with an increase in the number of cases between June and November of each year, as well as 34 yr cyclical fluctuations were identified in domestic ruminants and black-backed jackals. The black-backed jackal time-series variable was a significant predictor of the domestic-ruminant and dog time-series variables. The rainfall seasonality combined with the seasonal reproductive pattern of the black-backed jackal appeared to be plausible explanations for the seasonal variations of rabies. However, there was no overall significant correlation between the cyclical weather fluctuations and the 3-4 yr cyclical rabies variations.

  2. SURFACE AREA AND MICRO-ROUGHNESS OF VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES: A case study, Acigol Volcanic Complex, Cappadocia, Central Turkiye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, O.; Aydar, E.; Sen, E.; Atici, G.

    2009-04-01

    Every single ash particle may convey information about its own formation environment and conditions. Certain features on particles may give a hint about the fragmentation regime, the intensity of fragmentation and quantity of water that partakes in the fragmentation process, etc. On this account, this study majored in the analysis on finer pyroclastic material, namely volcanic ash particles. Here, we used volcanic ash particles from Quaternary Acigol Volcanic complex (West of Nevsehir, Cappadocia, Central Turkiye). Quaternary Acigol Volcanic complex lies between the towns of Nevsehir and Acigol. It consists of a shallow caldera, a thick pyroclastic apron, seven obsidian dome clusters, and scattered cinder cones and associated lavas (Druitt et al., 1995). The products of explosive volcanism of the region were distinguished as two main Quaternary tuffs by a recent study (Druitt et al., 1995). Samples are from ashfall beds in a sequence of intercalated pumice fall, ashfall, and ignimbrite beds. In this study in order to achieve surface properties of volcanic ash particles, surface areas and micro-roughness of ash particles were measured on digital elevation models (DEM) reconstructed from stereoscopic images acquired on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at varying specimen tilt angles. Correlation between surface texture of volcanic ash particles and eruption characteristics was determined.

  3. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  4. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Fekadu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global mental health (GMH advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design: A case study method is used. Results: Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions: GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings.

  5. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  6. Effects of resin tapping and tree size on the purity, germination and storage behavior of Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. seeds from Metema District, northwestern Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshete, A.; Teketay, D.; Lemenih, M.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. is one of the tree species in dry woodlands of Ethiopia that provides several goods and services. Despite its wide economic and ecological importance, its area coverage is dwindling from time to time, and its natural regeneration is hampered. Hence, long-term pros

  7. Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba basin, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Walraevens, Kristine; Gebresilassie, Solomon; Hussien, Abdelwassie; Hagos, Miruts; Amare, Kassa; Deckers, Jozef; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya

    2017-01-01

    The Geba basin is one of the most food-insecure areas of the Tigray regional state in northern Ethiopia due to recurrent drought resulting from erratic distribution of rainfall. Since the beginning of the 1990s, rain-fed agriculture has been supported through small-scale irrigation schemes mainly by surface-water harvesting, but success has been limited. Hence, use of groundwater for irrigation purposes has gained considerable attention. The main purpose of this study is to assess groundwater resources in the Geba basin by means of a MODFLOW modeling approach. The model is calibrated using observed groundwater levels, yielding a clear insight into the groundwater flow systems and reserves. Results show that none of the hydrogeological formations can be considered as aquifers that can be exploited for large-scale groundwater exploitation. However, aquitards can be identified that can support small-scale groundwater abstraction for irrigation needs in regions that are either designated as groundwater discharge areas or where groundwater levels are shallow and can be tapped by hand-dug wells or shallow boreholes.

  8. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  9. Malaria-related health-seeking behaviour and challenges for care providers in rural Ethiopia: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Hailemariam, Damen

    2008-01-01

    A range of activities are currently underway to improve access to malaria prevention and control interventions. As disease control strategies change over time, it is crucial to understand the health-seeking behaviour and the local socio-cultural context in which the changes in interventions operate. This paper reflects on how people in an area of seasonal malaria perceive the causes and transmission of the disease, and what prevention and treatment measures they practise to cope with the disease. It also highlights some of the challenges of malaria treatment for health care providers. The study was undertaken in 2003 in Adami Tulu District in south-central Ethiopia, where malaria is a major health problem. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were conducted among men and women. Malaria, locally known as busa, was perceived as the most important cause of ill health in the area. Respondent's perception and knowledge about the cause and transmission of the disease were relatively high. The newly introduced insecticide-treated nets were not popular in the area, and only 6.4% of households possessed at least one. The results showed that patients use multiple sources of health care for malaria treatment. Public health facilities, private clinics and community health workers were the main providers of malaria treatment. Despite higher treatment costs, people preferred to use private health care providers for malaria treatment due to the higher perceived quality of care they offer. In conclusion, effort in the prevention and control of malaria should be intensified through addressing not only public facilities, but also the private sector and community-based control interventions. Appropriate and relevant information on malaria should be disseminated to the local community. The authors propose the provision of effective antimalarial drugs and malaria prevention tools such as subsidized or free insecticide-treated nets.

  10. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  11. Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross...

  12. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Firehiwot Mesfin; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included ran...

  13. Food aid and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2003-01-01

    "Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 million metric tons (mt) from 1984 to 1998, almost 10 percent of annual cereal production. Because of the importance of food aid in Ethiopia, much effort has been devoted to evaluation of its effectiveness.....Many evaluations of food aid have examined its impac...

  14. The Influence of Typical Forest Types on Soil Erosion Resistance in the Water Source Areas of Central Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyi; ZHAO; Xu; DUAN; Shumiao; SHU

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of different forest types on soil erosion resistance in water source area of Central Yunnan,with the soils under three different kinds of typical forest in Yizhe watershed as the research object,this paper uses field simulation method and principal component analysis to analyze the soil erosion resistance of three kinds of soils. The results show that there is a significant difference in the shear strength of soil among three types of typical forest,and the size of soil shear strength is in the order of Pinus yunnanensis forest land >mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land > eucalyptus forest land. The difference in the soil erosion coefficient among different forests is not significant,and the soil erosion resistance is highest in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 39. 0%),followed by eucalyptus woodland( 37. 0%)and Pinus yunnanensis forest land( 24. 0%). Under heavy rain intensity and long duration of rainfall,the ability of soil under eucalyptus ×Pinus yunnanensis mixed forests to resist disintegration is more obvious. Using principal component analysis to analyze soil erosion resistance of soils under three different forests,we get the comprehensive evaluation model for soil erosion resistance: Y = 0. 763Y1+ 0. 236Y2. The soil erosion resistance is in the order of mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 0. 150) > eucalyptus forest land( 0. 127) > Pinus yunnanensis forest land(-0. 079),indicating that the mixed forests have better water loss and soil erosion control effect than pure forests.

  15. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  16. Timing of cut-and-fill sequences in the John Day Formation (Eocene-Oligocene), Painted Hills area, central Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestland, E.A.; Retallack, G.J. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Swisher, C.C. III (Inst. of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Fremd, T.J. (John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, John Day, OR (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Large-scale cut-and-fill features in the Eocene-Oligocene part of the John Day Formation in the Pained Hills area of central Oregon can be interpreted as terrestrial depositional sequences, mapped as lithostratigraphic units, and correlated to North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA). New laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal ages from the John Day Formation provide evidence for the timing of these sequences and a revised placement of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The sequences are bound by erosional surfaces that have relief of up to 60 m, are marked in places by claystone breccias full of reworked soil clasts, and separate otherwise conformable strata. The lowermost depositional sequence in the John Day Formation contains very well developed, Fe- and Al-rich paleosols, laterite horizons, and the welded tuff of member A (39.7 my), and probably correlates to the Duchesean and Chadronian NALMA. These brick-rid claystones are sharply truncated by prominent detrital laterite horizon. Overlying this basal sequence is a second sequence of much less well developed paleosols, abundant tuffs and lacustrine tuffaceous claystones. This sequence contains a distinctive biotite tuff (33 my) and the type locality of the Bridge Creek fossil flora and probably correlates to the Orellan NALMA. Above this biotite tuff are alternating red, dark gray, and tan paleosols and a prominent crystal vitric tuff (32.7 my). The Eocene-Oligocene boundary lies between these two sequences, associated with the laterite horizon that truncates the basal red beds. A major truncation surface cuts this sequence and is overlain by a third sequence of thin red paleosols which probably correlates with the Whitneyan NALMA. Above this is a fourth sequence (Arikareean NALMA) consisting of greenish-tan paleosols, a crystal vitric tuff near its base (29.8 my) and the Picture Gorge Ignimbrite (28.7 my).

  17. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  18. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF INTRACONTINENTAL AREAS: INSTRUMENTAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sankov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of recent geodynamics have been conducted by the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS since 1998. Present-day crustal deformations are monitored at the geodynamic GPS polygon established by the Laboratory of Recent Geodynamics in the Mongol-Baikal region. Original methods and techniques using specialized equipment are applied to research intra-continental tectonic deformation and have already provided original scientific results. Independent data are received concerning the onset and character of processes of neotectonic activation and the state of stresses and deformation of the crust in the southern part of Siberia and in Mongolia. A model of the Late Cenozoic and contemporary geodynamics of the Mongol-Siberian mobile area is proposed. With application of GPS geodesy methods, quantitative parameters of present-day horizontal movements and deformations are determined for Central Asia and a part of the Far East at different scale levels. Present-day velocities of extension of the Baikal rift are estimated, and parameters of rotation of the Amur plate relative to Eurasia are calculated. Data on long-term and contemporary deformation are subject to comparative analyses. The Laboratory develops studies of present-day and historical seismicity in relation to processes of contemporary faulting in active tectonic zones of inter-plate boundaries and diffusive activation of subactive intraplate territories. The first results are obtained in studies of local crustal deformation by methods of satellite radar interferometry and ground polygonometry. Jointly with other institutes of SB RAS, the Laboratory conducts instrumental studies of interaction between the lithosphere and the ionosphere. Looking further ahead, the main scientific fields and prospects of the Laboratory are highlighted.  

  19. Are work and schooling complementary or competitive for children in rural Ethiopia? A mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Orkin; St. Antony's College, University of Oxford; Department for International Development:, (DFID)

    2012-01-01

    Participation in work and school are often assumed to be mutually exclusive. Thus, economists commonly present children’s work and study patterns as a competition over time. In this paper, it is not the time involved, but the characteristics of the activity that appear to influence complementary or competitive relationship between work and school. This mixed methods study combines qualitative data from Leki, a field site in a rural area near lake Ziway in the Oromia region, Ethiopia, and ...

  20. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and model...

  1. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  2. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.

    2009-07-01

    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    ), leopard (Panthera pardus) and jackal (Canis aureus aureus) in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. The annual mean economic loss per household was approximately U.S.$ 20.2, about 7% of the average annual income of households in the area. Households surveyed reported losses of a total of 3122 livestock......; and jackal for goat and sheep. Livestock predation of spotted hyaena and leopard were mainly during the night. We conclude that assessing depredation problems is important to develop actions for management of either livestock practices or wildlife conservation....

  4. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, BJ; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, TS; Gibson, RS; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, NF; Hambidge, KM

    2009-01-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) μmol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 μmol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven’s sc...

  5. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season

  6. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of nine 7.5-minute quadrangles (417 mi2 total) in south-central Massachusetts (fig. 1). Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and in resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, or organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. The mapped distribution of surficial materials that lie between the land surface and the bedrock surface is based on detailed geologic mapping of 7.5-minute topographic quadrangles, produced as part of an earlier (1938-1982) cooperative statewide mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (now Massachusetts Highway Department) (Page, 1967; Stone, 1982). Each published geologic map presents a detailed description of local geologic map units, the genesis of the deposits, and age correlations among units. Previously unpublished field compilation maps exist on paper or mylar sheets and these have been digitally rendered for the present map compilation. Regional summaries based on the Massachusetts surficial geologic mapping

  7. Summer Mean Enhanced Vegetation Index for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  8. Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Gemeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009, a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008, monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013 and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040, at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like

  9. Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mège, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye

    2013-07-01

    The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and

  10. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  11. Geochemical modeling and multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in arsenic contaminated groundwater systems of Viterbo Area, (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by naturally occurring arsenic has recently become a disturbing environmental problem in Viterbo area, Central Italy. Arsenic concentrations in most of the public supply networks exceed the maximum allowable limit of 10 μg/l (WHO) for drinking water. The primary purpose of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the factors contributing to the high levels of As in water supply networks. This study focuses on (a) the determination of basic hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater, (b) the identification of the major sources and processes controlling the As contamination in public supply networks, (c) to find out possible relationships among the As and other trace elements through principal component analysis (PCA). Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and springs were collected and analysed for physico-chemical parameters and trace elements. Springs and well water samples are predominantly of the Na-HCO3, Na -Ca-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 types and the highest arsenic concentrations were observed in Na-HCO3 type water. Eh-pH diagrams reveal that H2AsO4 (-) and HAsO4 (2-), As(V) arsenate, are the dominating As species highlighting slightly to moderately oxidizing conditions. Geochemical modeling indicates that arsenic-bearing phases were undersaturated in the groundwater, however most of the samples were saturated with respect to Fe (i.e. magnetite, hematite and goethite) and Al (diaspore and boehmite) oxide and hydroxide minerals. Concentrations of As, Li, B, Co, Sr, Mo, U and Se are highly correlated (r > 0.7) with each other, however in some groundwater samples As show also good correlations (r > 0.5) with Fe and Mn elements reflecting the relationships among the trace elements result from different geochemical processes. Evaluation of the principal component (PCA) analysis and geochemical modeling suggest that the occurrence of As and other trace element concentrations in groundwater are probably derived

  12. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  13. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  14. Estimation of Secondary Compounds Concentrations Contributed by Biogenic VOC With Chemical Transport Model in the Central Area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kanemaru, A.; Okumura, M.; Tohno, S.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic VOC (BVOC) has comparably large contribution to generation of secondary air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidant or urban aerosol. In this study a BVOC emission inventory in the Kansai area, which is located in the central part of Japan, based on the field observation was developed. Some validations of the inventory were conducted by estimating the concentration distribution of oxidants with this developed and an existing BVOC emission inventory in Kansai area by meteorological model MM5 and atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ. In the development of BVOC emission, the vegetation map by the Biodiversity Center of Japan which had been arranged as basic information on natural environmental preservation in a regional standard mesh (the third mesh) in 1999 was used. In this study isoprene and the mono-terpene were taken up as BVOC. Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata were selected as the source of isoprene, and Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtuse, Quercus phillyraeoides, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus thunbergii were selected as sources of mono-terpene. The parameter of the basic emission rate included in the model was decided by arranging the result of the observation in Kansai Research Center of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in each season. This emission flux from each species were calculated by G93 model by Guenther et al. and meteorological fields for the model, such as temperatures and sunlight intensities, were renewed hour by hour, therefore, this emission inventory has a high time resolution according to the season and time. In calculating meteorological fields, meteorological model MM5 Ver.3.7 was conducted in Japanese standard mesh in the selected five days of April, July, and October in 2004, and January 2005 respectively, and taking out the result of wind velocities and temperatures for substituting to the G93 model. Then atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ Ver.4.6 with the emission inventories and

  15. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  16. Remote sensing and geographic information system-based African civet habitat mapping in Andracha, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Dagnachew; Suryabhagavan, Karuturi Venkata; Gelet, Melakneh; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic information systems have enormous applications in ecological studies, particularly in the habitat analysis of wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the habitats of the African civet in Andracha, Ethiopia, in order to generate geo-referenced ecological data on the habitats of this species. Habitat evaluation and habitat changes during 1986 to 2012 were analyzed using LANDSAT imageries. In the year 1986, 1017.56 km2 (99.75%) of the study area was covered with forest, but in 2012 only 949.61 km2 (93.09%) had forest cover. There has been a reduction of 5.97% forest cover at a rate of 0.22% per year since 1986. The study area has been classified into three suitability categories based on forest cover, water, settlement/agriculture, road and slope. Currently, 611.07 km2 (59.9%) of the area has dense forest cover, which is less preferred by the African civet, 336.75 km2 (33.01%) is moderately interfered with human activities and is suitable for civets, and 70.56 km2 (6.91%) is degraded forest around human habitats, which is highly preferred by civets. Habitat suitability analysis is useful to predict potential habitats of African civets in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.

  17. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  18. Ethiopia officially announced national population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In comprehensive efforts to rehabilitate the shattered social and economic structure and to lay down a strong foundation for sustainable development, the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) has officially adopted a National Population Policy on July 12, 1993. The major goals of the newly adopted National Population Policy (NPP) include the harmonization of the rate of population growth with the capacity of the country for development, and the rational utilization of resources, thereby creating conditions conducive to the improvement of the welfare of the population. Thus, the NPP will be pursuing the following objectives: 1) closing the gap between high population growth and low economic productivity through planned reduction of population growth and increasing economic returns; 2) expediting economic and social development processes through holistic, integrated development programs designed to expedite the structural differentiation of the economy and employment; 3) reducing the rate of rural to urban migration; 4) maintaining/improving the carrying capacity of the environment by taking appropriate environmental protection/conservation measures; 5) raising the economic and social status of women by freeing them from the restrictions and drudgeries of traditional life and making it possible for them to participate productively in the larger community; 6) significantly improving the social and economic status of vulnerable groups (women, youth, children, and the elderly). The task of harmonizing the rate of population growth with the tempo of economic and social development requires the involvement and collaboration of a number of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The UNFPA Governing Council had approved the allocation of 95 million Ethiopian Birr to Ethiopia. This assistance may be increased in the next few years if the financial situation permits.

  19. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  20. A Validation Process for the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Faultless Nuclear Test at Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2003-01-01

    Many sites of groundwater contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This has created a need for tools and approaches that can be used to build confidence in model predictions and make it apparent to regulators, policy makers, and the public that these models are sufficient for decision making. This confidence building is a long-term iterative process and it is this process that should be termed ''model validation.'' Model validation is a process not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot always assure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. Therefore, development of a systematic approach for evaluating and validating subsurface predictive models and guiding field activities for data collection and long-term monitoring is strongly needed. This report presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to groundwater flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general in nature, but the focus of the discussion is on site-specific, predictive groundwater models that are used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. An attempt is made to compile most of the published studies on groundwater model validation and assemble what has been proposed or used for validating subsurface models. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point to aid the development of the validation plan for the groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The review of previous studies on model validation shows that there does not exist a set of specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and

  1. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, Interceptor®, long-lasting polyester net, 75 denier and bursting strength of minimum 250 kPa coated with alpha-cypermethrin @ 200 mg/m2 was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the mosquito density, blood feeding inhibition and malaria incidence in a tribal dominated malaria endemic area in Chhattisgarh state, central India. Its durability, washing practices and usage pattern by the community was also assessed up to a period of three years. Methods The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase (September 2006 to August 2007, 16 malaria endemic villages in district Kanker were randomized into three groups, viz. Interceptor net (LN, untreated polyester net (100 denier and without net. Malaria cases were detected by undertaking fortnightly surveillance by home visits and treated as per the national drug policy. Mosquito collections were made by hand catch and pyrethrum space spray methods from human dwellings once every month. Slide positivity rate (SPR and malaria incidence per 1000 population (PI were compared between the three study arms to assess the impact of use of Interceptor nets. Simultaneously, wash resistance studies were carried out in the laboratory by doing cone bioassays on Interceptor LNs washed up to 20 times. Activities undertaken in second Phase (April 2008 to October 2009 after an interval of about 18 months post-net distribution included questionnaire based surveys at every six months, i.e. 18, 24, 30 and 36 months to observe durability, usage pattern of LNs and washing practices by the community. After 36 months of field use, 30 nets were retrieved and sampled destructively for chemical analysis. Results Interceptor nets were found effective in reducing the density, parity rate and blood feeding success rate of main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies as compared to that in untreated net and no net villages. SPR in LN villages was 3.7% as compared to 6

  2. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snow lines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Bookhagen, B.

    2014-03-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 158 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost 4 decades, from 1975 to 2012, to obtain glacial- and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. Additionally, we have estimated the snow-line altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota (1988 glacial area: 361 km2) have been declining at a rate of 3.99 ± 1.15 km2 yr-1 (22 year average, 1988-2010, with 95% confidence interval (CI), n = 8 images). Since 1980, the Quelccaya Ice Cap (1980 glacial area: 63.1 km2) has been declining at a rate of 0.57 ± 0.10 km2 yr-1 (30 year average, 1980-2010, with 95% CI, n = 14). Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2010) as compared to the preceding decade (1988-1999) with an average increase from 37.5 to 42.3 × 10-3 km2 yr-1 km-2 (13%). Third, glaciers with lower median elevations are declining at higher rates than those with higher median elevations. Specifically, glaciers with median elevations around 5200 m a.s.l. are retreating to higher elevations at a rate of ~1 m yr-1 faster than glaciers with median elevations around 5400 m a.s.l. Fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 77% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have either remained stable or shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 42% of lakes not connected to glacial

  3. Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data.Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression.The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%-3.4% with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST, mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl, with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19-21°C. No (or very little podoconiosis occurred at altitudes 24°C.Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work.

  4. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdekios B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

  5. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  6. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  7. Biogeochemistry of sulfur and iron in Thioploca-colonized surface sediments in the upwelling area off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, Jakob; Michael E., Böttcher; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2008-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of sedimentary sulfur was investigated on the continental shelf off central Chile at water depths between 24 and 88 m under partial influence of an oxygen minimum zone. Dissolved and solid iron and sulfur species, including the sulfur intermediates sulfite, thiosulfate...

  8. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

  9. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin--A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Huai-liang; Zhu Bo; Chen Guo-jie; Gao Mei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biomass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biomass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  10. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin——A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHuai-liang; ZhuBo; ChenGuo-jie; GaoMei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biornass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biornass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  12. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Hanshaw

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far, yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975–2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr−1 (22-yr average, 1988–2010, with 95% confidence interval. The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr−1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980–2011, also with 95% confidence interval; Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000–2011 as compared to the preceding decade (1990–2000; Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate

  13. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr-1 (22-yr average, 1988-2010, with 95% confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr-1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980-2011, also with 95% confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further studies

  14. Glacial areas, lakes areas, and snowlines from 1975-2012: Status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, Maiana Natania

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: First, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 +/- 1.70 km2/yr (22-year average, 1988-2010, with 95 % confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 +/- 0.18 km2/yr since 1980 (31-year average, 1980-2011, also with 95 % confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61 % of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84 % of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 years provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further

  15. The Central School Area : A cradle of Vietnamese higher education during the French-Vietnamese War of the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 豊

    2012-01-01

    During the anti-French war for independence that followed World War II, Vietnam avoided the hostilities by establishing the so-called "Central School Area" (Khu Hoc Xa Trung Uong) in the neighboring Chinese Guangxi Province, where it carried out staff training for the war of independence and nation-building during the postwar period. These Vietnamese schools established in China were generally called "Yucai Schools". Meanwhile China, in spite of the national crisis posed by the Korean War, wh...

  16. Traditional perceptions and treatment of mental disorders in western Ethiopia before the 1974 revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, L; Merdasa, F

    1991-11-01

    This article describes the traditional concepts and treatment of mental disorders in the Oromo areas in western Ethiopia before the revolution in 1974. There are three traditional cultural influences operating: traditional Oromo thinking, the Coptic church and the Islamic culture. One important element in traditional Oromo thinking is that each person is believed to possess an ayana, which is a special divine agent that can descend upon people, but also means a person's character and personality. In the traditional Oromo society, the Kallu is the religious leader who, through an ecstatic ritual technique, can investigate the causes of the disorder and advise what to do. Mental disorders are generally explained as resulting from disturbances in the relationship between people and divinity. The second important cultural element in western Ethiopia is the orthodox Coptic church, which usually looks upon mental disorders as possession by evil spirits, which are thus treated by specially gifted priests and monks by praying and giving holy water or eventually exhortation. According to Islamic teaching in the area, mental disorders are caused by evil spirits sent by God to punish the unfaithful people. Some Muslim sheiks treat mental cases with prayers, but herbal remedies are also used. There is a great intermingling of these different cultural and religious elements and people attend different healers and religious leaders more depending on the reputation of the person than on cultural and religious affiliation.

  17. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.

  18. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MESFIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76% of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productiv in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52% proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30% than that of the traders (1%. To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

  19. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megbaru Alemu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total of 400 (240 male and 160 female pre-school children were eligible to provide stool samples. Wet mount preparations and Kato Katz technique were applied to process stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 29.3% in the study. Six protozoan and helminthic parasites were indentified and Hymenelopis nana was the predominant species (8.75% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.75, Entamoeba histolytica (5%, Enterobius vermicularis (5% and Ascaris lumbricoides (4%. Hookworms and Schistosomiasis mansoni were the least prevalent species. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitosis was high in the study area which indicates a need for provision of anti protozoan and anti helminthics, sanitation, provision of safe water supply and latrines accompanied by appropriate health education.

  20. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.