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Sample records for archaeon halobacterium sp

  1. The cobY Gene of the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1 Is Required for De Novo Cobamide Synthesis

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    Woodson, J. D.; Peck, R. F.; Krebs, M P; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and nutritional analyses of mutants of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 showed that open reading frame (ORF) Vng1581C encodes a protein with nucleoside triphosphate:adenosylcobinamide-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase enzyme activity. This activity was previously associated with the cobY gene of the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain ΔH, but no evidence was obtained to demonstrate the direct involvement of this protein in c...

  2. The cobY gene of the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 is required for de novo cobamide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, J D; Peck, R F; Krebs, M P; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and nutritional analyses of mutants of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 showed that open reading frame (ORF) Vng1581C encodes a protein with nucleoside triphosphate:adenosylcobinamide-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase enzyme activity. This activity was previously associated with the cobY gene of the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain DeltaH, but no evidence was obtained to demonstrate the direct involvement of this protein in cobamide biosynthesis in archaea. Computer analysis of the Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 ORF Vng1581C gene and the cobY gene of M. thermoautotrophicum strain DeltaH showed the primary amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by these two genes to be 35% identical and 48% similar. A strain of Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 carrying a null allele of the cobY gene was auxotrophic for cobinamide-GDP, a known intermediate of the late steps of cobamide biosynthesis. The auxotrophic requirement for cobinamide-GDP was corrected when a wild-type allele of cobY was introduced into the mutant strain, demonstrating that the lack of cobY function was solely responsible for the observed block in cobamide biosynthesis in this archaeon. The data also show that Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 possesses a high-affinity transport system for corrinoids and that this archaeon can synthesize cobamides de novo under aerobic growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first genetic and nutritional analysis of cobalamin biosynthetic mutants in archaea. PMID:12486068

  3. Essential and non-essential DNA replication genes in the model halophilic Archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

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    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus far. We have developed a tractable genetic system for knockout analysis of genes in the model halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and used it to determine which DNA replication genes are essential. Results Using a directed in-frame gene knockout method in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we examined nineteen genes predicted to be involved in DNA replication. Preliminary bioinformatic analysis of the large haloarchaeal Orc/Cdc6 family, related to eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6, showed five distinct clades of Orc/Cdc6 proteins conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Of ten orc/cdc6 genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, only two were found to be essential, orc10, on the large chromosome, and orc2, on the minichromosome, pNRC200. Of the three replicative-type DNA polymerase genes, two were essential: the chromosomally encoded B family, polB1, and the chromosomally encoded euryarchaeal-specific D family, polD1/D2 (formerly called polA1/polA2 in the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome sequence. The pNRC200-encoded B family polymerase, polB2, was non-essential. Accessory genes for DNA replication initiation and elongation factors, including the putative replicative helicase, mcm, the eukaryotic-type DNA primase, pri1/pri2, the DNA polymerase sliding clamp, pcn, and the flap endonuclease, rad2, were all essential. Targeted genes were classified as non-essential if knockouts were obtained and essential based on statistical analysis and/or by demonstrating the inability to isolate chromosomal knockouts except in the presence of a complementing plasmid copy of the gene. Conclusion The results showed that ten

  4. A dual role of divalent metal ions in catalysis and folding of RNase H1 from extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, Elias; Yokoyama, Koji; You, Dong-Ju; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    RNase H1 from extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 (Halo-RNH1) consists of an N-terminal domain with unknown function and a C-terminal RNase H domain. It is characterized by the high content of acidic residues on the protein surface. The far- and near-UV CD spectra of Halo-RNH1 suggested that Halo-RNH1 assumes a partially folded structure in the absence of salt and divalent metal ions. It requires either salt or divalent metal ions for folding. However, thermal denaturation of ...

  5. Microarray analysis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum strain R1.

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    Jens Twellmeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phototrophy of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was explored for decades. The research was mainly focused on the expression of bacteriorhodopsin and its functional properties. In contrast, less is known about genome wide transcriptional changes and their impact on the physiological adaptation to phototrophy. The tool of choice to record transcriptional profiles is the DNA microarray technique. However, the technique is still rarely used for transcriptome analysis in archaea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a whole-genome DNA microarray based on our sequence data of the Hbt. salinarum strain R1 genome. The potential of our tool is exemplified by the comparison of cells growing under aerobic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. We processed the raw fluorescence data by several stringent filtering steps and a subsequent MAANOVA analysis. The study revealed a lot of transcriptional differences between the two cell states. We found that the transcriptional changes were relatively weak, though significant. Finally, the DNA microarray data were independently verified by a real-time PCR analysis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first DNA microarray analysis of Hbt. salinarum cells that were actually grown under phototrophic conditions. By comparing the transcriptomics data with current knowledge we could show that our DNA microarray tool is well applicable for transcriptome analysis in the extremely halophilic archaeon Hbt. salinarum. The reliability of our tool is based on both the high-quality array of DNA probes and the stringent data handling including MAANOVA analysis. Among the regulated genes more than 50% had unknown functions. This underlines the fact that haloarchaeal phototrophy is still far away from being completely understood. Hence, the data recorded in this study will be subject to future systems biology analysis.

  6. A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

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    Todor, Horia; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Schmid, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Co-ordinating metabolism and growth is a key challenge for all organisms. Despite fluctuating environments, cells must produce the same metabolic outputs to thrive. The mechanisms underlying this 'growth homeostasis' are known in bacteria and eukaryotes, but remain unexplored in archaea. In the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, the transcription factor TrmB regulates enzyme-coding genes in diverse metabolic pathways in response to glucose. However, H. salinarum is thought not to catabolize glucose. To resolve this discrepancy, we demonstrate that TrmB regulates the gluconeogenic production of sugars incorporated into the cell surface S-layer glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that TrmB-DNA binding correlates with instantaneous growth rate, likely because S-layer glycosylation is proportional to growth. This suggests that TrmB transduces a growth rate signal to co-regulated metabolic pathways including amino acid, purine, and cobalamin biosynthesis. Remarkably, the topology and function of this growth homeostatic network appear conserved across domains despite extensive alterations in protein components.

  7. Development of New Modular Genetic Tools for Engineering the Halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

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    Rafael Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available Our ability to genetically manipulate living organisms is usually constrained by the efficiency of the genetic tools available for the system of interest. In this report, we present the design, construction and characterization of a set of four new modular vectors, the pHsal series, for engineering Halobacterium salinarum, a model halophilic archaeon widely used in systems biology studies. The pHsal shuttle vectors are organized in four modules: (i the E. coli's specific part, containing a ColE1 origin of replication and an ampicillin resistance marker, (ii the resistance marker and (iii the replication origin, which are specific to H. salinarum and (iv the cargo, which will carry a sequence of interest cloned in a multiple cloning site, flanked by universal M13 primers. Each module was constructed using only minimal functional elements that were sequence edited to eliminate redundant restriction sites useful for cloning. This optimization process allowed the construction of vectors with reduced sizes compared to currently available platforms and expanded multiple cloning sites. Additionally, the strong constitutive promoter of the fer2 gene was sequence optimized and incorporated into the platform to allow high-level expression of heterologous genes in H. salinarum. The system also includes a new minimal suicide vector for the generation of knockouts and/or the incorporation of chromosomal tags, as well as a vector for promoter probing using a GFP gene as reporter. This new set of optimized vectors should strongly facilitate the engineering of H. salinarum and similar strategies could be implemented for other archaea.

  8. Resistance of the Extreme Halophile Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to Multiple Stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model Archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is an extreme halophile known for its resistance to multiple stressors, including electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation. It is a well-developed system with a completely sequenced genome and extensive post-genomic tools for the study of a variety of biological processes. To further understand the mechanisms of Halobacterium's, radiation resistance, we previously reported the selection for multiple independent highly resistant mutants using repeated exposure to high doses of 18-20 MeV electrons using a medical S-band Linac. Molecular analysis of the transcriptional profile of several of these mutants revealed a single common change: upregulation of the rfa3 operon. These genes encode proteins homologous to the subunits of eukaryotic Replication Protein A (RPA), a DNA binding protein with major roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. This operon has also been implicated in a somewhat lesser role in resistance of wild type Halobacterium to ultraviolet radiation, suggesting common mechanisms for resistance. To further understand the mechanism of radiation resistance in the mutant strains, we measured the survival after exposure to both electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation, UV-A, B, and C All mutant strains showed increased resistance to electrons when compared with the parent. However, the mutant strains do not display increased UV resistance, and in one case is more sensitive than the parent strain. Thus, the protective role of increased RPA expression within a cell may be specific to the DNA damage caused by the different physical effects induced by high energy electron-beam radiation.

  9. Conservation of chromosomal arrangement among three strains of the genetically unstable archaeon Halobacterium salinarium.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, N R; Bobovnikova, Y; Heyrovska, N

    1994-01-01

    Phenotypic variants of Halobacterium salinarium NRC-1 arise at a frequency of 10(-2). These result from transpositions of halobacterial insertion sequences and rearrangements mediated by halobacterial insertion sequences. We have tested the hypothesis that such mutations are confined to only a portion of the genome by comparing the chromosomal restriction map of H. salinarium NRC-1 and that of the derivative S9, which was made in 1969. The two chromosomes were mapped by using two-dimensional ...

  10. Genomic Analysis of the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 Isolated from Solar Salt That Is an Essential Material for Fermented Foods.

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    Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Joon Yong; Song, Hye Seon; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Jun; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lee, Dong-Gi; Choi, Jong-Soon; Yoon, Changmann; Sohn, Eunju; Rahman, Md Arif-Ur; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-08-28

    The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense is a member of the genus Halobacterium. Strain CBA1132 (= KCCM 43183, JCM 31150) was isolated from solar salt. The genome of strain CBA1132 assembled with 4 contigs, including three rRNA genes, 44 tRNA genes, and 3,208 open reading frames. Strain CBA1132 had nine putative CRISPRs and the genome contained genes encoding metal resistance determinants: copper-translocating P-type ATPase (CtpA), arsenical pump-driving ATPase (ArsA), arsenate reductase (ArsC), and arsenical resistance operon repressor (ArsR). Strain CBA1132 was related to Halobacterium noricense, with 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on the comparative genomic analysis, strain CBA1132 has distinctly evolved; moreover, essential genes related to nitrogen metabolism were only detected in the genome of strain CBA1132 among the reported genomes in the genus Halobacterium. This genome sequence of Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 may be of use in future molecular biological studies.

  11. Differential transport properties of D-leucine and L-leucine in the archaeon, Halobacterium salinarum.

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    Tanaka, M; Mukohata, Y; Yuasa, S

    2000-04-01

    The transport of D-leucine was compared with that of L-leucine in Halobacterium salinarum. When a high-outside/low-inside Na+ gradient was imposed, D-leucine as well as L-leucine accumulated in envelope vesicles, supporting the hypothesis that D-leucine is transported via a symport system along with Na+. Kinetic analyses, including inhibition experiments, indicated that both enantiomers are transported via a common carrier. However, a Hill plot indicated a single binding site for Na+ during L-leucine transport, but dual binding sites for Na+ during D-leucine transport. Furthermore, D-leucine transport was dependent on electrical membrane potential, suggesting that a transporter bound with D-leucine is positively charged. L-leucine transport was slightly, if at all, dependent on membrane potential, suggesting that a transporter bound with L-leucine is electrically neutral. These results indicate that the leucine carrier in Halobacterium salinarum translocates two moles of Na+ per mole of D-leucine, and one mole of Na+ per mole of L-leucine. PMID:10779875

  12. Conservation of chromosomal arrangement among three strains of the genetically unstable archaeon Halobacterium salinarium.

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    Hackett, N R; Bobovnikova, Y; Heyrovska, N

    1994-12-01

    Phenotypic variants of Halobacterium salinarium NRC-1 arise at a frequency of 10(-2). These result from transpositions of halobacterial insertion sequences and rearrangements mediated by halobacterial insertion sequences. We have tested the hypothesis that such mutations are confined to only a portion of the genome by comparing the chromosomal restriction map of H. salinarium NRC-1 and that of the derivative S9, which was made in 1969. The two chromosomes were mapped by using two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the restriction enzymes AflII, AseI, and DraI. A comparison of the two deduced maps showed a domain of about 210 kbp to be subject to many rearrangements, including an inversion in S9 relative to NRC-1. However, the rest of the chromosome was conserved among NRC-1, S9, and an independent Halobacterium isolate, GRB, previously mapped by St. Jean et al. (A. St. Jean, B. A. Trieselmann, and R. L. Charlebois, Nucleic Acids Res. 22:1476-1483, 1994). This concurs with data from eubacteria suggesting strong selective forces maintaining gene order even in the face of rearrangement events occurring at a high frequency. PMID:8002597

  13. Direct observation of rotation and steps of the archaellum in the swimming halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

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    Kinosita, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Nariya; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Motile archaea swim using a rotary filament, the archaellum, a surface appendage that resembles bacterial flagella structurally, but is homologous to bacterial type IV pili. Little is known about the mechanism by which archaella produce motility. To gain insights into this mechanism, we characterized archaellar function in the model organism Halobacterium salinarum. Three-dimensional tracking of quantum dots enabled visualization of the left-handed corkscrewing of archaea in detail. An advanced analysis method combined with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, termed cross-kymography, was developed and revealed a right-handed helical structure of archaella with a rotation speed of 23 ± 5 Hz. Using these structural and kinetic parameters, we computationally reproduced the swimming and precession motion with a hydrodynamic model and estimated the archaellar motor torque to be 50 pN nm. Finally, in a tethered-cell assay, we observed intermittent pauses during rotation with ∼36° or 60° intervals, which we speculate may be a unitary step consuming a single adenosine triphosphate molecule, which supplies chemical energy of 80 pN nm when hydrolysed. From an estimate of the energy input as ten or six adenosine triphosphates per revolution, the efficiency of the motor is calculated to be ∼6-10%. PMID:27564999

  14. MutS and MutL are dispensable for maintenance of the genomic mutation rate in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1.

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    Courtney R Busch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 encodes for homologs of MutS and MutL, which are key proteins of a DNA mismatch repair pathway conserved in Bacteria and Eukarya. Mismatch repair is essential for retaining the fidelity of genetic information and defects in this pathway result in the deleterious accumulation of mutations and in hereditary diseases in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the spontaneous genomic mutation rate of H. salinarum NRC-1 using fluctuation tests targeting genes of the uracil monophosphate biosynthesis pathway. We found that H. salinarum NRC-1 has a low incidence of mutation suggesting the presence of active mechanisms to control spontaneous mutations during replication. The spectrum of mutational changes found in H. salinarum NRC-1, and in other archaea, appears to be unique to this domain of life and might be a consequence of their adaption to extreme environmental conditions. In-frame targeted gene deletions of H. salinarum NRC-1 mismatch repair genes and phenotypic characterization of the mutants demonstrated that the mutS and mutL genes are not required for maintenance of the observed mutation rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that H. salinarum NRC-1 mutS and mutL genes are redundant to an alternative system that limits spontaneous mutation in this organism. This finding leads to the puzzling question of what mechanism is responsible for maintenance of the low genomic mutation rates observed in the Archaea, which for the most part do not have MutS and MutL homologs.

  15. Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum--a representative of the third domain of life.

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    Michalis Aivaliotis

    Full Text Available In the quest for the origin and evolution of protein phosphorylation, the major regulatory post-translational modification in eukaryotes, the members of archaea, the "third domain of life", play a protagonistic role. A plethora of studies have demonstrated that archaeal proteins are subject to post-translational modification by covalent phosphorylation, but little is known concerning the identities of the proteins affected, the impact on their functionality, the physiological roles of archaeal protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, and the protein kinases/phosphatases involved. These limited studies led to the initial hypothesis that archaea, similarly to other prokaryotes, use mainly histidine/aspartate phosphorylation, in their two-component systems representing a paradigm of prokaryotic signal transduction, while eukaryotes mostly use Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation for creating highly sophisticated regulatory networks. In antithesis to the above hypothesis, several studies showed that Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation is also common in the bacterial cell, and here we present the first genome-wide phosphoproteomic analysis of the model organism of archaea, Halobacterium salinarum, proving the existence/conservation of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in the "third domain" of life, allowing a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the so-called "Nature's premier" mechanism for regulating the functional properties of proteins.

  16. Halobacterium Salinarum: Polyextremophile Model for Life Inside Martian Halite

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    Srivastava, A.

    2014-07-01

    The present work briefly reviews the recent studies on long-term survival potential of Halobacterium salinarum in ancient terrestrial halite and studies the possible survival ability of this poly-extremophilic archaeon inside martian halite.

  17. Approach toward enhancement of halophilic protease production by Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 using statistical design response surface methodology

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    Julalak Chuprom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new potent halophilic protease producer, Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 was isolated from salt-fermented fish samples (budu and identified by phenotypic analysis, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Thereafter, sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize halophilic protease production from Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 by shake-flask fermentation. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT approach determined gelatin was the best nitrogen source. Based on Plackett–Burman (PB experimental design; gelatin, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl and pH significantly influenced the halophilic protease production. Central composite design (CCD determined the optimum level of medium components. Subsequently, an 8.78-fold increase in corresponding halophilic protease yield (156.22 U/mL was obtained, compared with that produced in the original medium (17.80 U/mL. Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values. An overall 13-fold increase in halophilic protease yield was achieved using a 3 L laboratory fermenter and optimized medium (231.33 U/mL.

  18. Natronobacterium texcoconense sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic archaeon isolated from soil of a former lake.

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    Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Sánchez-López, Katia Berenice; de los Angeles Coutiño-Coutiño, María; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Bello-López, Juan Manuel; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Ramírez-Villanueva, Daniel Alejandro; Dendooven, Luc

    2013-11-01

    A novel haloalkaliphilic archaeon, strain B23(T) was isolated from the former lake Texcoco in Mexico. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, the cells coccoid to ovoid rods, red pigmented and aerobic. Strain B23(T) grew in 1.7-4.3 M NaCl, at pH 6.5-9.5 and at 25-45 °C with optimal growth at 2.6-3.4 M NaCl, pH 7.5-8.5 and 37 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain B23(T) was most closely related to Natronobacterium gregoryi SP2(T) with 97.3 % sequence similarity. The polar lipids of strain B23(T) were phosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified phospholipids. The G+C content of the DNA of the strain was 62.5 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B23(T) and Natronobacterium gregoryi DSM 3393(T) was 32.3 %. The name Natronobacterium texcoconense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B23(T) ( = CECT 8068(T) = JCM 17655(T)).

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

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    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complet...

  20. Natronorubrum texcoconense sp. nov., a haloalkaliphilic archaeon isolated from soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico).

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    Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; de los Angeles Coutiño-Coutiño, María; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2013-02-01

    A new haloalkaliphilic archaeon, strain B4(T), was isolated from the former lake Texcoco in Mexico. The cells were Gram-negative, pleomorphic-shaped, pink to red pigmented and aerobic. Strain B4(T) required at least 2.5 M NaCl for growth, with optimum growth at 3.4 M NaCl. It was able to grow over a pH range of 7.5-10.0 and temperature of 25-50 °C, with optimal growth at pH 9 and 37 °C. Cells are lysed in hypotonic treatment with less than 1.3 M NaCl. The major polar lipids of strain B4(T) were phosphatidylglycerol and methyl-phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phospholipids were detected, but not glycolipids. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the strain B4(T) was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Natronorubrum. Sequence similarity with Natronorubrum tibetense was 96.28 %, with Natronorubrum sulfidifaciens 95.06 % and Natronorubrum sediminis 94.98 %. The G+C content of the DNA was 63.3 mol%. The name of Natronorubrum texcoconense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B4(T) (=CECT 8067(T) = JCM 17497(T)).

  1. Halorubrum persicum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from sediment of a hypersaline lake.

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    Corral, Paulina; de la Haba, Rafael R; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Papke, R Thane; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    An extremely halophilic archaeon belonging to the genus Halorubrum, strain C49T, was isolated from sediment of the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain C49T was closely related to Halorubrum saccharovorum JCM 8865T (99.5 %) and other species of the genus Halorubrum. Studies based on multilocus sequence analysis revealed that strain C49T is placed among the species of Halorubrum; the strain constituted a defined branch in comparison with the type strains of species of Halorubrum, while the 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence could not define the status of the newly isolated strain. For optimum growth, strain C49T required 20 % (w/v) salts at pH 7.0 and 37 °C under aerobic conditions. Mg2+ was not required. The cells were pleomorphic rods, motile and stained Gram-variable. Colonies of the strain were pink. Hypotonic treatment with <12 % NaCl provoked cell lysis. The polar lipid pattern of strain C49T consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester derived from both C20C20 and C20C25 archaeol, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether. The DNA G+C content was 64.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies and average nucleotide identity confirmed that strain C49T constitutes a distinct genospecies. Data obtained in this study show that strain C49T represents a novel species, for which the name Halorubrum persicum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C49T ( = IBRC-M 10232T = JCM 30541T). PMID:25744586

  2. Pyrobaculum calidifontis sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows in atmospheric air

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    Taku Amo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, facultatively aerobic, heterotrophic hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in the Philippines. Cells of the new isolate, strain VA1, were rod-shaped with a length of 1.5 to 10 μm and a width of 0.5 to 1.0 μm. Isolate VA1 grew optimally at 90 to 95 °C and pH 7.0 under atmospheric air. Oxygen served as a final electron acceptor under aerobic growth conditions, and vigorous shaking of the medium significantly enhanced growth. Elemental sulfur inhibited cell growth under aerobic growth conditions, whereas thiosulfate stimulated cell growth. Under anaerobic growth conditions, nitrate served as a final electron acceptor, but nitrite or sulfur-containing compounds such as elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate and sulfite could not act as final electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 51 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that strain VA1 exhibited close relationships to species of the genus Pyrobaculum. A DNA–DNA hybridization study revealed a low level of similarity (≤ 18% between strain VA1 and previously described members of the genus Pyrobaculum. Physiological characteristics also indicated that strain VA1 was distinct from these Pyrobaculum species. Our results indicate that isolate VA1 represents a novel species, named Pyrobaculum calidifontis.

  3. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

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    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  4. Halorubrum halodurans sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from a hypersaline lake.

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    Corral, Paulina; de la Haba, Rafael R; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Thane Papke, R; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, strains Cb34T and C170, belonging to the genus Halorubrum, were isolated from the brine of the hypersaline lake Aran-Bidgol in Iran. Cells of the two strains were motile, pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-variable and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strains Cb34T and C170 required 25 % (w/v) salts, pH 7.0 and 37 °C for optimal growth under aerobic conditions; 0.3 M Mg2+ was required. Cells of both isolates were lysed in distilled water and hypotonic treatment with < 10 % NaCl provoked cell lysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that these two strains were closely related to Halorubrum cibi B31T (98.8 %) and other members of the genus Halorubrum. In addition, studies based on the rpoB' gene revealed that strains Cb34T and C170 are placed among the species of Halorubrum and are closely related to Halorubrum cibi B31T, with rpoB' gene sequence similarity less than or equal to 95.7 %. The polar lipid patterns of both strains consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether. The DNA G+C content was 62.1-62.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that strains Cb34T and C170 constitute a distinct species. Data obtained in this study show that the two strains represent a novel species, for which the name Halorubrum halodurans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cb34T ( = CECT 8745T = IBRC-M 10233T). PMID:26537912

  5. Model Construction and Analysis of Respiration in Halobacterium salinarum.

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    Cherryl O Talaue

    Full Text Available The archaeon Halobacterium salinarum can produce energy using three different processes, namely photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation of arginine, and is thus a model organism in bioenergetics. Compared to its bacteriorhodopsin-driven photosynthesis, less attention has been devoted to modeling its respiratory pathway. We created a system of ordinary differential equations that models its oxidative phosphorylation. The model consists of the electron transport chain, the ATP synthase, the potassium uniport and the sodium-proton antiport. By fitting the model parameters to experimental data, we show that the model can explain data on proton motive force generation, ATP production, and the charge balancing of ions between the sodium-proton antiporter and the potassium uniport. We performed sensitivity analysis of the model parameters to determine how the model will respond to perturbations in parameter values. The model and the parameters we derived provide a resource that can be used for analytical studies of the bioenergetics of H. salinarum.

  6. Understanding the Adaptation of Halobacterium Species NRC-1 to Its Extreme Environment through Computational Analysis of Its Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P.; Ng, Wailap Victor; Salzberg, Steven L.; Hood, Leroy; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2001-01-01

    The genome of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and predicted proteome have been analyzed by computational methods and reveal characteristics relevant to life in an extreme environment distinguished by hypersalinity and high solar radiation: (1) The proteome is highly acidic, with a median pI of 4.9 and mostly lacking basic proteins. This characteristic correlates with high surface negative charge, determined through homology modeling, as the major adaptive mechanism of halophilic proteins to function in nearly saturating salinity. (2) Codon usage displays the expected GC bias in the wobble position and is consistent with a highly acidic proteome. (3) Distinct genomic domains of NRC-1 with bacterial character are apparent by whole proteome BLAST analysis, including two gene clusters coding for a bacterial-type aerobic respiratory chain. This result indicates that the capacity of halophiles for aerobic respiration may have been acquired through lateral gene transfer. (4) Two regions of the large chromosome were found with relatively lower GC composition and overrepresentation of IS elements, similar to the minichromosomes. These IS-element-rich regions of the genome may serve to exchange DNA between the three replicons and promote genome evolution. (5) GC-skew analysis showed evidence for the existence of two replication origins in the large chromosome. This finding and the occurrence of multiple chromosomes indicate a dynamic genome organization with eukaryotic character. PMID:11591641

  7. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cd binding onto a halophilic archaeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Allison R.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Fein, Jeremy B.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and cadmium (Cd) isotherm experiments determine how Cd adsorbs to the surface of halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense. This archaeon, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico could be involved with the transport of toxic metals stored in the transuranic waste in the salt mine. The isotherm experiments show that adsorption is relatively constant across the tolerable pH range for H. noricense. The XAS results indicate that Cd adsorption occurs predominately via a sulfur site, most likely sulfhydryl, with the same site dominating all measured pH values.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Halostagnicola sp. A56, an Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Isolated from the Andaman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Sagar P; Saxena, Neha; Pore, Soham D; Arora, Preeti; Kanekar, P P; Dhakephalkar, P K

    2015-01-01

    The first draft genome of Halostagnicola sp. A56, isolated from the Andaman Islands is reported here. The A56 genome comprises 3,178,490 bp in 26 contigs with a G+C content of 60.8%. The genome annotation revealed that A56 could have potential applications for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate or bioplastics. PMID:26564049

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus” sp. 1R26, Enriched from Bovine Rumen, a Methanogenic Archaeon Belonging to the Methanomassiliicoccales Order

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Højberg, Ole; Urich, Tim; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of “Candidatus Methanomethylophilus” sp. 1R26, a member of the newly described Methanomassiliicoccales order of Euryarcheaota. The enrichment culture was established from bovine rumen contents and produced methane from trimethylamine and methanol. The draft genome contains genes for methanogenesis from methylated compounds.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Methanomethylophilus" sp. 1R26, Enriched from Bovine Rumen, a Methanogenic Archaeon Belonging to the Methanomassiliicoccales Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Højberg, Ole; Urich, Tim; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of "Candidatus Methanomethylophilus" sp. 1R26, a member of the newly described Methanomassiliicoccales order of Euryarcheaota. The enrichment culture was established from bovine rumen contents and produced methane from trimethylamine and methanol. The draft genome contains genes for methanogenesis from methylated compounds. PMID:26893425

  11. Methanospirillum stamsii sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, hydrogenotrophic, methanogenic archaeon isolated from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed bioreactor operated at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshina, Sofiya N; Ermakova, Anna V; Bomberg, Malin; Detkova, Ekaterina N

    2014-01-01

    A psychrotolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain Pt1, was isolated from a syntrophic propionate-oxidizing methanogenic consortium obtained from granulated biomass of a two-stage low-temperature (3-8 °C) anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) bioreactor, fed with a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (acetate, propionate and butyrate). The strain was strictly anaerobic, and cells were curved rods, 0.4-0.5×7.5-25 µm, that sometimes formed wavy filaments from 25 to several hundred micrometres in length. Cells stained Gram-negative and were non-sporulating. They were gently motile by means of tufted flagella. The strain grew at 5-37 °C (optimum at 20-30 °C), at pH 6.0-10 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-0.3 M NaCl (optimum 0 M NaCl). Growth and methane production was found with H2/CO2 and very weak growth with formate. Acetate and yeast extract stimulated growth, but were not essential. The G+C content of the DNA of strain Pt1 was 40 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Pt1 was a member of the genus Methanospirillum and showed 97.5 % sequence similarity to Methanospirillum hungatei JF1(T) and 94 % sequence similarity to Methanospirillum lacunae Ki8-1(T). DNA-DNA hybridization of strain Pt1 with Methanospirillum hungatei JF1(T) revealed 39 % relatedness. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strain Pt1 is a representative of a novel species of the genus Methanospirillum, for which the name Methanospirillum stamsii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Pt1(T) ( = DSM 26304(T) = VKM B-2808(T)). PMID:24048867

  12. Isolation and cultivation of Walsby's square archaeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H; Poele, EMT; Rodriguez-Valera, F

    2004-01-01

    In 1980, A. E. Walsby described a square halophilic archaeon. This archaeon is of specific interest because of its unique shape and its abundance in hypersaline ecosystems, which suggests an important ecophysiological role. Ever since its discovery, the isolation and cultivation of 'Walsby's square

  13. Systems analysis of bioenergetics and growth of the extreme halophile Halobacterium salinarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orland Gonzalez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Halobacterium salinarum is a bioenergetically flexible, halophilic microorganism that can generate energy by respiration, photosynthesis, and the fermentation of arginine. In a previous study, using a genome-scale metabolic model, we have shown that the archaeon unexpectedly degrades essential amino acids under aerobic conditions, a behavior that can lead to the termination of growth earlier than necessary. Here, we further integratively investigate energy generation, nutrient utilization, and biomass production using an extended methodology that accounts for dynamically changing transport patterns, including those that arise from interactions among the supplied metabolites. Moreover, we widen the scope of our analysis to include phototrophic conditions to explore the interplay between different bioenergetic modes. Surprisingly, we found that cells also degrade essential amino acids even during phototropy, when energy should already be abundant. We also found that under both conditions considerable amounts of nutrients that were taken up were neither incorporated into the biomass nor used as respiratory substrates, implying the considerable production and accumulation of several metabolites in the medium. Some of these are likely the products of forms of overflow metabolism. In addition, our results also show that arginine fermentation, contrary to what is typically assumed, occurs simultaneously with respiration and photosynthesis and can contribute energy in levels that are comparable to the primary bioenergetic modes, if not more. These findings portray a picture that the organism takes an approach toward growth that favors the here and now, even at the cost of longer-term concerns. We believe that the seemingly "greedy" behavior exhibited actually consists of adaptations by the organism to its natural environments, where nutrients are not only irregularly available but may altogether be absent for extended periods that may span several years

  14. Hydrogen gas production by combined systems of Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 and Halobacterium salinarum in a photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabut, Baker; El-Kahlout, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry, School of Science, IUG, Gaza (PS); Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 is a photosynthetic non-sulfur bacterium which produces hydrogen from organic compounds under anaerobic conditions. Halobacterium salinarum is an archaeon and lives under extremely halophilic conditions (4M NaCl). H. salinarum contains a retinal protein bacteriorhodopsin in its purple membrane which acts as a light-driven proton pump. In this study the Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 culture was combined with different amounts of packed cells of H. salinarum S9 or isolated purple membrane fragments in order to increase the photofermentative hydrogen gas production. The packed cells of H. salinarum have the ability to pump protons upon illumination due to the presence of bacteriorhodopsin. The proton gradient produced may be used for the formation of ATP or protons may be used for H{sub 2} production by R. sphaeroides. Similar to intact cells purple membrane fragments may also form vesicles around certain ions and may act like closed systems. The hydrogen production experiments were carried out using 400ml water-jacketed-glass column stirred photobioreactors. In combined systems 10-200nmol of bacteriorhodopsin was used. Hydrogen gas production was enhanced by four- to sixfold in combined systems of H. salinarum packed cells with R. sphaeroides O.U.001 cell. Stirring both increased the total gas produced and enhanced the rate of hydrogen production. The light energy conversion efficiency was increased from 0.6% to 2.25% in combined systems. (author)

  15. A small basic protein from the brz-brb operon is involved in regulation of bop transcription in Halobacterium salinarum

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    Dyall-Smith Mike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum expresses bacteriorhodopsin, a retinal-protein that allows photosynthetic growth. Transcription of the bop (bacterioopsin gene is controlled by two transcription factors, Bat and Brz that induce bop when cells are grown anaerobically and under light. Results A new gene was identified that is transcribed together with the brz gene that encodes a small basic protein designated as Brb (bacteriorhodopsin-regulating basic protein. The translation activity of the start codon of the brb gene was confirmed by BgaH reporter assays. In vivo site-directed mutagenesis of the brb gene showed that the Brb protein cooperates with Brz in the regulation of bop expression. Using a GFP reporter assay, it was demonstrated that Brb cooperates with both Brz and Bat proteins to activate bop transcription under phototrophic growth conditions. Conclusions The activation of the bop promoter was shown to be dependent not only on two major factors, Bat and Brz, but is also tuned by the small basic protein, Brb.

  16. Excitation signal processing times in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Spudich, J L

    1986-01-01

    Phototaxis responses of Halobacterium halobium were monitored with a computerized cell-tracking system coupled to an electronic shutter controlling delivery of photostimuli. Automated analysis of rates of change in direction and linear speeds provided detection of swimming reversals with 67 ms resolution, permitting measurement of distinct phases of the responses to attractant and repellent stimuli. After stimulation, there was a latency period in which the population reversal frequency was u...

  17. Dynamic Metabolite Profiling in an Archaeon Connects Transcriptional Regulation to Metabolic Consequences.

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    Horia Todor

    Full Text Available Previous work demonstrated that the TrmB transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of many enzyme-coding genes in the hypersaline-adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum via a direct interaction with a cis-regulatory sequence in their promoters. This interaction is abolished in the presence of glucose. Although much is known about the effects of TrmB at the transcriptional level, it remains unclear whether and to what extent changes in mRNA levels directly affect metabolite levels. In order to address this question, here we performed a high-resolution metabolite profiling time course during a change in nutrients using a combination of targeted and untargeted methods in wild-type and ΔtrmB strain backgrounds. We found that TrmB-mediated transcriptional changes resulted in widespread and significant changes to metabolite levels across the metabolic network. Additionally, the pattern of growth complementation using various purines suggests that the mis-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose results in low phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP levels. We confirmed these low PRPP levels using a quantitative mass spectrometric technique and found that they are associated with a metabolic block in de novo purine synthesis, which is partially responsible for the growth defect of the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose. In conclusion, we show how transcriptional regulation of metabolism affects metabolite levels and ultimately, phenotypes.

  18. Dynamic Metabolite Profiling in an Archaeon Connects Transcriptional Regulation to Metabolic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Gooding, Jessica; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Schmid, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that the TrmB transcription factor is responsible for regulating the expression of many enzyme-coding genes in the hypersaline-adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum via a direct interaction with a cis-regulatory sequence in their promoters. This interaction is abolished in the presence of glucose. Although much is known about the effects of TrmB at the transcriptional level, it remains unclear whether and to what extent changes in mRNA levels directly affect metabolite levels. In order to address this question, here we performed a high-resolution metabolite profiling time course during a change in nutrients using a combination of targeted and untargeted methods in wild-type and ΔtrmB strain backgrounds. We found that TrmB-mediated transcriptional changes resulted in widespread and significant changes to metabolite levels across the metabolic network. Additionally, the pattern of growth complementation using various purines suggests that the mis-regulation of gluconeogenesis in the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose results in low phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) levels. We confirmed these low PRPP levels using a quantitative mass spectrometric technique and found that they are associated with a metabolic block in de novo purine synthesis, which is partially responsible for the growth defect of the ΔtrmB mutant strain in the absence of glucose. In conclusion, we show how transcriptional regulation of metabolism affects metabolite levels and ultimately, phenotypes.

  19. Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of Halobacterium halobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, N; Lorén, J G

    1996-09-01

    Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance were measured in Halobacterium halobium suspensions in the light and in the dark over a wide range of external pH. The values of both variables for this archaeobacterium were significantly higher than those found for eubacteria in other reports. It appears from our results that the special chemical composition of the cell envelope and the movement of ions, mainly protons, may influence the magnitude of the buffering power and the H+ membrane conductance of these cells.

  20. Microcalorimetric Studies of the Toxic Action of La3+ on Halobacterium Halobium R1 Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 刘义; 谢之雄; 陈西贵; 赵儒铭; 沈萍; 屈松生

    2003-01-01

    A microcalorimetric technique was used to evaluate the influence of La3+ on Halobacterium halobium R1 growth.By means of LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor,ampoule methos at 37℃,the thermogenic curves of Halobacterium halobium R1 growth were obtained.In order to analyze the results,the maximum power Pm and the growth rate constants k were determined,showing that values of Pm and k are linked to the concentration of La3+.Addition of low concentration of La3+ can cause a decrease of the maximum heat production and growth rate constant.However,high concentration of La3+ may promote growth of Halobacterium halobium R1,but at much higher concentration of La3+,the growth of Halobacterium halobium R1 is inhibited again.For comparison,the shapes of Halobacterium halobium R1 cell were observed by means of transmission electron microscope.According to the thermogenic curves and TEM photos of Halobacterium halobium R1 under different conditions,it is clear that metabolic mechanism of Halobacterium halobium R1 growth is changed with the addition of La3+.

  1. Genetic and transcriptomic analysis of transcription factor genes in the model halophilic Archaeon: coordinate action of TbpD and TfbA

    OpenAIRE

    DasSarma Shiladitya; Coker James A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Archaea are prokaryotic organisms with simplified versions of eukaryotic transcription systems. Genes coding for the general transcription factors TBP and TFB are present in multiple copies in several Archaea, including Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. Multiple TBP and TFBs have been proposed to participate in transcription of genes via recognition and recruitment of RNA polymerase to different classes of promoters. Results We attempted to knock out all six TBP and seven TFB genes...

  2. Light energy conservation processes in Halobacterium halobium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Proton pumping driven by light or by respiration generates an electrochemical potential difference across the membrane in Halobacterium halobium. The pH changes induced by light or by respiration in cell suspensions are complicated by proton flows associated with the functioning of the cellular energy transducers. A proton-per-ATP ratio of about 3 is calculated from simultaneous measurements of phosphorylation and the proton inflow. This value is compatible with the chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis. The time course of the light-induced changes in membrane potential indicates that light-driven pumping increases a dark pre-existing potential of about 130 mV only by a small amount (20 to 30 mV). The complex kinetic features of the membrane potential changes do not closely follow those of the pH changes, which suggests that flows of ions other than protons are involved. A qualitative model consistent with the available data is presented.

  3. The protein interaction network of a taxis signal transduction system in a Halophilic Archaeon

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    Schlesner Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The taxis signaling system of the extreme halophilic archaeon Halobacterium (Hbt. salinarum differs in several aspects from its model bacterial counterparts Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We studied the protein interactions in the Hbt. salinarum taxis signaling system to gain an understanding of its structure, to gain knowledge about its known components and to search for new members. Results The interaction analysis revealed that the core signaling proteins are involved in different protein complexes and our data provide evidence for dynamic interchanges between them. Fifteen of the eighteen taxis receptors (halobacterial transducers, Htrs can be assigned to four different groups depending on their interactions with the core signaling proteins. Only one of these groups, which contains six of the eight Htrs with known signals, shows the composition expected for signaling complexes (receptor, kinase CheA, adaptor CheW, response regulator CheY. From the two Hbt. salinarum CheW proteins, only CheW1 is engaged in signaling complexes with Htrs and CheA, whereas CheW2 interacts with Htrs but not with CheA. CheY connects the core signaling structure to a subnetwork consisting of the two CheF proteins (which build a link to the flagellar apparatus, CheD (the hub of the subnetwork, two CheC complexes and the receptor methylesterase CheB. Conclusions Based on our findings, we propose two hypotheses. First, Hbt. salinarum might have the capability to dynamically adjust the impact of certain Htrs or Htr clusters depending on its current needs or environmental conditions. Secondly, we propose a hypothetical feedback loop from the response regulator to Htr methylation made from the CheC proteins, CheD and CheB, which might contribute to adaptation analogous to the CheC/CheD system of B. subtilis.

  4. Genetic and transcriptomic analysis of transcription factor genes in the model halophilic Archaeon: coordinate action of TbpD and TfbA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea are prokaryotic organisms with simplified versions of eukaryotic transcription systems. Genes coding for the general transcription factors TBP and TFB are present in multiple copies in several Archaea, including Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. Multiple TBP and TFBs have been proposed to participate in transcription of genes via recognition and recruitment of RNA polymerase to different classes of promoters. Results We attempted to knock out all six TBP and seven TFB genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 using the ura3-based gene deletion system. Knockouts were obtained for six out of thirteen genes, tbpCDF and tfbACG, indicating that they are not essential for cell viability under standard conditions. Screening of a population of 1,000 candidate mutants showed that genes which did not yield mutants contained less that 0.1% knockouts, strongly suggesting that they are essential. The transcriptomes of two mutants, ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA, were compared to the parental strain and showed coordinate down regulation of many genes. Over 500 out of 2,677 total genes were regulated in the ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA mutants with 363 regulated in both, indicating that over 10% of genes in both strains require the action of both TbpD and TfbA for normal transcription. Culturing studies on the ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA mutant strains showed them to grow more slowly than the wild-type at an elevated temperature, 49°C, and they showed reduced viability at 56°C, suggesting TbpD and TfbA are involved in the heat shock response. Alignment of TBP and TFB protein sequences suggested the expansion of the TBP gene family, especially in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and TFB gene family in representatives of five different genera of haloarchaea in which genome sequences are available. Conclusion Six of thirteen TBP and TFB genes of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 are non-essential under standard growth conditions. TbpD and TfbA coordinate the expression of over 10% of the genes in the

  5. Regulatory Multidimensionality of Gas Vesicle Biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1

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    Andrew I. Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 is multifaceted and appears to integrate environmental and metabolic cues at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The mechanistic details underlying this process, however, remain unclear. In this manuscript, we quantify the contribution of light scattering made by both intracellular and released gas vesicles isolated from Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, demonstrating that each form can lead to distinct features in growth curves determined by optical density measured at 600 nm (OD600. In the course of the study, we also demonstrate the sensitivity of gas vesicle accumulation in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 on small differences in growth conditions and reevaluate published works in the context of our results to present a hypothesis regarding the roles of the general transcription factor tbpD and the TCA cycle enzyme aconitase on the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis.

  6. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE MODERATE HALOPHILE HALOMONAS ELONGATA AND THE EXTREME HALOPHILE HALOBACTERIUM SALINARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas elongata, and the extremely halophilic archaea, Halobacterium salinarum, can be found in hypersaline environments (e.g., salterns). On complex media, H. elongata grows over a salt range of 0.05-5.2 M, whereas, H. salinarum multi...

  7. LPA法克隆嗜盐菌Halobacterium species xz515古紫质基因%Rapid Cloning of an Archaerhodopsin Gene from Halobacterium species xz515 by LPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕然; 洪洁; 明明; 丁建东; 李庆国; 黄伟达

    2003-01-01

    Ligation-mediated PCR amplification (LPA) is a novel approach developed for rapid cloning of genes starting from partial known nucleotide sequence. In this report, the application of LPA in the cloning of an archaerhodopsin (AR4) gene from Halobacterium species xz515 (H.sp.xz515) is presented. Bacterial genomic DNA samples were first digested by a group of selected restriction enzymes, separately. The resulting digests were then ligated to one of the three types of specially designed adapters corresponding to the restriction enzymes used for digestion. The ligated DNA samples were mixed together and used as the template for semi-nested PCR amplification of the unknown regions by using the common sequence of the adapters as one of the primers. The full-length AR4 gene was obtained by simply joining the sequences derived by LPA. LPA is ideally suited for rapid cloning of promoter regions of eukaryotic genes departing from its cDNA sequence, as well as routine gene cloning works starting from EST sequences.%Halobacterium species xz515是从中国西藏分离到的嗜盐菌,所含古紫质(古细菌视紫红质的简称命名为AR4) 具有与其他已知菌视紫红质相反的质子释放和吸收的顺序而引起重视. 连接反应介导的PCR扩增法(LPA)是一种克隆部分序列已知的基因的新型克隆方法. LPA法利用"酶切-连接-PCR"之组合,首先选定一组限制性内切酶,各自单独地酶切细菌总DNA样品,然后酶切产物分别与相应的寡聚核苷酸片段接头连接. 连接液混合起来,作为扩增未知序列DNA的模板. 通过这种方法,克隆到了包括完整AR4基因开放阅读框和0.4 kb上游调控区域的总长度1.3 kb的DNA片段. 实验结果表明LPA法可以代替传统的构建基因组DNA文库的方法,可以快速有效地获得目标基因相关的序列.

  8. Effect of DNA binding protein Ssh12 from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae on DNA supercoiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼慧强; 黄力; VietQ.Mai

    1999-01-01

    An 11.5-ku DNA binding protein, designated as Sshl2, was purified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae by column chromatography in SP Sepharose, DNA cellulose and phosphocellulose. Sshl2 accounts for about 4 % of the total cellular protein. The protein is capable of binding to both negatively supercoiled and relaxed DNAs. Nick closure analysis revealed that Sshl2 constrains negative supercoils upon binding to DNA. While the ability of the protein to constrain supercoils is weak at 22℃ , it is enhanced substantially at temperatures higher than 37℃ . Both the cellular content and supercoil-constraining ability of Sshl2 suggest that the protein may play an important role in the organization and stabilization of the chromosome of S. shibatae.

  9. The RosR transcription factor is required for gene expression dynamics in response to extreme oxidative stress in a hypersaline-adapted archaeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kriti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that the hypersaline-adapted archaeon, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, is highly resistant to oxidative stress caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, UV, and gamma radiation. Dynamic alteration of the gene regulatory network (GRN has been implicated in such resistance. However, the molecular functions of transcription regulatory proteins involved in this response remain unknown. Results Here we have reanalyzed several existing GRN and systems biology datasets for H. salinarum to identify and characterize a novel winged helix-turn-helix transcription factor, VNG0258H, as a regulator required for reactive oxygen species resistance in this organism. This protein appears to be unique to the haloarchaea at the primary sequence level. High throughput quantitative growth assays in a deletion mutant strain implicate VNG0258H in extreme oxidative stress resistance. According to time course gene expression analyses, this transcription factor is required for the appropriate dynamic response of nearly 300 genes to reactive oxygen species damage from paraquat and hydrogen peroxide. These genes are predicted to function in repair of oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. In vivo DNA binding assays demonstrate that VNG0258H binds DNA to mediate gene regulation. Conclusions Together these results suggest that VNG0258H is a novel archaeal transcription factor that regulates gene expression to enable adaptation to the extremely oxidative, hypersaline niche of H. salinarum. We have therefore renamed VNG0258H as RosR, for reactive oxygen species regulator.

  10. Sugar transport in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2001-01-01

    Summary and concluding remarks Introduction The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a thermoacidophile preferring growth at around 80oC and a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. As a thermoacidophile S. solfataricus faces two major problems: firstly, the proton permeability of membranes increases with temperature res

  11. Role of the response oscillator in inverse responses of Halobacterium halobium to weak light stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, E.; Schimz, A

    1987-01-01

    Under certain conditions Halobacterium halobium organisms respond to a weak attractant light stimulus with a repellent response and to a weak repellent stimulus with an attractant response. The appearance of inverse responses depends on the stimulus strength, on the interval length between spontaneous reversals, and on the moment of stimulation during the interval. Although the cells are absolutely refractory to repellent stimuli for 500 ms after a reversal, repellent responses can be evoked ...

  12. Formate hydrogenlyase in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus litoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Rákhely Gábor; Varga András; Bogos Balázs; Tóth András; Takács Mária; Kovács Kornél L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermococcus litoralis is a heterotrophic facultative sulfur dependent hyperthermophilic Archaeon, which was isolated from a shallow submarine thermal spring. It has been successfully used in a two-stage fermentation system, where various keratinaceous wastes of animal origin were converted to biohydrogen. In this system T. litoralis performed better than its close relative, P. furiosus. Therefore, new alternative enzymes involved in peptide and hydrogen metabolism were as...

  13. Salt-Dependent Conditional Protein Splicing of an Intein from Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, Julie N; Cousin, Christopher E; Nicastri, Michael C; Jaramillo, Mario V; Mills, Kenneth V

    2016-03-01

    An intein from Halobacterium salinarum can be isolated as an unspliced precursor protein with exogenous exteins after Escherichia coli overexpression. The intein promotes protein splicing and uncoupled N-terminal cleavage in vitro, conditional on incubation with NaCl or KCl at concentrations of >1.5 M. The protein splicing reaction also is conditional on reduction of a disulfide bond between two active site cysteines. Conditional protein splicing under these relatively mild conditions may lead to advances in intein-based biotechnology applications and hints at the possibility that this H. salinarum intein could serve as a switch to control extein activity under physiologically relevant conditions.

  14. Identification of carotenoids from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eYatsunami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoids produced by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica were extracted and identified by their chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic characteristics (UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The composition (mol% was 68.1% bacterioruberin, 22.5% monoanhydrobacterioruberin, 9.3% bisanhydrobacterioruberin, < 0.1% isopentenyldehydrorhodopin, and trace amounts of lycopene and phytoene. The in vitro scavenging capacity of a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, extracted from Ha. japonica cells against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of bacterioruberin was much higher than that of β-carotene.

  15. Light-activated amino acid transport in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. E.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    Vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cell envelopes accumulate amino acids in response to light-induced electrical and chemical gradients. Nineteen of 20 commonly occurring amino acids have been shown to be actively accumulated by these vesicles in response to illumination or in response to an artificially created Na+ gradient. On the basis of shared common carriers the transport systems can be divided into eight classes, each responsible for the transport of one or several amino acids: arginine, lysine, histidine; asparagine, glutamine; alanine, glycine, threonine, serine; leucine, valine, isoleucine, methionine; phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan; aspartate; glutamate; proline. Available evidence suggests that these carriers are symmetrical in that amino acids can be transported equally well in both directions across the vesicle membranes. A tentative working model to account for these observations is presented.

  16. Halorhodopsin and photosensory behaviour in Halobacterium halobium mutant strain L-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traulich, B.; Wagner, G. (Botanisches Institut l der Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Giessen (Germany, F.R.)); Hildebrand, E.; Schimz, A. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Neurobiologie); Lanyi, J.K. (California Univ., Irvine (USA))

    1983-05-01

    Halobacterium halobium, strain L-33, which is deficient in bacteriorhodopsin (BR) but synthesizes increased amounts of halorhodopsin (HR), responds to changes in fluence rate with visible light or with UV light. The observations support an earlier report that BR is not essential for photosensing in H. halobium. In the UV-range, changes in light intensity elicit the maximal response at lambda = 370 nm. In the visible range, changes in light intensity show the maximal response at lambda = 565 nm and a secondary peak at lambda = 590 nm. The latter corresponds to the absorption maximum of HR (lambdasub(max) = 588 nm). This light-energy converting retinal pigment of H. halobium thus appears to contribute to photosensory behavior.

  17. High-effective cultivation of Halobacterium salinarum providing with bacteriorhodopsin production under controlled stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenov, Sergei V; Baurina, Marina M; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2016-09-10

    Submerged growth of Halobacterium salinarum and therefore synthesis of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and carotenoids depend greatly on products of both chemical and/or photochemical oxidation of medium components and cellular metabolism which act as inhibitors. Some cultivation variants which allowed eliminating an adverse effect of inhibitors on biomass accumulation and BR synthesis are reviewed. The application of activated charcoal or ion exchange resin as adsorbents at preparing inoculums and the main cultivation stages was shown to allow controlling, namely lowering overstress of the halobacterial cells by metabolites. The halobacterial biomass containing BR up to 1,750mgL(-1) and the minimum amount of carotinoids that would BR greatly facilitate isolation was accumulated up to 45gL(-1) during eight-day cultivation with cell recycling through adsorbent suspension in a fed-batch mode. To control BR biosynthesis the express method of BR quantification based on colour shades of cell suspension was developed. PMID:27449487

  18. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Zenko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Gillow, Jeffrey B.; Francis, Arokiasamy J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Adsorption behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum was investigated. Both microorganisms showed almost identical pH dependence on the distribution ratio (K{sub d}) of the metals examined, i.e., K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH. The coordination state of Eu(III) adsorbed on the microorganisms was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The coordination states of Eu(III) adsorbed on the B. subtilis and H. salinarum was of different characteristics. H. salinarum exhibited more outer-spherical interaction with Eu(III) than B. subtilis. (author)

  19. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin of purple membranes of Halobacterium salinarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, V. A.; Mochalov, K. E.; Solovyeva, D. O.; Chistyakov, A. A.; Lukashev, E. P.; Nabiev, I. R.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that are adsorbed on the surface of the purple membranes of Halobacterium salinarium bacteria on the optical properties and functional peculiarities of the lightsensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) has been demonstrated for the first time. Two mechanisms of the effect of AgNPs on the protein photocycle have been demonstrated using Raman scattering, giant Raman scattering, flash photolysis, and atomic force microscopy. It has been shown that the nanoparticles in the immediate spatial vicinity of BR fix its photocycle at the stage where it was at the moment of interaction with the nanoparticles. At greater distances, which reach three radii of an AgNPs, they have a weaker effect on BR, under which it retains the ability to be involved in the photocycle, however, has its parameters significantly changed. Thus, in the case of wild-type BR the photocycle accelerates and for the BR-D96N mutant it becomes slower. The data that are obtained could be of significance for creation of such optoelectronic hybrid systems with BR, where the parameters of its photocycle can be controlled using NPs. The results of the study may also be used in the field of nanobioengineering research, which is directed to creation of unique materials with controlled properties for recording and storage of information, energy transformation, and identification and characterization of trace amounts of analytes.

  20. Photosensory behaviour of a bacteriorhodopsin-deficient mutant, ET-15, of Halobacterium halobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, E.; Schimz, A. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Neurobiologie)

    1983-05-01

    Halobacterium halobium, strain ET-15, which does not contain detectable amounts of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) shows behavioral responses to UV and yellow-green light. Attractant stimuli, i.e. light-increases in the yellow-green range or light-decreases in the UV, suppress the spontaneous reversals of the swimming direction for a certain time. Repellent stimuli, i.e. light-decreases in the yellow-green range or light-increases in the UV, elicit an additional reversal response after a few seconds. Action spectra of both sensory photosystems, PS 370 and PS 565, were measured with attractant as well as with repellent stimuli. As in BR-containing cells, maximal sensitivity was always found at 370 nm for the UV-system and at 565 nm for the long-wavelength system. Fluence-response curves at 370 and 565 nm obtained with strain ET-15 and with a BR-containing strain show that the sensitivity of both photosystems is not reduced in the absence of BR. It is concluded that BR is required neither for PS 565 nor for PS 370. Instead retinal-containing pigments different from BR have to be assumed to mediate photosensory behavior.

  1. Nanoscale Electric Characteristics and Oriented Assembly of Halobacterium salinarum Membrane Revealed by Electric Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple membranes (PM of the bacteria Halobacterium salinarum are a unique natural membrane where bacteriorhodopsin (BR can convert photon energy and pump protons. Elucidating the electronic properties of biomembranes is critical for revealing biological mechanisms and developing new devices. We report here the electric properties of PMs studied by using multi-functional electric force microscopy (EFM at the nanoscale. The topography, surface potential, and dielectric capacity of PMs were imaged and quantitatively measured in parallel. Two orientations of PMs were identified by EFM because of its high resolution in differentiating electrical characteristics. The extracellular (EC sides were more negative than the cytoplasmic (CP side by 8 mV. The direction of potential difference may facilitate movement of protons across the membrane and thus play important roles in proton pumping. Unlike the side-dependent surface potentials observed in PM, the EFM capacitive response was independent of the side and was measured to be at a dC/dz value of ~5.25 nF/m. Furthermore, by modification of PM with de novo peptides based on peptide-protein interaction, directional oriented PM assembly on silicon substrate was obtained for technical devices. This work develops a new method for studying membrane nanoelectronics and exploring the bioelectric application at the nanoscale.

  2. Transcriptional control by two leucine-responsive regulatory proteins in Halobacterium salinarum R1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Valery

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea combine bacterial-as well as eukaryotic-like features to regulate cellular processes. Halobacterium salinarum R1 encodes eight leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp-homologues. The function of two of them, Irp (OE3923F and lrpA1 (OE2621R, were analyzed by gene deletion and overexpression, including genome scale impacts using microarrays. Results It was shown that Lrp affects the transcription of multiple target genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis, central metabolism, transport processes and other regulators of transcription. In contrast, LrpA1 regulates transcription in a more specific manner. The aspB3 gene, coding for an aspartate transaminase, was repressed by LrpA1 in the presence of L-aspartate. Analytical DNA-affinity chromatography was adapted to high salt, and demonstrated binding of LrpA1 to its own promoter, as well as L-aspartate dependent binding to the aspB3 promoter. Conclusion The gene expression profiles of two archaeal Lrp-homologues report in detail their role in H. salinarum R1. LrpA1 and Lrp show similar functions to those already described in bacteria, but in addition they play a key role in regulatory networks, such as controlling the transcription of other regulators. In a more detailed analysis ligand dependent binding of LrpA1 was demonstrated to its target gene aspB3.

  3. Components of calcium homeostasis in Archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cells of Archaea are interesting from several points of view. Among others there are: (a) the evolutionary relationship to procaryotes and eucaryotes and (b) the involvement of Na+ and H+ gradient in archaeal bio-energetics. The observations are presented which are devoted to the description of components of Ca2+ homeostasis, an apparatus is vital for both procaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, in obligate anaerobe Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. This is, after the demonstration of the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in Halobacterium halobium membrane vesicles, the first complex description of processes of Ca2+ homeostasis in Archaea. The Ca2+ influx and efflux was measured using radionuclide 45Ca2+. The experiment were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The measurement of the membrane potential by means of 3H-tetraphenyl phosphonium chloride showed that the presence of Na+ depolarized the membrane from -110 to -60 mV. The growth of M. thermoautotrophicum and methanogenesis was suppressed but nor arrested by the presence EGTA suggesting that the Ca2+ homeostasis may be involved in controlling these cellular functions. The results indicate the presence of three components involved in establishing the Ca2+ homeostasis in cell of M. thermoautotrophicum. The first is the Ca2+-carrier mediating the CA2+ influx driven by the proton motive force or the membrane potential. The Ca2+ efflux is mediated by two transport systems, Na+/Ca2+ and H+/Ca2+ anti-porters. The evidence for the presence of the Ca2+-transporting ATPase was not obtained so far. (authors)

  4. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Halophilic Archaeon AJ6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaohong; Wu Min; Cao Yi; Wu Yuehong; Zhang Ting

    2006-01-01

    Halophilic archaeon A J6 was isolated and purified from the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.Strain AJ6 is a Gram-negative rod whose size is 0.2-0.6 by 1.6-4.2 μm,wherein a few cells are globular.The optimum salt concentration for its growth is 20% NaC1 and 0.6% Mg2+,and the optimum pH is 6.0-7.0.Morphological,physiological,and biochemical characteristics of strain AJ6 were observed.The 16S rRNA encoding gene (16S rDNA)sequence of strain A J6 was amplified by PCR,and its nucteotide sequence was determined subsequently."Clustalw"and"PHYLIP"software bags were used to analyze the 16S rDNA sequence;the homology was compared,and then the phylogenetic tree was established.The results indicate that strain AJ6 is a novel species of the genus Natrinema.The GenBank accession number of the 16S rDNA sequences of strain AJ6 is AY277584.

  5. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  6. Metabolic reconstruction of the archaeon methanogen Methanosarcina Acetivorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanogens are ancient organisms that are key players in the carbon cycle accounting for about one billion tones of biological methane produced annually. Methanosarcina acetivorans, with a genome size of ~5.7 mb, is the largest sequenced archaeon methanogen and unique amongst the methanogens in its biochemical characteristics. By following a systematic workflow we reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for M. acetivorans. This process relies on previously developed computational tools developed in our group to correct growth prediction inconsistencies with in vivo data sets and rectify topological inconsistencies in the model. Results The generated model iVS941 accounts for 941 genes, 705 reactions and 708 metabolites. The model achieves 93.3% prediction agreement with in vivo growth data across different substrates and multiple gene deletions. The model also correctly recapitulates metabolic pathway usage patterns of M. acetivorans such as the indispensability of flux through methanogenesis for growth on acetate and methanol and the unique biochemical characteristics under growth on carbon monoxide. Conclusions Based on the size of the genome-scale metabolic reconstruction and extent of validated predictions this model represents the most comprehensive up-to-date effort to catalogue methanogenic metabolism. The reconstructed model is available in spreadsheet and SBML formats to enable dissemination.

  7. Microcalorimetric Studies on Gene Promoter Function of Cloned DNA Fragements from Halobacterium halobium J7 Plasmid pHH205 in Escherichia coli TG1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI,Ke-Lin; HOU,Han-Na; LIU,Yi; YE,Xue-Cheng; SHEN,Ping

    2007-01-01

    Halobacterium halobium is a typical kind of extremely halophilic bacterium. Combined with the antibiotic resistance assay, the microcalorimetric method was used to study the promoter function of the cloned DNA fragments from Halobacterium halobium J7 plasmid pHH205 in Escherichia coli TG1. The promoter probe vector, plasmid pKK232-8, was used to form the recombinants. The DNA fragment, which is the promoter for the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene in plasmid pKK232-8, is about 800 bp, and the chloramphenicol resistance level presented by IC50 is about 200 μg·mL-1, which suggests a high promoter activity. The conclusions show that there probably exist double-function or trinary-function gene promoters in Halobacterium halobium, and Archaea may contain rich genetic resources.

  8. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport. PMID:27599860

  9. Light-induced membrane potential and pH gradient in Halobacterium halobium envelope vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, R; Lanyi, J K

    1976-05-18

    Illumination of envelope vesicles prepared from Halobacterium halobium cells causes translocation of protons from inside to outside, due to the light-induced cycling of bacteriorhodopsin. This process results in a pH gradient across the membranes, an electrical potential, and the movements of K+ and Na+. The electrical potential was estimated by following the fluorescence of a cyanine dye, 3,3'-dipentyloxadicarbocyanine. Illumination of H. halobium vesicles resulted in a rapid, reversible decrease of the dye fluorescence, by as much as 35%. This effect was not seen in nonvesicular patches of purple membrane. Observation of maximal fluorescence decreases upon ilumination of vesicles required an optimal dye/membrane protein ratio. The pH optimum for the lightinduced fluorescence decrease was 6.0. The decrease was linear with actinic light intensity up to about 4 X 10(5) ergs cn-2 s-1. Valinomycin, gramicidin, and triphenylmethylphosphonium ion all abolished the fluorescence changes. However, the light-induced pH change was enhanced by these agents. Conversely, buffered vesicles showed no pH change but gave the same or larger fluorescence changes. Thus, we have identified the fluorescence decrease with a light-induced membrane potential, inside negative. By using valinomycin-K+-induced membrane potentials, we calibrated the fluorescence decrease with calculated Nernst diffusion potentials. We found a linear dependence between potential and fluorescence decrease of 3 mV/%, up to 90 mV. When the envelope vesicles were illuminated, the total proton-motive force generated was dependent on the presence of Na+ and K+ and their concentration gradients across the membrane. In general, K+ appeared to be more permeable than Na+ and, thus, permitted development of greater pH gradients and lower electrical potentials. By calculating the total proton-motive force from the sum of the pH and potential terms, we found that the vesicles can produce proton-motive forces near--200 m

  10. Formate hydrogenlyase in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus litoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rákhely Gábor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermococcus litoralis is a heterotrophic facultative sulfur dependent hyperthermophilic Archaeon, which was isolated from a shallow submarine thermal spring. It has been successfully used in a two-stage fermentation system, where various keratinaceous wastes of animal origin were converted to biohydrogen. In this system T. litoralis performed better than its close relative, P. furiosus. Therefore, new alternative enzymes involved in peptide and hydrogen metabolism were assumed in T. litoralis. Results An about 10.5 kb long genomic region was isolated and sequenced from Thermococcus litoralis. In silico analysis revealed that the region contained a putative operon consisting of eight genes: the fdhAB genes coding for a formate dehydrogenase and the mhyCDEFGH genes encoding a [NiFe] hydrogenase belonging to the group of the H2-evolving, energy-conserving, membrane-bound hydrogenases. Reverse transcription linked quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting experiments showed that the expression of the fdh-mhy operon was up-regulated during fermentative growth on peptides and down-regulated in cells cultivated in the presence of sulfur. Immunoblotting and protein separation experiments performed on cell fractions indicated that the formate dehydrogenase part of the complex is associated to the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase. Conclusion The formate dehydrogenase together with the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase formed a formate hydrogenlyase (formate dehydrogenase coupled hydrogenase, FDH-MHY complex. The expression data suggested that its physiological role is linked to the removal of formate likely generated during anaerobic peptide fermentation.

  11. Lipids of the ultra-thin square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi

    OpenAIRE

    Simona LoBasso; Patrizia LoPalco; Giuseppe Mascolo; Angela Corcelli

    2008-01-01

    The lipid composition of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi was investigated by thin-layer chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The analysis of neutral lipids showed the presence of vitamin MK-8, squalene, carotene, bacterioruberin and several retinal isomers. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerosulfate, phosphatidylg...

  12. The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Henk; Palm, Peter; Wende, Andy; Falb, Michaela; Rampp, Markus; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background: The square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi dominates NaCl- saturated and MgCl2 enriched aquatic ecosystems, which imposes a serious desiccation stress, caused by the extremely low water activity. The genome sequence was analyzed and physiological and physical experiments were c

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of the first a-xylosidase from an Archaeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moracci, M.; Cobucci-Ponzano, B.; Trincone, A.; Fusco, S.; Rosa, de M.; Oost, van der J.; Sensen, C.W.; Charlebois, R.L.; Rossi, M.

    2000-01-01

    We here report the first molecular characterization of an -xylosidase (XylS) from an Archaeon. Sulfolobus solfataricus is able to grow at temperatures higher than 80 °C on several carbohydrates at acidic pH. The isolated xylS gene encodes a monomeric enzyme homologous to -glucosidases, -xylosidases,

  14. Production of beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase by the extremely halophilic archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainø, M.; Ingvorsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    -xylosidase activity was optimal at 65degreesC. SDS-PAGE and zymogram techniques revealed the presence of two xylan-degrading proteins of approximately 45 and 67 kDa in culture supernatants. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on hemicellulose-degrading enzymes produced by an extremely halophilic archaeon....

  15. UV-inducible cellular aggregation of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is mediated by pili formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froels, Sabrina; Ajon, Malgorzata; Wagner, Michaela; Teichmann, Daniela; Zolghadr, Behnam; Folea, Mihaela; Boekema, Egbert J.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Schleper, Christa; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2008-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has been shown to exhibit a complex transcriptional response to UV irradiation involving 55 genes. Among the strongest UV-induced genes was a putative pili biogenesis operon encoding a potential secretion ATPase, two pre-pilins, a putative trans

  16. Impact of Molecular Hydrogen on Chalcopyrite Bioleaching by the Extremely Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Metallosphaera sedula▿

    OpenAIRE

    Auernik, Kathryne S.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen served as a competitive inorganic energy source, impacting the CuFeS2 bioleaching efficiency of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula. Open reading frames encoding key terminal oxidase and electron transport chain components were triggered by CuFeS2. Evidence of heterotrophic metabolism was noted after extended periods of bioleaching, presumably related to cell lysis.

  17. Effects of 60Co gamma-rays, ultraviolet light, and mitomycin C on Halobacterium salinarium and Thiobacillus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, H R; Asgarani, E; Terato, H; Ide, H; Yamamoto, O

    1997-03-01

    Lethal effects of 60Co gamma-rays, UV light, and mitomycin C on two kinds of bacteria, Halobacterium salinarium which grows in highly concentrated salt media and Thiobacillus intermedius which requires reduced sulfur compounds, were studied and compared with those on Escherichia coli B/r. D37 values for H. salinarium, T. intermedius and E. coli B/r were 393, 150, and 92 Gy, respectively, by exposure to 60Co gamma-rays. They were 212, 38, and 10 J/m2, respectively, by exposure to UV light and 2.36, 0.25, and 0.53 microgram/ml/h, respectively, by exposure to mitomycin C. Against these agents, H. salinarium was much more resistant than T. intermedius and E. coli B/r.

  18. Effects of {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, ultraviolet light, and mitomycin C on halobacterium salinarium and thiobacillus intermedius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmohammadi, H.R.; Asgarani, E.; Terato, Hiroaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Osamu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Lethal effects of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, UV light, and mitomycin C on two kinds of bacteria, Halobacterium salinarium which grows in highly concentrated salt media and Thiobacillus intermedius which requires reduced sulfur compounds, were studied and compared with those on Escherichia coli B/r. D{sub 37} values for H. salinarium, T. intermedius and E. coli B/r were 393, 150, and 92 Gy, respectively, by exposure to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. They were 212, 38, and 10 J/m{sup 2}, respectively, by exposure to UV light and 2.36, 0.25, and 0.53 {mu}g/ml/h, respectively, by exposure to mitomycin C. Against these agents, H salinarium was much more resistant than T. intermedius and E. coli B/r. (author)

  19. Primary structures of three highly acidic ribosomal proteins S6, S12 and S15 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, J; Arndt, E; Kimura, M

    1987-11-16

    The amino acid sequences of three extremely acidic ribosomal proteins, S6, S12, and S15, from Halobacterium marismortui have been determined. The sequences were obtained by the sequence analysis of peptides derived by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. Stapylococcus aureus protease and chymotrypsin, as well as by cleavage with dilute HCl. The proteins, S6, S12 and S15, consist of 116, 147 and 102 amino acid residues, and have molecular masses of 12,251, 16,440 and 11,747 Da, respectively. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of these proteins with ribosomal protein sequences of other organisms revealed that halobacterial protein S12 has homology with the eukaryotic protein S16A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while S15 is significantly related to the Xenopus laevis S19 protein. No homology was found between these halobacterial proteins and any eubacterial ribosomal proteins.

  20. Characterization and isolation of a light driven sodium pump from membranes of Halobacterium halobium. Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated three aspects of the light driven sodium pump (halorhodopsin, which appear to be crucial to our understanding of the mechanisms employed by Halobacterium halobium and to further investigate this unique system of energy conservation. We characterized the molecular mechanisms of transmembrane sodium transport in vesicles from H. halobium with particular reference to the mechanism of couplins of light energy to net sodium translocation. We develop procedures and techniques for extracting the components of the light driven sodium pump from membranes and incorporating them into artificial membrane systems. We examine the mechanism of conversion of bacteriorhodopsin from an active to an inactive form in membrane vesicles and to relate this alternative state of this pigment to the presence of the light driven sodium pump

  1. Optimization of hydrogen production by Halobacterium salinarium coupled with E coli using milk plasma as fermentative substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Prasad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the fermentative hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium salinarium and E. coli. Increase in the light intensity from 6000 lux to 12000 lux and changing the inoculums level of E coli resulted in 10 fold increase in the rate of hydrogen production using the coupled system. Statistical based design of experiments was applied to optimize the rate of hydrogen production using milk plasma,popularly known as cheese whey, a dairy industry byproduct. An optimal rate of hydrogen production of 56.7 ml/l h was achieved with 14.42 % (by volume of milk plasma and an initial pH of 6.6. The investigations provided information on achieving higher yields with milk plasma as substrate, its optimal concentration, and importance of media pH for producing higher rate of hydrogen.

  2. Genome Sequence of a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon, Thermococcus nautili 30-1, That Produces Viral Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberto, Jacques; Gaudin, Marie; Cossu, Matteo; Gorlas, Aurore; Slesarev, Alexeï; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Thermococcus nautili 30-1 (formerly Thermococcus nautilus), an anaerobic hyperthermophilic marine archaeon, was isolated in 1999 from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent during the Amistad campaign. Here, we present the complete sequence of T. nautili, which is able to produce membrane vesicles containing plasmid DNA. This property makes T. nautili a model organism to study horizontal gene transfer. PMID:24675865

  3. Acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in a methanogenic archaeon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Gang; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Jinxing; Zhou, Liguang; Cai, Shichun; Liu, Xiaoli; Luo, Yuanming; Zhang, Guifeng; Shi, Wenyuan; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing commonly refers to cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms found in bacteria. However, beyond bacteria, this cell-to-cell communication mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac, encodes an active quorum sensing system that is used to regulate cell assembly and carbon metabolic flux. The methanogen 6Ac showed a cell density-dependent physiology transition, which was related t...

  4. Membrane homeoviscous adaptation in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs eCario

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, one of the most extreme members of hyperthermophilic piezophiles known thus far, is able to grow at temperatures up to 103°C and pressures up to 80MPa. We analyzed the membrane lipids of T. barophilus by HPLC-MS as a function of pressure and temperature. In contrast to previous reports, we show that under optimal growth conditions (40 MPa, 85°C the membrane spanning tetraether lipid GDGT-0 (sometimes called caldarchaeol is a major membrane lipid of T. barophilus together with archaeol. Increasing pressure and decreasing temperature lead to an increase of the proportion of archaeol and, reversely, a higher proportion of GDGT-0 is observed under low pressure and high temperature conditions. Noticeably, pressure and temperature fluctuations also impact the level of unsaturation of non-polar lipids with an irregular polyisoprenoid carbon skeleton (polyunsaturated lycopane derivatives, suggesting a structural role for these neutral lipids in the membrane of T. barophilus. Whether these apolar lipids insert in the membrane or not remains to be addressed. However, our results raise questions about the structure of the membrane in this archaeon and other archaeon harboring a mixture of di- and tetraether lipids.

  5. A cell-free transcription system for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hethke, C; Geerling, A C; Hausner, W.; de Vos, W.M.; Thomm, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe here the establishment of a cell-free transcription system for the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using the cloned glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene as template. The in vitro system that operated up to a temperature of 85 degrees C initiated transcription 23 bp downstream of a TATA box located 45 bp upstream of the translational start codon of gdh mRNA, at the same site as in Pyrococcus cells. Mutational analyses revealed that this TATA box is essential for in vit...

  6. Expression of multiple tfb genes in different Halobacterium salinarum strains and interaction of TFB with transcriptional activator GvpE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiholder, Anne; Frommherz, Regina; Teufel, Katharina; Pfeifer, Felicitas

    2012-04-01

    Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 contains multiple TBP and TFB proteins required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase for transcription initiation. The presence and the expression of genes encoding TFB were investigated in the two Hbt. salinarum strains NRC-1 and PHH1 and the mutant strain PHH4. The plasmid-encoded tfbC and tfbE genes of NRC-1 were lacking in PHH1 and PHH4. The 5'-end of the tfbF transcript was determined and contained a 5'-untranslated region of 39 nucleotides able to form a stem-loop structure. The expression of these tfb genes was studied in cultures growing at 15, 37°C and under heat shock conditions. Cold temperatures reduced growth and except for tfbF also the amounts of all tfb transcripts. However, the formation of gas vesicles increased in PHH1 and NRC-1. Heat shock reduced growth of PHH1 and NRC-1, but PHH4 was not affected. A 100-fold increase in tfbA and tfbB mRNA was observed in PHH1 and PHH4, whereas NRC-1 reduced the amounts of these transcripts and increased the expression of tfbG. All TFB proteins tested were able to interact with the transcription activator GvpE involved in gas vesicle formation that thus is able to recruit TFB to the gvp promoter. PMID:21969032

  7. The 1.5 resolution structure of the [Fe4S3]-ferredoxin from the hyperthermiphilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Ericsson Skovbo; Harris, Pernille; Ooi, Bee Lean;

    2004-01-01

    The structure of [Fe3S4]-ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been determined to 1.5 Angstrom resolution from a crystal belonging to space group P2(1) with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved with molecular replacement by use...

  8. 2,6,10,15,19-Pentamethylicosenes in Methanolobus bombayensis, a marine methanogenic archaeon, and in Methanosarcina mazei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderMaarel, MJEC; Huber, R; Damste, JSS; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-01-01

    2,6,10,15,19-Pentamethylicosenes (PMEs) containing three to five double bonds have been found in the methanogenic archaea Methanosarcina mazei (DSM 3338), a strain isolated from sewage sludge, and in Methanolobus bombayensis (OCM 438), a non-extremophilic archaeon isolated from a marine sediment. Th

  9. Membrane homeoviscous adaptation in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Grossi, Vincent; Schaeffer, Philippe; Oger, Philippe M

    2015-01-01

    The archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, one of the most extreme members of hyperthermophilic piezophiles known thus far, is able to grow at temperatures up to 103°C and pressures up to 80 MPa. We analyzed the membrane lipids of T. barophilus by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as a function of pressure and temperature. In contrast to previous reports, we show that under optimal growth conditions (40 MPa, 85°C) the membrane spanning tetraether lipid GDGT-0 (sometimes called caldarchaeol) is a major membrane lipid of T. barophilus together with archaeol. Increasing pressure and decreasing temperature lead to an increase of the proportion of archaeol. Reversely, a higher proportion of GDGT-0 is observed under low pressure and high temperature conditions. Noticeably, pressure and temperature fluctuations also impact the level of unsaturation of apolar lipids having an irregular polyisoprenoid carbon skeleton (unsaturated lycopane derivatives), suggesting a structural role for these neutral lipids in the membrane of T. barophilus. Whether these apolar lipids insert in the membrane or not remains to be addressed. However, our results raise questions about the structure of the membrane in this archaeon and other Archaea harboring a mixture of di- and tetraether lipids.

  10. Proteomic mapping of the hyperthermophilic and acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Richard C.; Young, Mark J.; Stedman, Kenneth M.; Dratz, Edward A.

    2006-07-14

    A proteomic map of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, an archaeon that grows optimally at 80 C and pH 3.2, was developed using high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. A total of 867 protein spots (659 aqueous tris-soluble spots and 208 aqueous tris-insoluble) were mapped over IPG 3-10, 4-7, and 6-11, with second dimension gels made of 8-18% polyacrylamide. 324 different gene products were represented by the 867 spots, with 274 gene products being identified in the tris-soluble fractions and 100 gene products in the tris-insoluble portion. Fifty gene products were found on gels from both fractions. Additionally, an average of 1.50 + 0.12 isoforms/per protein were identified. This mapping study confirmed the expression of proteins involved in numerous metabolic, transport, energy production, nucleic acid replication, translation, and transcription pathways. Of particular interest, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (SSO2537) was detected even though the pathway for gluconeogenesis is unknown for this archaeon. Tris-soluble fractions contained many cytosolic proteins while tris-insoluble fractions contained many membrane-associated proteins, including ABC transporters and an ATP synthase. This study provides an optimized 2-DE approach for investigating the biochemical pathways and post-translational modifications employed by Sulfolobus to survive in its extreme environment.

  11. Novel pili-like surface structures of Halobacterium salinarum strain R1 are crucial for surface adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eLosensky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that haloarchaeal strains of different genera are able to adhere to surfaces and form surface-attached biofilms. However the surface structures mediating the adhesion were still unknown. We have identified a novel surface structure with Halobacterium salinarum strain R1, crucial for surface adhesion. Electron microscopic studies of surface-attached cells frequently showed pili-like surface structures of two different diameters that were irregularly distributed on the surface. The thinner filaments, 7 - 8 nm in diameter, represented a so far unobserved novel pili-like structure. Examination of the Hbt. salinarum R1 genome identified two putative gene loci (pil-1 and pil-2 encoding type IV pilus biogenesis complexes besides the archaellum encoding fla gene locus. Both pil-1 and pil-2 were expressed as transcriptional units, and the transcriptional start of pil-1 was identified. In silico analyses revealed that the pil-1 locus is present with other euryarchaeal genomes whereas the pil-2 is restricted to haloarchaea. Comparative real time qRT-PCR studies indicated that the general transcriptional activity was reduced in adherent versus planktonic cells. In contrast, the transcription of pilB1 and pilB2, encoding putative type IV pilus assembly ATPases, was induced in comparison to the archaella assembly/motor ATPase (flaI and the ferredoxin gene. Mutant strains were constructed that incurred a flaI deletion or flaI/pilB1 gene deletions. The absence of flaI caused the loss of the archaella while the additional absence of pilB1 led to loss of the novel pili-like surface structures. The ΔflaI/ΔpilB1 double mutants showed a 10-fold reduction in surface adhesion compared to the parental strain. Since surface adhesion was not reduced with the non-archaellated ΔflaI mutants, the pil-1 filaments have a distinct function in the adhesion process.

  12. Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain

  13. Lipids of the ultra-thin square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobasso, Simona; Lopalco, Patrizia; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Corcelli, Angela

    2008-12-01

    The lipid composition of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi was investigated by thin-layer chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The analysis of neutral lipids showed the presence of vitamin MK-8, squalene, carotene, bacterioruberin and several retinal isomers. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerosulfate, phosphatidylglycerol and sulfated diglycosyl diether lipid. Among cardiolipins, the tetra-phytanyl or dimeric phospholipids, only traces of bisphosphatidylglycerol were detected. When the cells were exposed to hypotonic medium, no changes in the membrane lipid composition occurred. Distinguishing it from other extreme halophiles of the Halobacteriaceae family, the osmotic stress did not induce the neo-synthesis of cardiolipins in H. walsbyi. The difference may depend on the three-laminar structure of the cell wall, which differs significantly from that of other Haloarchaea. PMID:19054744

  14. Lipids of the ultra-thin square halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona LoBasso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid composition of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi was investigated by thin-layer chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The analysis of neutral lipids showed the presence of vitamin MK-8, squalene, carotene, bacterioruberin and several retinal isomers. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerosulfate, phosphatidylglycerol and sulfated diglycosyl diether lipid. Among cardiolipins, the tetra-phytanyl or dimeric phospholipids, only traces of bisphosphatidylglycerol were detected. When the cells were exposed to hypotonic medium, no changes in the membrane lipid composition occurred. Distinguishing it from other extreme halophiles of the Halobacteriaceae family, the osmotic stress did not induce the neo-synthesis of cardiolipins in H. walsbyi. The difference may depend on the three-laminar structure of the cell wall, which differs significantly from that of other Haloarchaea.

  15. Amino acid residues involved in the catalytic mechanism of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pomares, F; Ferrer, J; Camacho, M; Pire, C; LLorca, F; Bonete, M J

    1999-02-01

    The pH dependence of kinetic parameters for a competitive inhibitor (glutarate) was determined in order to obtain information on the chemical mechanism for NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum. The maximum velocity is pH dependent, decreasing at low pHs giving a pK value of 7.19+/-0.13, while the V/K for l-glutamate at 30 degrees C decreases at low and high pHs, yielding pK values of 7.9+/-0.2 and 9.8+/-0.2, respectively. The glutarate pKis profile decreases at high pHs, yielding a pK of 9. 59+/-0.09 at 30 degrees C. The values of ionization heat calculated from the change in pK with temperature are: 1.19 x 10(4), 5.7 x 10(3), 7 x 10(3), 6.6 x 10(3) cal mol-1, for the residues involved. All these data suggest that the groups required for catalysis and/or binding are lysine, histidine and tyrosine. The enzyme shows a time-dependent loss in glutamate oxidation activity when incubated with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC). Inactivation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with a second-order rate constant of 53 M-1min-1. The pKa of the titratable group was pK1=6.6+/-0.6. Inactivation with ethyl acetimidate also shows pseudo-first-order kinetics as well as inactivation with TNM yielding second-order constants of 1.2 M-1min-1 and 2.8 M-1min-1, and pKas of 8.36 and 9.0, respectively. The proposed mechanism involves hydrogen binding of each of the two carboxylic groups to tyrosyl residues; histidine interacts with one of the N-hydrogens of the l-glutamate amino group. We also corroborate the presence of a conservative lysine that has a remarkable ability to coordinate a water molecule that would act as general base.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of a Protein-Serine/Threonine Phosphatase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bianca; Frey, Gerhard; Swanson, Ronald V.; Mathur, Eric J.; Stetter, K. O.

    1998-01-01

    An open reading frame coding for a putative protein-serine/threonine phosphatase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11 and named Py-PP1. Py-PP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified from inclusion bodies, and biochemically characterized. The phosphatase gene is part of an operon which may provide, for the first time, insight into a physiological role for archaeal protein phosphatases in vivo. PMID:9696747

  17. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziri, Davood; Hamidi, Masoud; Hassanzadeh, Salar; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Maleki Zanjani, Bahram; Nazemyieh, Hossein; Hejazi, Mohammd Amin; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v). The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5). The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786). Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies. PMID:24409411

  18. Minimal sulfur requirement for growth and sulfur-dependent metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Hao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon that uses peptides as carbon and energy sources. Elemental sulfur (S° is obligately required for its growth and is reduced to H2S. The metabolic functions and mechanisms of S° reduction were explored by examining S°-dependent growth and activities of key enzymes present in this organism. All three forms of S° tested—sublimed S°, colloidal S° and polysulfide—were used by S. marinus, and no other sulfur-containing compounds could replace S°. Elemental sulfur did not serve as physical support but appeared to function as an electron acceptor. The minimal S° concentration required for optimal growth was 0.05% (w/v. At this concentration, there appeared to be a metabolic transition from H2 production to S° reduction. Some enzymatic activities related to S°-dependent metabolism, including sulfur reductase, hydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and electron transfer activities, were detected in cell-free extracts of S. marinus. These results indicate that S° plays an essential role in the heterotrophic metabolism of S. marinus. Reducing equivalents generated by the oxidation of amino acids from peptidolysis may be transferred to sulfur reductase and hydrogenase, which then catalyze the production of H2S and H2, respectively.

  19. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium.

  20. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation.

  1. Functional organization of a single nif cluster in the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ehlers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 is able to utilize molecular nitrogen (N2 as its sole nitrogen source. We have identified and characterized a single nitrogen fixation (nif gene cluster in M. mazei Gö1 with an approximate length of 9 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed seven genes with sequence similarities to nifH, nifI1, nifI2, nifD, nifK, nifE and nifN, similar to other diazotrophic methanogens and certain bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the two glnB-like genes (nifI1 and nifI2 located between nifH and nifD. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for the nitrogenase structural genes of M. mazei Gö1 showed that they are most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri nif2 genes, and also closely resemble those for the corresponding nif products of the gram-positive bacterium C. acetobutylicum. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that the M. mazei nif genes constitute an operon transcribed only under nitrogen starvation as a single 8 kb transcript. Sequence analysis revealed a palindromic sequence at the transcriptional start site in front of the M. mazei nifH gene, which may have a function in transcriptional regulation of the nif operon.

  2. Characterization of a trehalose-degrading enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Whiso; Park, Jihee; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Cha, Jaeho

    2016-07-01

    We purified a cytosolic trehalase (TreH) from a thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Enzyme activity in cell-free extracts indicated that trehalose degradation in the cell occurred via the hydrolytic activity of TreH, and not via TreP (phosphorolytic activity) or TreT (transfer activity). TreH was purified to near-homogeneity by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, followed by size exclusion and HiTrap Q anion-exchange chromatography, and its molecular mass was estimated as 40 kDa. Maximum activity was observed at 85°C and pH 4.5. The half-life of TreH was 53 and 41 min at 90°C and 95°C, respectively. TreH was highly specific for trehalose and was inhibited by glucose with a Ki of 0.05 mM. Compared with TreH from other trehalases, TreH from S. acidocaldarius is the most thermostable trehalase reported so far. Furthermore, this is the first trehalase characterized in the Archaea domain.

  3. Proteomic Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in the Hydrogen-Producing Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Moon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 has been shown to produce H2 when using CO, formate, or starch as a growth substrate. This strain can also utilize elemental sulfur as a terminal electron acceptor for heterotrophic growth. To gain insight into sulfur metabolism, the proteome of T. onnurineus NA1 cells grown under sulfur culture conditions was quantified and compared with those grown under H2-evolving substrate culture conditions. Using label-free nano-UPLC-MSE-based comparative proteomic analysis, approximately 38.4% of the total identified proteome (589 proteins was found to be significantly up-regulated (≥1.5-fold under sulfur culture conditions. Many of these proteins were functionally associated with carbon fixation, Fe–S cluster biogenesis, ATP synthesis, sulfur reduction, protein glycosylation, protein translocation, and formate oxidation. Based on the abundances of the identified proteins in this and other genomic studies, the pathways associated with reductive sulfur metabolism, H2-metabolism, and oxidative stress defense were proposed. The results also revealed markedly lower expression levels of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway, as well as cysteine desulfurase, under sulfur culture condition. The present results provide the first global atlas of proteome changes triggered by sulfur, and may facilitate an understanding of how hyperthermophilic archaea adapt to sulfur-rich, extreme environments.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Orell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfolobus metallicus is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon used in high-temperature bioleaching processes that is able to grow under stressing conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for heavy metal resistance in S. metallicus remain uncharacterized. Proteomic analysis of S. metallicus cells exposed to 100 mM Cu revealed that 18 out of 30 upregulated proteins are related to the production and conversion of energy, amino acids biosynthesis, and stress responses. Ten of these last proteins were also up-regulated in S. metallicus treated in the presence of 1 mM Cd suggesting that at least in part, a common general response to these two heavy metals. The S. metallicus genome contained two complete cop gene clusters, each encoding a metallochaperone (CopM, a Cu-exporting ATPase (CopA, and a transcriptional regulator (CopT. Transcriptional expression analysis revealed that copM and copA from each cop gene cluster were cotranscribed and their transcript levels increased when S. metallicus was grown either in the presence of Cu or using chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 as oxidizable substrate. This study shows for the first time the presence of a duplicated version of the cop gene cluster in Archaea and characterizes some of the Cu and Cd resistance determinants in a thermophilic archaeon employed for industrial biomining.

  5. Characterization of the proteasome from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franzetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20S proteasome, comprising two subunits α and β, was purified from the extreme halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui, which grows only in saturated salt conditions. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the H. marismortui proteasome (Hm proteasome, obtained from negatively stained electron micrographs, is virtually identical to the structure of a thermophilic proteasome filtered to the same resolution. The stability of the Hm proteasome was found to be less salt-dependent than that of other halophilic enzymes previously described. The proteolytic activity of the Hm proteasome was investigated using the malate dehydrogenase from H. marismortui (HmMalDH as a model substrate. The HmMalDH denatures when the salt concentration is decreased below 2 M. Under these conditions, the proteasome efficiently cleaves HmMalDH during its denaturation process, but the fully denatured HmMalDH is poorly degraded. These in vitro experiments show that, at low salt concentrations, the 20S proteasome from halophilic archaea eliminates a misfolded protein.

  6. Isolation of extracellular polymeric substances from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eJachlewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS are the major structural and functional components of microbial biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a method for EPS isolation from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius as a basis for EPS analysis. Biofilms of S. acidocaldarius were cultivated on the surface of gellan gum-solidified Brock medium at 78 °C for 4 days. Five EPS extraction methods were compared, including shaking of biofilm suspensions in phosphate buffer, cation-exchange resin (CER extraction and stirring with addition of EDTA, crown ether or NaOH. With respect to EPS yield, impact on cell viability and compatibility with subsequent biochemical analysis, the CER extraction method was found to be the best suited isolation procedure resulting in the detection of carbohydrates and proteins as the major constituents and DNA as a minor component of the EPS. Culturability of CER-treated cells was not impaired. Analysis of the extracellular proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of several hundredshundred of protein spots, mainly with molecular masses of 25 kDa to 116 kDa and pI values of 5 to 8. Identification of proteins suggested a cytoplasmic origin for many of these proteins, possibly released via membrane vesicles or biofilm-inherent cell lysis during biofilm maturation. Functional analysis of EPS proteins, using fluorogenic substrates as well as zymography, demonstrated the activity of diverse groups of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and glucosidases. In conclusion, the CER extraction method, as previously applied to bacterial biofilms, also represents a suitable method for isolation of water soluble EPS from the archaeal biofilms of S. acidocaldarius, allowing the investigation of composition and function of EPS components in these types of biofilms.

  7. Different roles of two transcription factor B proteins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Ryota; Nishikawa, Ryo; Gao, Le; Katano, Masahiro; Imai, Tomohiro; Kato, Satoru; Kanai, Tamotsu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2014-05-01

    Two genes, TK1280 and TK2287, encode orthologous transcription factor B proteins (TFB1 and TFB2, respectively) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The functional difference between their TFBs remains unknown. While TFB1 and TFB2 displayed equivalent thermostability, mRNA levels of tfb1 at 93 °C were eightfold higher than those at 60 or 85 °C, and were 4- to 10-fold greater than those of tfb2 at all temperatures. This suggests that TFB1 is the abundant TFB in T. kodakarensis and is heat-inducible. By contrast, the mRNA level of tfb2 increased at 93 °C, but the levels were less than twofold of those at 60 or 85 °C. No significant differences in growth were observed among the DTF1 (∆tfb1, ∆pyrF), DTF2 (∆tfb2 ∆pyrF), and parental host strain KU216 (∆pyrF) at 60 °C. However, DTF2 showed a decrease in cell yield at 85 °C, and both DTF1 and DTF2 showed growth defects at 93 °C. Comparative transcriptome analysis between KU216 and DTF1 or DTF2 indicated that TFB1 apparently controls the expression of genes essential for motility/adhesion, whereas TFB2 regulates genes involved in mevalonate/lipid biosynthesis. In DTF1, the ratio of cells with flagella decreased at 85 and 93 °C, and reporter studies indicated that flaB1 transcription is dependent on TFB1 at 85 °C but not at 60 °C. PMID:24627188

  8. Identification and characterization of small RNAs in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    Full Text Available The term RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi describes a set of mechanisms that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA and microRNAs (miRNAs are two major types of RNAi-associated small RNAs (smRNAs found in most eukaryotic organisms. Despite the presence of a plethora of non-coding RNAs longer than 50-nucleotide (nt in length in various species of Archaea, little is known about smRNAs in archaea that resemble the 20-24-nt long smRNAs found in eukaryotes, which have been implicated in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Here, we report the finding of a large number of smRNAs approximatelly 20-nt in length, including phased smRNAs and potential miRNAs, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus p2 (Ssp2 based on deep sequencing. The expression of some of the miRNA candidates in Ssp2 was confirmed. Consistent with the Ssp2 hyperthermophilic properties, we found that higher temperatures more efficiently induced the production of the miRNA candidates in an in vitro system using the putative foldback precursor transcripts incubated with Ssp2 extract. Although we initially predicted putative target genes of some miRNA candidates, further analysis mapped the cleavage sites downstream of the miRNA candidate complementary regions, similar to those involved in plant miRNA-mediated TAS transcript cleavage. We also identified smRNAs from clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR loci, which play important roles in prokaryotic microbial defense systems. Archaea represent a unique life form next to Bacteria and Eukarya, and our results may provide a useful resource for further in-depth study on the regulation and evolution of smRNAs in this special organism.

  9. Apo and ligand-bound structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sum; Giuroiu, Iulia; Chernishof, Irina; Sawaya, Michael R; Chiang, Janet; Gunsalus, Robert P; Arbing, Mark A; Perry, L Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The trace-element oxyanion molybdate, which is required for the growth of many bacterial and archaeal species, is transported into the cell by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily uptake system called ModABC. ModABC consists of the ModA periplasmic solute-binding protein, the integral membrane-transport protein ModB and the ATP-binding and hydrolysis cassette protein ModC. In this study, X-ray crystal structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans (MaModA) have been determined in the apoprotein conformation at 1.95 and 1.69 A resolution and in the molybdate-bound conformation at 2.25 and 2.45 A resolution. The overall domain structure of MaModA is similar to other ModA proteins in that it has a bilobal structure in which two mixed alpha/beta domains are linked by a hinge region. The apo MaModA is the first unliganded archaeal ModA structure to be determined: it exhibits a deep cleft between the two domains and confirms that upon binding ligand one domain is rotated towards the other by a hinge-bending motion, which is consistent with the 'Venus flytrap' model seen for bacterial-type periplasmic binding proteins. In contrast to the bacterial ModA structures, which have tetrahedral coordination of their metal substrates, molybdate-bound MaModA employs octahedral coordination of its substrate like other archaeal ModA proteins. PMID:20208152

  10. Apo and ligand-bound structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sum; Giuroiu, Iulia; Chernishof, Irina; Sawaya, Michael R; Chiang, Janet; Gunsalus, Robert P; Arbing, Mark A; Perry, L Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The trace-element oxyanion molybdate, which is required for the growth of many bacterial and archaeal species, is transported into the cell by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily uptake system called ModABC. ModABC consists of the ModA periplasmic solute-binding protein, the integral membrane-transport protein ModB and the ATP-binding and hydrolysis cassette protein ModC. In this study, X-ray crystal structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans (MaModA) have been determined in the apoprotein conformation at 1.95 and 1.69 A resolution and in the molybdate-bound conformation at 2.25 and 2.45 A resolution. The overall domain structure of MaModA is similar to other ModA proteins in that it has a bilobal structure in which two mixed alpha/beta domains are linked by a hinge region. The apo MaModA is the first unliganded archaeal ModA structure to be determined: it exhibits a deep cleft between the two domains and confirms that upon binding ligand one domain is rotated towards the other by a hinge-bending motion, which is consistent with the 'Venus flytrap' model seen for bacterial-type periplasmic binding proteins. In contrast to the bacterial ModA structures, which have tetrahedral coordination of their metal substrates, molybdate-bound MaModA employs octahedral coordination of its substrate like other archaeal ModA proteins.

  11. Characterization of an archaeal malic enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakao Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the interconversion between C4 and C3 compounds has an important role in overall metabolism, limited information is available on the properties and regulation of enzymes acting on these metabolites in hyperthermophilic archaea. Malic enzyme is one of the enzymes involved in this interconversion, catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate as well as the reductive carboxylation coupled with NAD(PH. This study focused on the enzymatic properties and expression profile of an uncharacterized homolog of malic enzyme identified in the genome of a heterotrophic, hyperthermophilic archaeon T hermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 (Tk-Mae. The amino acid sequence of Tk-Mae was 52–58% identical to those of malic enzymes from bacteria, whereas the similarities to the eukaryotic homologs were lower. Several catalytically important regions and residues were conserved in the primary structure of Tk-Mae. The recombinant protein, which formed a homodimer, exhibited thermostable malic enzyme activity with strict divalent cation dependency. The enzyme preferred NADP+ rather than NAD+, but did not catalyze the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, unlike the usual NADP-dependent malic enzymes. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km of Tk-Mae for malate (16.9 mM was much larger than those of known enzymes, leading to no strong preference for the reaction direction. Transcription of the gene encoding Tk-Mae and intracellular malic enzyme activity in T. kodakaraensis were constitutively weak, regardless of the growth substrates. Possible roles of Tk-Mae are discussed based on these results and the metabolic pathways of T. kodakaraensis deduced from the genome sequence.

  12. Allosteric regulation of the GTP activated and CTP inhibited uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Arent, Susan; Larsen, Sine;

    2005-01-01

    The upp gene, encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It behaved as a tetramer in solution and showed optimal activity at pH 5.5 when...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Novel Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Acidianus copahuensis Strain ALE1, Isolated from the Copahue Volcanic Area in Neuquen, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, M Sofía; Rascovan, Nicolás; Castro, Camila; Revale, Santiago; Giaveno, M Alejandra; Vazquez, Martín; Donati, Edgardo R

    2014-05-08

    Acidianus copahuensis is a recently characterized thermoacidophilic archaeon isolated from the Copahue volcanic area in Argentina. Here, we present its draft genome sequence, in which we found genes involved in key metabolic pathways for developing under Copahue's extreme environmental conditions, such as sulfur and iron oxidation, carbon fixation, and metal tolerance.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional response of the archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans to cadmium.

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    Arnaud Lagorce

    Full Text Available Thermococcus gammatolerans, the most radioresistant archaeon known to date, is an anaerobic and hyperthermophilic sulfur-reducing organism living in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Knowledge of mechanisms underlying archaeal metal tolerance in such metal-rich ecosystem is still poorly documented. We showed that T. gammatolerans exhibits high resistance to cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co and zinc (Zn, a weaker tolerance to nickel (Ni, copper (Cu and arsenate (AsO(4 and that cells exposed to 1 mM Cd exhibit a cellular Cd concentration of 67 µM. A time-dependent transcriptomic analysis using microarrays was performed at a non-toxic (100 µM and a toxic (1 mM Cd dose. The reliability of microarray data was strengthened by real time RT-PCR validations. Altogether, 114 Cd responsive genes were revealed and a substantial subset of genes is related to metal homeostasis, drug detoxification, re-oxidization of cofactors and ATP production. This first genome-wide expression profiling study of archaeal cells challenged with Cd showed that T. gammatolerans withstands induced stress through pathways observed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but also through new and original strategies. T. gammatolerans cells challenged with 1 mM Cd basically promote: 1 the induction of several transporter/permease encoding genes, probably to detoxify the cell; 2 the upregulation of Fe transporters encoding genes to likely compensate Cd damages in iron-containing proteins; 3 the induction of membrane-bound hydrogenase (Mbh and membrane-bound hydrogenlyase (Mhy2 subunits encoding genes involved in recycling reduced cofactors and/or in proton translocation for energy production. By contrast to other organisms, redox homeostasis genes appear constitutively expressed and only a few genes encoding DNA repair proteins are regulated. We compared the expression of 27 Cd responsive genes in other stress conditions (Zn, Ni, heat shock, γ-rays, and showed that the Cd transcriptional pattern is

  15. Restoration of the di-myo-inositol-phosphate pathway in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Mizgier, Alex; Thiel, Axel; Jebbar, Mohamed; Oger, Phil M

    2015-11-01

    Most Thermococcales accumulate di-myo-inositol-phosphate (DIP) as an organic solute as a response to heat stress. We have studied the accumulation of this osmolyte in the high-hydrostatic pressure adapted hyperthermophile Thermococcus barophilus. We found no accumulation of DIP under any of the stress conditions tested, although this archaeon harbors the 3 DIP synthesis genes. Lack of synthesis is due to the lack of expression of TERMP_01135 coding for the second step of DIP synthesis. In contrast to other species, the T. barophilus synthesis operon is interrupted by a four gene locus, in reverse orientation. Restoring an operon like structure at the DIP locus restored DIP synthesis, but did not have an impact on growth characteristics, suggesting that other mechanisms have evolved in this organism to cope with heat stress.

  16. The Genome Sequence of the psychrophilic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii: the Role of Genome Evolution in Cold-adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Michelle A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Williams, Timothy J.; Burg, Dominic; Siddiqui, Khawar S.; De Francisci, David; Chong, Kevin W.Y.; Pilak, Oliver; Chew, Hwee H.; De Maere, Matthew Z.; Ting, Lily; Katrib, Marilyn; Ng, Charmaine; Sowers, Kevin R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Dalin, Eileen; Martinez, Michelle; Lapidus, Alla; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    Psychrophilic archaea are abundant and perform critical roles throughout the Earth's expansive cold biosphere. Here we report the first complete genome sequence for a psychrophilic methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii. The genome sequence was manually annotated including the use of a five tiered Evidence Rating system that ranked annotations from Evidence Rating (ER) 1 (gene product experimentally characterized from the parent organism) to ER5 (hypothetical gene product) to provide a rapid means of assessing the certainty of gene function predictions. The genome is characterized by a higher level of aberrant sequence composition (51%) than any other archaeon. In comparison to hyper/thermophilic archaea which are subject to selection of synonymous codon usage, M. burtonii has evolved cold adaptation through a genomic capacity to accommodate highly skewed amino acid content, while retaining codon usage in common with its mesophilic Methanosarcina cousins. Polysaccharide biosynthesis genes comprise at least 3.3% of protein coding genes in the genome, and Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis COG genes are over-represented. Likewise, signal transduction (COG category T) genes are over-represented and M. burtonii has a high 'IQ' (a measure of adaptive potential) compared to many methanogens. Numerous genes in these two over-represented COG categories appear to have been acquired from {var_epsilon}- and {delta}-proteobacteria, as do specific genes involved in central metabolism such as a novel B form of aconitase. Transposases also distinguish M. burtonii from other archaea, and their genomic characteristics indicate they play an important role in evolving the M. burtonii genome. Our study reveals a capacity for this model psychrophile to evolve through genome plasticity (including nucleotide skew, horizontal gene transfer and transposase activity) that enables adaptation to the cold, and to the biological and physical changes that have

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a novel dye-linked l-proline dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel dye-linked l-proline dehydrogenase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon was successfully isolated and crystallized. A novel dye-linked l-proline dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or its enantiomorph P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.1, c = 276.3 Å, and diffracted to 2.87 Å resolution using a Cu Kα rotating-anode generator with an R-AXIS VII detector. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, giving a crystal volume per enzyme mass (VM) of 2.75 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 55.3%

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon was successfully isolated and crystallized. A dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 119.4, c = 70.2 Å, β = 112.0°, and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution on the BL26B1 beamline at SPring-8. The overall Rmerge was 4.5% and the completeness was 99.8%

  19. Disruption of a Sugar Transporter Gene Cluster in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using a Host-Marker System Based on Antibiotic Resistance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumi, Rie; Manabe, Kenji; Fukui, Toshiaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a gene disruption system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis using the antibiotic simvastatin and a fusion gene designed to overexpress the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase gene (hmgTk) with the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter. With this system, we disrupted the T. kodakaraensis amylopullulanase gene (apuTk) or a gene cluster which includes apuTk and genes encoding components of a putative sugar transporter. Disruption plasm...

  20. Isolation,Identification and Characterization of Extremely Halophilic C50 Carotenoid-Producing Archaeon%1株产C50类胡萝卜素极端嗜盐古菌的筛选鉴定及特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良森; 邓元告; 隋丽英

    2014-01-01

    An extremely halophilic C50 carotenoid-producing red archaeon was isolated from the crystalli-zer ponds in solar saltworks.The isolated strain is Gram-negative and short rod.The optimum salinity and pH for growth is 250 and 7,respectively.Phenotypic and molecular analyses of this strain indicated that it belonged to extremely halophilic archaea genus Halorubrum and named Halorubrum Sp1 (16S rRNA Genbank registration number KF697239).UV-visible scanning spectrum showed that C50 carote-noid was the major pigments presented in this strain.Pigment accumulation was maximizing at pH 8. In the salinity range of 150~300,increasing salinity resulted in declined pigment accumulation.%从日晒盐场结晶池中筛选到1株产C50类胡萝卜素的红色极端嗜盐古菌。该菌株为革兰氏阴性菌,短棒状,最适生长盐度为250,最适生长pH 为7。表型鉴定方法结合16S rDNA序列分析判定,该菌属于极端嗜盐古菌盐红菌属 Halorubrum,命名为 Halorubrum sp.Sp1(16S rRNA Genbank 登录号为KF697239)。根据紫外-可见光扫描特征光谱,确定该菌株主要色素为 C50类胡萝卜素。pH 8时单位细胞色素积累量最大,在盐度150~300范围内随盐度升高,单位细胞色素积累量逐渐降低。

  1. Improving the Thermostability and Optimal Temperature of a Lipase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Covalent Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta V. Branco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant thermostable lipase (Pf2001Δ60 from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PFUL was immobilized by hydrophobic interaction on octyl-agarose (octyl PFUL and by covalent bond on aldehyde activated-agarose in the presence of DTT at pH = 7.0 (one-point covalent attachment (glyoxyl-DTT PFUL and on glyoxyl-agarose at pH 10.2 (multipoint covalent attachment (glyoxyl PFUL. The enzyme’s properties, such as optimal temperature and pH, thermostability, and selectivity, were improved by covalent immobilization. The highest enzyme stability at 70°C for 48 h incubation was achieved for glyoxyl PFUL (around 82% of residual activity, whereas glyoxyl-DTT PFUL maintained around 69% activity, followed by octyl PFUL (27% remaining activity. Immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose improved the optimal temperature to 90°C, while the optimal temperature of octyl PFUL was 70°C. Also, very significant changes in activity with different substrates were found. In general, the covalent bond derivatives were more active than octyl PFUL. The E value also depended substantially on the derivative and the conditions used. It was observed that the reaction of glyoxyl-DTT PFUL using methyl mandelate as a substrate at pH 7 presented the best results for enantioselectivity E=22 and enantiomeric excess (ee (% = 91.

  2. Crystallization of leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with tRNALeu from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) from P. horikoshii has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and cocrystallizations with each of the tRNALeu isoacceptors have been attempted. Cocrystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, but only when the tRNALeu isoacceptor with the anticodon CAA was used. All five tRNALeu isoacceptors from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii have been transcribed in vitro and purified. The leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) from P. horikoshii was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and cocrystallizations with each of the tRNALeu isoacceptors were attempted. Cocrystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, but only when the tRNALeu isoacceptor with the anticodon CAA was used. Electrophoretic analyses revealed that the crystals contain both LeuRS and tRNALeu, suggesting that they are LeuRS–tRNALeu complex crystals. A data set diffracting to 3.3 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.18, b = 120.55, c = 231.13 Å. The asymmetric unit is expected to contain two complexes of LeuRS–tRNALeu, with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight of 2.9 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 57.3%

  3. Unusual starch degradation pathway via cyclodextrins in the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labes, Antje; Schönheit, Peter

    2007-12-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324 has been shown to grow on starch and sulfate and thus represents the first sulfate reducer able to degrade polymeric sugars. The enzymes involved in starch degradation to glucose 6-phosphate were studied. In extracts of starch-grown cells the activities of the classical starch degradation enzymes, alpha-amylase and amylopullulanase, could not be detected. Instead, evidence is presented here that A. fulgidus utilizes an unusual pathway of starch degradation involving cyclodextrins as intermediates. The pathway comprises the combined action of an extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) converting starch to cyclodextrins and the intracellular conversion of cyclodextrins to glucose 6-phosphate via cyclodextrinase (CDase), maltodextrin phosphorylase (Mal-P), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). These enzymes, which are all induced after growth on starch, were characterized. CGTase catalyzed the conversion of starch to mainly beta-cyclodextrin. The gene encoding CGTase was cloned and sequenced and showed highest similarity to a glucanotransferase from Thermococcus litoralis. After transport of the cyclodextrins into the cell by a transport system to be defined, these molecules are linearized via a CDase, catalyzing exclusively the ring opening of the cyclodextrins to the respective maltooligodextrins. These are degraded by a Mal-P to glucose 1-phosphate. Finally, PGM catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate, which is further degraded to pyruvate via the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway.

  4. Carbonate precipitation by the thermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus: a model of carbon flow for an ancient microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ostrom

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate precipitation experiments were conducted using the archaeon bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus to determine chemical and isotopic fractionation of organic and inorganic carbon into mineral phases. Carbonate precipitation was induced in two different experiments using A. fulgidus to determine the relative abundance of organically derived carbon incorporated into carbonate minerals as well as to define any distinct phases or patterns that could be attributed to the precipitation process. One experiment used a medium containing 13C-depleted organic carbon and 13C-enriched inorganic carbon, and the other used a 14C-labeled organic carbon source. Results indicated that 0.9–24.8% organic carbon was incorporated into carbonates precipitated by A. fulgidus and that this process was mediated primarily by pH and CO2 emission from cells. Data showed that the carbon in the CO2 produced from this microorganism is incorporated into carbonates and that the rate at which precipitation occurs and the dynamics of the carbonate precipitation process are strongly mediated by the specific steps involved in the biochemical process for lactate oxidation by A. fulgidus.

  5. Molecular chaperone accumulation as a function of stress evidences adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in the piezophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Jebbar, Mohamed; Thiel, Axel; Kervarec, Nelly; Oger, Phil M.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of mannosyl-glycerate (MG), the salinity stress response osmolyte of Thermococcales, was investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure in Thermococcus barophilus strain MP, a hyperthermophilic, piezophilic archaeon isolated from the Snake Pit site (MAR), which grows optimally at 40 MPa. Strain MP accumulated MG primarily in response to salinity stress, but in contrast to other Thermococcales, MG was also accumulated in response to thermal stress. MG accumulation peaked for combined stresses. The accumulation of MG was drastically increased under sub-optimal hydrostatic pressure conditions, demonstrating that low pressure is perceived as a stress in this piezophile, and that the proteome of T. barophilus is low-pressure sensitive. MG accumulation was strongly reduced under supra-optimal pressure conditions clearly demonstrating the structural adaptation of this proteome to high hydrostatic pressure. The lack of MG synthesis only slightly altered the growth characteristics of two different MG synthesis deletion mutants. No shift to other osmolytes was observed. Altogether our observations suggest that the salinity stress response in T. barophilus is not essential and may be under negative selective pressure, similarly to what has been observed for its thermal stress response. PMID:27378270

  6. In vivo characterization of the homing endonuclease within the polB gene in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Naor

    Full Text Available Inteins are parasitic genetic elements, analogous to introns that excise themselves at the protein level by self-splicing, allowing the formation of functional non-disrupted proteins. Many inteins contain a homing endonuclease (HEN gene, and rely on its activity for horizontal propagation. In the halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, the gene encoding DNA polymerase B (polB contains an intein with an annotated but uncharacterized HEN. Here we examine the activity of the polB HEN in vivo, within its natural archaeal host. We show that this HEN is highly active, and able to insert the intein into both a chromosomal target and an extra-chromosomal plasmid target, by gene conversion. We also demonstrate that the frequency of its incorporation depends on the length of the flanking homologous sequences around the target site, reflecting its dependence on the homologous recombination machinery. Although several evolutionary models predict that the presence of an intein involves a change in the fitness of the host organism, our results show that a strain deleted for the intein sequence shows no significant changes in growth rate compared to the wild type.

  7. In vivo characterization of the homing endonuclease within the polB gene in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Adit; Lazary, Rona; Barzel, Adi; Papke, R Thane; Gophna, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Inteins are parasitic genetic elements, analogous to introns that excise themselves at the protein level by self-splicing, allowing the formation of functional non-disrupted proteins. Many inteins contain a homing endonuclease (HEN) gene, and rely on its activity for horizontal propagation. In the halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, the gene encoding DNA polymerase B (polB) contains an intein with an annotated but uncharacterized HEN. Here we examine the activity of the polB HEN in vivo, within its natural archaeal host. We show that this HEN is highly active, and able to insert the intein into both a chromosomal target and an extra-chromosomal plasmid target, by gene conversion. We also demonstrate that the frequency of its incorporation depends on the length of the flanking homologous sequences around the target site, reflecting its dependence on the homologous recombination machinery. Although several evolutionary models predict that the presence of an intein involves a change in the fitness of the host organism, our results show that a strain deleted for the intein sequence shows no significant changes in growth rate compared to the wild type. PMID:21283796

  8. Disruption of the Operon Encoding Ehb Hydrogenase Limits AnabolicCO2 Assimilation in the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porat, Iris; Kim, Wonduck; Hendrickson, Erik L.; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tiansong; Taub, Fred; Moore, Brian C.; Anderson, IainJ.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.; Whitman, William B.

    2006-02-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic archaeon thatreduces CO2 to methane with H2 or formate as an energy source. Itcontains two membrane-bound energy-conserving hydrogenases, Eha and Ehb.To determine therole of Ehb, a deletion in the ehb operon wasconstructed to yield the mutant, strain S40. Growth of S40 was severelyimpaired in minimal medium. Both acetate and yeast extract were necessaryto restore growth to nearly wild-type levels, suggesting that Ehb wasinvolved in multiple steps in carbon assimilation. However, nodifferences in the total hydrogenase specific activities were foundbetween the wild type and mutant in either cell extracts ormembrane-purified fractions. Methanogenesis by resting cells withpyruvate as the electron donor was also reduced by 30 percent in S40,suggesting a defect in pyruvate oxidation. CO dehydrogenase/acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) synthase and pyruvate oxidoreductase had higher specificactivities in the mutant, and genes encoding these enzymes, as well asAMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase, were expressed at increased levels.These observations support a role for Ehb in anabolic CO2 assimilation inmethanococci.

  9. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  10. Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using Multiplexed crRNA Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziga Zebec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-mediated RNA degradation is catalyzed by a type III system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Earlier work demonstrated that the system can be engineered to target specifically mRNA of an endogenous host reporter gene, namely the β-galactosidase in S. solfataricus. Here, we investigated the effect of single and multiple spacers targeting the mRNA of a second reporter gene, α-amylase, at the same, and at different, locations respectively, using a minimal CRISPR (miniCR locus supplied on a viral shuttle vector. The use of increasing numbers of spacers reduced mRNA levels at progressively higher levels, with three crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs leading to ∼ 70–80% reduction, and five spacers resulting in an α-amylase gene knockdown of > 90% measured on both mRNA and protein activity levels. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to increase or modulate gene knockdown for efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing in hyperthermophilic archaea, and potentially also in other organisms.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Candidatus Methanomethyllophilus sp. 1R26m -Enriched from Bovine Rumen, a Methanogenic Archaeon Belonging to the Methanomassiliicoccales Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Højberg, Ole; Urich, T.;

    2016-01-01

    Olsenella scatoligenes SK9K4(T) is a strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from pig feces that produces the malodorous compounds 3-methylindole (skatole) and 4-methylphenol (p-cresol). Here, we report the 2.47 Mbp draft genome sequence of SK9K4(T), exploring pathways for the synthesis of skatole...... and p-cresol from the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, respectively....

  12. The genes coding for the hsp70(dnaK) molecular chaperone machine occur in the moderate thermophilic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider; Lange, Marianne; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    The hsp70 (dnaK) locus of the moderate thermophilic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was cloned, sequenced, and tested in vitro to measure gene induction by heat and ammonia, i.e., stressors pertinent to the biotechnological ecosystem of this methanogen that plays a key role in anaerobic......-negative bacteria - first described in the S-6 molecule and later found to be present in all homologs from archaea and Gram positives. The genes responded to a temperature elevation in a manner that demonstrated that they are heat-shock genes, functionally active in vivo. Ammonia also induced a heat-shock type...

  13. Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Peter eHocking

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation by the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria. Herein, whole-genome microarray analyses where used to provide a model of the energy me-tabolism of the sulfate reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, based comparative analysis litoautotrophic growth with H2/CO2 and thiosulfate, and heterotrophic growth on lactate with sulfate or thiosulfate. Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utiliz-ing sulfate or thiosulfate whereas 269 genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases (lldD, dld, lldEFG, also present in sulfate reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. fulgidus by specifically linking lactate oxidation with APS reduction via the Qmo complex. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of F420H2 and menaquinone mediated electron transport chain during heterotrophic growth. A putative pe-riplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabo-lism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh:Hdl hydrogenase, that may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Rather, energy conservation is probably facili-tated via menaquinone to multiple membrane bound heterodisulfide reductase complexes and the enzyme DsrC – linking periplasmic hydrogenase (Vht to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite. The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologues secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth

  14. The composition, structure and stability of a group II chaperonin are temperature regulated in a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Hiromi K; Yaoi, Takuro; Brocchieri, Luciano; McMillan, R Andrew; Alton, Thomas; Trent, Jonathan D

    2003-04-01

    The hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae contains group II chaperonins, known as rosettasomes, which are two nine-membered rings composed of three different 60 kDa subunits (TF55 alpha, beta and gamma). We sequenced the gene for the gamma subunit and studied the temperature-dependent changes in alpha, beta and gamma expression, their association into rosettasomes and their phylogenetic relationships. Alpha and beta gene expression was increased by heat shock (30 min, 86 degrees C) and decreased by cold shock (30 min, 60 degrees C). Gamma expression was undetectable at heat shock temperatures and low at normal temperatures (75-79 degrees C), but induced by cold shock. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that in vitro alpha and beta subunits form homo-oligomeric rosettasomes, and mixtures of alpha, beta and gamma form hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that beta homo-oligomeric rosettasomes and all hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes associate into filaments. In vivo rosettasomes were hetero-oligomeric with an average subunit ratio of 1alpha:1beta:0.1gamma in cultures grown at 75 degrees C, a ratio of 1alpha:3beta:1gamma in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and a ratio of 2alpha:3beta:0gamma after 86 degrees C heat shock. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we determined denaturation temperatures (Tm) for alpha, beta and gamma subunits of 95.7 degrees C, 96.7 degrees C and 80.5 degrees C, respectively, and observed that rosettasomes containing gamma were relatively less stable than those with alpha and/or beta only. We propose that, in vivo, the rosettasome structure is determined by the relative abundance of subunits and not by a fixed geometry. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that archaeal chaperonin subunits underwent multiple duplication events within species (paralogy). The independent evolution of these paralogues raises the possibility that chaperonins have functionally diversified between

  15. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Méndez; Eduardo Uribe

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB), in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concen...

  16. Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available M A Khan,1 Madeline M López-Muñoz,2 Charles W Kaspar,3 Kai F Hung1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; 3Bacteriology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Biogeochemical processes on exposed pyrite ores result in extremely high levels of sulfuric acid at these locations. Acidophiles that thrive in these conditions must overcome significant challenges, including an environment with proton concentrations at pH 3 or below. The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. Two putative sequences for methionine-γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, an enzyme known to carry out α, γ-elimination on L-methionine to produce methanethiol, were identified in fer1. Bioinformatic analyses identified a conserved pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP binding domain and a partially conserved catalytic domain in both putative sequences. Detection of PLP-dependent and L-methionine-dependent production of α-keto compounds and thiol groups in fer1 confirmed the presence of methionine-γ-lyase activity. Further, fer1 lysate was capable of processing related substrates, including D-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L/D-homocysteine. When the two putative fer1 methionine-γ-lyase gene-coded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, one sequence demonstrated an ability to carry out α, γ-elimination activity, while the other exhibited γ-replacement activity. These fer1 methionine-γ-lyases also exhibited optimum pH, substrate specificity, and catalytic preferences that are different from methionine-γ-lyases from other organisms. These differences are discussed in the context of molecular phylogeny constructed using a maximum

  17. Main: SP8BFIBSP8BIB [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP8BFIBSP8BIB S000184 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki One of SPBF binding site (SP...; SP8BF recognizes both SP8a and SP8b sequences; See also SP8BFIBSP8AIB (S000183); SP8BF activity is also fo

  18. Main: SP8BFIBSP8AIB [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP8BFIBSP8AIB S000183 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki One of SPBF binding site (SP...o (I.b.); SP8BF recognizes both SP8a and SP8b sequences; See also SP8BFIBSP8BIB (S000184); SP8BF activity is

  19. Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohmori, Taketo; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    To date, there have been few reports analyzing the amino acid requirement for growth of hyperthermophilic archaea. We here found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 requires Thr, Leu, Val, Phe, Tyr, Trp, His and Arg in the medium for growth, and shows slow growth in medium lacking Met or Ile. This largely corresponds to the presence, or absence, of genes related to amino acid biosynthesis in its genome, though there are exceptions. The amino acid requirements were dramatically lost by addition of D-isomers of Met, Leu, Val, allo-Ile, Phe, Tyr, Trp and Arg. Tracer analysis using (14)C-labeled D-Trp showed that D-Trp in the medium was used as a protein component in the cells, suggesting the presence of D-amino acid metabolic enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent racemase activity toward Met, Leu and Phe was detected in crude extract of P. horikoshii and was enhanced in cells grown in the medium supplemented with D-amino acids, especially D-allo-Ile. The gene encoding the racemase was narrowed down to one open reading frame on the basis of enzyme purification from P. horikoshii cells, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited PLP-dependent racemase activity toward several amino acids, including Met, Leu and Phe, but not Pro, Asp or Glu. This is the first report showing the presence in a hyperthermophilic archaeon of a PLP-dependent amino acid racemase with broad substrate specificity that is likely responsible for utilization of D-amino acids for growth.

  20. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  1. Isolation of an extremely halophilic arhaeon Natrialba sp. C21 able to degrade aromatic compounds and to produce stable biosurfactant at high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemili-Talbi, Souad; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Akmoussi-Toumi, Siham; Angar, Yassmina; Gana, Mohamed Lamine

    2015-11-01

    Natrialba sp. strain C21 was isolated from oil contaminated saline water in Ain Salah (Algeria) and has exhibited a good potential for degrading phenol (3% v/v), naphthalene (3% v/v), and pyrene (3% v/v) at high salinity with high growth, enzymatic activity and biosurfactant production. Successful metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds of the strain Natrialba sp. C21 appears to require the ortho-cleavage pathway. Indeed, assays of the key enzymes involved in the ring cleavage of catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase indicated that degradation of the phenol, naphthalene and pyrene by strain Natrialba sp. C21 was via the ortho-cleavage pathway. Cells grown on aromatic hydrocarbons displayed greater ortho-activities mainly towards catechol, while the meta-activity was very low. Besides, biosurfactants derived from the strain C21 were capable of effectively emulsifying both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and seem to be particularly promising since they have particular adaptations like the increased stability at high temperature and salinity conditions. This study clearly demonstrates for the first time that strain belonging to the genera Natrialba is able to grow at 25% (w/v) NaCl, utilizing phenol, naphthalene, and pyrene as the sole carbon sources. The results suggest that the isolated halophilic archaeon could be a good candidate for the remediation process in extreme environments polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, the produced biosurfactant offers a multitude of interesting potential applications in various fields of biotechnology.

  2. Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiladitya DasSarma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms like the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 produce gas-filled buoyant organelles, which are easily purified as protein nanoparticles (called gas vesicles or GVNPs. GVNPs are non-toxic, exceptionally stable, bioengineerable, and self-adjuvanting. A large gene cluster encoding more than a dozen proteins has been implicated in their biogenesis. One protein, GvpC, found on the exterior surface of the nanoparticles, can accommodate insertions near the C-terminal region and results in GVNPs displaying the inserted sequences on the surface of the nanoparticles. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on GVNP structure and biogenesis as well as available studies on immunogenicity of pathogenic viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic proteins and peptides displayed on the nanoparticles. Recent improvements in genetic tools for bioengineering of GVNPs are discussed, along with future opportunities and challenges for development of vaccines and other applications.

  3. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  4. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Reed

    Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

  5. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  6. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  7. SP-100 advanced technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project

  8. En moderne spøgelseshistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie......Anmeldelse af César Airas "Spøgelserne". Anmeldelsen indkredser bla. spøgelsernes karakter i denne moderne, interkulturelle historie...

  9. Optimal spænding i kajakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    Artiklens overordnede fokus er, hvilken betydning den enkelte kajakroers spændingsniveau har for præstationen. Artiklen svarer på, hvad et spændingsniveau er, hvilke kilder der er til spænding, og sidst hvad man kan gøre for at finde sit optimale spændingsniveau....

  10. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs{sup +}-selective binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawamoto, Masahide [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr{sup 2+}-binding sites and one Cs{sup +}-binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, as the removal of the radioactive Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs{sup +} or Sr{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3{sub 1} using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs{sup +}-specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na{sup +} (90 mM Na{sup +}/10 mM Cs{sup +}). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs{sup +}-binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs{sup +}-binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes.

  11. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Cristina Benetti; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos; Antonio Carlos de Souza Medeiros; David de Souza Jaccoud Filho

    2010-01-01

    This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
    sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
    test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi...

  12. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  13. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  14. Disruption of a sugar transporter gene cluster in a hyperthermophilic archaeon using a host-marker system based on antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumi, Rie; Manabe, Kenji; Fukui, Toshiaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a gene disruption system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis using the antibiotic simvastatin and a fusion gene designed to overexpress the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase gene (hmg(Tk)) with the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter. With this system, we disrupted the T. kodakaraensis amylopullulanase gene (apu(Tk)) or a gene cluster which includes apu(Tk) and genes encoding components of a putative sugar transporter. Disruption plasmids were introduced into wild-type T. kodakaraensis KOD1 cells, and transformants exhibiting resistance to 4 microM simvastatin were isolated. The transformants exhibited growth in the presence of 20 microM simvastatin, and we observed a 30-fold increase in intracellular HMG-CoA reductase activity. The expected gene disruption via double-crossover recombination occurred at the target locus, but we also observed recombination events at the hmg(Tk) locus when the endogenous hmg(Tk) gene was used. This could be avoided by using the corresponding gene from Pyrococcus furiosus (hmg(Pf)) or by linearizing the plasmid prior to transformation. While both gene disruption strains displayed normal growth on amino acids or pyruvate, cells without the sugar transporter genes could not grow on maltooligosaccharides or polysaccharides, indicating that the gene cluster encodes the only sugar transporter involved in the uptake of these compounds. The Deltaapu(Tk) strain could not grow on pullulan and displayed only low levels of growth on amylose, suggesting that Apu(Tk) is a major polysaccharide-degrading enzyme in T. kodakaraensis.

  15. Biogenic inorganic crystalline phase formation as a result of biogeochemical interactions in between the chemolithotrophic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and meteorite: implications for potential microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Blazevic, Amir; Kutlucinar, Kaan Georg

    2016-04-01

    Chemolithotrophy has been indicated as the most primordial form of microbial metabolism on the early Earth and proposed as a possible metabolic form for other iron-mineral-rich planets like Mars. Rock-eating extremophiles represent an exciting field of research for the study of microbe-mineral interactions in order to find the unique biosignatures of life in the extreme conditions. Metallosphaera sedula is the chemolithotrophic archaeon, which thrives at 73°C and pH 2, using energy derived from metal oxidation at the edge of living limits. When given an access to extraterrestrial material (a stony meteorite H5 ordinary chondrite NWA1172), M. sedula releases soluble metal ions into the solution from NWA1172 due to its metal oxidizing metabolic activity. Here we report the formation of inorganic crystalline phase as a result of biogeochemical interactions in between M. sedula and extraterrestrial material. Inorganic ions released from meteorite as a result of M. sedula mediated leaching were trapped into crystalline material by solvent evaporation technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations and EDX analysis revealed that this crystalline phase is mainly composed of Ni, S, Mg and O elements. Biogenicity of this inorganic crystalline material was evaluated by comparing to abiotic conditions. Biological nature of Ni-, S-, Mg- and O -containing crystalline phase was established, since it was not mimicked in abiotic experimental conditions, allowing clearly to exclude abiogenic origin. Further investigations of exact mineralogical nature of biogenic of Ni-, S-, Mg- and O -crystalline material and its implication as a biosignature for detection of life are going to be investigated.

  16. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T......), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149T = IBT 23247T), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135T = IBT 23229T) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216T = IBT 23203T) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using...... a polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular (ITS and partial β-tubulin sequences) and extrolite data. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each novel species formed a unique clade for both loci analysed and that they were most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum, Penicillium janthinellum...

  17. Mapping posttranscriptional modifications in 5S ribosomal RNA by MALDI mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirpekar, F; Douthwaite, S; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    and the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as the halophile archaea Halobacterium halobium and Haloarcula marismortui. One S. acidocaldarius posttranscriptional modification was identified and was further characterized by PSD as a methylation of cytidine32. The modified C is located in a region...

  18. Uso tradicional y actual de spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ramírez- Moreno; Roxana Olvera-Ramírez

    2006-01-01

    Spirulina sp. (Arthrospira sp.) es una cianobacteria filamentosa no diferenciada, habitante de lagos alcalinos, que se cultiva para consumo humano debido a su contenido nutricional. En México, el consumo de esta cianobacteria se remonta a tiempos prehispánicos, cuando era conocida como tecuitlatl, siendo conocida como dihé por las tribus nativas de la región del lago de Chad, en África. En los últimos años se le han atribuido diversos efectos positivos en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de al...

  19. [Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Antônio Marcos; Alves, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel; de Rezende, Glycia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Costa

    2005-04-01

    Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23) and 69.6 (16/23) respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18). Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool samples showed 58% and 23% of Ancylostoma sp and Toxocara sp eggs infection respectively.

  20. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-09-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) ( = DSM 26257(T) = CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) ( = DSM 26254(T) = CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) ( = DSM 26255(T) = CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) ( = DSM 26256(T) = CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) ( = DSM 26263(T) = CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) ( = DSM 26265(T) = CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) ( = DSM 26262(T) = CCUG 63631(T)).

  1. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed. PMID:19620357

  2. Characterization of the TrmB-like protein, PF0124, a TGM-recognizing global transcriptional regulator of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Surma, Melanie; Seitz, Sabine; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2007-07-01

    The characterization of the transcriptional regulator TrmBL1 of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, homologous to TrmB (transcriptional regulator of the maltose system), was studied. The genome of P. furiosus contains three TrmB paralogues. One of the TrmB-like proteins (TrmBL), PF0124 (TrmBL1), was analysed in more detail. It regulated the expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the glycolytic pathway as well as the maltodextrin (MD) ABC transporter. By molecular sieve chromatography, purified TrmBL1 behaved at ambient temperature as a tetramer of 148.8 kDa. In the presence of 1 mM maltotriose or 5 mM maltose TrmBL1 formed octamers. As shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) TrmBL1 was found to bind the MD (maltodextrin ABC transport genes) promoter DNA with sixfold higher binding affinity (K(d) 0.2 microM) than to the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter (TM) promoter (K(d) 1.2 microM). Maltotriose and maltose interfered in these assays indicating inducer function. In vitro transcription assays using purified transcription components corroborated the data obtained with EMSA and showed inhibition of transcription of the MD promoter by TrmBL1. Recently, van de Werken et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006; 260: 69-76) identified TGM, a conserved sequence (Thermococcales-Glycolytic-Motif) upstream of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and the MD ABC transporter. The position of TGM is invariably located downstream of the BRE-TATA box and overlapping the transcription start site on each promoter. By footprint analysis TrmBL1 was found to recognize the TGM sequence in several TGM-containing promoter sequences. We identified the recognition helix in TrmBL1 revealing tyrosine (Y49) to be essential for target DNA binding. However, the TGM motif was not essential for TrmBL1 binding. We conclude that TrmBL1 is a global sugar-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling the genes of transport systems and of sugar-metabolizing enzymes.

  3. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis A Boumber

    Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

  4. Sugar utilization in the hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324: starch degradation to acetate and CO2 via a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labes, A; Schönheit, P

    2001-11-01

    The hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324, rather than the type strain VC16, was found to grow on starch and sulfate as energy and carbon source. Fermentation products and enzyme activities were determined in starch-grown cells and compared to those of cells grown on lactate and sulfate. During exponential growth on starch, 1 mol of glucose-equivalent was incompletely oxidized with sulfate to approximately 2 mol acetate, 2 mol CO2 and 1 mol H2S. Starch-grown cells did not contain measurable amounts of the deazaflavin factor F420 (reducer A. fulgidus strain 7324 converts starch to acetate via a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming). This is the first report of growth of a sulfate reducer on starch, i.e. on a polymeric sugar.

  5. SP-A and SP-D in host defense against fungal infections and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madhukaran, Shanmuga P; Nayak, Annapurna; Madan, Taruna

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity mediated by pattern recognition proteins is relevant in the host defense against fungi. SP-A and SP-D are two such proteins belonging to the class of collagen domain containing C-type lectins, or collectins. They bind to the sugar moieties present on the cell walls of various fungi in a dose dependent manner via their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). SP-A and SP-D directly interact with alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes. We review these roles of SP-A and SP-D against various clinically relevant fungal pathogens and fungal allergens. SP-A and SP-D gene deficient mice showed increased susceptibility/ resistance to various fungal infections. Patients of fungal infections and allergies are reported with alterations in the serum or lung lavage levels of SP-A and SP-D. There are studies associating the gene polymorphisms in SP-A and SP-D with alterations in their levels or functions or susceptibility of the host to fungal diseases. In view of the protective role of SP-D in murine models of Aspergillus fumigatus infections and allergies, therapeutic use of SP-D could be explored further.

  6. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  7. Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by halophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin del Campo, Martha; Camacho, Rosa M; Mateos-Díaz, Juan C; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Córdova, Jesus; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are extremophiles, adapted to high-salt environments, showing a big biotechnological potential as enzyme, lipids and pigments producers. Four inert supports (perlite, vermiculite, polyurethane foam and glass fiber) were employed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the halophilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. TC6 to investigate biomass and esterase production. A very low esterase activity and high water activity were observed when perlite, vermiculite and polyurethane were used as supports. When glass fiber was employed, an important moisture loss was observed (8.6%). Moreover, moisture retention was improved by mixing polyurethane and glass fiber, resulting in maximal biomass and esterase production. Three halophilic archaea: Natronococcus sp. TC6, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui were cultured by submerged fermentation (SmF) and by SSF; an improvement of 1.3- to 6.2-fold was observed in the biomass and esterase production when SSF was used. Growth was not homogeneous in the mixture, but was predominant in the glass fiber thus was probably because the glass fiber provides a holder to the cells, while the polyurethane acts as an impregnation medium reservoir. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first report on haloarchaea cultivation by SSF aiming biomass and esterase/lipase activity production.

  8. Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by halophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin del Campo, Martha; Camacho, Rosa M; Mateos-Díaz, Juan C; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Córdova, Jesus; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are extremophiles, adapted to high-salt environments, showing a big biotechnological potential as enzyme, lipids and pigments producers. Four inert supports (perlite, vermiculite, polyurethane foam and glass fiber) were employed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the halophilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. TC6 to investigate biomass and esterase production. A very low esterase activity and high water activity were observed when perlite, vermiculite and polyurethane were used as supports. When glass fiber was employed, an important moisture loss was observed (8.6%). Moreover, moisture retention was improved by mixing polyurethane and glass fiber, resulting in maximal biomass and esterase production. Three halophilic archaea: Natronococcus sp. TC6, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui were cultured by submerged fermentation (SmF) and by SSF; an improvement of 1.3- to 6.2-fold was observed in the biomass and esterase production when SSF was used. Growth was not homogeneous in the mixture, but was predominant in the glass fiber thus was probably because the glass fiber provides a holder to the cells, while the polyurethane acts as an impregnation medium reservoir. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first report on haloarchaea cultivation by SSF aiming biomass and esterase/lipase activity production. PMID:26369647

  9. Purification and characterization of an extracellular halophilic and organic solvent-tolerant amylopullulanase from a haloarchaeon, Halorubrum sp. strain Ha25.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Fazeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Halophiles, especially haloarchaea are one of the most important groups of extremophiles. Halophilic hydrolases have been studied worldwide and have been considered for biotechnology and industrial technologies. This study is the first report in amylopullulanase production in halophilic microorganisms.Materials and methods: A halophilic archaeon, Halorubrum sp. strain Ha25, produced extracellular halophilic organic solvent-tolerant amylopullulanase. The enzyme was purified using ethanol precipitation and anion exchange chromatography method. Molecular mass of purified enzyme was determined by SDS–PAGE method. After purification, the enzyme was characterized. To study the effects of organic solvents in the stability of the enzyme, the enzyme solution was incubated in the presence of various organic compounds and then, residual enzyme activity was measured. Mode of action of the enzyme was determined by thin-layer chromatography.Results: Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by SDS–PAGE method. Optimum temperature for amylolitic and pullulytic activities was 50 °C. Optimum pH for amylolitic activity was 7.0 and for pullulytic activity was 7.5. This enzyme was active over a wide range of concentrations (0-4.5 M of NaCl. The effect of organic solvents on the amylolitic and pullulytic activities showed that this enzyme was more stable in the presence of non-polar organic solvents than polar solvents. The enzyme solely hydrolyzed pullulan and soluble starch to glucose.Discussion and conclusion: Halorubrum sp. strain Ha25 produces thermophilic and extremely halophilic amylopullulanase. The catalytic function under multi extreme condition of high temperature, high salinity, and low water activity might possess biotechnological and commercial values such as treatment waste solutions with starch residues, high salt content and solvents.

  10. Potensi Tanaman Ornamental (Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., dan Spathiphyllum sp.) dalam Menurunkan Jumlah Mikroba Udara dalam Ruangan Kelas Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Mangunsong, Sisca Nency Teresia

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosol is dust particles consisting of bacteria and other fungi with spores that are in the room when the temperature and humidity level are adequate. Its presence in the room are generally harmless, but some time causes disease. This research was aims to determine the effect of ornamental plant Aglaonema sp., Dieffenbachia sp., and Spathiphyllum sp. on amount of bacteria and fungi in the class room. Bioaerosol isolation was performed according to the method of air sampling with three rep...

  11. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  12. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Benetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
    sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
    test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi observed in the highest frequencies were: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. and Pestalotia sp. A reduction of the germination level was observed in seedlings from cedar’s seed inoculated with Fusarium sp.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

    Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar fungos em sementes de cedro e testar a patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp. Para detecção de fungos, foram utilizados batata-dextrose-ágar e papel filtro. Para o teste de patogenicidade, utilizaram-se isolados de Fusarium sp. e de Pestalotia sp. Foi constatada a presença dos seguintes fungos nas sementes: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. e Cladosporium sp. Os fungos de maior freqüência foram: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. e Pestalotia sp. Observou-se decréscimo nos valores de emergência das plântulas oriundas das sementes inoculadas com Fusarium sp.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

  13. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  14. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that [3-14C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  15. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  16. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roble G Bedolla

    Full Text Available Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA has high sensitivity (90% at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  17. PENGARUH FILTRAT CENDAWAN Aspergillus sp. DAN Fusarium sp. TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Tati Suharti; Yulianti Bramasto

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are one of the main causes of damage to seeds. Fungi can be a pathogen or saprophyte such as Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of filtrate fungus Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp on seed viability and seedling growth performance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiment design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with treatment: control, filtrate of Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp filtrate. Each treatment was rep...

  18. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha Srivastava; Ratnakar Tiwari; Vikas Srivastava; Tej Bali Singh; Ravi Kumar Asthana

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  19. Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgancıgil, Birdal; Tezeren, Deniz; Balaban, Neriman; Terzioğlu, Serdar; Öztürk, Süheyla

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1997 Haziran; 4(3) Safradan İzole Edilen Campylobacter Sp. Birdal YORGANCIGİL Deniz TEZEREN Neriman BALABAN Serdar TERZlOĞLU Süheyla ÖZTÜRK Özet Campylobacter sp. 'in neden olduğu, gastrointestinal traktüs haricindeki lokal veya sistemik infeksiyon vakaları oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada safradan izole edilen bir Campylobacter sp. olgusu incelenmiştir. Ankara Numune Hastanesi Cerrahi Kliniğinde koles...

  20. Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live attenuated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasSarma, Priya; Negi, Vidya Devi; Balakrishnan, Arjun; Karan, Ram; Barnes, Susan; Ekulona, Folasade; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2014-07-31

    Innovative vaccines against typhoid and other Salmonella diseases that are safe, effective, and inexpensive are urgently needed. In order to address this need, buoyant, self-adjuvating gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) from the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were bioengineered to display the highly conserved Salmonella enterica antigen SopB, a secreted inosine phosphate effector protein injected by pathogenic bacteria during infection into the host cell. Two highly conserved sopB gene segments near the 3'-coding region, named sopB4 and B5, were each fused to the gvpC gene, and resulting GVNPs were purified by centrifugally accelerated flotation. Display of SopB4 and B5 antigenic epitopes on GVNPs was established by Western blotting analysis using antisera raised against short synthetic peptides of SopB. Immunostimulatory activities of the SopB4 and B5 nanoparticles were tested by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant GVNPs to BALB/c mice which had been immunized with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028 ΔpmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07), a live attenuated vaccine strain. Proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-9 were significantly induced in mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, consistent with a robust Th1 response. After challenge with virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028, bacterial burden was found to be diminished in spleen of mice boosted with SopB4-GVNPs and absent or significantly diminished in liver, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen of mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, indicating that the C-terminal portions of SopB displayed on GVNPs elicit a protective response to Salmonella infection in mice. SopB antigen-GVNPs were found to be stable at elevated temperatures for extended periods without refrigeration in Halobacterium cells. The results all together show that bioengineered GVNPs are likely to represent a valuable platform for the development of improved vaccines against Salmonella diseases.

  1. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rima Yunisa

    2015-01-01

    Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

  2. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  3. Tubulinosema sp. Microsporidian Myositis in Immunosuppressed Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Maria M.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Arrambide, Kathryn; Bern, Caryn; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; Bandea, Rebecca D.; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Adem, Patricia; Choudhary, Moaz M.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Saeed, Musab U.

    2011-01-01

    The Phylum Microsporidia comprises >1,200 species, only 15 of which are known to infect humans, including the genera Trachipleistophora, Pleistophora, and Brachiola. We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient.

  4. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  5. Cloning of rat sp56, the homologue of mouse sperm ZP3 receptor-sp56

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mouse sp56 is considered as one of the candidates for mouse zona pellucida 3 (mZP3) receptor. Up to date, its homologue has only been cloned from guinea pig, namely AM67. Based on the cDNA sequence of mouse sp56, we designed a pair of primer to amplify its homologue from rat testis cDNA. Using RT-PCR,two fragments of 743 bp and 938 bp were amplified. The PCR products show very high homology to mouse sp56. However, the 743 bp product completely lacks one of the seven Sushi domains of mouse sp56. Using the 743 bp product as the probe to detect the expression profile of sp56 in rat tissues, Northern blot shows that a ~2.0 kb mRNA expresses specifically in testis. Employed the RACE method, two full cDNA sequences of rat sp56 were obtained. A Mr ~42 KD band was detected in denatured and non-reducing protein sample of rat testis and sperm with anti-mouse sp56 monoclonal antibody by Western blot method. Rat sp56was localized on rat sperm head by the indirect immunofiuorescence method. Rat sp56 immunoreactivitywas detected from the early pachytene spermatocytes and throughout the spermatogenesis. Its cloning willfurther our understanding of the mechanism of the sperm-egg recognition and binding.

  6. 盐生盐杆菌RM07 DNA片段在大肠杆菌中的定点诱变和启动子功能分析%Site-directed Mutagenesis and Promoter Functional Analysis of RM07 DNA Fragment from Halobacterium halobium in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 沈萍

    2004-01-01

    将来源于嗜盐古生菌--盐生盐杆菌(Halobacterium halobium)基因组的RM07 DNA片段以正反两个方向分别插人大肠杆菌启动子探针载体pKK232-8携带的报告基因--氯霉素抗性基因(cat)的上游,得到RM07-cat融合的质粒pRM07-1(+)和pRM07-1(-),将其分别转入大肠杆菌HB101,进而检测了不同转化子菌株的氯霉素抗性水平和细胞内氯霉素乙酰转移酶蛋白质浓度.结果表明:正向的RM07片段在真细菌(大肠杆菌)中具有启动子活性,能够驱动cat报告基因的表达;而反向的RM07片段在大肠杆菌中不具有启动子活性.对RM07片段进行了定点诱变分析,检测了特定核苷酸突变对启动子活性的影响,结果进一步精确定位了RM07片段中对在大肠杆菌中的启动子功能有重要作用的关键碱基,并且通过改造RM07片段的碱基组成成分大幅提高了其在大肠杆菌中的启动子活性.

  7. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  8. Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D in murine decidua and immunomodulatory effects on decidual macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukaran, Shanmuga Priyaa; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Pandit, Hrishikesh; Marri, Eswari Dodagatta-; Kouser, Lubna; Jamil, Kaiser; Alhamlan, Fatimah S; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules that belong to the C-type lectin family. In lungs, they play an important role in the clearance of pathogens and control of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D are also expressed in the female reproductive tract where they play an important role in pregnancy and parturition. However, the role of SP-A and SP-D expressed at the feto-maternal interface (decidua) remains unclear. Here, we have examined the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua at 17.5 (pre-parturition) and 19.5dpc (near parturition) and their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated decidual macrophages. SP-A and SP-D were localized to stromal cells in the murine decidua at 17.5 and 19.5dpc in addition to cells lining the maternal spiral artery. Purified pre-parturition decidual cells were challenged with LPS with and without SP-A or SP-D, and expression of F4/80 and TNF-α were measured by flow cytometry. On their own, SP-A or SP-D did not affect the percentage of F4/80 positive cells while they suppressed the percentage of TNF-α positive cells. However, simultaneous addition of SP-A or SP-D, together with LPS, reduced TNF-α secreting F4/80 positive cells. It is likely that exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D in decidua can potentially control infection and inflammation mediators during spontaneous term labor and infection-induced preterm labor. Thus, the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the murine decidua is likely to play a protective role against intrauterine infection during pregnancy. PMID:26421960

  9. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  10. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  11. Evaluation of nutrient components of Bangia sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水军; 马家海; 纪焕红; 谢恩义

    2003-01-01

    General nutrient components including moisture, ash, crude protein, lipid and carbohy-drate, inorganic elements, photosynthetic pigments, amino acids and fatty acids of Bangia sp. Were an-alyzed and compared with Porphyra yezoensis. The results indicated that the content of protein, totalamino acids and free amino acids accounted for 47.2 %, 42.6 % and 3.3 % in dried Bangia sp. , respec-tively, all essential amino acids were present in relatively high levels and desirable composition. Lipidwas 1.8 %, in which the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reached 50.5 %. In per 100 g dried material, thecontent of chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin accounted for 766, 208, 4 600 and2 963 mg, respectively. Inorganic elements necessary for human body were found to be abundant inBangia sp. The results showed that the nutritive value of Bangia sp. Was the highest among algae re-ported so far, and the industry of Bangia sp. Was provided with significant economic importance and de-veloping potential.

  12. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  13. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Three Earthworm Species (Drawida sp., Allolobophora sp., and Limnodrilus sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhong Sheng; Zheng, Dong Mei; Wang, Qi Chao; Lv, Xian Guo

    2009-01-01

    We determined total and methyl mercury contents in soil, three earthworm species and their vomitus to study the species-specific differences of mercury bioconcentration in Huludao City, a heavily polluted region by chlor-alkali and nonferrous metal smelting industry in Liaoning Province, northeast China. Total and methyl mercury contents were 7.20 mg/kg and 6.94 ng/g in soil, 1.43 mg/kg and 43.03 ng/g in Drawida sp., 2.80 mg/kg and 336.52 ng/g in Alolobophora sp., respectively. Total mercury ...

  15. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  16. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Sotiriadis

    Full Text Available Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR and connexin 43 (CX43. In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one.

  17. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Michael; Lausen, Georg; Pinkel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the SPARQL query language for RDF has reached the W3C recommendation status. In response to this emerging standard, the database community is currently exploring efficient storage techniques for RDF data and evaluation strategies for SPARQL queries. A meaningful analysis and comparison of these approaches necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. To this end, we have developed SP$^2$Bench, a publicly available, language-specific SPARQL performance benchmark. SP$^2$Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises both a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. As a proof of concept, we apply SP$^2$Bench to existing engines and discuss ...

  18. Sp(3, R) coadjoint orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algebraic mean field method is applied to the symplectic Lie algebra sp(3, R) that describes geometrical collective states in atomic nuclei. The expectations of sp(3, R) generators define a symplectic density matrix. The mean field approximation restricts the densities to a manifold that is a coadjoint orbit of the transformation group Sp(3, R) and a level surface of the symplectic Casimir functions. Compared to representation theory, mean field theory is technically simpler, but yields similar predictions for physical properties of collective states. The critical points of the energy functional on a coadjoint orbit surface define rotational bands. The deformation, kinetic energy and Kelvin circulation of principal axis symplectic rotors are determined as a function of the angular momentum. Illustrative applications of coadjoint orbit theory are reported for the yrast rotational bands of a light 20Ne and a heavy 166Er deformed isotope. (author)

  19. BUSCANDO UM BIOHERBICIDA CONTRA Cyperus sp (tiririca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Benfatti Gonzalez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to conventional control of Cyperus sp (herbaceousnutsedge, with chemical products, it rises the biological control, making use of phytopathogenic microorganisms. As results of the whole production of Cercospora henningsii e Cercospora caricis by fermentation in potato-dextrose (PD liquid medium, it was observed that both species obtained the optimum growth at 36o C. C. henningsii attained the best value after a period of 72 h of fermentation and C. caricis attained it after 60 h. The field experiments, against Cyperus sp (nutsedge, with the obtained products by liquid fermentation of Cercospora sp (C. henningsii and/or C. caribaea, andwith the use of "wet chamber", proved the pathogenic potential bioherbicide of these microorganisms. = Como alternativa ao controle convencional do Cyperus sp (tiririca usando produtos químicos, surge o controle biológico, empregando-se microrganismos fitopatógenos. Como resultados da produção massal de Cercospora henningsii eCercospora caricis através de cultivo submerso em meio de cultura batata-dextrose (BD, observou-se que ambas espécies obtiveram um crescimento ótimo a 36o C, sendo que para C. henningsii se deu com 72 h de fermentação e para C. caricis com 60 h. Os experimentos de campo, bem como os de Câmara úmida, contra Cyperus sp (tiririca,com os produtos obtidos pelo cultivo submerso de Cercospora sp (C. henningsii e/ou C. caribaea, demonstraram a patogenicidade, ou seja, o potencial bioherbicida desses microrganismos.

  20. Analysis list: Sp1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sp1 Placenta,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sp1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Placenta....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sp1.Pluripotent_stem_cell

  1. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gaby S.; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  2. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gaby S; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  3. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Prieto; Litia De la Cruz; Mario Morales

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo. Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22oC), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyce...

  4. Assessment of Surfactant Protein A (SP-A dependent agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomers of the collectin surfactant associated protein-A (SP-A are arranged in trimers and higher oligomers. The state of oligomerization differs between individuals and likely affects SP-A's functional properties. SP-A can form aggregates together with other SP-A molecules. Here we report and assess a test system for the aggregate forming properties of SP-A in serum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples. Methods Anti-SP-A antibodies fixed to latex beads bound SP-A at its N-terminal end and allowed the interaction with other SP-A molecules in a given sample by their C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD to agglutinate the beads to aggregates, which were quantified by light microscopy. Results SP-A aggregation was dependent on its concentration, the presence of calcium, and was dose-dependently inhibited by mannose. Unaffected by the presence of SP-D no aggregation was observed in absence of SP-A. The more complex the oligomeric structure of SP-A present in a particular sample, the better was its capability to induce aggregation at a given total concentration of SP-A. SP-A in serum agglutinated independently of the pulmonary disease; in contrast SP-A in lung lavage fluid was clearly inferior in patients with chronic bronchitis and particularly with cystic fibrosis compared to controls. Conclusions The functional status of SP-A with respect to its aggregating properties in serum and lavage samples can be easily assessed. SP-A in lung lavage fluid in patients with severe neutrophilic bronchitis was inferior.

  5. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  6. Framework, The Physics of sp(2,R)

    CERN Document Server

    Hawthorn, Ian; Ussher, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical framework for relativistic quantum field theory is constructed with natural symmetry $\\mathsf{so}(2,3)= \\mathsf{sp}(2,\\mathbb{ R})$. In this framework gravity and electromagnetism unify as aspects of the geometry. The source equation for gravity differs from Einstein's equation and permits behaviour that could explain dark matter.

  7. A new virginae butanolide from Streptomyces sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang LI; Yi Nan ZHENG; Wen Han LIN; Isabel SATTLER

    2006-01-01

    A novel butanolide, named virginaebutanolide F (1), was isolated from the lyophilized culture broth of Streptomyces sp., along with a known compound virginaebutanolide C (2). Their structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRESI-MS and CD spectroscopic analysis.

  8. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

  9. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni;

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We...

  10. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  11. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  12. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. dr. Violeta Makareviciene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medium BG11 with decreased concentration of NaNO3. The positive impact on the growth of biomass was achieved by aeration with CO2 (especially with concentration of 24%. Additional research into the removal of pollutants, such inorganic salts of nitrogen and phosphorus and organic materials from wastewater using microalgae has revealed good possibilities of using both algae strains in wastewater treatment plants. A content of oil in Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. has suggested their potential use as biodiesel feedstock.

  13. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  14. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  15. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time....

  16. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between...

  17. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of galvanized steel by Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in the presence of Ag–Cu ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra, E-mail: esungur@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Unsal-Istek, Tuba [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cansever, Nurhan [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    The effects of Ag–Cu ions on the microbiologically induced corrosion of galvanized steel in the presence of Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. were investigated. The corrosion behavior of galvanized steel was analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biofilm, corrosion products and Ag–Cu ions on the surfaces were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and elemental mapping. The biofilm layer formed by the Desulfovibrio sp. was stable covering the all surface of galvanized steel coupons, while that by Desulfosporosinus sp. was intermittent, highly porous and heterogeneous. It was found that both of the sulfate reducing bacteria species accelerated corrosion of the galvanized steel. However, it was detected that Desulfosporosinus sp. was more corrosive for galvanized steel than Desulfovibrio sp. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Desulfovibrio sp. and Desulfosporosinus sp. in biofilm clustered into patches on the galvanized steel surface when the culture contained toxic Ag–Cu ions. The ions affected the growth of the sulfate reducing bacteria strains in different ways and hence the corrosion behaviors. It was observed that the Ag–Cu ions affected negatively growth of Desulfosporosinus sp. especially after 24 h of exposure leading to a decrease in the corrosion rate of galvanized steel. However, Desulfovibrio sp. showed more corrosive effect in the presence of the ions according to the ions-free culture. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that corrosion products on the surfaces were mainly composed of Zn, S, Na, O and P. - Highlights: • Galvanized steel was corroded by Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. • Desulfosporosinus sp. is more corrosive than Desulfovibrio sp. • The Ag–Cu ions affected corrosion behavior of Desulfosporosinus sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. on galvanized steel.

  18. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tatsuo [Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Institute for Medicinal Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78 Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko [Department of Molecular Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s University, Kodo, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Itoh, Kohji, E-mail: kitoh@ph.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biotechnology, Institute for Medicinal Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78 Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505 (Japan); Kuwahara, Jun, E-mail: jkuwahar@dwc.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s University, Kodo, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  19. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  20. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endika Haro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/- exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  1. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis...+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=69 ...

  3. Spøgelsets egne ord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemzøe, Anker

    2012-01-01

    refleksioner over den gengangerscene, der åbner Shakespeares Hamlet. Ifølge Derridas ’hantologie’ opererer spøgelser i en eksistentiel tidslighed, der har at gøre med sorg, sprog og forvandling. Genremæssigt, tilføjer Gemzøe, har gengangeren det med at husere i tragedien. Med Derridas ’hantologie’ som en af de...

  4. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 μM, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 μM. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

  5. Phenotypic variation in Blastocystis sp. ST3

    OpenAIRE

    Ragavan, Nanthiney Devi; Govind, Suresh Kumar; Chye, Tan Tian; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Background Blastocystis, is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan, which has many conflicting reports on its pathogenic role. Gut conditions which obviously varies in asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in terms of gut flora, pH, osmotic pressure and water potentials could play an important role in its pathogenicity. The present study is the first study to investigate phenotypic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. ST3 isolated from asy...

  6. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekumar, C.; Selvaraj, J.; Gomathinayagam, S.; Thangapandiyan, M.; Ravikumar, G.; Roy, Parimal; C Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The ‘central vacuole forms’ of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. Th...

  7. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  8. Det digitale spøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2008-01-01

    man opgive at søge ind til én kernebetydning, som kan kommunikeres neutralt gennem forskellige medier. Sætningen “Du er sød” betyder altså noget forskelligt alt efter, om den skrives i et brev, aftegnes på himlen med et fly eller sendes i en e-mail. Og der er ikke én af disse gengivelser, der kan...... påberåbe sig at være den rigtige kernebetydning. Spørgsmålet, der altid kan rejses, er nemlig: Hvad skulle være begrundelsen for at betragte ét medie som værende nærmere kernen end de andre? Man kunne selvfølgelig hævde, at der findes en abstrakt betydning, som ikke kan gengives med noget medie, men som...... til forståelse med den. Omdrejningspunktet er et spøgelse! Artiklens ærinde er at udpege et par af de spøgelser som udspringer af den kommunikation, der udspringer af internettet. Jeg går særligt i klinch med overdrevne forestillinger om internettets effektivitet....

  9. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  10. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  11. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromate using permeabilized Brevibacterium sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shimei; Ge, Shichao; Zhou, Maohong; Dong, Xinjiao

    2015-07-01

    Bioremediation has been found to be a useful method for removing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which is very toxic, from wastewater. Two strains of bacteria that were able to reduce Cr(VI) effectively were isolated from Cr(VI) contaminated soil samples and identified as Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6, respectively, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Brevibacterium sp. K1 and Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 could grow in Luria-Broth medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 1000 and 1600 mg/L, respectively, and they completely reduced the Cr(VI) in LB medium containing K2Cr2O7 at 200 mg/L within 72 h. Further analyses revealed that permeabilized K1 and D6 cells reduced Cr(VI) more effectively than did the resting cells. Triton X-100 was the best permeabilizing agent that was tested. The permeabilized cells of both strains could completely reduce Cr(VI) in industrial wastewater twice before needing to be replenished. The results suggested that these chromate-reducing bacteria are potential candidates for practical use biotreating industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) with Stenotrophomonas sp. D6 being the more effective bacterium. PMID:25881152

  12. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Freshwater Microalga Scenedesmus sp. on Foodborne Pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Gogoba Ishaq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae possess promising bioactive compounds with a wide range of activities. In this study, crude pigment extract of Scenedesmus sp. a freshwater microalga was screened against two known foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028 to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. The crude pigment of the microalga was extracted with 90 % acetone whereas antibacterial screening was done by agar well diffusion method. In addition, the MIC of crude pigment was determined following the macrobroth dilution method. Concentrations ranging from 0.35mg/ml – 3.48 mg/ml demonstrated highest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923.  The MIC was achieved at 0.08 mg/ ml. On the other hand, there was no inhibitory activity at any concentration of crude extract against Salmonella sp. (ATCC 14028.  Results of this study suggest that the inhibitory activity may be limited to gram positive foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  15. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  16. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Kunle Okaiyeto; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The ...

  17. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  18. Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biofungisida Patogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd. et Hans. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NURI MANDAN SARI; RETNO KAWURI; KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2014-01-01

    A research was conducted to isolate Streptomyces sp. of soil Udayana University campus in theBukit-Jimbaran, to obtain the most effective Streptomyces sp. which is effective in inhibit the growth ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and to test response of tomato plants with Streptomyces sp.culture against Fusarium wilt desease. Implementation phases of the research consisted of isolation andidentification of Streptomyces sp, test the inhibition against F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and ...

  19. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  20. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome.

  1. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  2. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  3. Equity valuation : Pirelli & C. SpA

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino, André Rolhas

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has the purpose to value Pirelli & C. SpA at 31st of December of 2014. Pirelli is publicly traded in the Milan Stock Exchange, Borsa Italiana, and it is known as the fifth largest tyre manufacturer in the world with a great focus on high-end premium tyres. To valuate Pirelli’s equity a discounted cash flow methodology is used with an outcome of a 14,39 Euros price per share. To complete the valuation it is put in place a relative valuation, which supports the author’s recommendati...

  4. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; SA Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

  5. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  6. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  7. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  8. SP-100 design, safety, and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.L.; Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1990-07-01

    The SP-100 Program is developing a nuclear reactor power system that can enhance and/or enable future civilian and military space missions. The program is directed to develop space reactor technology to provide electrical power in the range of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. The major nuclear assembly test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is designed to validate the performance of the 2.4-MWt nuclear and heat transport assembly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Methyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štěpnička

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C19H16O2P], obtained serendipitously during recrystallization of 1-hydroxybenzotriazolyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate from methanol, crystallizes in the chiral space group P212121. Its crystal structure not only confirms the anticipated absolute configuration but also establishes a rather regular geometry for the ferrocene unit, devoid of any significant deformation due to the attached substituents. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via weak C—H...O interactions.

  10. Smart machines and the SP theory of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2014-01-01

    These notes describe how the "SP theory of intelligence", and its embodiment in the "SP machine", may help to realise cognitive computing, as described in the book "Smart Machines". In the SP system, information compression and a concept of "multiple alignment" are centre stage. The system is designed to integrate such things as unsupervised learning, pattern recognition, probabilistic reasoning, and more. It may help to overcome the problem of variety in big data, it may serve in pattern rec...

  11. Uji Pengaruh Beberapa Herbisida Terhadap Trichoderma sp Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Muhammad Majid: In Vitro Test on the Effect of Trichoderma sp Through Application of some Herbicides. Under Supervision ofHasanuddin and Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem. Herbicide is most commonly used pesticide, yet contained multiple negative effect on environment, especially towards soil microorganisms. This research’s objective is to study effect of herbicide with different concentration towards Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp has been inoculated in PDA which have been induced with six different...

  12. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Herlina

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman) 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tan...

  13. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurariaty Agus; Annie P. Saranga; Ade Rosmana; Ade Sugiarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp....

  14. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  15. The effects of acupressure points in SP6 and SP8 on primary dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Akbarzade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common disorders of women in reproductive age. In addition to physical and psychological disturbances, it may cause socioeconomic problems. The acupressure is a suggested treatments for dysmenorrhea. This study was conducted to identify and compare the effects of acupressure in Saninjo and DiJi points on pain severity of primary dysmenorrhea and systematic symptoms associated with it. Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial. 50 girls aged between 18 and 30 years old referred to an urban health center in Sar-e-Pol-e-Zahab city were selected. Subjects randomly allocated into two equal groups (A and B and were assessed over three consecutive menstrual cycles. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Validity and reliability determined by content validity and test retest methods respectively. Pain severity was assessed using McGill pain ruler. At the end, data from 42 women were used for analysis with SPSS package.Results: The severity of primary dysmenorrhea was 6.65±1.05 in SP6 and 6.84 ±1.9 in SP8 before acupressure and significantly decreased to 2.89±1.36 and 2.03±0.94 respectively after acupressure (P<0.001. Conclusion: We can conclude that dysmenorrhea pain decreased after acupressure and SP6 and SP8 points can be used as an urgent remedy to alleviate primary dysmenorrhea.

  16. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  17. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  18. Maize responds to Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp inoculation at reduced dose of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The positive maize response to inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB as Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp an endophytic type, are an alternative to reduced and optimize nitrogen fertilizer (NF dose, recommended for this plant, without adversely affect its growth. The aim of this study was to analyze maize respond to inoculation with Azotobacter sp and Burkholderia sp at the dose 50% of FN. Used an experimental design of randomized blocks. By response variables: percent germination (%, the shoot and root phenology: plant height (PH, root length (RL and biomass: shoot fresh weight (SFW and root fresh weight (RFW, the shoot dry weight (SDW and root dry weight (RDW. The results indicated a positive maize respond to PGPB inoculation at germination, seedling and flowering level, reached a RDW of 7.03 g, statistically significant value compared with 2.60 g of RDW non inoculated maize feed with NF dose recommended regard as relative control (RC. This suggests a synergistic interaction among these PGPB in synthesis of plant growth promoting substances (PGPS on maize, to optimize the reduced NF dose.

  19. Auxiliary tensor fields for Sp(2,R) self-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Evgeny A; Zupnik, Boris M

    2014-01-01

    The coset Sp(2,R)/U(1) is parametrized by two real scalar fields. We generalize the formalism of auxiliary tensor (bispinor) fields in U(1) self-dual nonlinear models of abelian gauge fields to the case of Sp(2,R) self-duality. In this new formulation, Sp(2,R) duality of the nonlinear scalar-gauge equations of motion is equivalent to an Sp(2,R) invariance of the auxiliary interaction. We derive this result in two different ways, aiming at its further application to supersymmetric theories. We also consider an extension to interactions with higher derivatives.

  20. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  1. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  2. Highly Prevalent Coxiella sp. Bacterium in the Tick Vector Amblyomma americanum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskas, Algimantas; Zhong, Jianmin; Barbour, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory-reared and field-collected Amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a Coxiella sp. and a Rickettsia sp. While the Coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the Rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. The Coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.

  3. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  4. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) interactions with model lung surfactant lipids and an SP-B fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Muzaddid; Jackman, Donna; Booth, Valerie

    2011-06-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A's interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B's own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A-Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding.

  5. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  6. Pneumonitis and emphysema in sp-C gene targeted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Stephan W; Detmer, Emily A; Ikegami, Machiko; Na, Cheng-Lun; Stahlman, Mildred T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2003-04-18

    SP-C-deficient (SP-C -/-) mice developed a severe pulmonary disorder associated with emphysema, monocytic infiltrates, epithelial cell dysplasia, and atypical accumulations of intracellular lipids in type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Whereas alveolar and tissue surfactant phospholipid pools were increased, levels of other surfactant proteins were not altered (SP-B) or were modestly increased (SP-A and SP-D). Analysis of pressure-volume curves and forced oscillatory dynamics demonstrated abnormal respiratory mechanics typical of emphysema. Lung disease was progressive, causing weight loss and cardiomegaly. Extensive alveolar remodeling was accompanied by type II cell hyperplasia, obliteration of pulmonary capillaries, and widespread expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating myofibroblast transformation in the lung parenchyma. Dysplastic epithelial cells lining conducting airways stained intensely for the mucin, MUC5A/C. Tissue concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were not substantially altered in the SP-C (-/-) mice. Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was increased in alveolar macrophages from SP-C (-/-) mice. Absence of SP-C caused a severe progressive pulmonary disorder with histologic features consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:12519727

  7. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg;

    2008-01-01

    was developed enabling semi-quantitative estimation of staining intensity and distribution. RESULTS: SP-A was detected in the terminal bronchioles and alveolar spaces of fetuses >35 weeks gestation. The intra-alveolar SP-A expression increased in the perinatal period followed by a marked drop in infants aged...

  8. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  9. Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. Nov. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae: Ceropegieae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. nov., collected from Nallamalais, the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India is described and illustrated. The new species is compared to its closest species, Brachystelma maculatum Hook. f. Brachystelma nallamalayana, sp. nov. is distinct from other species of Brachystelma in having ca 80cm high glabrous stems, peduncled cymes, basally united calyx lobes and biseriate corona.

  10. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

  11. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  12. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  13. Digitization of Sp\\"orer's sunspot drawings

    CERN Document Server

    Diercke, Andrea; Denker, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Much of our knowledge about the solar dynamo is based on sunspot observations. It is thus desirable to extend the set of positional and morphological data of sunspots into the past. Gustav Sp\\"orer observed in Germany from Anklam (1861-1873) and Potsdam (1874-1894). He left detailed prints of sunspot groups, which we digitized and processed to mitigate artifacts left in the print by the passage of time. After careful geometrical correction, the sunspot data are now available as synoptic charts for almost 450 solar rotation periods. Individual sunspot positions can thus be precisely determined and spot areas can be accurately measured using morphological image processing techniques. These methods also allow us to determine tilt angles of active regions (Joy's law) and to assess the complexity of an active region.

  14. Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.

  15. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães; Endrigo Gabellini Leonel Alves; Glycia Ferreira de Rezende; Marcelo Costa Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de ...

  16. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  17. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

  18. Murine fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells lacking SP phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.

  19. Carotenoid Contents in Anoxygenic Phototrophic Purple Bacteria, Marichromatium Sp. and Rhodopseudomonas Sp. of Tropical Environment, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaima Azira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have shown extensive applications in pharmaceutical, aquaculture and animal feed industries. Recently, researchers have been studied on their potentiality for the health benefits in reducing the risk of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on above perspectives a study was conducted in tropical environment to evaluate the total carotenoid content, dry cell weight and bacteriochlorophyll type of phototrophic purple bacteria;Marichromatium sp. and Rhodopseudomonas sp. The bacteria Marichromatium sp. was isolated from the mangrove sediments, Kuantan Pahang. While, Rhodopseudomonas sp. was collected from fish rearing tanks INOCEM, IIUM. The bacteria were cultivated and monitored by using 112 media under anaerobic light conditions at 2500-lux light intensity of continuous illumination of 60-watt tungsten bulb at 30±2°C. Total carotenoid contents and dry cell weight of the bacterial cells were compared from day 0 to day 5 using UV-VIS spectrometer. Bacteriochlorophyll type was also determined using UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that isolate IIUM-JHR2 produced the highest total carotenoid content (4.08±2.21mg/g at day 3 while IIUM-JHM1produced the highest dry cell weight (3.83±1.57 g/L at day 2. Statistical analysis showed significance differences (p0.05 detected for total carotenoid contents among the species. However, live cell cultures exhibited absorption maxima at 382, 495.5, 524, 591, 806 and 864 nm in all isolates indicating the presence of bacteriochlorophylla and carotenoids belonging to the spirilloxanthin series. The finding reveals that these bacteria could be utilized in aquaculture as fish feed supplement to enhance growth, survival and coloration of cultured fishes. Furthermore, they can play significant role as potential elements towards food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Enzyme-linked imunoassays for the detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in sausage: a comparison with conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, T M; Monteiro, C L B; Beux, M R; Abrahão, W M

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out comparing the conventional methods (ISO 11290-1 and BAM method, 2008) and system mini-Vidas® (Biomerieux), for detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in cooled sausage. The immunoenzymatic method has shown to be effective for the detection of target pathogens, it has presented itself as an excellent screening method.

  1. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

    OpenAIRE

    Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian; Kurowski Paweł Tomasz; Karwowska Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB). Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalciu...

  2. Life cycle and secondary production of two mayflies Leptophlebia sp. And Ephemera sp. In Heizhuchong stream, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoyu; YAN Yunjun

    2008-01-01

    From June 2003 to June 2004,an investigation on the life cycle,production and trophic basis of dominant species of macrozoobenthos community in a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin,Hubei,China was carried out.The results showed that the dominant species Leptophlebia sp.and Ephemera sp.appeared to develop two generations per year,and there was a small overlap in the two generations of both species.The pupation of Leptophlebia sp.mainly occurred in autumn and winter,while pupation of Ephemera sp.mainly took place in summer and winter.The standing stocks of the Leptophlebia sp.population and Ephemera sp.population had two peaks in a year.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Leptophlebia sp.population estimated by size frequency method were 19.018 1 g/m2.a and 5.7 respectively,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 38.036 2 g/m2.a and 11.4.The cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of the Ephemera sp.population were 38.015 9 g/m2.a and 5.9,while its annual production and P/B ratio were 76.0318 g/m2.a and 11.8.

  3. Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp nov and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp nov., psychrophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from Arctic sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Mussmann, M.; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    succinoxidans Gylac(T) (95.9%) within the Deltaproteobacteria. Strains 112(T) and 102(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp. nov. (type strain 112(T) = DSM 16958(T) = JCM 12927(T)) and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp. nov. (type strain 102(T) = DSM 16956 (T...

  4. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  5. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  6. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  7. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  8. Aspectos reproductivos del cladocero Moinodaphnia sp. en condiciones de laboratorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto G., Martha

    2001-01-01

    Realizar un cultivo experimental de cladócero Moina sp alimentado con Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepa de cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (22°C), pH (7.6), intensidad lumínica (2000 lux) y aireación. Se emplearon dos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseae) en concentrac...

  9. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna;

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...... of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T...

  10. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  11. Accomplishments and plans of SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SP-100 program is proceeding toward concept definitions for a space nuclear reactor which is safe and suitable for civilian and military applications. The selection of a specific design and demonstration of the base technologies was scheduled for the end of 1985, to be followed by engineering development and ground testing in 1986. The main current uses/users thus far anticipated are communications satellites, both military and civilian, radar (and possibly laser) surveillance and remote sensing systems, and manufacturing and other extensions of a space station growth scenario. The reactor will weigh no more than 3000 kg and must fit into the Orbiter bay with a payload and OTV. Three concepts are still under evaluation: a lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics; an in-core thermionic system with pumped sodium-potassium coolant; and a configuration with a Stirling engine to convert reactor heat into electricity. If the engineering analyses and base tests are successful, it is expected that the flight application phase can be reached by 1991 at the latest

  12. Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Ding-Bin; Wang, Xiang; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Li, Shun-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Strain YF-2(T), a Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, light-yellow-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from soil samples collected in the city of Yuncheng, Shanxi province of China. Strain YF-2(T) grew over a temperature range of 25-37 °C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain YF-2(T) was closely related to strains Flavobacterium akiainvivens CIP 110358(T) and Flavobacterium hauense KCTC 32147(T) with 95.99 and 95.92 % sequence similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids of strain YF-2(T) were Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (21.97 %), iso-C15:0 (18.65 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (11.41 %), C16:0 (9.92 %), and anteiso-C15:0 (6.21 %). It contained phosphatidylethanolamine and menaquinone MK-6 as major polar lipid and respiratory quinone, respectively. Strain YF-2(T) differs from other Flavobacterium species in many characteristics and represents a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium shanxiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain YF-2(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014079(T) = JCM 30153(T)). PMID:25726422

  13. Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Yuan, Xin; Tan, Xu; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain T3T, was isolated from freshwater of Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. Analysis of the16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain T3T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium and closely related to Flavobacterium resistens DSM 19382T (96.8 %). The novel strain was able to grow at 10-34 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown glycolipids, five unknown aminolipids and four unidentified lipids, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant fatty acids were C16  :  1ω7c and/or C16  :  1ω6c and iso-C15  :  0. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 36 mol  %. Based on these data, strain T3T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium procerum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = CGMCC 1.12926T = JCM 30113T). PMID:25969476

  14. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

  15. Clostridium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunyoung; Yi, Hana; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Kamagata, Yoichi; Chun, Jongsik

    2004-09-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain HY-35-12T, was isolated from a soil sample in Jeju, Korea. Cells of this isolate were Gram-positive, motile rods that formed oval to spherical terminal spores. Strain HY-35-12T grew optimally at 30 degrees C, pH 7.0 and 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The isolate produced pyruvate, lactate, acetate, formate and hydrogen as fermentation end products from glucose. The G + C content of DNA of the isolate was 41 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism formed a monophyletic clade with Clostridium xylanovorans and Clostridium aminovalericum in cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was C. xylanovorans, with 96.65 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Several physiological and chemotaxonomic properties were identified that enable strain HY-35-12T to be distinguished from phylogenetically related clostridia. On the basis of polyphasic characteristics, it is proposed that strain HY-35-12T (= IMSNU 40003T = KCTC 5026T = DSM 15929T) represents a novel species, Clostridium jejuense sp. nov.

  16. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  17. LEGACY - EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  18. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  19. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  20. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  1. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  2. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J.R.; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...

  3. Sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, M; Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1982-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P less than 0.01). PMID:6808158

  4. Sp1 and p73 activate PUMA following serum starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Lihua; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Yue, Wen; Jha, Anupma; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) plays an essential role in p53-dependent apoptosis following DNA damage. PUMA also mediates apoptosis independent of p53. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of PUMA induction in response to serum starvation in p53-deficient cancer cells. Following serum starvation, the binding of Sp1 to the PUMA promoter significantly increased, whereas inhibition of Sp1 completely abrogated PUMA induction. p73 was found to be upregulated by ser...

  5. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  6. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    OpenAIRE

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative age...

  7. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): Culicoides boyi sp. nov., Culicoides selandicus sp. nov. and Culicoides kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of a major monitoring program of Culicoides in Denmark and Sweden due to the appearance of bluetongue disease in 2007–2008, a large number of specimens were collected by light traps and sorted morphologically, with COI barcodes generated for selected specimens. New information Three species are described as new to science based on both morphological and molecular data: Culicoides (Culicoides) boyi sp. nov. (Denmark: Jutland), C. (C.) selandicus sp. nov. (Denmark: Zealand) and C. (C.) kalix sp. nov. (Sweden: Norrbotten). All are diagnosed morphologically as well as by molecular barcoding. A key to slide-mounted females of all Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides) is presented. PMID:26696760

  8. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera. PMID:26732137

  9. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  10. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Timlin, John D; Richards, Gordon T; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L; Stone, Robert B; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, W N; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D; Schneider, Donald P; Urry, C Megan; Wollack, Edward J; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of 115 deg^2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its 'warm' mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5{\\sigma} depths of 6.13 {\\mu}Jy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 {\\mu}Jy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively - depths significantly fainter than WISE. We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically-confirmed quasars (98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > 3.5), where SpIES reco...

  11. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  12. GLUT1 glucose transporter gene transcription is repressed by Sp3. Evidence for a regulatory role of Sp3 during myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandos, C; Sánchez-Feutrie, M; Santalucía, T; Viñals, F; Cadefau, J; Gumà, A; Cussó, R; Kaliman, P; Canicio, J; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1999-11-19

    GLUT1 glucose transporters are highly expressed in proliferating and transformed cells as well as in tissues during fetal life. However, the mechanisms that regulate GLUT1 gene expression remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Sp3 proteins bind to the GLUT1 proximal promoter gene and inhibit transcriptional activity in muscle and non-muscle cells. Two different Sp3 translational products (110 and 74 kDa) derived from differential translational initiation were detected in nuclear extracts from myoblast cells, and both Sp3 protein species inhibited GLUT1 gene transcriptional activity. The inhibitory effect of Sp3 was dominant over the stimulatory effect of Sp1 on transcriptional activity of GLUT1 gene. Furthermore, abolition of Sp3 binding to the proximal promoter of GLUT1 gene completely blocked the response to Sp3. We provide evidence that the expression of Sp3 protein is subject to regulation in muscle cells and that this is likely to control GLUT1. Thus, Sp3 protein was up-regulated in the absence of changes in Sp1 early after the induction of IGF-II-dependent myogenesis. Furthermore, forced over-expression of MyoD caused an enhancement in the cellular Sp3/Sp1 ratio which was concomitant to a reduced GLUT1 expression. Later during myogenesis, Sp3 expression was substantial whereas Sp1 was markedly down-regulated. In summary, we provide direct evidence that the transcription factor Sp3 represses gene expression in non-muscle and muscle cells and this is likely to operate in fetal heart by binding to the GLUT1 gene promoter. This is the first description of a repressor of GLUT1 gene transcription. Furthermore, we propose that variations in the ratio of Sp3 versus Sp1 regulate GLUT1 promoter activity and this is crucial in the down-regulation of GLUT1 associated to myogenesis. PMID:10556032

  13. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  14. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  15. Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Garcia-Gasca, A; Roque, A; Swings, J

    2004-01-01

    Three Gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Barcelona, Spain, during 1990 and 1991. They were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent O/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of NaCl. They differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees C and utilize L-rhamnose. Cloning of the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain produced two different 16S rRNA gene sequences, which differed by 15 bases (0.99%); comparison of these sequences with those deposited in GenBank showed close relationships with Vibrio proteolyticus (97.6% similarity), Vibrio diazotrophicus (97.9%), Vibrio campbellii (96.8%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (96.8%), among others. DNA-DNA hybridization levels with the closest phylogenetically related Vibrio species were Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain LMG 13240T (=CAIM 525T=VIB 213T).

  16. Aquamicrobium ahrensii sp. nov. and Aquamicrobium segne sp. nov., isolated from experimental biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, André; Kämpfer, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Two groups of Gram-negative, aerobic bacterial strains previously isolated from experimental biofilters were investigated to determine their taxonomic position. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates formed two distinct groups within the genus Aquamicrobium. The gene sequence similarities of the new isolates to the type strains of Aquamicrobium species were below 98.3 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, C(18 : 1) cis 11 as the predominant fatty acid and a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine was in accordance with the characteristics of this genus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from all recognized species of the genus Aquamicrobium. Therefore, the isolates were assigned to two novel species of this genus for which the names Aquamicrobium ahrensii sp. nov. (type strain 905/1(T) = DSM 19730(T) = CCUG 55251(T)) and Aquamicrobium segne sp. nov. (type strain 1006/1(T) = DSM 19714(T) = CCUG 55250(T)) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Aquamicrobium is also presented.

  17. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  18. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  19. Novel application of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Anshu

    2012-10-01

    The present study explored the utilization of Mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers, a major non-timber forest product (NTFP) of India, as a low-cost, natural substrate for protease production under submerged fermentation. Bacterial strain Aeromonas sp. Si1, previously reported by us, was used as the protease producer. Using Mahua flower extract (MFE) as the medium additive, the protease production could successfully be enhanced by 5.6-fold (564.5 UmL-1) after 24 h of fermentation under optimized conditions compared with initial production of 99.9 UmL' in the absence of MFE. The cultural parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be: incubation time-24 h; pH-7.0; MFE concentration-5% (v/v); inoculum size-0.3% (v/v) and agitation rate-200 rpm. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of cheaper and abundantly available Mahua flowers for induction of proteases, and thus offer a new approach for value addition to this biomass through industrial enzyme production. PMID:23157010

  20. Sur la présence d’Echinogammarus du groupe pungens au Liban: E. berytensis n. sp., E. tripoliensis n. sp. et E. rashiini n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alouf, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Description of three fresh-water species of Echinogammarus: E. berytensis n. sp. from the center of Lebanon near Beirut, E. tripoliensis n. sp. and E. rashiini n. sp. from the North of the country near Tripoli. The first two species are related; the second one has some features of the E. simoni-grou

  1. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472). PMID:27188884

  2. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  3. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis.

  4. Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. and Australomysis reubeni sp. nov. (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from south-west Australian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Two new species of mysids are described, Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. is in having a well-produced triangular rostral plate, pleural plates on the anterior five abdominal somites and prominent constriction at the distal end of the telson...

  5. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  6. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  7. Belliella marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Wang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Han, Xiqiu; Zhou, Yuguang

    2015-12-01

    Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SW112T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain was strictly aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Strain SW112T grew at 4-42 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.0-3.0 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (29.7 %), iso-C17 : 03-OH (14.3 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, 15.1 %). The major menaquinone was menaquinone-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW112T was 39 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SW112T was related to members of the genus Belliella, showing the highest similarity with Belliella aquatica TS-T86T and Belliella baltica DSM 15883T (96.5 % and 96.4 %sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW112T represents a novel species of the genus Belliella, for which the name Belliella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW112T(=CGMCC 1.15180T=KCTC 33694T). PMID:26346194

  8. Noviherbaspirillum humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Aravind; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-05-01

    Two novel Gram-stain negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative aerobic and short rod shaped bacterial strains, designated U15(T) and U32, were isolated from soil obtained from Ukraine. The sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene between strains U15(T) and U32 was found to be 99.5 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that new bacteria belong to the genus Noviherbaspirillum. The closest member of the genus was found to be Noviherbaspirillum malthae (97.0 %) followed by Noviherbaspirillum suwonensis (96.3 %). The novel isolates was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The major fatty acids present in the two strains were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c). Ubiquinone 8 was identified as the respiratory quinone component for both the strains. The polar lipid (L) profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid, unidentified aminolipid and unidentified Ls, and putrescine and 2-hydroxyputrescine as major polyamines. The G+C content of the DNA for the strain U15(T) was found to be 61.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between U15(T) and U32 and closely related species was less than 40 %. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic analysis, a new species, Noviherbaspirillum humi sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain U15(T) = JCM 19873(T) = KEMB 7305-102(T). PMID:26940744

  9. Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Tamura, Tomohiko; Shibata, Chiyo; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain KC-112T, was isolated from soil collected from Similan Islands, Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. The strain exhibited morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The formation of smooth spiral spore chains was observed on aerial mycelia. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in whole-cell hydrolysates, but no diagnostic sugars were detected and the strain lacked mycolic acids. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H2). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid, unknown lipids and an unknown glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 73 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain KC-112T was closely related to Streptomyces fumanus NBRC 13042T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces anandii NBRC 13438T (98.8 %) and Streptomyces capillispiralis NBRC 14222T (98.8 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain KC-112T and type strains of closely related species were lower than 70 %. On the basis of evidence from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain KC-112T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces andamanensis sp. nov. The type strain is KC-112T ( = KCTC 29502T = NBRC 110085T = PCU 347T = TISTR 2401T). PMID:26908169

  10. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). PMID:25351880

  11. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  12. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)).

  13. Effectiveness of measurements of serum KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Koichi; Nishiwaki, Yutaka [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). East Hospital; Yokoyama, Akira [Niigata Cancer Center (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Tochigi Cancer Center (Japan); Watanabe, Koshiro [Yokohama City Hospital (Japan); Saijo, Osahiro [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2002-02-01

    The authors prospectively assessed the effectiveness of measuring serum concentrations of 3 markers, KL-6, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and surfactant protein-D (SP-D), in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. The subjects were 127 patients (102 men, 25 women; mean age; 67 years; 123 with lung cancer and 4 with mediastinal tumors). The patients were irradiated with 10-80 Gy (mean dose, 55.3 Gy), and combination chemotherapy was administered to 96 patients. Blood samples were collected weekly during radiotherapy, and every 2 weeks for 4 months after radiotherapy. KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D were measured in the serum samples obtained. None of the markers tended to increase in any of the 35 patients not diagnosed with radiation pneumonitis. Limited radiation pneumonitis occurred in 84 patients, and severe pneumonitis beyond the radiation field developed in 8 patients. In the severe pneumonitis patients, all of the markers clearly tended to increase before and after the crisis of the pneumonitis. In the severe pneumonitis patients, the maximum serum marker values increased to {>=}3 fold the level of KL-6, {>=}4 fold the level of SP-D, and {>=}2 fold the level of SP-A, more than in the limited pneumonitis patients. Until now radiation pneumonitis has been mainly diagnosed by imaging, however, measuring the serum concentrations of the markers KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D, in addition to diagnostic imaging, will enable more accurate and rapid diagnosis of severe pneumonitis than before. These markers also seem to be useful indicators for determining the effectiveness of steroid therapy for pneumonitis and diagnosing the recurrence of pneumonitis during tapering of the steroid dose. (K.H.)

  14. Effectiveness of measurements of serum KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively assessed the effectiveness of measuring serum concentrations of 3 markers, KL-6, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and surfactant protein-D (SP-D), in the diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. The subjects were 127 patients (102 men, 25 women; mean age; 67 years; 123 with lung cancer and 4 with mediastinal tumors). The patients were irradiated with 10-80 Gy (mean dose, 55.3 Gy), and combination chemotherapy was administered to 96 patients. Blood samples were collected weekly during radiotherapy, and every 2 weeks for 4 months after radiotherapy. KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D were measured in the serum samples obtained. None of the markers tended to increase in any of the 35 patients not diagnosed with radiation pneumonitis. Limited radiation pneumonitis occurred in 84 patients, and severe pneumonitis beyond the radiation field developed in 8 patients. In the severe pneumonitis patients, all of the markers clearly tended to increase before and after the crisis of the pneumonitis. In the severe pneumonitis patients, the maximum serum marker values increased to ≥3 fold the level of KL-6, ≥4 fold the level of SP-D, and ≥2 fold the level of SP-A, more than in the limited pneumonitis patients. Until now radiation pneumonitis has been mainly diagnosed by imaging, however, measuring the serum concentrations of the markers KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D, in addition to diagnostic imaging, will enable more accurate and rapid diagnosis of severe pneumonitis than before. These markers also seem to be useful indicators for determining the effectiveness of steroid therapy for pneumonitis and diagnosing the recurrence of pneumonitis during tapering of the steroid dose. (K.H.)

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations. PMID:27469957

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations.

  17. Enhanced lipid production of three microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp and Scenedesmus sp by manipulating of cultivation condition

    OpenAIRE

    Rukminasari, Nita

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae is one of potential source for biodiesel due to high efficiency of solar energy conversion to chemical energy. Several microalgae also have high lipid content per dry weight biomass. The aims of the present work to study the effects of temperature and nutrient depletion on the growth and lipid content of three selected microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp and Scenedesmus sp) in view of their possible utilization as raw materials for biodiesel production. In ad...

  18. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Herlina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat. Parameter pertumbuhan yang diukur adalah  tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan b. Parameter hasil tanaman yang diukur adalah berat buah setelah panen. Hasil uji Anava satu jalan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Gliocladium sp perpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan klorofil b, berat tomat  . Hasil uji lanjut Duncan menunjukkan bahwa dosis 100, g 150 g dan 200 g tidak berbeda signifikan terhadap tinggi tanaman, dosis 150g dan 200 g tidak berbedan nyata dalam pembentukan klorofil a dan klorofil b. Pemberian Gliocladium dosis 150g paling tinggi terhadap berat buah. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa pemberian Gliokompos sp berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. AbstractSoil microorganisms such as Gliocladium sp. can play role in the decomposition and can also become the biological control of pathogenic plants. The animal is potentially reduce the use of fertilizers and synthetic fungidid. The aim of the study was to test the potential effect of biofertililzer Gliocladium sp. on the growth and production of tomatoes. The independent variables was biofertilizer Gliocladium sp. at various dosages (g/plant of 0, 50, 100, 150, dan 200. The dependent variables were the growth and the production of tomatoes. The growth parameter measured were plant height, as well as a and b chlorophyl contents.  The crop parameter was the fruit weight post-harvest.  A one-way anova showed that Gliocladium sp. affected the

  19. Using SP and SF to Lower Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen A. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, using different percents of superplasticizer (SP and silica fume (SF to improve the characteristics of concrete is performed. SP and SF are added to two types of  normal concrete, the first is of mixing ratio (1:2:4 and the second is of mixing ratio (1:1.5:3.28The results show that adding SF lead to increase compressive strength for first mix by about 45.3% and 47.7% while adding SP lead to increase the compressive strength by about 43% and 41%  compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively. The corresponding values for second mix are 46.7% , 49%, 44% and 43% respectively.The maximum compressive strength when SP and SF used together can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively. The increase in compressive strength is about 49.3% and 48.4%  for first mix, while the corresponding values for second mix are 52.4% and 51.2% as they compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively.For Tensile strength, adding SP lead to increase it by about 29.2% and 31.6% for first and second mix respectively, while the corresponding values when adding SF are 38.1% and 40.3%. The effect of using SP and SF together on increase tensile strength is more than the effect of using each one separately. The maximum tensile strength can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively as they increase the tensile strength by about 38.9% and 40.7% for first and second mix.The effect of using admixtures on cement content can be noted clearly as the maximum reduction percents are about 8.7% and 9.35% for first and second mix respectively when the percent of SP is 3%. The corresponding values are 9.4% and 11.26% when the percent of SF is 5%. Using SP and SF together at percents 3% and 5% respectively lead to reduce cement content by about 10.15% and 13.54% for first and second mix respectively.

  20. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M) MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Haryuni -

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M) melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan...

  1. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors. Treatment of Panc1, L3.6pL and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cells with metformin downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and several pro-oncogenic Sp-regulated genes including bcl-2, survivin, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, and fatty acid synthase. Metformin induced proteasome-dependent degradation of Sps in L3.6pL and Panc28 cells, whereas in Panc1 cells metformin decreased microRNA-27a and induced the Sp repressor, ZBTB10, and disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 by metformin was phosphatase dependent. Metformin also inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and downregulated Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in tumors in an orthotopic model where L3.6pL cells were injected directly into the pancreas. The results demonstrate for the first time that the anticancer activities of metformin are also due, in part, to downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes. PMID:23803693

  2. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  3. Identification of microorganisms of Phytophthora genre associated to Quercus sp. and Pinus sp. species in the provinces of Guatemala and Sacatepéquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Calderón Díaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean purpose of this research was to identify microorganism belonging to Phytophthora genera which are affecting mixed natural forests and nurseries of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. These species have economic and social impact in provinces such as Guatemala and Sacatepéquez. Soil and vegetal tissue were used to isolate Phytophthora from natural forest of Guatemala, 45 Pinus sp. and 10 Quercus sp. were sampled and from nurseries 88 Pinus sp. and 11 Quercus sp. From Sacatepéquez province, from natural forest system were sampled 48 Pinus sp. and 15 Quercus sp. From nurseries were sampled 58 Pinus sp. and 25 Quercus sp. After processing the samples from soil and roots 13 were found positive to Phytophthora sp. in Pinus maximinoi, 10 from Guatemala and three from Sacatepéquez provinces. The culture of Phytophthora sp. on PDA produced two colonies without define form and five stoloniferous, five semipetaloid, one stelade type colonies. VP16 isolate was inoculated in five species of pine for pathogenicity test, causing high percentages of incidence and severity on Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, P. pseudostrobus and P. maximinoi and low rates of incidence and severity on Pinus tecunumanii.

  4. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  5. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  6. Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. and Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov., isolated from the surface of macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoso, Joana; Albuquerque, Luciana; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; da Costa, Milton S; Harder, Jens; Lage, Olga Maria

    2014-05-01

    Twenty two strains of Rhodopirellula were isolated from the epiphytic community of several marine macroalgae and separated into two groups, designated as group B and group C. In this study, we characterized these groups as two novel species belonging to the genus Rhodopirellula. These strains were represented by pleomorphic cells that were arranged in rosettes and formed pink- or red-pigmented colonies. The organisms were chemoorganotrophic and required vitamin B12 for growth. Their optimal temperature for growth was around 25°C. Major fatty acids were C18:1 ω9c, C16:0 and C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. Unidentified phospholipids were also present. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of these organisms to the order Planctomycetales, genus Rhodopirellula, with R. baltica as the closest phylogenetic relative. The analysis of a partial sequence of the gene encoding the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) confirmed the phylogenetic separation of the isolates into two different species of the genus Rhodopirellula. The 16S rRNA sequences from strains of group B revealed their widespread occurrence across the world, whereas strains of group C were not observed before. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genetic characteristics we propose that our isolates represent two new species of Rhodopirellula, Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov. (type strain is LF2(T)=DSM 25,459=CECT 8075) and Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. (type strain is UC17(T)=DSM 25,457=LMG 27,777). PMID:24631661

  7. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T). PMID:25964516

  8. Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with the species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, R; Busse, H-J; Worliczek, H L; Ehling-Schulz, M; Scherer, S

    2006-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from pasteurized milk from Bavaria, Germany. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities indicated that strain WSBC 24001(T) was most closely related to Virgibacillus species (95.3-96.1 %), Oceanobacillus species (95.6-95.7 %), Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T) (95.5 %) and Bacillus niacini IFO 15566(T) (95.2 %). However, strain WSBC 24001(T) showed the highest level of sequence similarity to an unnamed strain, MB-9(T) (97.6 %), which was isolated from coastal surface sediments in California. Hence, this strain was included in our study. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) were 36.4 mol and 40.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both strains was menaquinone MK-7 and the peptidoglycan type was A4beta (L-orn<--D-Asp). The polar lipid profiles of these strains contained a predominance of diphosphatidylglycerol and moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown aminophospholipid. However, strain WSBC 24001(T) could be distinguished from strain MB-9(T) by the presence of an unknown lipid. The fatty acid profiles of the two strains comprised mainly iso- and anteiso-branched acids, but showed some significant quantitative differences in the amounts of certain acids. The DNA-DNA relatedness value (15.5 %) clearly demonstrated that strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) are representatives of two different species. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel genus is proposed, Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with two novel species, the type species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. (type strain WSBC 24001(T) = DSM 15681(T) = CCM 7096(T)) and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov. (type strain MB-9(T) = DSM 16628(T) = CCM 7237(T)). PMID:16738118

  9. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  10. Conversion and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus SP3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Bacillus SP3 and evaluate its effect on different crude oils. Strain SP3 is a motile, gram-positive, spore-producing rod that was isolated from a reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. The cells of strain SP3 grew at high temperatures up to 58℃ at the pH range of 5.5-8.5. Strain SP3 grew facultatively and could use different organic substrates, and produce some metabolites such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl-2-nitrogen benzene and 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis ester. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the strain converted and degraded different components and changed the physical and chemical properties of crude oils. Strain SP3 degraded crude oil and the growth of bacteria on crude oil resulted in loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes. The bioconversion of crude oils would lead to an enrichment in lighter hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of saturate hydrocarbons. The interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable, depending on the microbial species and the chemical compositions of crude oils.

  11. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phoma sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat; Hussain; Ines; Kock; Ahmed; Al-Harrasi; Ahmed; Al-Rawahi; Ghulam; Abbas; Ivan; R.Green; Afzal; Shah; Amin; Badshah; Muhammad; Saleem; Siegfried; Draeger; Barbara; Schulz; Karsten; Krohn

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiniicrobial polenlial of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp.and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the Agar Well Diffusion Method.Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and tlieir structures were assigned using~1H and~(13)C NMR spectra,DEPT,2D COSY,HMQC and HMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp.showed good antifungal,antibacterial,and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative,named phomafuranol(1),together with tliree known compounds,phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3)and emodin(4)were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phoma sp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2)displayed strong antibacterial,good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3)and emodin(4)showed good antifungal,antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp.and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that Phoma sp.and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food,cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  13. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  14. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  15. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  16. Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkane-degrading, anaerobic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system, and emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouw, Anders; Leiknes Eide, Tove; Stokke, Runar; Birger Pedersen, Rolf; Helene Steen, Ida; Bødtker, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic, alkane-degrading strain, L81T, was isolated from a biofilm sampled from a black smoker chimney at the Loki's Castle vent field. Cells were straight, rod-shaped, Gram-positive-staining and motile. Growth was observed at pH 6.2-9.5, 14-42 °C and 0.5-6 % (w/w) NaCl, with optima at pH 7.0-8.2, 37 °C and 3% (w/w) NaCl. Proteinaceous substrates, sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons were utilized for growth. Thiosulfate was used as an external electron acceptor during growth on crude oil. Strain L81T was capable of syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation when co-cultured with a methanogenic archaeon, designated strain LG6, isolated from the same enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L81T is affiliated with the family Lachnospiraceae, and is most closely related to the type strains of Natranaerovirga pectinivora (92 % sequence similarity) and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica (90%). The major cellular fatty acids of strain L81T were C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, and the profile was distinct from those of the species of the genus Natranaerovirga. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified phosphoglycolipids. The G+C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 31.7 mol%. Based on our phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, strain L81T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus of the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Abyssivirga alkaniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Abyssivirga alkaniphila is L81T (=DSM 29592T=JCM 30920T). We also provide emended descriptions of Natranaerovirga pectinivora and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica. PMID:26822139

  17. Cloning, overexpression, purification, and characterization of a polyextremophilic β-galactosidase from the Antarctic haloarchaeon Halorubrum lacusprofundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Ram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halorubrum lacusprofundi is a cold-adapted halophilic archaeon isolated from Deep Lake, a perennially cold and hypersaline lake in Antarctica. Its genome sequencing project was recently completed, providing access to many genes predicted to encode polyextremophilic enzymes active in both extremely high salinity and cold temperatures. Results Analysis of the genome sequence of H. lacusprofundi showed a gene cluster for carbohydrate utilization containing a glycoside hydrolase family 42 β-galactosidase gene, named bga. In order to study the biochemical properties of the β-galactosidase enzyme, the bga gene was PCR amplified, cloned, and expressed in the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 under the control of a cold shock protein (cspD2 gene promoter. The recombinant β-galactosidase protein was produced at 20-fold higher levels compared to H. lacusprofundi, purified using gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and identified by SDS-PAGE, LC-MS/MS, and ONPG hydrolysis activity. The purified enzyme was found to be active over a wide temperature range (−5 to 60°C with an optimum of 50°C, and 10% of its maximum activity at 4°C. The enzyme also exhibited extremely halophilic character, with maximal activity in either 4 M NaCl or KCl. The polyextremophilic β-galactosidase was also stable and active in 10–20% alcohol-aqueous solutions, containing methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, or isoamyl alcohol. Conclusion The H. lacusprofundi β-galactosidase is a polyextremophilic enzyme active in high salt concentrations and low and high temperature. The enzyme is also active in aqueous-organic mixed solvents, with potential applications in synthetic chemistry. H. lacuprofundi proteins represent a significant biotechnology resource and for developing insights into enzyme catalysis under water limiting conditions. This study provides a system for better understanding how H. lacusprofundi is

  18. Bacterial and archaeal resistance to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confalonieri, F; Sommer, S, E-mail: fabrice.confalonieri@u-psud.fr, E-mail: suzanne.sommer@u-psud.fr [University Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR8621, Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Batiments 400-409, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2011-01-01

    Organisms living in extreme environments must cope with large fluctuations of temperature, high levels of radiation and/or desiccation, conditions that can induce DNA damage ranging from base modifications to DNA double-strand breaks. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is known for its resistance to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation and for its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Recently, extreme ionizing radiation resistance was also generated by directed evolution of an apparently radiation-sensitive bacterial species, Escherichia coli. Radioresistant organisms are not only found among the Eubacteria but also among the Archaea that represent the third kingdom of life. They present a set of particular features that differentiate them from the Eubacteria and eukaryotes. Moreover, Archaea are often isolated from extreme environments where they live under severe conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salts or toxic compounds that are lethal for the large majority of living organisms. Thus, Archaea offer the opportunity to understand how cells are able to cope with such harsh conditions. Among them, the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp and several Pyrococcus or Thermococcus species, such as Thermococcus gammatolerans, were also shown to display high level of radiation resistance. The dispersion, in the phylogenetic tree, of radioresistant prokaryotes suggests that they have independently acquired radioresistance. Different strategies were selected during evolution including several mechanisms of radiation byproduct detoxification and subtle cellular metabolism modifications to help cells recover from radiation-induced injuries, protection of proteins against oxidation, an efficient DNA repair tool box, an original pathway of DNA double-strand break repair, a condensed nucleoid that may prevent the dispersion of the DNA fragments and specific radiation-induced proteins involved in

  19. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  20. sp sup 2 and sp sup 3 bonding configurations in low nitrogen content a-CN sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzasalma, A M; Neri, F; Trusso, S

    2003-01-01

    The results of an electron spectroscopy study carried out on a set of pulsed laser deposited CN sub x films are reported. A progressive degree of graphitization, deduced from the continuous increase in the sp sup 2 bond fraction, has been found for x values up to 25%. The mass density values, deduced by a proper treating of both the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy data, are consistent with a material made up by two phases, namely a sp sup 2 threefold (graphite-like) and a sp sup 3 fourfold (diamond-like) coordinated one. The behaviour of the density of the samples as a function of the N content does not show any abrupt change in going from lower to higher nitrogen concentrations as found by other authors, this certainly being due to differences in the starting sp sup 3 /sp sup 2 ratio of the films at zero N concentration and to their different preparation parameters.

  1. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marí­a Soledad Figueredo; María Laura Tonellie; Tania Taurian; Jorge Angelini; Fernando Ibañez; Lucio Valetti; Vanina Muñoz; Marí­a Soledad Anzuay; Liliana Ludueña; Adriana Fabra

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5.

  2. Altered surfactant function and structure in SP-A gene targeted mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Korfhagen, T R; Bruno, M D; Ross, G F; Huelsman, K. M.; Ikegami, M; Jobe, A H; Wert, S E; Stripp, B R; Morris, R E; Glasser, S W; Bachurski, C J; Iwamoto, H S; Whitsett, J A

    1996-01-01

    The surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene was disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells that were used to generate homozygous SP-A-deficient mice. SP-A mRNA and protein were not detectable in the lungs of SP-A(-/-) mice, and perinatal survival of SP-A(-/-) mice was not altered compared with wild-type mice. Lung morphology, surfactant proteins B-D, lung tissue, alveolar phospholipid pool sizes and composition, and lung compliance in SP-A(-/-) mice were unaltered. At the highest ...

  3. Lipid Polymorphism Induced by Surfactant Peptide SP-B1-25

    OpenAIRE

    Farver, R. Suzanne; Mills, Frank D.; Antharam, Vijay C.; Chebukati, Janetricks N.; Fanucci, Gail E.; Long, Joanna R.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein for lowering surface tension in the alveoli. SP-B1-25, a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of SP-B, is known to retain much of the biological activity of SP-B. Circular dichroism has shown that when SP-B1-25 interacts with negatively charged lipid vesicles, it contains significant helical structure for the lipid compositions and peptide/lipid ratios studied here. The effect of SP-B1-25 on lipid organization...

  4. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  5. Langzeitentwicklung des späten Frühgeborenen

    OpenAIRE

    Natalucci, G

    2010-01-01

    Späte Frühgeborene haben ein höheres Risiko für Entwicklungsstörungen. Kinderärztinnen und -ärzten kommt eine Schlüsselrolle zu, da sie diese Probleme frühzeitig erfassen und unterstützende Massnahmen einleiten können. Dieser Artikel fasst zusammen, inwiefern die Entwicklung später Frühgeborener von Termingeborenen abweicht und welche Gründe dafür verantwortlich sind.

  6. Bioreduction of chromate by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp

    OpenAIRE

    S. Murugavelh, Kaustubha Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp was reported. Ca alginate, acryl amide and agar were tested as the matrices for immobilization. Ca alginate was found to be the suitable matrix among the different matrices studied. Of the various dosages of inoculum studied 2 g/L was found to be the optimum. Glucose at 1 g/L was completely utilized by the immobilized Halomonas sp even in the presence of Cr(VI) at 40 mg/L. The optimum pH for the bioreduction of Cr(V...

  7. Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov., and Microvirga arabica sp. nov., isolated from sandy arid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Tuncer, Munir; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic positions of two Gram-negative strains, SV1470(T) and SV2184P(T), isolated from arid soil samples, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the concatenated sequences of three housekeeping gene loci (dnaK, rpoB and gyrB) confirmed that the strains belong to the genus Microvirga. Strain SV1470(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga vignae BR3299(T) (98.8 %), Microvirga flocculans TFB(T) (98.3 %) and Microvirga lupini Lut6(T) (98.2 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.8 to 96.3 %; strain SV2184P(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga aerilata 5420S-16(T) (98.0 %), Microvirga zambiensis WSM3693(T) (97.8 %) and M. flocculans ATCC BAA-817(T) (97.4 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.2 to 95.9 %. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 61.5 mol % for strain SV1470(T) and 62.1 mol % for strain SV2184P(T). Both strains were found to have the same quinone system, with Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The polar lipid profile of strain SV1470(T) was found to consist of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid, while that of strain SV2184P(T) consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. DNA-DNA relatedness studies showed that the two strains belong to different genomic species. The strains were also distinguished using a combination of phenotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, the novel species Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov. (type strain SV1470(T) = DSM 25394(T) = KCTC 23863(T) = NRRL-B 24875(T)) and Microvirga arabica sp. nov. (type strain SV2184P(T) = DSM 25393(T) = KCTC 23864(T) = NRRL-B 24874(T)) are proposed. PMID:26671415

  8. Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov., isolated from air and soil, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-03-01

    Two strains, designated 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T), were isolated from the air and forest soil, respectively, in South Korea. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, polar-flagellated and rod-shaped. According to the phylogenetic tree, strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) fell into the cluster of Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain 5413J-26(T) showed the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882(T) (96.5%), Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (96.3 %) and Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.1 %), while strain KIS18-15(T) had the highest sequence similarity with Sphingomonas soli T5-04(T) (96.8%), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (96.6%), Sphingomonas leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (96.6 %), Sphingomonas asaccharolytica NBRC 15499(T) (96.6 %) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T) (96.6 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5413J-26(T) and KIS18-15(T) was 95.4 %. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and homospermidine was the major polyamine. The major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unidentified phospholipids and lipids. The main cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain 5413J-26(T) were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C14 : 0 2-OH, and those of strain KIS18-15(T) were summed feature 8 and C16 : 0. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, two novel species with the suggested names Sphingomonas aerophila sp. nov. (type strain 5413J-26(T) = KACC 16533(T) = NBRC 108942(T)) and Sphingomonas naasensis sp. nov. (type strain KIS18-15(T) = KACC 16534(T) = NBRC 108943(T)) are proposed. PMID:24425812

  9. Enraizamiento in vitro de Dioscoreas sp. In vitro rootting of Dioscoreas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarma Alfredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Universidad de Córdoba en el año 2000 con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del ácido naftalenacético (ANA en el medio de cultivo sobre el enraizamiento in vitro de tres cultivares de ñame (Dioscorea sp.. Se estudió el efecto de cuatro concentraciones del regulador de crecimiento (0, 0.3, 0.6 y 0.9 mg/1 sobre tres cultivares de ñame (Diamantes-22, 003 y 005. Se empleó un experimento trifactorial con diseño aleatorio y 20 repeticiones; cada unidad experimental estuvo conformada por un recipiente de vidrio que contenía el medio de cultivo y el explante (segmento nodal. Las variables consideradas fueron número y grosor de raíces, oxidación del medio de cultivo y producción de callo. Los resultados indicaron que tanto la hormona como el genotipo tuvieron efecto sobre todas las variables consi­deradas en el estudio y que la interacción fue importante (PThe Universidad de Córdoba s Vegetal Tissue Culture Laboratory evaluated the effect of naphthalenacetic acid (NAA on in vitro rooting of three yam cultivars (Dioscorea sp. in 2000. The effect of four hormone levels (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 was studied on three yam cultivars (Diamantes-22,003 and 005. A random experimental design was used employing 4x3 factorial arrangement and 20 repetitions; each experimental unit consisted of a glass receptacle containing the culture medium and the explant (one segment nodal. The variables considered were the number of roots and their thickness, culture medium oxidation and callus production. Findings showed that both the hormone and genotype had an effect on all those variables considered in the study and interaction was significant (P <0.05 for callus production and culture medium oxidation. The 005 cultivar showed the greatest root number and thickness values. It was also determined that when a 0.6 and 0.9 mg/1 dose of auxin was applied, root production and

  10. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  11. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  12. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy. PMID:27400526

  13. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  14. PROTOZOÁRIOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM BUGIOS (Alouatta sp. MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO GASTROINTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN CAPTIVE HOWLER MONKEYS (Alouatta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em bugios (Alouatta sp. mantidos em cativeiro no município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de oito macacos das espécies Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba, pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Observaram-se oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. nas fezes de todos os animais pesquisados, sendo que em três deles havia infecção mista com cistos de Giardia spp. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas detectou-se a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. e raros oocistos de outro coccidio. Conclui-se que os macacos A. caraya e A. guariba, mantidos em cativeiro, são hospedeiros dos gêneros Giardia e Cryptosporidium.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alouatta sp., bugio, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp.

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in captive howler monkeys (Alouatta sp. in the city of Santa Maria, RS. Fecal samples from eight monkeys of the Alouatta caraya and Alouatta guariba species were analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation method. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were observed in the feces of all the studied animals, three of which having mixed infection with Giardia spp. cysts. Analyzing the water offered to the primates it was detected elevated presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and rare oocysts of other coccidium. In conclusion, A. caraya and A. guariba monkeys, kept in captivity, are hosts for Giardia and Cryptosporidium genus.

    KEY WORDS:  Alouatta sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., howler monkey.

  15. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  16. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides.

  17. Friction and conductance imaging of sp2- and sp3-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C.; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices.We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp2-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp3-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp2/sp3 carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify

  18. Selective Oxidative Decarbonylative Cleavage of Unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) Bond: Synthesis of Substituted Benzoxazinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-09-01

    A transition metal (TM)-free practical synthesis of biologically relevant benzoxazinones has been established via a selective oxidative decarbonylative cleavage of an unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bond employing iodine, sodium bicarbonate, and (t)butyl hydroperoxide in DMSO at 95 °C. Control experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the reaction involves a [1,5]H shift and extrusion of CO gas as the key steps. The extrusion of CO has also been established using PMA-PdCl2. PMID:27549986

  19. Le discours spécialisé et le spécialisé du discours : repères pour l’analyse du discours en anglais de spécialité

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article traite de discours spécialisé et d’analyse du discours spécialisé du point de vue particulier du spécialisé et de son étude par l’anglais de spécialité dans le cadre des études anglophones. Il s’attache à démontrer que, en ayant souvent tendance à considérer le discours spécialisé comme une catégorie qui va fondamentalement de soi et/ou dont la définition générale se déduit naturellement de telle ou telle des variétés particulières étudiées, l’analyse traditionnelle du discours sp...

  20. Isolation of Indole Utilizing Bacteria Arthrobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. From Livestock Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Eonmi; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Jintae

    2016-06-01

    Indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule widespread in different environmental compartment. Although multifaceted roles of indole in different biological systems have been established, little information is available on the microbial utilization of indole in the context of combating odor emissions from different types of waste. The present study was aimed at identifying novel bacteria capable of utilizing indole as the sole carbon and energy source. From the selective enrichment of swine waste and cattle feces, we identified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Alcaligenes. Bacteria belonging to the genus Alcaligenes showed higher rates of indole utilization than Arthrobacter. Indole at 1.0 mM for growth was completely utilized by Alcaligenes sp. in 16 h. Both strains produced two intermediates, anthranilic acid and isatin, during aerobic indole metabolism. These isolates were also able to grow on several indole derivatives. Interestingly, an adaptive response in terms of a decrease in cell size was observed in both strains in the presence of indole. The present study will help to explain the degradation of indole by different bacteria and also the pathways through which it is catabolized. Furthermore, these novel bacterial isolates could be potentially useful for the in situ attenuation of odorant indole and its derivatives emitted from different types of livestock waste. PMID:27570307

  1. Characteristics of DMSP-lyase in Phaeocystis sp (Prymnesiophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefels, J; Dijkhuizen, L

    1996-01-01

    The marine phytoplankton species Phaeocystis sp, is one of the few microalgae known to be able to convert dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) enzymatically into dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylic acid. The function of this enzymatic process for the organism is not known. From experiments with crude ex

  2. Complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. R5-57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Adele; De Santi, Concetta; Altermark, Bjørn; Karlsen, Christian; Hjerde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics. The percentage identity of these biosynthetic genes from Halomonas sp. R5-57 and current production strains varies between 99 % for some to 69 % for others, thus it is plausible that R5-57 may have a different production capacity to currently used strains, or that in the case of PHAs, the properties of the final product may vary. Here we present the finished genome sequence (LN813019) of Halomonas sp. R5-57 which will facilitate exploitation of this bacterium; either as a whole-cell production host, or by recombinant expression of its individual enzymes. PMID:27610212

  3. Biosorption mechanism of Cr (Ⅵ) onto cells of Synechococcus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Li; XIA Jin-lan; HE Huan; NIE Zhen-yuan; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    The biosorption mechanism of Cr (Ⅵ) ions on Synechococcus sp. biosorbent was studied by analyzing the biosorption kinetics as well as speciation change and bond formation during the biosorption process. The kinetics study shows that the adsorption process of Cr (Ⅵ) consists of a very fast stage in the first several minutes, in which more than half of the saturation adsorption is attained, and a slower stage that approximately follows the first order kinetic model, basically Freundlich isotherm models were observed. Comparative studies of FT-IR spectra of K2Cr2O7, free cells ofSynechococcus sp, and Cr-bound cells ofSynechococcus sp.show that the speciation of chromium that binds to the cells of Synechococcus sp. is Cr (Ⅲ), instead of Cr (Ⅵ), and the carboxylic,alcoholic, amido and amino groups may be involved in the binding of Cr (Ⅲ). Integrative analyses of the surface electric potential,the effect of pH value on adsorption behavior of Cr (Ⅵ), and the results of FT-IR show that the biosorption of Cr (Ⅵ) follows two subsequent steps, biosorption of Cr2O72- by electrostatical force at the protonated active sites and reduction of Cr2O72- to Cr3+ by the reductive groups on the surface of the biosorbents.

  4. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  5. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  6. Lepidocyrtus mariani sp. n., a new springtail species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traser, Gy.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lepidocyrtus mariani sp. n. is described from Hungary. The new species is close to Lepidocyrtus flexicollis Gisin, 1965 sensu Mateos, 2008, but differs in the interocular chaetotaxy by the presence of the seta “q” and in the high number of the setae on the manubrial plate: 10–18 in L. flexicollis, about 30 in the new species

  7. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  8. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  9. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-01-01

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages. PMID:27394744

  10. Fusarielin E, a new antifungal antibiotic from Fusarium sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new antifungal antibiotic, fusarielin E, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus Fusarium sp. Its structure was established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic analyses and HR-FAB-MS. Fusarielin E displayed significant biological activity against Pyricularia oryzae.

  11. On Apanthuretta lathridia n. sp. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Anthuridea) from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1982-01-01

    Apanthuretta lathridia n. sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridea), the fifth species of the genus Apanthuretta Wägele, is described from interstitial water of a Cuban beach. A high number of morphological similarities with Apanthuretta pori Wägele (Red Sea) is noted.

  12. Balance de la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en la UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba (Balance of Chlorella sp and Moina sp production in the UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López, Teresita de J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio fue implementado con la información histórica existente en los archivos de PISPAVÓN, cuantificándose la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en los años 2003, 2004 y 2005, las que fueron de 7 777, 5 174 y 1 988 m3 de algas y de 4 695, 3 075 y 1 557 kg del cladócero respectivamente. Esta disminución se debió al déficit de miel y cal, así como las excesivas lluvias que azotaron laregión. Mediante los estudios efectuados se determinó que la producciónde 1 kg de Moina requiere disponibilidades de Chlorella entre 1,5 y 2,0 m3.SummaryThe present study was implement with the existing historicalinformation in the PISPAVÓN archives, quantifying the production ofChlorella sp and Moina sp in 2003, 2004 and 2005, those that were of7 777, 5 174 and 1 988 m3 of microalgae and 4 695, 3 075 and 1 557kg of the cladocera respectively. This diminishing had to the deficit of honey and lime, as well as excessive rains that whipped the region. By means of the conducted studies was determined that the production of 1 kg of Moina requires availabilities of Chlorella between 1.5 and 2.0 m3.

  13. Bioreduction of chromate by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugavelh, S.; Mohanty, Kaustubha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp was reported. Ca alginate, acryl amide and agar were tested as the matrices for immobilization. Ca alginate was found to be the suitable matrix among the different matrices studied. Of the various dosages of inoculum studied 2 g/L was found to be the optimum. Glucose at 1 g L-1 was completely utilized by the immobilized Halomonas sp even in the presence of Cr(VI) at 40 mg L-1. The optimum pH for the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized Halomonas sp was found to be pH 6. The mechanical strength of the beads plays an essential role in the bioreduction process. Halomonas sp entrapped in a alginate matrix reported a maximum of 98.9 % of reduction for an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L-1. The alginate beads can be reused for 3 times with slight drop in the percentage reduction. The presence of other metals decreased the bioreduction percentage.

  14. Bioreduction of chromate by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murugavelh, Kaustubha Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the bioreduction of Cr(VI by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp was reported. Ca alginate, acryl amide and agar were tested as the matrices for immobilization. Ca alginate was found to be the suitable matrix among the different matrices studied. Of the various dosages of inoculum studied 2 g/L was found to be the optimum. Glucose at 1 g/L was completely utilized by the immobilized Halomonas sp even in the presence of Cr(VI at 40 mg/L. The optimum pH for the bioreduction of Cr(VI by immobilized Halomonas sp was found to be pH 6. The mechanical strength of the beads plays an essential role in the bioreduction process. Halomonas sp entrapped in a alginate matrix reported a maximum of 98.9 % of reduction for an initial Cr(VI concentration of 10 mg/L. The alginate beads can be reused for 3 times with slight drop in the percentage reduction. The presence of other metals decreased the bioreduction percentage.

  15. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were ide

  16. A New Isomalabaricane Triterpenoid from Sponge Jaspis sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng An TANG; Zhi Wei DENG; Jun LI; Hong Zheng FU; Yue Hu PEI; Si ZHANG; Wen Han LIN

    2005-01-01

    From the marine sponge Jaspis sp., a new isomalabaricane triterpenoid 22, 23-dihydrostellettin D (1) was isolated, and its structure was established on the basis of IR, MS and extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. It is a unique skeleton compound rarely obtained from Chinese marine organisms.

  17. Two Phaeophytin Type Analogues from Marine Sponge Dysidea sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Fei JIN; Zhi Wei DENG; Yue Hu PEI; Wen Han LIN

    2005-01-01

    A new compound named 13b (S)-hydroxy-17c-ethoxypheaophorbide a (2) together with a known compound 17c-ethoxypheaophorbide a (1) were isolated from marine sponge Dysidea sp.collected in South China sea. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis as well as comparison with those reported in literatures.

  18. Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, L.M.; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Pfenning, L.H.;

    2010-01-01

    Cytosporones O, P and Q, together with the known compounds cytosporones B, C, D, E and dothiorelones A, 13, C. and H were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Cytospora sp. during a chemotaxonomic study Of fungal endophytes belonging to the related genera Cytospora and Phomopsis from Brazil...

  19. On the new desmids parasite - Legenidium podbielkowskii sp.nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Batko

    2014-01-01

    Below is a description of the new fungus parasitizing on Micrasterias denticulata Bréb. The fungus has been named Lagenidium podbielkowskii sp. nov. and the taxonomic relationships with the most closely allied species, namely - L. closterii de Wildeman are discussed.

  20. On the new desmids parasite - Legenidium podbielkowskii sp.nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Batko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Below is a description of the new fungus parasitizing on Micrasterias denticulata Bréb. The fungus has been named Lagenidium podbielkowskii sp. nov. and the taxonomic relationships with the most closely allied species, namely - L. closterii de Wildeman are discussed.

  1. Report of the first human case of Caulobacter sp. infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik S; Holt, Hanne M; Thiesson, Helle;

    2007-01-01

    A Caulobacter sp. isolate was recovered from the dialysis fluid of a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Bacterial identification included electron microscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human Caulobacter infection. Special growth requirements suggest...

  2. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol;

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans. CrtX did not take up UDP-glucose or GDP-fucose as sugar substrates during the in vitro reaction. Although no direct experimental evidence was obtained for the function of Sphingomonas sp. PB304 CrtX, it can be categorized as a putative deoxyglycosyltransferase based on the presence...

  3. Reliability Calculation of VANET with RSU and SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Uma Maheswari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available VANET is a special type of MANET which consists of moving vehicles as nodes that form a temporary network in an Adhoc fashion. In recent years, many protocols and techniques are available to share the traffic information in VANET. This study focuses on forwarding the road safety information from source vehicle to destination vehicle with RSU (Road Side Unit and SP (Service Provider. RSU and SP are made to transmit the information to ongoing vehicles without missing the clarity and reliability. The main objective of this study is to find the reliable path from the source vehicle to destination vehicle to transmit the traffic information. Universal Generating Function Technique (UGFT is one of the important techniques to assess the network reliability in real life. UFGT is applied to find the reliability of nodes and links used in this VANET. Results are obtained by using Network Simulator (NS-2. Simulation results show that information dissemination with RSU and SP outperforms without RSU and SP in terms of Delay, Throughput and Packet loss.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. 33047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 (Anabaena CA), a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, which under salt stress conditions accumulates sucrose internally. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the understanding of cyanobacterial diversity. PMID:27516507

  5. Micropeptins from Microcystis sp. collected in Kabul Reservoir, Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kalifa-Aviv, Sivan; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2014-01-01

    Three new micropeptins, micropeptin KR1030, KR1002 and KR998 and the known microcyclamide GL546A were isolated from the extract of Microcystis sp. bloom material collected in Kabul Reservoir, Israel. The planar structures of the compounds were determined by homonuclear and inverse-heteronuclear 2...

  6. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized o

  7. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Chua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA.

  8. A New Degraded Sesquiterpene from Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Chao XIE; Wen Li MEI; You Xing ZHAO; Kui HONG; Hao Fu DAI

    2006-01-01

    A new degraded sesquiterpene was isolated from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208. Its structure was elucidated as (1α, 4aα, 5α, 7β, 8aβ)-5, 8a-dimethyl-decahydrona-phthalene-1, 4a, 7-triol on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  9. A thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from the thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a-CD-bound, epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. Molecular weight of the purifie...

  10. Calibration of PIXE-SP system of elementary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set-up and calibration of the PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis located at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is described. The PIXE-SP, that operates with 8 MeV alpha beam, has been calibrated for elements with Z >= 11, by means of homemade evaporated standard targets of Al, Si, Bacl2, K2CrO4, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ge, Ag, Sn, and Au. Those targets are thin, homogeneous, and have been calbrated on a microbalance within an average precision of 6%. The overall precision of the PIXE-SP System is estimated in 10% for elements with 16 2 thick, irradiated with a 10 μC electric charge, shows a minimum of about 0,1 ng (approximated 4 ppm) for Mn. The PIXE-SP System has also been intercalibrated with the PIXE located at University of Gent, Belgium, by means of 12 atmospheric aerosol targets collected on two Batelle Cascade Impactors. The analyzed masses of elements with 16 <= Z < 30 agree within 20%. (Author)

  11. Pandoraea sp. RB-44, A Novel Quorum Sensing Soil Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Ee Han-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at the C-3 position. We have isolated a bacterium, RB-44, from a site which was formally a landfill dumping ground. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, this isolate was identified as a Pandoraea sp.which was then screened for AHL production using biosensors which indicated its quorum sensing properties. To identify the AHL profile of Pandoraea sp. RB-44, we used high resolution tandem mass spectrometry confirming that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that showed quorum sensing activity exhibited by Pandoraea sp. Our data add Pandoraea sp. to the growing number of bacteria that possess QS systems.

  12. Ascoaphaera osmophila sp.nov. An Australian Spore Cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; King, , J.

    1984-01-01

    Ascosphaera osmophila sp. nov. is described. Septa occur often close together and remain intact when the mycelium disintegrates. A fairly good production of mature spore cysts occurs only on media containing 10% sugar or more. A. osmophila lives in association with the mason bee, Chalicodoma...

  13. Five additions to the list of Sepsidae (Diptera) for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869

    OpenAIRE

    Yuchen Ang; Rudolf Meier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude...

  14. ε-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ε-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ε-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ≤20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ε-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ε-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ε-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

  15. STUDYING THE FEATURES OF CULTIVATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITION CULTURE MEDIA FOR LACTOBACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Aniskina M. V.; Volobueva E. S.; Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the materials of the study of the features of cultivation of Lactobacillus sp. on different culture medium. We have made a comparison of standard culture medium for cultivation Lactobacillus sp. and determined the most optimal culture medium

  16. Metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates Sp transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Basha, Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen; Samudio, Ismael; Safe, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug, and epidemiology studies for pancreatic and other cancers indicate that metformin exhibits both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Several metformin-induced responses and genes are similar to those observed after knockdown of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 by RNA interference, and we hypothesized that the mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells was due, in part, to downregulation o...

  17. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  18. Nematode Parasites of Brazilian Corvid Birds (Passeriformes: A General Survey with a Description of Viktorocara brasiliensis n. sp. (Acuariidae, Schistorophinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of 139 samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian jays. Viktorocara brasiliensis n. sp. is proposed and compared with V. capillaris, V. limosae, V. charadrii and V. garridoi which are the other species included in the genus. The differentiation of V. brasiliensis n. sp. was based on the ratios between muscular and glandular esophagus and spicules, as well. Other referred species are Acuaria mamillaris, A. mayori, Aprocta sp., Cheilospirura sp., Diplotriaena americana, D. bargusinica, Oxyspirura matogrosensis, Oxyspirura sp., Pelecitus helicinus, Procyrnea sp., Skrjabinura spiralis, Subulura papillosa, Synhimantus sp. and Tetrameres (Microtetrameres sp., with the establishment of some new host records

  19. Antifungal Activity of Jasminum sambac against Malassezia sp. and Non-Malassezia sp. Isolated from Human Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia sp. causes skin diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The present study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of J. sambac or Arabian jasmine, a flowering plant abundant in the Southeast Asia against Malassezia sp. using disc diffusion and broth microdilution method. The methanol extract and essential oil from the flowers and leaves of J. sambac were, respectively, prepared using solvent extraction and hydrodistillation process. Skin samples from individuals with dandruff were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar overlaid with olive oil. The fungi that grew were observed microscopically, tested with Tween assimilation test, and cultured on CHROMagar (the chromogenic media pioneer to identify Malassezia sp. Out of 5 skin samples, only 2 Malassezia sp. isolates were identified based on morphology and their ability to assimilate Tween. The inhibition zones of methanol extract of flowers and leaves of J. sambac and essential oil of flowers showed potential for antifungal activity with inhibition zones of 11.10 ± 1.92, 12.90 ± 1.68, and 13.06 ± 0.26 mm, respectively, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 80 mg/mL to 160 mg/mL and 50%, respectively. In conclusion, J. sambac may be used as an alternative treatment against Malassezia-associated skin infections.

  20. Friction and conductance imaging of sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized subdomains on single-layer graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Son, Narae; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Tae Gun; Bang, Gyeong Sook; Kim, Jong Yun; Shim, Gi Woong; Goddeti, Kalyan C; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Wondong; Kim, Sehun; Choi, Sung-Yool; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-02-21

    We investigated the subdomain structures of single-layer graphene oxide (GO) by characterizing local friction and conductance using conductive atomic force microscopy. Friction and conductance mapping showed that a single-layer GO flake has subdomains several tens to a few hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. The GO subdomains exhibited low friction (high conductance) in the sp(2)-rich phase and high friction (low conductance) in the sp(3)-rich phase. Current-voltage spectroscopy revealed that the local current flow in single-layer GO depends on the quantity of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and epoxy bridges within the 2-dimensional carbon layer. The presence of subdomains with different sp(2)/sp(3) carbon ratios on a GO flake was also confirmed by chemical mapping using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. These results suggest that spatial mapping of the friction and conductance can be used to rapidly identify the composition of heterogeneous single-layer GO at nanometer scale, which is essential for understanding charge transport in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26819189

  1. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  2. Association analysis of SP-SNPs and Avr genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the pathogenic fungi on wheat, caused stripe rust disease which is a great threat for wheat production all over the world. Intensive efforts have been made to study genetics of wheat resistance to this disease, but few on avirulence of the pathogen...

  3. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  4. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Sp1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Sp1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Sp1 All cell types SRX378972,SRX378973,SR...X160414 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Sp1.AllCell.bed ...

  5. Autodesk Inventor R11 SP2对Inventor资源中心的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛亮

    2006-01-01

    @@ Autodesk Inventor 11 SP2在SPl的基础上对Inventor功能和性能作了改进.本文将参考Autodesk Inventor 11SP2 Release Notes(Readme),详田介绍Autodesk Inventor 11 SP2对Inventor资源中心CC(Content Center)的功能改进及性能改善.

  6. Dynamic strength of the interaction between lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) and saccharide ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Esben; Dreyer, Jakob K; Simonsen, Adam C;

    2007-01-01

    by measuring the rupture force when the SP-D-sugar bond is subjected to a continuously increasing force. Under these dynamic conditions, SP-D binds strongest to d-mannose and weakest to maltose and d-galactose. These results differ from equilibrium measurements wherein SP-D exhibits preference for maltose...

  7. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  8. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., isolated from sea water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi Jun Ng

    Full Text Available Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4 °C and 40 °C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI, 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD, 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10(T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1(T ( =  LMG 27497(T  =  JCM 19399(T  =  CIP 110588(T  =  KMM 7502(T and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10(T (

  9. Doped diamond electrodes on titanium substrates with controlled sp2/sp3 hybridization at different boron levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doped diamond films on titanium substrate were systematically studied by controlling their sp2/sp3 hybridization as well as their boron doping levels. Samples were grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique at CH4 additions of 1, 2, 6 and 10 sccm diluted in H2 for a total flow rate of 200 sccm. For each CH4 concentration four doping levels were studied. The boron source was obtained from a constant flow of 40 sccm for an additional H2 line passing through a bubbler containing the B2O3 dissolved in methanol with B/C ratios of 2000, 7000, 15,000, and 30,000 B/C ppm. Scanning electron microscopy images depicted well faceted films without cracks or delaminations. The sp2/sp3 ratio as “purity index” (PI) and the “growth tendency index” (GTI), associated to the TiC formation, were evaluated by Raman and X-ray spectra, respectively. GTI index was used in this work to analyze the competition between the diamond growth and TiC formation. It is also possible to associate the GTI index in terms of C/H ratio, since when this ratio is increased, the GTI index also increased. A constant GTI increase was observed as a function of CH4 addition for the whole range of the boron doping studied. For PI, an optimized value was observed at 6 sccm of CH4 for the doping levels higher than 2000 ppm of B/C ratio. - Highlights: • Control of experimental parameters to obtain good quality diamond films. • sp2 bond influence on the doping level of diamond films. • Systematic analysis of diamond growth process on Ti substrate

  10. Growth enhancement of rice (Oryza sativa) by phosphate solubilizing Gluconacetobacter sp. (MTCC 8368) and Burkholderia sp. (MTCC 8369) under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Joseph; Shabanamol, S.; Rishad, K. S.; Jisha, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Two indigenous rhizospheric phosphate solubilizing isolates PSB 12 identified as Gluconacetobacter sp. (MTCC 8368) and PSB 73 identified as Burkholderia sp. (MTCC 8369) were examined for their growth enhancement potential of rice (Jyothi PTB 39) under pot culture assays. The results showed significant impact on microbial count and PSB population, phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity, available phosphorous in the soil, plant nutrient uptake and yield parameters. Gluconacetobacter sp. + RP60 ...

  11. Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n. sp. from a Brazilian Freshwater Fish and Rhipidocotyle froesi n.sp. for r. baculum (linton, 1905 of Eckmann (1932 (Bucephalidae; Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n.sp. is described from Acestrorhynchus lacustris from Paraná River, brazil. It is most closely related to r. froesi n. sp. and to R. eckmanni in the shape of the cephalic hood, differing in the extent of the uterus, in the position of the vitelline follicles and in that the host is a freshwater fish. Rhipidocotyle froesi n. sp. is proposed for the marine specimens described by Eckmann (1932 as R. baculum (Linton, 1905.

  12. [A STUDY OF THE ISOLATED BACTERIOPHAGE ΦAB-SP7 ADSORPTION ON THE CELL SURFACE OF THE AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliy, O I; Karavaeva, O A; Velikov, V A; Sokolov, O I; Pavily, S A; Larionova, O S; Burov, A M; Ignatov, O V

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 was isolated from the cells of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy. resuIts show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed.

  13. Comparative Study of Circulating MMP-7, CCL18, KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D as Disease Markers of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamai, Kosuke; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Horimasu, Yasushi; Masuda, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Nakashima, Taku; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Hamada, Hironobu; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recent reports indicate that matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and CC-chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) are potential disease markers of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of this study was to perform direct comparisons of these two biomarkers with three well-investigated serum markers of IPF, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and SP-D. Methods. The serum levels of MMP-7, CCL18, KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D were evaluated in 65 patients with IPF, 31 pa...

  14. 在一个环境中同时运行Exchange Server 2003 SP1和Exchange Server 2003 SP2服务器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Q我们正打算为现有的Exchange Server 2003 SP1服务器更换新的服务器硬件。你是否知道在一个环境中同时运行Exchange Server 2003 SP1和Exchange Server 2003 SP2会引发什么问题?要知道,在新的硬件上直接安装SP2会为我们省很多事。

  15. Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences supports the description of Rhizobium lentis sp. nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. from lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M Harun-or; Young, J Peter W; Everall, Isobel; Clercx, Pia; Willems, Anne; Santhosh Braun, Markus; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization showed 50-62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50-60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87-92% with their close relatives and 88-89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27(T) = LMG 28441(T) = DSM 29286(T)), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175(T) = LMG 28442(T) = DSM 29287(T)) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195(T) = LMG 28443(T) = DSM 29288(T)), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae.

  16. Average nucleotide identity of genome sequences supports the description of Rhizobium lentis sp. nov., Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. from lentil (Lens culinaris) nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M Harun-or; Young, J Peter W; Everall, Isobel; Clercx, Pia; Willems, Anne; Santhosh Braun, Markus; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Rhizobial strains isolated from effective root nodules of field-grown lentil (Lens culinaris) from different parts of Bangladesh were previously analysed using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII) and three nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD), DNA fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences and DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains belonged to three novel clades in the genus Rhizobium. In present study, a representative strain from each clade was further characterized by determination of cellular fatty acid compositions, carbon substrate utilization patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses from whole-genome sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization showed 50-62% relatedness to their closest relatives (the type strains of Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli) and 50-60% relatedness to each other. These results were further supported by ANI values, based on genome sequencing, which were 87-92% with their close relatives and 88-89% with each other. On the basis of these results, three novel species, Rhizobium lentis sp. nov. (type strain BLR27(T) = LMG 28441(T) = DSM 29286(T)), Rhizobium bangladeshense sp. nov. (type strain BLR175(T) = LMG 28442(T) = DSM 29287(T)) and Rhizobium binae sp. nov. (type strain BLR195(T) = LMG 28443(T) = DSM 29288(T)), are proposed. These species share common nodulation genes (nodA, nodC and nodD) that are similar to those of the symbiovar viciae. PMID:26060217

  17. Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of different agroforestry legume trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Liu, Binbin; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Willems, Anne; Frostegård, Åsa

    2013-05-01

    A total of 18 strains, representing members of the genus Mesorhizobium, obtained from root nodules of woody legumes growing in Ethiopia, have been previously shown, by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes, to form three novel genospecies. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship between representative strains of these three genospecies and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours Mesorhizobium plurifarium, Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium septentrionale and Mesorhizobium huakuii was further evaluated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. In line with our earlier MLSA of other housekeeping genes, the phylogenetic trees derived from the atpD and glnII genes grouped the test strains into three well-supported, distinct lineages that exclude all defined species of the genus Mesorhizobium. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative strains of genospecies I-III and the type strains of their closest phylogenetic neighbours was low (≤59 %). They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by the presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The strains belonging to genospecies I, II and III therefore represent novel species for which we propose the names Mesorhizobium shonense sp. nov., Mesorhizobium hawassense sp. nov. and Mesorhizobium abyssinicae sp. nov. The isolates AC39a(T) ( = LMG 26966(T) = HAMBI 3295(T)), AC99b(T) ( = LMG 26968(T) = HAMBI 3301(T)) and AC98c(T) ( = LMG 26967(T) = HAMBI 3306(T)) are proposed as type strains for the respective novel species.

  18. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp Strain 3J6

    OpenAIRE

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Parac...

  19. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  20. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  1. Primary loop simulation of the SP-100 space nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: fbraz@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Between 1983 and 1992 the SP-100 space nuclear reactor development project for electric power generation in a range of 100 to 1000 kWh was conducted in the USA. Several configurations were studied to satisfy different mission objectives and power systems. In this reactor the heat is generated in a compact core and refrigerated by liquid lithium, the primary loops flow are controlled by thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps (EMTE), and thermoelectric converters produce direct current energy. To define the system operation point for an operating nominal power, it is necessary the simulation of the thermal-hydraulic components of the space nuclear reactor. In this paper the BEMTE-3 computer code is used to EMTE pump design performance evaluation to a thermalhydraulic primary loop configuration, and comparison of the system operation points of SP-100 reactor to two thermal powers, with satisfactory results. (author)

  2. NSS5/SP-STM2 Joint International Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw-Wai Hla

    2009-05-03

    The NSS5/SP-STM2 conference was held in Athens, Ohio July 15-19, 2008. The conference brought together a prestigious group of scientists from all over the globe to focus for 3 ½ days on a variety of nanoscience topics, particularly on nanoscale spectroscopy and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. The conference was attended by many young scientists as well as senior scientists. Attendees to the conference were drawn from more than 10 countries and included 28 invited speakers, who are the leading scientists in their respective research areas. Included among the invited speakers were 4 plenary speakers - eminent scientists in their fields. The conference was divided into two parallel sessions – the NSS5 session and the SP-STM2 session.

  3. Complete genome analysis of Ketogulonigenium sp.WB0104

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ketogulonigenium sp. may convert L-sorbose into 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, the vitamin C precursor. The genome of Ketogulonigenium sp. WB0104 consists of a circular 2765030 bp chromosome with 61.69% G+C content and two circular plasmids of 267968 and 242707 bp. The genome contains 2727 open reading frames (ORFs). The systems of replication, transcription, translation, carbohydrate and energy metabolism are intact, but the repair system is incomplete. About 640 predicted ORFs have been found to encode transporter proteins, which account for about one fourth of total predicted ORFs, noticeably higher than other documented bacteria. This may be due to the fact that WB0104 adapts to soil circumstance.

  4. A new freshwater amoeba: Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Amorphea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Yonas I; Roger, Anderson O; Lecky, Ariel F; Kelly, Samantha D

    2013-01-01

    Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (ATCC(©) 30935(TM) ) is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium pentatrifurcatum n. sp. (length ~ 25 μm) is characterized by surface microscales (0.3 μm tall) containing a circular porous base (~ 0.6 μm diam.) with a thin peripheral rim. Five radially arranged feet, emanating from the base, support a short central column terminating apically as a funnel-shaped collar (~ 0.5 μm diam.) composed of five radial, trifurcate rays extending from the center toward a thin peripheral rim. The central spine is 0.5-0.6 μm long. The comparative morphologies and combined molecular genetic evidence, SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that the new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species.

  5. Microbiological synthesis of nanophase PbS by Desulfotomaculum sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The uniform nanoparticles PbS with diameters about 13 nm could be synthesized by Desulfotomaculum sp. under mild condition. The effects of the processing vari-ables such as pH and temperature were investigated. The obtained products were in detailed by means of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) ,respectively. The results revealed that the PbS crystallites were identical in structure,shape and size under different temperatures while their morphology changed from rod to spheroidal with pH increasing. In the biological synthetic process for PbS nanoparticles,Desulfotomaculum sp. can use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to produce sulfide which acts as the source of sulfur for the formation of PbS nanoparticles.

  6. Biodegradation of insecticide carbofuran by Paracoccus sp. YM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Jing S; Li, Ying Y; Li, Wen; Xu, Gang M; Yan, Yan C

    2008-09-01

    A bacterium (Paracoccus sp. YM3) capable of degrading carbofuran was isolated from carbofuran-contaminated sludge. The strain was shown to metabolize carbofuran (50 mg L(-1)) to carbofuran-7-phenol in minimal salt medium within 6 days in which the pesticide was the only source of carbon. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The addition of an other carbon source led to accelerated biodegradation. The relevant degrading-enzyme was intracellular and inducible. A tobacco hypersensitivity experiment showed that YM3 could eliminate carbofuran in soils effectively and safely. This is the first report of a Paracoccus sp. that could degrade carbofuran. The present study may provide a basis for biotreatment of wastewaters and bioremediation of carbofuran-contaminated soils.

  7. Microbiological synthesis of nanophase PbS by Desulfotomaculum sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jun; ZHANG ZhaoMing; BAI HongJuan; YANG GuanE

    2007-01-01

    The uniform nanoparticles PbS with diameters about 13 nm could be synthesized by Desulfotomaculum sp. under mild condition. The effects of the processing variables such as pH and temperature were investigated. The obtained products were in detailed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results revealed that the PbS crystallites were identical in structure, shape and size under different temperatures while their morphology changed from rod to spheroidal with pH increasing. In the biological synthetic process for PbS nanoparticles, Desulfotomaculum sp. can use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to produce sulfide which acts as the source of sulfur for the formation of PbS nanoparticles.

  8. Genome sequence and description of Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dione

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerosalibacter massiliensis sp. nov. strain ND1T (= CSUR P762 = DSM 27308 is the type strain of A. massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Anaerosalibacter. This strain, the genome of which is described here, was isolated from the faecal flora of a 49-year-old healthy Brazilian man. Anaerosalibacter massiliensis is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic rod and member of the family Clostridiaceae. With the complete genome sequence and annotation, we describe here the features of this organism. The 3 197 911 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid contains 3271 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes, including six rRNA genes.

  9. Influence of copper on Euplotes sp. and associated bacterial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira Andrade da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of copper on the ciliate Euplotes sp. and associated bacteria isolated from sediment samples of Guanabara Bay were investigated in bioassays. This region is highly affected by heavy metals such as copper, from solid waste constantly dumped in the bay and other sources such as industrial effluents, antifouling paints, atmospheric deposition and urban drainage, and even today there are few data on the metal toxicity to the ecosystem of the Bay of Guanabara. Bioassays were conducted to estimate the LC50-24 h of copper, in order to determine the concentration of metal bearing 50% of the population mortality. The results indicated that the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.009 mg L-1 presented no toxicity to Euplotes sp. The associated bacteria are tolerant to copper concentrations used in bioassays, and suggest that they could be used as a potential agent in the bioremediation of areas affected by copper.

  10. Nitrate levels modulate the abundance of Paracoccus sp. in a biofilm community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shantanu; Nerurkar, Anuradha S; Srinandan, C S

    2015-06-01

    Conditions required to enhance a particular species efficient in degradative capabilities is very useful in wastewater treatment processes. Paracoccus sp. is known to efficiently reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to the branched denitrification pathway. Individual-based simulations showed that the relative fitness of Paracoccus sp. to Pseudomonas sp. increased significantly with nitrate levels above 5 mM. Spatial structure of the biofilm showed substantially less nitrite levels in the areas of Paracoccus sp. dominance. The simulation was validated in a laboratory reactor harboring biofilm community by fluorescent in situ hybridization, which showed that increasing nitrate levels enhanced the abundance of Paracoccus sp. Different levels of NOx did not display any significant effect on biofilm formation of Paracoccus sp., unlike several other bacteria. This study shows that the attribute of Paracoccus sp. to tolerate and efficiently reduce NOx is conferring a fitness payoff to the organism at high concentrations of nitrate in a multispecies biofilm community. PMID:25838197

  11. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  12. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  13. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  14. Unifying Computing and Cognition: The SP Theory and its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2004-01-01

    This book develops the conjecture that all kinds of information processing in computers and in brains may usefully be understood as "information compression by multiple alignment, unification and search". This "SP theory", which has been under development since 1987, provides a unified view of such things as the workings of a universal Turing machine, the nature of 'knowledge', the interpretation and production of natural language, pattern recognition and best-match information retrieval, sev...

  15. Die Angst ist noch spürbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Happ

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid Strobl zeigt in ihrer Studie über jüdische Frauen im Widerstand zwischen 1939 und 1945 anhand von Beispielen aus fünf Ländern, die mit Frankreich, Belgien, den Niederlanden, Ungarn und Polen sowohl Länder West- als auch Osteuropas umfassen, spezifische Formen des weiblichen Widerstands auf und vergleicht daran anschließend Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten ihrer Herkunft, ihres Tuns und ihres späteren Lebens.

  16. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia.

  17. Ceratium balechii sp. nov. (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) from the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Esther Meave del Castillo; Ma. Eugenia Zamudio Resendiz; Yuri B. Okolodkov; Isaías H. Salgado Ugarte

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new species Ceratium balechii sp. nov., a bloom-producing dinoflagellate in the Mexican tropical Pacific, and often by mistake referred to as C. dens. In order to know its morphological variability, a morphometric study was perfomed, on the basis of 584 cells from 48 populations collected in 11 coastal localities of the Mexican tropical Pacific. Sixteen morphological characters (14 quantitative and 2 qualitative) were studied in each cell, and another 6 characters, relevant for e...

  18. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia. PMID:26249427

  19. Genome sequencing and annotation of Stenotrophomonas sp. SAM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SAM8, isolated from environmental water. The draft genome size is 3,665,538 bp with a G + C content of 67.2% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDAV00000000.

  20. [Depolymerization of chitosan by chinolytic complex from Bacillus sp. 739].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P; Melent'ev, A I; Aktuganov, G E

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (3-6 kDa) water-soluble chitosan was obtained by enzymatic depolymerization. Hydrolysis of crab chitosan was induced by O-glycoside hydrolase (EC 3.2.1), an extracellular chitinolytic complex from Bacillus sp. 739. The optimum conditions for hydrolysis were found (sodium-acetate buffer, pH 5.2; 55 degrees C; an enzyme/substrate ratio 4 U/g chitosan; 1 h).

  1. Karyomegaly in Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I; Di Cave, D

    2001-06-20

    Vesicular karyomegaly of the liver hepatocytes is described from Baryancistrus sp. (Loricaridae), in 3 out of 7 fish, collected from Rio Xingu in central Amazonian (neutral water) Brazil and kept about 2 wk in a holding facility fed with acid water (pH 5.0 to 5.5). Altered cells also occurred in the gill epithelium. The vesicles in the liver were shown to contain a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive substance or residue.

  2. Extraction of Zinc from Industrial Waste by a Penicillium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Schinner, Franz; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    Zinc was extracted from a filter residue of a copper works (58.6% zinc) by a Penicillium sp. isolated from a metal-containing location. By isotachophoresis citric acid was identified as the leaching agent. Citrate was only formed when the leaching substrate was present. This production of citrate was different in several ways from that achieved by Aspergillus niger: glucose was utilized before fructose; the initial concentration of zinc was 50 to 500 times higher than usual in citrate ferment...

  3. Morphology and Phylogeny of Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ke; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Dai, Dong-Qin; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wen, Ting-Chi; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    A coelomycete with characters resembling the asexual morphs in the family Botryosphaeriaceae was isolated from a fallen leaf of an orchid collected in Thailand. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the strain in Neoscytalidium. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoscytalidium species were inferred by analyzing internal transcribed spacers and large subunit of rRNA sequence data and indicate that our strain is a new species, which is introduced and illustrated herein as Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp. nov.

  4. Aberrant Ancylostoma sp. in the brain of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amie; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bolling, Melanie; Rodrigues-Hoffmann, Aline

    2016-06-15

    A 14-month-old, male American Bulldog presented to Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital in August of 2012 for anorexia, hydrophobia and gradually worsening neurologic signs. Grossly hemorrhage on the left side of the caudal cerebrum and cerebellum was observed and histologically corresponded with necrohemorrhagic and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis associated with adult nematodes. Based on morphology and molecular analysis, these were identified as Ancylostoma sp. PMID:27198802

  5. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gyulai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new Anagnorisma species, A. chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, A. eucratides (Boursin, 1960. The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.

  6. Discovery of Trichuris landak n.sp.by Endang Purwaningsih

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim; Boon; Huat

    2013-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,I wish to congratulate Endang Purwaningsih for publishing in Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)the important discovery of Trichuris landak n.sp.,a new species of whipworm that parasitizes porcupine in Indonesia.The author separated the new species from the other Trichuris spp.by comparing the morphologic features and morphometric measurements of the adult worms.Similar approach was reported by

  7. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  8. Molasses as fermentation substrate for levan production by Halomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükaşik, Faruk; Kazak, Hande; Güney, Dilvin; Finore, Ilaria; Poli, Annarita; Yenigün, Orhan; Nicolaus, Barbara; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

    2011-03-01

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose with many outstanding properties like high solubility in oil and water, strong adhesiveness, good biocompatibility, and film-forming ability. However, its industrial use has long been hampered by costly production processes which rely on mesophilic bacteria and plants. Recently, Halomonas sp. AAD6 halophilic bacteria were found to be the only extremophilic species producing levan at high titers in semi-chemical medium containing sucrose, and in this study, pretreated sugar beet molasses and starch molasses were both found to be feasible substitutes for sucrose. Five different pretreatment methods and their combinations were applied to both molasses types. Biomass and levan concentrations reached by the Halomonas sp. AAD6 cells cultivated on 30 g/L of pretreated beet molasses were 6.09 g dry cells/L and 12.4 g/L, respectively. When compared with literature, Halomonas sp. was found to stand out with its exceptionally high levan production yields on available fructose. Molecular characterization and monosaccharide composition studies confirmed levan-type fructan structure of the biopolymers. Rheological properties under different conditions pointed to the typical characteristics of low viscosity and pseudoplastic behaviors of the levan polymers. Moreover, levan polymer produced from molasses showed high biocompatibility and affinity with both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. PMID:21161209

  9. Production of volatile organic compounds by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton are known to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. For example, picophytoplankton, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, are distributed in freshwater and oceans worldwide, accounting for a large proportion of biomass and primary production in the open ocean. However, to date, little is known about the production of VOCs by picophytoplankton. In this study, VOCs production by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (NIES-981) was investigated. Synechococcus sp. was obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, and cultured at 24°C in autoclaved f/2-Si medium under 54 ± 3 µE m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) with a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle. VOCs concentrations were determined using a purge-and-trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973). The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also determined using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Bromomethane (CH3Br) and isoprene were produced by Synechococcus sp. Isoprene production was similar to those of other phytoplankton species reported earlier. Isoprene was produced when Chl a was increasing in the early stage of the incubation period (5-15 days of incubation time, exponential phase), but CH3Br was produced when Chl a was reduced in the late stage of the incubation period (30-40 days of incubation time, death phase).

  10. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films. PMID:24122212

  11. Network Analysis of Plasmidomes: The Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Orlandini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium living in association with plant roots. The genome of the strain Sp245, isolated in Brazil from wheat roots, consists of one chromosome and six plasmids. In this work, the A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids were analyzed in order to shed some light on the evolutionary pathways they followed over time. To this purpose, a similarity network approach was applied in order to identify the evolutionary relationships among all the A. brasilense plasmids encoded proteins; in this context a computational pipeline specifically devoted to the analysis and the visualization of the network-like evolutionary relationships among different plasmids molecules was developed. This information was supplemented with a detailed (in silico functional characterization of both the connected (i.e., sharing homology with other sequences in the dataset and the unconnected (i.e., not sharing homology components of the network. Furthermore, the most likely source organism for each of the genes encoded by A. brasilense plasmids was checked, allowing the identification of possible trends of gene loss/gain in this microorganism. Data obtained provided a detailed description of the evolutionary landscape of the plasmids of A. brasilense Sp245, suggesting some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the present-day structure of these molecules.

  12. Network Analysis of Plasmidomes: The Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Valerio; Emiliani, Giovanni; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium living in association with plant roots. The genome of the strain Sp245, isolated in Brazil from wheat roots, consists of one chromosome and six plasmids. In this work, the A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids were analyzed in order to shed some light on the evolutionary pathways they followed over time. To this purpose, a similarity network approach was applied in order to identify the evolutionary relationships among all the A. brasilense plasmids encoded proteins; in this context a computational pipeline specifically devoted to the analysis and the visualization of the network-like evolutionary relationships among different plasmids molecules was developed. This information was supplemented with a detailed (in silico) functional characterization of both the connected (i.e., sharing homology with other sequences in the dataset) and the unconnected (i.e., not sharing homology) components of the network. Furthermore, the most likely source organism for each of the genes encoded by A. brasilense plasmids was checked, allowing the identification of possible trends of gene loss/gain in this microorganism. Data obtained provided a detailed description of the evolutionary landscape of the plasmids of A. brasilense Sp245, suggesting some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the present-day structure of these molecules.

  13. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  14. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han; Xu, Ya-ming; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Liu, Manping X.; Luo, Jiang-Guang; U’Ren, Jana M.; Elizabeth Arnold, A.; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenated guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, xylaguaianols A–D (1–4), an iso-cadinane-type sesquiterpene isocadinanol A (5), and an α-pyrone 9-hydroxyxylarone (6), together with five known sesquiterpenes (7–11), and four known cytochalasins (12–15) were isolated from a culture broth of Xylaria sp. NC1214, a fungal endophyte of the moss Hypnum sp. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and relative configurations of 1–5 were determined with the help of NMR NOESY experiments. Cytochalasins C (12), D (13), and Q (14) were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against five tumor cell lines. Cytochalasin D showed significant cytotoxicity against all five cell lines, with IC50s ranging from 0.22 to 1.44 μM, whereas cytochalasins C and Q exhibited moderate, but selective cytotoxicity. PMID:26324074

  15. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)).

  16. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)). PMID:21478396

  17. Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and Sarcocystis phacochoeri n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, M; Odening, K; Quandt, S; Bengis, R G; Bockhardt, I

    1998-01-01

    Sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and S. phacochoeri n. sp. from muscle fibers of the skeletal musculature of two warthogs in South Africa are described by light and and electron microscopy. Sarcocystis dubeyella sarcocysts are macroscopic (up to 12 mm long and 1 mm wide), with a parasite-induced encapsulation of the host muscle fiber in which the plasma membrane of the latter remained unaltered. The sarcocyst wall is characterized by evenly arranged, irregularly semicircular or rectangular villar protrusions (5.0 x 2.8-11.0 microns) with indented margins and no specific content. Sarcocystis phacochoeri formed filiform microcysts (up to 4 mm long and 0.13 mm wide). Its cyst wall is provided with tightly packed, molarlike villar protrusions (1.6-3.3 x 1.7-3.3 microns), with smooth margins, hollow on one side, and with longitudinal condensations of the fine granular matrix at various locations in the interior. PMID:9495038

  18. Sandbox experiments on Uraninite Ore: ERT and SP measurments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear energy, considering its own intrinsic merits, would be a leading source for meeting the energy requirement in present and future scenario. Concealed Uranium deposits under sedimentary cover, with poor surface indications calls for reorientation of survey with large inputs involving integrated geophysical approach. Sand Box experiments have been carried out over Uraninite ore. The tank is a glass fish tank (height 39 cm, length 75 cm, width 30 cm). It was filled with sand up to 35 cm high. The sand was saturated from below to minimize the entrapment of the gas bubbles. The average size for sand grains is ~ 0.295mm. The formation factor of the sand is 3.5, with a negligible surface conductivity because of the coarse nature of the sand grains. The dimension of considered Uraninite ore sample is 4cm x 4cm x 4cm. The depth of top of the ore sample is kept at 3cm. In this paper both resistivity and self-potential measurements were carried out for possible detection of Uraninite. The resistivity measurements were made with 64 non-polarizable electrodes using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) equipment of FlashRes Universal developed by ZZ Resistivity Imaging Pty. Ltd. We have used screws of length 3cm as electrodes. The separation between these electrodes are ~ 1cm. The resistivity tomography results clearly outlines the target Uraninite body. The resistivity tomography results also detects small heterogeneities associated with air bubbles possibly due to unsaturated pore spaces. SP measurements were made using two non-polarizing Pb/PbCl2 electrodes and a Fluke 289 voltmeter (sensitivity 0.001 mV, internal impedance 100 MOhm). The reference electrode was located on the corner of the sandbox. The other electrode was used to scan the electrical potential at the surface of the sand. SP measurements were made with a spacing of 3 cm over the same ERT profile. The SP results also shows a dip (or a low SP anomaly) over the target ore body sample. Thus, both SP and

  19. Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keis, S; Shaheen, R; Jones, D T

    2001-11-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA reassociation, industrial solvent-producing clostridia have been assigned to four species. In this study, the phenotypic characteristics of Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii, 'Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum', and an unnamed Clostridium sp. represented by the strains NCP 262T and NRRL B643 are compared. In addition, a further 40 strains of solvent-producing clostridia have been classified by biotyping, DNA fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These included 14 C. beijerinckii strains, two strains currently designated as 'Clostridium kaneboi' and 'Clostridium butanologenum', and 24 production strains used in the commercial acetone-butanol fermentation. All of the C. beijerinckii strains were confirmed to have been classified correctly. The 'C. kaneboi' and 'C. butanologenum' strains require reclassification as C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, respectively. The commercial production strains were found to belong either to C. beijerinckii or to the unnamed Clostridium sp. For the comparative phenotypic studies of the four species, representative strains were selected from each of the DNA-fingerprint subgroups within each species. These strains were analysed for their ability to utilize different carbohydrates, hydrolyse gelatin or aesculin, and produce indole, and were tested for the presence of catalase and urease. On the basis of these results, several phenotypic traits were found to be useful for differentiating between the four species. The descriptions of C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii have been emended. The names Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. [type strain = N1-4 (HMT) = ATCC 27021T] and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. (type strain = DSM 13864T = ATCC BAA-117T) are proposed for the two new species. PMID:11760952

  20. Identification of KLF13 and KLF14 (SP6), novel members of the SP/XKLF transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scohy, S; Gabant, P; Van Reeth, T; Hertveldt, V; Drèze, P L; Van Vooren, P; Rivière, M; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C

    2000-11-15

    Using the sequence of the SP1 zinc-finger DNA-binding domain as a probe to screen a mouse EST database, we identified two novel members of the SP/XKLF transcription factor family, KLF13 and KLF14. The mouse Klf13 cDNA (1310 bp in length) contains a single open reading frame of 288 amino acids with a DNA-binding domain closely related to that of the human RFLAT-1 protein and a putative transactivator N-terminal domain rich in proline and alanine residues. The mouse Klf13 gene seems to be the homologue of the human RFLAT1 gene. The mouse Klf14 sequence is homologous to a human genomic sequence from chromosome 17 that is believed to code for a protein with three zinc fingers at the end of its C-terminal domain. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we showed ubiquitous expression of Klf13 and Klf14 in adult mice. A third member of this family was also identified in a human EST database; this sequence was found to be identical to KLF11 (TIEG2), recently identified by Cook et al. (1998, J. Biol. Chem. 273: 25929-25936). The corresponding mouse cDNA was isolated and sequenced. The three genes were localized in the human and the rat: chromosomes 15 (human KLF13), 17q21.3-q22 (human KLF14; HGMW-approved symbol SP6), and 2p25 (human KLF11) and chromosomes 1q31-q32 (rat Klf13), 10q31-q32.1 (rat Klf14) (SP6), and 6q16-q21 (rat Klf11). PMID:11087666

  1. Lipid profile remodeling in response to nitrogen deprivation in the microalgae Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae and Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J O Martin

    Full Text Available Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs, the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to stress response in particular the deprivation of nutrients that can induce enhanced TAG synthesis. In this study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in response to nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress. As expected, an increase in TAGs and an overall decrease in polar lipids were observed. However, while most membrane lipid classes (phosphoglycerolipids and glycolipids were found to decrease, the non-nitrogen containing phosphatidylglycerol levels increased considerably in both algae from initially low levels. Of particular significance, it was observed that the acyl composition of TAGs in Nannochloropsis sp. remain relatively constant, whereas Chlorella sp. showed greater variability following N-deprivation. In both algae the overall fatty acid profiles of the polar lipid classes were largely unaffected by N-deprivation, suggesting a specific FA profile for each compartment is maintained to enable continued function despite considerable reductions in the amount of these lipids. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were due primarily to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study provides the most detailed lipidomic information on two different microalgae with utility in biodiesel production and nutraceutical industries and proposes the mechanisms for this rearrangement. This research also highlights the usefulness of the latest MS-based approaches for microalgae lipid research.

  2. Geographic distribution of Theileria sp. (buffalo) and Theileria sp. (bougasvlei) in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa: implications for speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2014-03-01

    Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (∼25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (∼10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections.

  3. Genome Sequences of the Lignin-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. Strain YS-1r Isolated from Decaying Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, Madhu; Couger, Matthew B.; Jackson, Colin A.; Weirick, Tyler; Fathepure, Babu Z.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain YS-1p and Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r were isolated from a lignin-degrading enrichment culture. The isolates degraded lignin-derived monomers, dimers, alkali lignin, and, to a smaller extent (3% to 5%), lignin in switch grass and alfalfa. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a variety of lignin-degrading genes.

  4. Effects of dietary Gracilaria sp. and Alaria sp. supplementation on growth performance, metabolic rates and health in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to pathogen infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria João; Salas-Leitón, Emílio; Brito, Francisca;

    2016-01-01

    control formulation (44 % protein, 16 % lipid, 22 kJ g−1 energy) with 0 % seaweed (control), 5 % Gracilaria sp. or 5 % Alaria sp. During the growth trial, 180 fish (39.70 ± 0.33 g) were daily fed for 69 days with the experimental diets. After the growth trial, 60 fish from each dietary treatment were...

  5. Apratylenchus vietnamensis gen. n., sp. n. and A. binhi gen. n., sp. n., sedentary Pratylenchidae (Nematoda:Tylenchida) from coffee in Vietnam, with proposal of Apratylenchinae subfam. n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, P.Q.; Waeyenberge, L.; Nguyen, C.N.; Baldwin, J.G.; Karssen, G.; Moens, M.

    2009-01-01

    Apratylenchinae subfam. n. is proposed within the Pratylenchidae to include Apratylenchus gen. n. and two new species, A. vietnamensis gen. n., sp. n. and A. binhi gen. n., sp. n., from coffee plantations in Vietnam. Apratylenchus gen. n. is distinguished by the presence of transverse rows of cuticu

  6. Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS + SP and Amodiaquine + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AQ + SP for Uncomplicated falciparum Malaria in Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Charle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of the study were (i to evaluate the efficacy of combination drugs, such as artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP and amodiaquine + sulphadoxine-pyripethamine (AQ + SP in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria (ii to differentiate recrudescence from reinfection by analysing msp-1 and msp-2 genes of Plasmodium falciparum in treatment failure cases. Methods. We carried out an in vivo study in the year 2005 in 206 children between 6 to 59 months age groups. Of the 206, 120 received AQ + SP, and 86 received AS + SP. A clinical and parasitological followup during 14 days was undertaken. Finger-prick blood sample from each patient was taken on Whatman filter paper (no. 3 on days 0, 7, 14 and also the day when the parasite and symptoms reappeared for PCR analysis. Results. Late treatment failure was observed in 3.5% (4/114 with AQ + SP, and 2.5% (2/79 with AS + SP. The success rate was 96.5% with AQ + SP and 97.5% with AS + SP. No deaths and severe reactions were recorded. Out of the 6 treatment failure cases, one was reinfection as observed by PCR analysis of msp-1 and msp-2 genes on day 14. Discussion. Both the combinations found to be efficacious and safe and could be used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Equatorial Guinea.

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1, Haloalkyl Phosphate Flame Retardant- and Plasticizer-Degrading Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Katsumasa; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao; Takahashi, Shouji

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 are haloalkyl phosphate flame retardant- and plasticizer-degrading bacteria. We report here the draft genome sequences of these strains to provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying their degradation ability. PMID:27417843

  8. Characterization and Optimization of Bioflocculant Exopolysaccharide Production by Cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 in Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Onkar Nath; Khangembam, Romi; Shamjetshabam, Minerva; Sharma, Aribam Subhalaxmi; Oinam, Gunapati; Brand, Jerry J

    2015-08-01

    Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by 40 cyanobacterial strains during their photoautotrophic growth was investigated. Highest levels of EPS were produced by Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990. EPS production was maximum during stationary growth phase, when nitrogenase activity was very low. Maximum EPS production occurred at pH 8.0 in the absence of any combined nitrogen source. The cyanobacterial EPS consisted of soluble protein and polysaccharide that included substantial amounts of neutral sugars and uronic acid. The EPS isolated from Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 demonstrated high flocculation capacity. There was a positive correlation between uronic acid content and flocculation activity. The flocculant bound a cationic dye, Alcian Blue, indicating it to be polyanionic. The 16S rRNA gene sequences for Nostoc sp. BTA97 and Anabaena sp. BTA990 were deposited at NCBI GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained as KJ830951 and KJ830948, respectively. The results of these experiments indicate that strains Anabaena sp. BTA990 and Nostoc sp. BTA97 are good candidates for the commercial production of EPS and might be utilized in industrial applications as an alternative to synthetic and abiotic flocculants.

  9. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dashti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl-acetamide (11, 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12 and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a. When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  10. Isolation of Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Silvina; Lorenzo, Gonzalo Sabarís Di; Lia, Verónica; Talia, Paola; Cataldi, Angel; Grasso, Daniel; Campos, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. In this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. There was a predominance of Gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not pure cultures. From these consortia, isolation of pure constituents was attempted in order to test the hypothesis whether microbial consortia are needed for full degradation of complex substrates. Two isolates, CB1-2-A-5 and VG-4-A-2, were obtained as the pure constituents of CB1-2 and VG-4 consortia, respectively. Based on 16S RNA sequence, they could be classified as Variovorax paradoxus and Paenibacillus alvei. Noteworthy, only VG-4 consortium showed measurable xylan degrading capacity and signs of filter paper degradation. However, no xylan or filter paper degrading capacities were observed for the pure cultures isolated from it, suggesting that other members of this consortium were necessary for these hydrolyzing activities. Our results indicated that Paenibacillus sp. and Variovorax sp. as well as VG-4 consortium, might be a useful source of hydrolytic enzymes. Moreover, although Variovorax sp. had been previously identified in metagenomic studies of cellulolytic communities, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of this microorganism as a cellulolytic genus. PMID:23301200

  11. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Mariana R.; Morais, Camila G.; Kominek, Jacek;

    2016-01-01

    co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and...

  12. Bioremediation of crude oil waste contaminated soil using petrophilic consortium and Azotobacter sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect Petrophilic and Azotobacter sp. consortium on the rate of degradation of hydrocarbons, Azotobacter growth, and Petrophilic fungi growth in an Inceptisol contaminated with crude oil waste originating from Balongan refinery, one of Pertamina (Indonesia’s largest state-owned oil and gas company units in Indramayu – West Java. This study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the glasshouse of research station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University at Ciparanje, Jatinangor District, Sumedang Regency of West Java. This study used a factorial completely randomized design with two treatments. The first treatment factor was Petrophilic microbes (A consisting of four levels (without treatment, 2% Petrophilic fungi, 2% Petrophilic bacteria, and the 2% Petrophilic consortium, and Azotobacter sp. The second treatment factor was Azotobacter sp. (B consisting of four levels (without treatment, 0.5%, Azotobacter sp., 1% Azotobacter sp., and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. The results demonstrated interaction between Petrophilic microbes and Azotobacter sp. towards hydrocarbon degradation rate, but no interaction was found towards the growth rate of Azotobacter sp. and Petrophilic fungi. Treatments of a1b3 (2% consortium of Petrophilic fungi with 1.5% Azotobacter sp. and a3b3 (2% Petrophilic consortium and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. had hydrocarbon degradation rate at 0.22 ppm/day for each treatment, showing the highest hydrocarbon degradation rate.

  13. Inhibition of Sp1 functions by its sequestration into PML nuclear bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Li

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs are comprised of PML and a striking variety of its associated proteins. Various cellular functions have been attributed to PML NBs, including the regulation of gene expression. We report here that induced expression of PML recruits Sp1 into PML NBs, leading to the reduction of Sp1 transactivation function. Specifically, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay demonstrated that induced expression of PML significantly diminishes the amount of Sp1 binding to its target gene promoter, immunofluorescence staining showed dramatic increase in the co-localization between PML and Sp1 upon induction of PML expression, moreover, PML and Sp1 co-fractionated in the core nuclear matrix. Our study further showed that PML promotes SUMOylation of Sp1 in a RING-motif-dependent manner, SUMOylation of Sp1 facilitates physical interaction between Sp1 and PML and recruitment of Sp1 into the PML NBs, the SUMO binding motif of PML was also important for its interaction with Sp1. The results of this study demonstrate a novel mechanism by which PML regulates gene expression through sequestration of the transcription factor into PML NBs.

  14. Transcriptional activation of REST by Sp1 in Huntington's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ravache

    Full Text Available In Huntington's disease (HD, mutant huntingtin (mHtt disrupts the normal transcriptional program of disease neurons by altering the function of several gene expression regulators such as Sp1. REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor, a key regulator of neuronal differentiation, is also aberrantly activated in HD by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that the level of REST mRNA is increased in HD mice and in NG108 cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells and expressing a toxic mHtt fragment. Using luciferase reporter gene assay, we delimited the REST promoter regions essential for mHtt-mediated REST upregulation and found that they contain Sp factor binding sites. We provide evidence that Sp1 and Sp3 bind REST promoter and interplay to fine-tune REST transcription. In undifferentiated NG108 cells, Sp1 and Sp3 have antagonistic effect, Sp1 acting as an activator and Sp3 as a repressor. Upon neuronal differentiation, we show that the amount and ratio of Sp1/Sp3 proteins decline, as does REST expression, and that the transcriptional role of Sp3 shifts toward a weak activator. Therefore, our results provide new molecular information to the transcriptional regulation of REST during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, specific knockdown of Sp1 abolishes REST upregulation in NG108 neuronal-like cells expressing mHtt. Our data together with earlier reports suggest that mHtt triggers a pathogenic cascade involving Sp1 activation, which leads to REST upregulation and repression of neuronal genes.

  15. Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov., Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov.: Three novel taxa from the faeces of cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Filippini, Gianfranco; Spiezio, Caterina; Sandri, Camillo; Biavati, Bruno; Pisi, Annamaria; Mattarelli, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T)). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the results from the cluster analysis and revealed relatively low level similarities to each other (mean value 95%) and to members of the genus Bifidobacterium. All eight isolates showed the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (mean value 96.6%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ and dnaG) supported their independent phylogenetic position to each other and to related species of Bifidobacterium. The G+C contents were 63.2%, 65.9% and 63.0% for Cluster I, Cluster II and Cluster III, respectively. Peptidoglycan types were A3α l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala, A4β l-Orn (Lys)-d-Ser-d-Glu and A3β l-Orn-l-Ser-l-Ala in Clusters I, II and III, respectively. Based on the data provided, each cluster represented a novel taxon for which the names Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov. (TRE 17(T)=DSM 100689=JCM 30941; TRE 26=DSM 100690=JCM 30942), Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. (TRE C(T)=DSM 100685=JCM 30943) and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov. (TRE M=DSM 100688=JCM 30944) are proposed. PMID:27236565

  16. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov., Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, Louis; Gouy, Cécile; Christen, Richard; Samson, Régine

    2003-03-01

    A collection of 42 strains belonging to the five subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum (subspecies atrosepticum, betavasculorum, carotovorum, odoriferum and wasabiae) and 11 reference and type strains of biovars of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, Pectobacterium cacticidum and Brenneria paradisiaca were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization, numerical taxonomy of 120 phenotypic characteristics, serology and new phylogenetic analysis of previously reported sequences from a database of aligned 16S rDNA sequences. The P. carotovorum subspecies formed a clade according to neighbour-joining methods, but they formed two paraphyletic clusters according to maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony. However, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences alone is not sufficient to justify generic differentiation and therefore, it is proposed to retain the P. carotovorum subspecies in the genus Pectobacterium. The strains of P. carotovorum were distributed in four genomospecies: genomospecies 1, harbouring all strains of subsp. atrosepticum, genomospecies 2, including the strains of subsp. betavasculorum isolated from sugar beet, sunflower, potato, hyacinth and artichoke, genomospecies 3, clustering all strains of subsp. wasabiae isolated from wasabi in Japan, and genomospecies 4, gathering together strains of subsp. carotovorum and strains of subsp. odoriferum. Four strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum remained unclustered. Biochemical criteria, deduced from a numerical taxonomy study of phenotypic characteristics and serological reactions, allowed discrimination of strains belonging to the four genomospecies. Thus, it is proposed that three genomospecies be elevated to species level as Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 1526T =LMG 2386T =NCPPB 549T =ICMP 1526T), Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 2122T =LMG 2464T =NCPPB 2795T =ICMP 4226T) and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp. nov. (type strain CFBP 3304T =LMG 8404T =NCPPB 3701T =ICMP 9121T

  17. Synthetic lung surfactants containing SP-B and SP-C peptides plus novel phospholipase-resistant lipids or glycerophospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Robert H.; Gupta, Rohun; Schwan, Adrian L.; Wang, Zhengdong; Shkoor, Mohanad Gh

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP)-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight). The objective of the work is to test whether these novel lipid/peptide synthetic surfactants have favorable preclinical activity (biophysical, pulmonary) for therapeutic use in reversing surfactant deficiency or dysfunction in lung disease or injury. Methods Surface activity of synthetic lipid/peptide surfactants was assessed in vitro at 37 °C by measuring adsorption in a stirred subphase apparatus and dynamic surface tension lowering in pulsating and captive bubble surfactometers. Shear viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate on a Wells-Brookfield micro-viscometer. In vivo pulmonary activity was determined by measuring lung function (arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance) in ventilated rats and rabbits with surfactant deficiency/dysfunction induced by saline lavage to lower arterial PO2 to C. However, dual-peptide surfactants containing 1.5% S-MB DATK + 1.5% SP-Css ion-lock 1 combined with 9:1 DEPN-8:PG-1 or 5:3:2 DPPC:POPC:POPG had the greatest in vivo activity in improving arterial oxygenation and dynamic lung compliance in ventilated animals with ARDS. Saline dispersions of these dual-peptide synthetic surfactants were also found to have shear viscosities comparable to or below those of current animal-derived surfactant drugs, supporting their potential ease of deliverability by

  18. Human Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A1 Provides Maximal Efficiency of Lung Interfacial Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pascual, Alicia; Arroyo, Raquel; Floros, Joanna; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse and contributes to the protection of the respiratory surface from the entry of pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic glycoprotein of the collectin family, and its main function is related to host defense. However, previous studies have shown that SP-A also aids in the formation and biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant films at the air-water interface. Humans, unlike rodents, have two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The encoded proteins, SP-A1 and SP-A2, differ quantitatively or qualitatively in function. It has been shown that both gene products are necessary for tubular myelin formation, an extracellular structural form of lung surfactant. The goal of this study was to investigate potential differences in the biophysical properties of surfactants containing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both. For this purpose, we have studied for the first time, to our knowledge, the biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant from individual humanized transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both SP-A1 and SP-A2, in the captive bubble surfactometer. We observed that pulmonary surfactant containing SP-A1 reaches lower surface tension after postexpansion interfacial adsorption than surfactants containing no SP-A or only SP-A2. Under interfacial compression-expansion cycling conditions, surfactant films containing SP-A1 also performed better, particularly with respect to the reorganization of the films that takes place during compression. On the other hand, addition of recombinant SP-A1 to a surfactant preparation reconstituted from the hydrophobic fraction of a porcine surfactant made it more resistant to inhibition by serum than the addition of equivalent amounts of SP-A2. We conclude that the presence of SP-A1 allows pulmonary surfactant to adopt a particularly favorable structure with optimal biophysical properties. PMID:27508436

  19. Cryptosporidium sp. em intestinos, bursa de Fabricius e traquéia de frangos (Gallus gallus sp Cryptosporidium sp. in intestines, bursa of Fabricius and poultry trachea (Gallus gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Jacobsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitas do gênero Cryptosporidium infectam várias espécies de animais, e a enfermidade resultante é a criptosporidiose, importante zoonose de distribuição mundial. Em aves, a infecção tem sido reportada em várias espécies. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a presença do parasita em 208 amostras de bursa de Fabricius, 208 amostras de intestino e 208 de traquéia, coletadas de frangos (Gallus gallus sp de diferentes idades, abatidos em três propriedades rurais do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram feitas três impressões de cada amostra em lâminas para microscopia, coradas pelas técnicas de Ziehl Neelsen modificada com Dimetil Sulfóxido (DMSO, Ziehl Neelsen modificada por Henriksen e Pohlens (HP, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN e Kinyoun (K, perfazendo 1872 impressões analisadas em microscopia óptica (1000 x. Neste total, nas diferentes colorações empregadas, oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados em 18 impressões de traquéia, 42 de bursa de Fabricius e 29 de intestino, resultando positivas, portanto, 89 impressões. Destas, 44 foram identificadas pela técnica de DMSO, 32 por HP, três por ZN e 10 por K. Pode-se concluir que os oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados com maior freqüência nas impressões de bursa de Fabricius, e que o método de coloração, dentre os utilizados, que proporcionou a maior visualização dos oocistos foi o DMSO.Parasites of the gennus Cryptosporidium infect several animal species.The disease resultant is the criptosporidiosis, an important zoonosis spreaded worldwide. In poultry, the infection has been reported in several species. This study goal was to identify the parasite presence in 208 bursa of Fabricius samples, 208 intestine and 208 of trachea, collected at chicks (Gallus gallus sp of different ages, killed at three farms in Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three printings of each sample were done,on glass slides colored through the

  20. [Biofilm Formation by the Nonflagellated flhB1 Mutant of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelud'ko, A V; Filip'echeva, Yu A; Shumiliva, E M; Khlebtsov, B N; Burov, A M; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with mixed flagellation are able to form biofilms on various surfaces. A nonflagellated mutant of this strain with inactivated chromosomal copy of the flhB gene (flhB1) was shown to exhibit specific traits at the later stages of biofilm formation on a hydrophilic (glass) surface. Mature biofilms of the flhB1::Omegon-Km mutant Sp245.1063 were considerably thinner than those of the parent strain Sp245. The biofilms of the mutant were more susceptible to the forces of hydrodynamic shear. A. brasilense Sp245 cells in biofilms were not found to possess lateral flagella. Cells with polar flagella were, however, revealed by atomic force microscopy of mature native biofilms of strain Sp245. Preservation of a polar flagellum (probably nonmotile) on the cells of A. brasilense Sp245 may enhance the biofilm stability.