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Sample records for archaean methanosarcina acetivorans

  1. Carbon-dependent control of electron transfer and central carbon pathway genes for methane biosynthesis in the Archaean, Methanosarcina acetivorans strain C2A

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    Gunsalus Robert P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans strain C2A forms methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from a variety of one-carbon substrates and acetate. Whereas the biochemical pathways leading to methane formation are well understood, little is known about the expression of the many of the genes that encode proteins needed for carbon flow, electron transfer and/or energy conservation. Quantitative transcript analysis was performed on twenty gene clusters encompassing over one hundred genes in M. acetivorans that encode enzymes/proteins with known or potential roles in substrate conversion to methane. Results The expression of many seemingly "redundant" genes/gene clusters establish substrate dependent control of approximately seventy genes for methane production by the pathways for methanol and acetate utilization. These include genes for soluble-type and membrane-type heterodisulfide reductases (hdr, hydrogenases including genes for a vht-type F420 non-reducing hydrogenase, molybdenum-type (fmd as well as tungsten-type (fwd formylmethanofuran dehydrogenases, genes for rnf and mrp-type electron transfer complexes, for acetate uptake, plus multiple genes for aha- and atp-type ATP synthesis complexes. Analysis of promoters for seven gene clusters reveal UTR leaders of 51-137 nucleotides in length, raising the possibility of both transcriptional and translational levels of control. Conclusions The above findings establish the differential and coordinated expression of two major gene families in M. acetivorans in response to carbon/energy supply. Furthermore, the quantitative mRNA measurements demonstrate the dynamic range for modulating transcript abundance. Since many of these gene clusters in M. acetivorans are also present in other Methanosarcina species including M. mazei, and in M. barkeri, these findings provide a basis for predicting related control in these environmentally significant methanogens.

  2. Reductive nitrosylation of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin: A comparative study

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    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Pesce, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino [Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ciaccio, Chiara; Coletta, Massimo [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Medicina Traslazionale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Chimica dei Metalli nei Sistemi Biologici, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-70121 Bari (Italy); Dewilde, Sylvia [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO. ► Reductive nitrosylation of ferric M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► Nitrosylation of ferrious M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin is a scavenger of RNS and ROS. -- Abstract: Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea expressing protoglobin (Pgb) which might either facilitate O{sub 2} detoxification or act as a CO sensor/supplier in methanogenesis. Unusually, M. acetivorans Pgb (MaPgb) binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO and displays anticooperativity in ligand binding. Here, kinetics and/or thermodynamics of ferric and ferrous MaPgb (MaPgb(III) and MaPgb(II), respectively) nitrosylation are reported. Data were obtained between pH 7.2 and 9.5, at 22.0 °C. Addition of NO to MaPgb(III) leads to the transient formation of MaPgb(III)–NO in equilibrium with MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +}. In turn, MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} is converted to MaPgb(II) by OH{sup −}-based catalysis. Then, MaPgb(II) binds NO very rapidly leading to MaPgb(II)–NO. The rate-limiting step for reductive nitrosylation of MaPgb(III) is represented by the OH{sup −}-mediated reduction of MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} to MaPgb(II). Present results highlight the potential role of MaPgb in scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species.

  3. Reductive nitrosylation of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin binds preferentially O2 rather than CO. ► Reductive nitrosylation of ferric M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► Nitrosylation of ferrious M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin is a scavenger of RNS and ROS. -- Abstract: Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea expressing protoglobin (Pgb) which might either facilitate O2 detoxification or act as a CO sensor/supplier in methanogenesis. Unusually, M. acetivorans Pgb (MaPgb) binds preferentially O2 rather than CO and displays anticooperativity in ligand binding. Here, kinetics and/or thermodynamics of ferric and ferrous MaPgb (MaPgb(III) and MaPgb(II), respectively) nitrosylation are reported. Data were obtained between pH 7.2 and 9.5, at 22.0 °C. Addition of NO to MaPgb(III) leads to the transient formation of MaPgb(III)–NO in equilibrium with MaPgb(II)–NO+. In turn, MaPgb(II)–NO+ is converted to MaPgb(II) by OH−-based catalysis. Then, MaPgb(II) binds NO very rapidly leading to MaPgb(II)–NO. The rate-limiting step for reductive nitrosylation of MaPgb(III) is represented by the OH−-mediated reduction of MaPgb(II)–NO+ to MaPgb(II). Present results highlight the potential role of MaPgb in scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species

  4. Metabolic reconstruction of the archaeon methanogen Methanosarcina Acetivorans

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    Maranas Costas D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanogens are ancient organisms that are key players in the carbon cycle accounting for about one billion tones of biological methane produced annually. Methanosarcina acetivorans, with a genome size of ~5.7 mb, is the largest sequenced archaeon methanogen and unique amongst the methanogens in its biochemical characteristics. By following a systematic workflow we reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for M. acetivorans. This process relies on previously developed computational tools developed in our group to correct growth prediction inconsistencies with in vivo data sets and rectify topological inconsistencies in the model. Results The generated model iVS941 accounts for 941 genes, 705 reactions and 708 metabolites. The model achieves 93.3% prediction agreement with in vivo growth data across different substrates and multiple gene deletions. The model also correctly recapitulates metabolic pathway usage patterns of M. acetivorans such as the indispensability of flux through methanogenesis for growth on acetate and methanol and the unique biochemical characteristics under growth on carbon monoxide. Conclusions Based on the size of the genome-scale metabolic reconstruction and extent of validated predictions this model represents the most comprehensive up-to-date effort to catalogue methanogenic metabolism. The reconstructed model is available in spreadsheet and SBML formats to enable dissemination.

  5. Electron transport in acetate-grown Methanosarcina acetivorans

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    Ferry James G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is the major source of methane in nature. The majority of investigations have focused on acetotrophic methanogens for which energy-conserving electron transport is dependent on the production and consumption of H2 as an intermediate, although the great majority of acetotrophs are unable to metabolize H2. The presence of cytochrome c and a complex (Ma-Rnf homologous to the Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation complexes distributed in the domain Bacteria distinguishes non-H2-utilizing Methanosarcina acetivorans from H2-utilizing species suggesting fundamentally different electron transport pathways. Thus, the membrane-bound electron transport chain of acetate-grown M. acetivorans was investigated to advance a more complete understanding of acetotrophic methanogens. Results A component of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CdhAE was partially purified and shown to reduce a ferredoxin purified using an assay coupling reduction of the ferredoxin to oxidation of CdhAE. Mass spectrometry analysis of the ferredoxin identified the encoding gene among annotations for nine ferredoxins encoded in the genome. Reduction of purified membranes from acetate-grown cells with ferredoxin lead to reduction of membrane-associated multi-heme cytochrome c that was re-oxidized by the addition of either the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB or 2-hydoxyphenazine, the soluble analog of methanophenazine (MP. Reduced 2-hydoxyphenazine was re-oxidized by membranes that was dependent on addition of CoM-S-S-CoB. A genomic analysis of Methanosarcina thermophila, a non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogen, identified genes homologous to cytochrome c and the Ma-Rnf complex of M. acetivorans. Conclusions The results support roles for ferredoxin, cytochrome c and MP in the energy-conserving electron transport pathway of non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogens. This is the first report of involvement of a cytochrome c in

  6. The Methanosarcina barkeri genome: comparative analysis withMethanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina mazei reveals extensiverearrangement within methanosarcinal genomes

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    Maeder, Dennis L.; Anderson, Iain; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce,David C.; Gilna, Paul; Han, Cliff S.; Lapidus, Alla; Metcalf, William W.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2006-05-19

    We report here a comparative analysis of the genome sequence of Methanosarcina barkeri with those of Methanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina mazei. All three genomes share a conserved double origin of replication and many gene clusters. M. barkeri is distinguished by having an organization that is well conserved with respect to the other Methanosarcinae in the region proximal to the origin of replication with interspecies gene similarities as high as 95%. However it is disordered and marked by increased transposase frequency and decreased gene synteny and gene density in the proximal semi-genome. Of the 3680 open reading frames in M. barkeri, 678 had paralogs with better than 80% similarity to both M. acetivorans and M. mazei while 128 nonhypothetical orfs were unique (non-paralogous) amongst these species including a complete formate dehydrogenase operon, two genes required for N-acetylmuramic acid synthesis, a 14 gene gas vesicle cluster and a bacterial P450-specific ferredoxin reductase cluster not previously observed or characterized in this genus. A cryptic 36 kbp plasmid sequence was detected in M. barkeri that contains an orc1 gene flanked by a presumptive origin of replication consisting of 38 tandem repeats of a 143 nt motif. Three-way comparison of these genomes reveals differing mechanisms for the accrual of changes. Elongation of the large M. acetivorans is the result of multiple gene-scale insertions and duplications uniformly distributed in that genome, while M. barkeri is characterized by localized inversions associated with the loss of gene content. In contrast, the relatively short M. mazei most closely approximates the ancestral organizational state.

  7. Assessing methanotrophy and carbon fixation for biofuel production by Methanosarcina acetivorans

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    Nazem-Bokaee, Hadi; Gopalakrishnan, Saratram; James G. Ferry; Thomas K. Wood; Maranas, Costas D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Methanosarcina acetivorans is a model archaeon with renewed interest due to its unique reversible methane production pathways. However, the mechanism and relevant pathways implicated in (co)utilizing novel carbon substrates in this organism are still not fully understood. This paper provides a comprehensive inventory of thermodynamically feasible routes for anaerobic methane oxidation, co-reactant utilization, and maximum carbon yields of major biofuel candidates by M. acetivorans....

  8. Activation of Methanogenesis by Cadmium in the Marine Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans

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    Elizabeth Lira-Silva; M Geovanni Santiago-Martínez; Viridiana Hernández-Juárez; Rodolfo García-Contreras; Rafael Moreno-Sánchez; Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2) to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes) with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cel...

  9. A phytoene desaturase homolog gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans is responsible for hydroxyarchaeol biosynthesis.

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    Mori, Takeshi; Isobe, Keisuke; Ogawa, Takuya; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2015-10-16

    Hydroxyarchaeols are the typical core structures of archaeal membrane lipids uniquely produced by a limited number of methanogenic lineages, which are mainly classified in orders Methanosarcinales and Methanococcales. However, the biosynthetic machinery that is used for the biosynthesis of hydroxyarcheol core lipids has not been discovered. In this study, the ma0127 gene from Methanosarcina acetivorans, which encodes a phytoene desaturase-like protein, was found to be responsible for the hydration of a geranylgeranyl group in an archaeal-lipid precursor, sn-2,3-O-digeranylgeranylglyceryl phosphoglycerol, produced in Escherichia coli cells expressing several archaeal enzymes. LC-ESI-tandem-MS analyses proved that hydration occurs at the 2',3'-double bond of the geranylgeranyl group, yielding a 3'-hydroxylated lipid precursor. This result suggests that the encoded protein MA0127 is a hydratase involved in hydroxyarchaeol biosynthesis, because M. acetivorans is known to produce hydroxyarchaeol core lipids with a 3'-hydroxyphytanyl group. Furthermore, the distribution of the putative orthologs of ma0127 among methanogens is generally in good agreement with that of hydroxyarchaeol producers, including anaerobic methanotrophs (ANMEs). PMID:26361140

  10. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

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    Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells. In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  11. Genetic, physiological and biochemical characterization of multiple methanol methyltransferase isozymes in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A.

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    Pritchett, Matthew A; Metcalf, William W

    2005-06-01

    Biochemical evidence suggests that methanol catabolism in Methanosarcina species requires the concerted effort of methanol:5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide methyltransferase (MtaB), a corrinoid-containing methyl-accepting protein (MtaC) and Co-methyl-5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide:2-mercapto-ethanesulphonic acid methyltransferase (MtaA). Here we show that Methanosarcina acetivorans possesses three operons encoding putative methanol-specific MtaB and corrinoid proteins: mtaCB1, mtaCB2 and mtaCB3. Deletion mutants lacking the three operons, in all possible combinations, were constructed and characterized. Strains deleted for any two of the operons grew on methanol, whereas strains lacking all three did not. Therefore, each operon encodes a bona fide methanol-utilizing MtaB/corrinoid protein pair. Most of the mutants were similar to the wild-type strain, with the exception of the DeltamtaCB1 DeltamtaCB2 double mutant, which grew more slowly and had reduced cell yields on methanol medium. However, all mutants displayed significantly longer lag times when switching from growth on trimethylamine to growth on methanol. This indicates that all three operons are required for wild-type growth on methanol and suggests that each operon has a distinct role in the metabolism of this substrate. The combined methanol:CoM methyltransferase activity of strains carrying only mtaCB1 was twofold higher than strains carrying only mtaCB2 and fourfold higher than strains carrying only mtaCB3. Interestingly, the presence of the mtaCB2 and mtaCB3 operons, in addition to the mtaCB1 operon, did not increase the overall methyltransferase activity, suggesting that these strains may be limited by MtaA availability. All deletion mutants were unaffected with respect to growth on trimethylamine and acetate corroborating biochemical evidence indicating that each methanogenic substrate has specific methyltransfer enzymes. PMID:15882413

  12. Identification and characterization of arsenite methyltransferase from an archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A.

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    Wang, Pei-Pei; Sun, Guo-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic contaminant in the environment. The methylation of arsenic can affect its toxicity and is primarily mediated by biological processes. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic methylation in archaea although archaea are widespread in the environment. Here, an arsenite [As(III)] methyltransferase (ArsM) was identified and characterized from an archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Heterologous expression of MaarsM was shown to confer As(III) resistance to an arsenic-sensitive strain of E. coli through arsenic methylation and subsequent volatilization. Purified MaArsM protein was further identified the function in catalyzing the formation of various methylated products from As(III) in vitro. Methylation of As(III) by MaArsM is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiol cofactors used, with some of them (coenzyme M, homocysteine, and dithiothreitol) more efficient than GSH. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that three conserved cysteine (Cys) residues (Cys62, Cys150, and Cys200) in MaArsM were necessary for As(III) methylation, of which only Cys150 and Cys200 were required for the methylation of monomethylarsenic. These results present a molecular pathway for arsenic methylation in archaea and provide some insight into the role of archaea in As biogeochemistry. PMID:25295694

  13. Structural Bases for the Regulation of CO Binding in the Archaeal Protoglobin from Methanosarcina acetivorans.

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    Lesley Tilleman

    Full Text Available Studies of CO ligand binding revealed that two protein states with different ligand affinities exist in the protoglobin from Methanosarcina acetivorans (in MaPgb*, residue Cys(E20101 was mutated to Ser. The switch between the two states occurs upon the ligation of MaPgb*. In this work, site-directed mutagenesis was used to explore the role of selected amino acids in ligand sensing and stabilization and in affecting the equilibrium between the "more reactive" and "less reactive" conformational states of MaPgb*. A combination of experimental data obtained from electronic and resonance Raman absorption spectra, CO ligand-binding kinetics, and X-ray crystallography was employed. Three amino acids were assigned a critical role: Trp(60B9, Tyr(61B10, and Phe(93E11. Trp(60B9 and Tyr(61B10 are involved in ligand stabilization in the distal heme pocket; the strength of their interaction was reflected by the spectra of the CO-ligated MaPgb* and by the CO dissociation rate constants. In contrast, Phe(93E11 is a key player in sensing the heme-bound ligand and promotes the rotation of the Trp(60B9 side chain, thus favoring ligand stabilization. Although the structural bases of the fast CO binding rate constant of MaPgb* are still unclear, Trp(60B9, Tyr(61B10, and Phe(93E11 play a role in regulating heme/ligand affinity.

  14. Activation of methanogenesis by cadmium in the marine archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

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    Elizabeth Lira-Silva

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2 to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cells, respectively. Cobalt and zinc but not copper or iron also activated the methane production rate. Methanogenic carbonic anhydrase and acetate kinase were directly activated by cadmium. Indeed, cells cultured in 100 µM total cadmium removed 41-69% of the heavy metal from the culture and accumulated 231-539 nmol Cd/mg cell protein. This is the first report showing that (i Cd(2+ has an activating effect on methanogenesis, a biotechnological relevant process in the bio-fuels field; and (ii a methanogenic archaea is able to remove a heavy metal from aquatic environments.

  15. Methanosarcina acetivorans 16S rRNA and transcription factor nucleotide fluctuation with implications in exobiology and pathology

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    Holden, Todd; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P.; Flamholz, A.; Marchese, P.; Hiciano, O.; Yao, H.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2008-08-01

    Cultures of the methane-producing archaea Methanosarcina, have recently been isolated from Alaskan sediments. It has been proposed that methanogens are strong candidates for exobiological life in extreme conditions. The spatial environmental gradients, such as those associated with the polygons on Mars' surface, could have been produced by past methanogenesis activity. The 16S rRNA gene has been used routinely to classify phenotypes. Using the fractal dimension of nucleotide fluctuation, a comparative study of the 16S rRNA nucleotide fluctuation in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, Deinococcus radiodurans, and E. coli was conducted. The results suggest that Methanosarcina acetivorans has the lowest fractal dimension, consistent with its ancestral position in evolution. Variation in fluctuation complexity was also detected in the transcription factors. The transcription factor B (TFB) was found to have a higher fractal dimension as compared to transcription factor E (TFE), consistent with the fact that a single TFB in Methanosarcina acetivorans can code three different TATA box proteins. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy of the DNA repair genes was found to be highest for Methanosarcina acetivorans, suggesting a relatively weak bonding, which is consistent with its low prevalence in pathology. Multitasking capacity comparison of type-I and type-II topoisomerases has been shown to correlate with fractal dimension using the methicillin-resistant strain MRSA 252. The analysis suggests that gene adaptation in a changing chemical environment can be measured in terms of bioinformatics. Given that the radiation resistant Deinococcus radiodurans is a strong candidate for an extraterrestrial origin and that the cold temperature Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 can function in Siberian permafrost, the fractal dimension comparison in this study suggests that a chemical resistant methanogen could exist in extremely cold conditions (such as that which existed on early

  16. Apo and ligand-bound structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

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    Chan, Sum; Giuroiu, Iulia; Chernishof, Irina; Sawaya, Michael R; Chiang, Janet; Gunsalus, Robert P; Arbing, Mark A; Perry, L Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The trace-element oxyanion molybdate, which is required for the growth of many bacterial and archaeal species, is transported into the cell by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily uptake system called ModABC. ModABC consists of the ModA periplasmic solute-binding protein, the integral membrane-transport protein ModB and the ATP-binding and hydrolysis cassette protein ModC. In this study, X-ray crystal structures of ModA from the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans (MaModA) have been determined in the apoprotein conformation at 1.95 and 1.69 A resolution and in the molybdate-bound conformation at 2.25 and 2.45 A resolution. The overall domain structure of MaModA is similar to other ModA proteins in that it has a bilobal structure in which two mixed alpha/beta domains are linked by a hinge region. The apo MaModA is the first unliganded archaeal ModA structure to be determined: it exhibits a deep cleft between the two domains and confirms that upon binding ligand one domain is rotated towards the other by a hinge-bending motion, which is consistent with the 'Venus flytrap' model seen for bacterial-type periplasmic binding proteins. In contrast to the bacterial ModA structures, which have tetrahedral coordination of their metal substrates, molybdate-bound MaModA employs octahedral coordination of its substrate like other archaeal ModA proteins. PMID:20208152

  17. The nutritional status of Methanosarcina acetivorans regulates glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis and glycolysis fluxes.

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    Santiago-Martínez, Michel Geovanni; Encalada, Rusely; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Reyes-García, Marco Antonio; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an essential pathway in methanogens because they are unable to use exogenous hexoses as carbon source for cell growth. With the aim of understanding the regulatory mechanisms of central carbon metabolism in Methanosarcina acetivorans, the present study investigated gene expression, the activities and metabolic regulation of key enzymes, metabolite contents and fluxes of gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and glycogen synthesis/degradation pathways. Cells were grown with methanol as a carbon source. Key enzymes were kinetically characterized at physiological pH/temperature. Active consumption of methanol during exponential cell growth correlated with significant methanogenesis, gluconeogenic flux and steady glycogen synthesis. After methanol exhaustion, cells reached the stationary growth phase, which correlated with the rise in glycogen consumption and glycolytic flux, decreased methanogenesis, negligible acetate production and an absence of gluconeogenesis. Elevated activities of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthetase complex and pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase suggested the generation of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for glycogen synthesis. In the early stationary growth phase, the transcript contents and activities of pyruvate phosphate dikinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glycogen synthase decreased, whereas those of glycogen phosphorylase, ADP-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase increased. Therefore, glycogen and gluconeogenic metabolites were synthesized when an external carbon source was provided. Once such a carbon source became depleted, glycolysis and methanogenesis fed by glycogen degradation provided the ATP supply. Weak inhibition of key enzymes by metabolites suggested that the pathways evaluated were mainly transcriptionally regulated. Because glycogen metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis are not present in all methanogens, the overall data suggest that glycogen storage might represent an environmental

  18. Nitrite-reductase and peroxynitrite isomerization activities of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin.

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    Paolo Ascenzi

    Full Text Available Within the globin superfamily, protoglobins (Pgb belong phylogenetically to the same cluster of two-domain globin-coupled sensors and single-domain sensor globins. Multiple functional roles have been postulated for Methanosarcina acetivorans Pgb (Ma-Pgb, since the detoxification of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species might co-exist with enzymatic activity(ies to facilitate the conversion of CO to methane. Here, the nitrite-reductase and peroxynitrite isomerization activities of the CysE20Ser mutant of Ma-Pgb (Ma-Pgb* are reported and analyzed in parallel with those of related heme-proteins. Kinetics of nitrite-reductase activity of ferrous Ma-Pgb* (Ma-Pgb*-Fe(II is biphasic and values of the second-order rate constant for the reduction of NO2- to NO and the concomitant formation of nitrosylated Ma-Pgb*-Fe(II (Ma-Pgb*-Fe(II-NO are k(app1= 9.6 ± 0.2 M(-1 s(-1 and k(app2 = 1.2 ± 0.1 M(-1 s(-1 (at pH 7.4 and 20 °C. The k(app1 and k(app2 values increase by about one order of magnitude for each pH unit decrease, between pH 8.3 and 6.2, indicating that the reaction requires one proton. On the other hand, kinetics of peroxynitrite isomerization catalyzed by ferric Ma-Pgb* (Ma-Pgb*-Fe(III is monophasic and values of the second order rate constant for peroxynitrite isomerization by Ma-Pgb*-Fe(III and of the first order rate constant for the spontaneous conversion of peroxynitrite to nitrate are h(app = 3.8 × 10(4 M(-1 s(-1 and h0 = 2.8 × 10(-1 s(-1 (at pH 7.4 and 20 °C. The pH-dependence of hon and h0 values reflects the acid-base equilibrium of peroxynitrite (pKa = 6.7 and 6.9, respectively; at 20 °C, indicating that HOONO is the species that reacts preferentially with the heme-Fe(III atom. These results highlight the potential role of Pgbs in the biosynthesis and scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species.

  19. Geranylgeranyl reductase and ferredoxin from Methanosarcina acetivorans are required for the synthesis of fully reduced archaeal membrane lipid in Escherichia coli cells.

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    Isobe, Keisuke; Ogawa, Takuya; Hirose, Kana; Yokoi, Takeru; Yoshimura, Tohru; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Archaea produce membrane lipids that typically possess fully saturated isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains attached to the glycerol moiety via ether bonds. They are functionally similar to, but structurally and biosynthetically distinct from, the fatty acid-based membrane lipids of bacteria and eukaryotes. It is believed that the characteristic lipid structure helps archaea survive under severe conditions such as extremely low or high pH, high salt concentrations, and/or high temperatures. We detail here the first successful production of an intact archaeal membrane lipid, which has fully saturated isoprenoid chains, in bacterial cells. The introduction of six phospholipid biosynthetic genes from a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina acetivorans, in Escherichia coli enabled the host bacterium to synthesize the archaeal lipid, i.e., diphytanylglyceryl phosphoglycerol, while a glycerol modification of the phosphate group was probably catalyzed by endogenous E. coli enzymes. Reduction of the isoprenoid chains occurred only when archaeal ferredoxin was expressed with geranylgeranyl reductase, suggesting the role of ferredoxin as a specific electron donor for the reductase. This report is the first identification of a physiological reducer for archaeal geranylgeranyl reductase. On the other hand, geranylgeranyl reductase from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius could, by itself, replace both its orthologue and ferredoxin from M. acetivorans, which indicated that an endogenous redox system of E. coli reduced the enzyme. PMID:24214941

  20. Physiology and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Methanol:Coenzyme M Methyltransferase Isozymes in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A ▿ §

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    Opulencia, Rina B.; Bose, Arpita; Metcalf, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Methanosarcina species possess three operons (mtaCB1, mtaCB2, and mtaCB3) encoding methanol-specific methyltransferase 1 (MT1) isozymes and two genes (mtaA1 and mtaA2) with the potential to encode a methanol-specific methyltransferase 2 (MT2). Previous genetic studies showed that these genes are differentially regulated and encode enzymes with distinct levels of methyltransferase activity. Here, the effects of promoter strength on growth and on the rate of methane production were examined by ...

  1. Physiology and posttranscriptional regulation of methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase isozymes in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opulencia, Rina B; Bose, Arpita; Metcalf, William W

    2009-11-01

    Methanosarcina species possess three operons (mtaCB1, mtaCB2, and mtaCB3) encoding methanol-specific methyltransferase 1 (MT1) isozymes and two genes (mtaA1 and mtaA2) with the potential to encode a methanol-specific methyltransferase 2 (MT2). Previous genetic studies showed that these genes are differentially regulated and encode enzymes with distinct levels of methyltransferase activity. Here, the effects of promoter strength on growth and on the rate of methane production were examined by constructing strains in which the mtaCB promoters were exchanged. When expressed from the strong PmtaC1 or PmtaC2 promoter, each of the MtaC and MtaB proteins supported growth and methane production at wild-type levels. In contrast, all mtaCB operons exhibited poorer growth and lower rates of methane production when PmtaC3 controlled their expression. Thus, previously observed phenotypic differences can be attributed largely to differences in promoter activity. Strains carrying various combinations of mtaC, mtaB, and mtaA expressed from the strong, tetracycline-regulated PmcrB(tetO1) promoter exhibited similar growth characteristics on methanol, showing that all combinations of MtaC, MtaB, and MtaA can form functional MT1/MT2 complexes. However, an in vitro assay of coupled MT1/MT2 activity showed significant variation between the strains. Surprisingly, these variations in activity correlated with differences in protein abundance, despite the fact that all the encoding genes were expressed from the same promoter. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and reporter gene fusion data suggest that the mtaCBA transcripts show different stabilities, which are strongly influenced by the growth substrate. PMID:19767431

  2. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  3. A Multienzyme Complex Channels Substrates and Electrons through Acetyl-CoA and Methane Biosynthesis Pathways in Methanosarcina

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon J Lieber; Jennifer Catlett; Nandu Madayiputhiya; Renu Nandakumar; Lopez, Madeline M.; Metcalf, William W.; Buan, Nicole R.

    2014-01-01

    Multienzyme complexes catalyze important metabolic reactions in many organisms, but little is known about the complexes involved in biological methane production (methanogenesis). A crosslinking-mass spectrometry (XL-MS) strategy was employed to identify proteins associated with coenzyme M-coenzyme B heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), an essential enzyme in all methane-producing archaea (methanogens). In Methanosarcina acetivorans, Hdr forms a multienzyme complex with acetyl-CoA decarbonylase s...

  4. Genetic Basis for Metabolism of Methylated Sulfur Compounds in Methanosarcina Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, He; Metcalf, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans uses a variety of methylated sulfur compounds as carbon and energy sources. Previous studies implicated the mtsD, mtsF, and mtsH genes in catabolism of dimethylsulfide, but the genes required for use of other methylsulfides have yet to be established. Here, we show that a four-gene locus, designated mtpCAP-msrH, is specifically required for growth on methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA). The mtpC, mtpA, and mtpP genes encode a putative corrinoid protein, a coenzyme M (Co...

  5. Genomic and proteomic analyses reveal multiple homologs of genes encoding enzymes of the methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase system that are differentially expressed in methanol- and acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-Huai R; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Ferry, James G

    2002-09-24

    Each of the genomic sequences of Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanosarcina mazei, and Methanosarcina thermophila revealed two homologs of mtaA, three homologs of mtaB, and three homologs of mtaC encoding enzymes specific for methanogenesis from methanol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses of polypeptides from M. thermophila established that methanol induces the expression of mtaA-1, mtaB-1, mtaB-2, mtaB-3, mtaC-1, mtaC-2, and mtaC-3 whereas mtaB-3 and mtaC-3 are constitutively expressed in acetate-grown cells. The gene product of one of three mttC homologs, encoding trimethylamine-specific methyltransferase I, was detected in methanol- but not acetate-grown M. thermophila. A postulated role for the multiple homologs is discussed. PMID:12393212

  6. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetraRegine AdelheidKohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  7. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO2. The rate of loss of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate was over three times greater than that from [2-14C]acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of 14C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from [1-14C]acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of 14C from [1-14C]acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO2 superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO2 and CH4. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of [1-14C]acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO2 was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H2 and ATP

  8. Untersuchungen zur Regulation der Transkription bei Methanosarcina mazei

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    (Keine Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache vorhanden.) (No summary in German language.) To investigate the Methanosarcina mazei regulation of transcription, an in vitro transcription system with purified Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus RNA polymerase and recombinant TBP and TFB from Methanosarcina mazei was established. First, the tfb gene was identified in a genomic lambda-genebank of Methanosarcina mazei S-6, then the gene was sequenced and cloned. Analysis of TBP and TFB amino a...

  9. A multienzyme complex channels substrates and electrons through acetyl-CoA and methane biosynthesis pathways in Methanosarcina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon J Lieber

    Full Text Available Multienzyme complexes catalyze important metabolic reactions in many organisms, but little is known about the complexes involved in biological methane production (methanogenesis. A crosslinking-mass spectrometry (XL-MS strategy was employed to identify proteins associated with coenzyme M-coenzyme B heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr, an essential enzyme in all methane-producing archaea (methanogens. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, Hdr forms a multienzyme complex with acetyl-CoA decarbonylase synthase (ACDS, and F420-dependent methylene-H4MPT reductase (Mer. ACDS is essential for production of acetyl-CoA during growth on methanol, or for methanogenesis from acetate, whereas Mer is essential for methanogenesis from all substrates. Existence of a Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex is consistent with growth phenotypes of ACDS and Mer mutant strains in which the complex samples the redox status of electron carriers and directs carbon flux to acetyl-CoA or methanogenesis. We propose the Hdr:ACDS:Mer complex comprises a special class of multienzyme redox complex which functions as a "biological router" that physically links methanogenesis and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis pathways.

  10. Mixotrophic growth of two thermophilic Methanosarcina strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1997-01-01

    Two thermophilic strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, were capable of mixotrophic growth on methanol and H-2/CO2. Activated carbon was, however, found to be necessary to support good growth. Both strains used hydrogen and methanol simultaneously. When methanol was...... depleted, hydrogen utilization continued and methane was further produced with concurrent cell growth. UV epifluorescence microscopy revealed that aggregates of both strains exhibited a bright red fluorescence besides the usual blue-green fluorescence....

  11. Archaean metabolic evolution of microbial mats

    OpenAIRE

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea date back to the early Archaean: many of the major steps in early evolution probably took place within them. The earliest mats may have formed as biofilms of cooperative chemolithotrophs in hyperthermophile settings, with microbial exploitation of diversifying niches. Anoxygenic photosynthesis using bacteriochlorophyll could have allowed mats, including green gliding bacteria, to colonize anaerobic shallow-water mesothermophile habitats. Explo...

  12. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  13. Reversal of 2-bromoethanesulfonate inhibition of methanogenesis in Methanosarcina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    2-Bromoethanesulfonate (BES) inhibition of methanogenesis from methanol by resting-cell suspensions or cell extracts of Methanosarcina was reversed by coenzyme M. BES inhibition of methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in cell-free extracts was reversed by methylcoenzyme M but not by coenzyme M. Methanol/coenzyme M methyltransferase activity was not inhibited by 10 microM BES. Inhibition of methylreductase by BES and 3-bromopropionate was competitive with methylcoenzyme M, but inhibition ...

  14. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  15. Archaean lode gold deposits of Canada. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents a personal and a biased attempt to synthesize quantitative information on Archaean lode gold deposits of Canada. Lode gold deposits of Archaean greenstone belts are hosted by major fracture systems which may have initiated as listric faults and also form submarine scarps. Gold-bearing vein systems formed during multiple episodes of hydrofracturing. The narrow recorded range in δ18O of vein quartz at 12-15 per mil across banded veins, signifies an isotopically uniform fluid reservoir, a fluid-dominated system in the hydrofracture conduits, and a small temperature span over which veins precipitated. Hydrothermal solutions transporting gold were isotopically characterized by δ18O consistent with a metamorphic or magmatic fluid reservoir. Carbon isotope values in carbonate gangue indicate that the carbon may have been derived from mixtures of various possible carbon reservoirs. Gold-bearing vein systems and their immediate wall rocks are characterized by additions of SiO2 and CO2, along with K and the other alkali metals. The ubiquitous gangue carbonate minerals is indigenous to the hydrothermal fluids. The REE appear to behave isochemically at the lowest states of alternation, but significant mobility of the heavy REE occurs at the highest intensities of alteration. It is suggested that rift environments, with high heat fluxes, are appropriate for efficient gold concentration. The Archaean lode gold deposits formed late in the development of greenstone belts

  16. Komatiites reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Asafov, Evgeny V; Gurenko, Andrey A; Arndt, Nicholas T; Batanova, Valentina G; Portnyagin, Maxim V; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Krasheninnikov, Stepan P

    2016-03-31

    Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth's mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth's history. PMID:27029278

  17. Komatiites reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexander V.; Asafov, Evgeny V.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Batanova, Valentina G.; Portnyagin, Maxim V.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Krasheninnikov, Stepan P.

    2016-03-01

    Archaean komatiites (ultramafic lavas) result from melting under extreme conditions of the Earth’s mantle. Their chemical compositions evoke very high eruption temperatures, up to 1,600 degrees Celsius, which suggests even higher temperatures in their mantle source. This message is clouded, however, by uncertainty about the water content in komatiite magmas. One school of thought holds that komatiites were essentially dry and originated in mantle plumes while another argues that these magmas contained several per cent water, which drastically reduced their eruption temperature and links them to subduction processes. Here we report measurements of the content of water and other volatile components, and of major and trace elements in melt inclusions in exceptionally magnesian olivine (up to 94.5 mole per cent forsterite). This information provides direct estimates of the composition and crystallization temperature of the parental melts of Archaean komatiites. We show that the parental melt for 2.7-billion-year-old komatiites from the Abitibi greenstone belt in Canada contained 30 per cent magnesium oxide and 0.6 per cent water by weight, and was depleted in highly incompatible elements. This melt began to crystallize at around 1,530 degrees Celsius at shallow depth and under reducing conditions, and it evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine, accompanied by minor crustal assimilation. As its major- and trace-element composition and low oxygen fugacities are inconsistent with a subduction setting, we propose that its high H2O/Ce ratio (over 6,000) resulted from entrainment into the komatiite source of hydrous material from the mantle transition zone. These results confirm a plume origin for komatiites and high Archaean mantle temperatures, and evoke a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle early in Earth’s history.

  18. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 μM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogenous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent K/sub m/ of 5 mM for CO and a V/sub max/ of 1300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed

  19. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    low-δ18O values of Precambrian sedimentary cherts and carbonates are not a consequence of isotope variability of seawater or extreme ocean temperatures [3,4], but rather are due to isotopic exchange with shallow hydrothermal fluids on the ocean floor or during diagenesis [5]. [1] Lécuyer et al. (1998......Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...

  20. Methanosarcina subterranea sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon isolated from a deep subsurface diatomaceous shale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Naganuma, Takeshi; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    A methanogenic archaeon, strain HC-2(T), was isolated from a deep diatomaceous shale formation. The strain grew on methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and dimethylsulphide, but not on acetate, H2/CO2, formate, 2-propanol, 2-butanol or cyclopentanol. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, and coccus-like, 0.9-1.4 µm in diameter, and occurred singly, in pairs, or as aggregates. The strain grew at 10-40 °C (optimum 35 °C), pH 5.9-7.4 (optimum pH 6.6-6.8) and in 0-0.6 M NaCl (optimum 0.1-0.2 M). The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.5 mol% and the 16S rRNA gene sequence was closely related to those of Methanosarcina lacustris DSM 13486(T) (99.1%) and Methanosarcina siciliae DSM 3028(T) (98.3%). Values for DNA-DNA hybridization with these strains were less than 30%. The phenotypic and phylogenetic features of HC-2(T) indicate that it represents a novel species of the genus Methanosarcina , for which the name Methanosarcina subterranea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HC-2(T) ( = DSM 22503(T) = JCM 15540(T) = NBRC 102578(T)). PMID:25604340

  1. Evolution of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Methanosarcina via Horizontal Gene Transfer from Cellulolytic Clostridia▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two genes required for acetoclastic methanogenesis, ackA and pta, were horizontally transferred to the ancestor of Methanosarcina from a derived cellulolytic organism in the class Clostridia. This event likely occurred within the last 475 million years, causing profound changes in planetary methane biogeochemistry.

  2. Geodynamic evolution of the West and Central Pilbara Craton in Western Australia : a mid-Archaean active continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Archaean era lasted for about one third of the Earth's history, from ca 4.0 until 2.5 billion years ago. Because the Archaean spans such a long time, knowledge about this era is for understanding the evolution of the Earth until the present day, especially because it is the time offormation of m

  3. Iron-Sulfur Flavoprotein (Isf) from Methanosarcina thermophila Is the Prototype of a Widely Distributed Family

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tong; Cruz, Francisco; Ferry, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 35 homologs of the iron-sulfur flavoprotein (Isf) from Methanosarcina thermophila were identified in databases. All three domains were represented, and multiple homologs were present in several species. An unusually compact cysteine motif ligating the 4Fe-4S cluster in Isf is conserved in all of the homologs except two, in which either an aspartate or a histidine has replaced the second cysteine in the motif. A phylogenetic analysis of Isf homologs identified four subgroups, two of...

  4. Coenzyme M methylase activity of the 480-kilodalton corrinoid protein from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    OpenAIRE

    Tallant, T C; Krzycki, J A

    1996-01-01

    Activity staining of extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels revealed an additional methylcobalamin:coenzyme M (methylcobalamin:CoM) methyltransferase present in cells grown on acetate but not in those grown on trimethylamine. This methyltransferase is the 480-kDa corrinoid protein previously identified by its methylation following inhibition of methyl-CoM reductase in otherwise methanogenic cell extracts. The methylcobalamin:CoM methyltransferase activity of...

  5. Function of Ech Hydrogenase in Ferredoxin-Dependent, Membrane-Bound Electron Transport in Methanosarcina mazei▿

    OpenAIRE

    Welte, Cornelia; Kallnik, Verena; Grapp, Marcel; Bender, Gunes; Ragsdale, Steve; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Reduced ferredoxin is an intermediate in the methylotrophic and aceticlastic pathway of methanogenesis and donates electrons to membrane-integral proteins, which transfer electrons to the heterodisulfide reductase. A ferredoxin interaction has been observed previously for the Ech hydrogenase. Here we present a detailed analysis of a Methanosarcina mazei Δech mutant which shows decreased ferredoxin-dependent membrane-bound electron transport activity, a lower growth rate, and faster substrate ...

  6. Uncoupling of Methanogenesis from Growth of Methanosarcina barkeri by Phosphate Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, David B.

    1985-01-01

    Production of methane by Methanosarcina barkeri from H2-CO2 was studied in fed-batch culture under phosphate-limiting conditions. A transition in the kinetics of methanogenesis from an exponentially increasing rate to a constant rate was due to depletion of phosphate from the medium. The period of exponentially increasing rate of methanogenesis was extended by increasing the initial concentration of phosphate in the medium. Addition of phosphate during the constant period changed the kinetics...

  7. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  8. Archaean crustal evolution in eastern Finland : New geochronological and geochemical constraints from the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt

    OpenAIRE

    KÀpyaho, Asko

    2007-01-01

    This thesis summarises the results of four original papers concerning U-Pb geochronology and geochemical evolution of Archaean rocks from the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt, eastern Finland. The study area belongs to a typical Archaean granite-greenstone terrain, composed of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in generally N-S trending greenstone belts as well as a granitoid-gneiss complex with intervening gneissic and migmatised supracrustal and plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on migmatite m...

  9. Cloning, sequence analysis, and hyperexpression of the genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, M T; Ferry, J G

    1993-01-01

    The genes for the acetate-activating enzymes, acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase (ack and pta), from Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 were cloned and sequenced. Both genes are present in only one copy per genome, with the pta gene adjacent to and upstream of the ack gene. Consensus archaeal promoter sequences are found upstream of the pta coding region. The pta and ack genes encode predicted polypeptides with molecular masses of 35,198 and 44,482 Da, respectively. A hydropathy plot of th...

  10. Ancient micrometeorites suggestive of an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew G.; Bowlt, Lara; Genge, Matthew; Wilson, Siobhan A.; Brand, Helen E. A.; Wykes, Jeremy L.

    2016-05-01

    It is widely accepted that Earth’s early atmosphere contained less than 0.001 per cent of the present-day atmospheric oxygen (O2) level, until the Great Oxidation Event resulted in a major rise in O2 concentration about 2.4 billion years ago. There are multiple lines of evidence for low O2 concentrations on early Earth, but all previous observations relate to the composition of the lower atmosphere in the Archaean era; to date no method has been developed to sample the Archaean upper atmosphere. We have extracted fossil micrometeorites from limestone sedimentary rock that had accumulated slowly 2.7 billion years ago before being preserved in Australia’s Pilbara region. We propose that these micrometeorites formed when sand-sized particles entered Earth’s atmosphere and melted at altitudes of about 75 to 90 kilometres (given an atmospheric density similar to that of today). Here we show that the FeNi metal in the resulting cosmic spherules was oxidized while molten, and quench-crystallized to form spheres of interlocking dendritic crystals primarily of magnetite (Fe3O4), with wüstite (FeO)+metal preserved in a few particles. Our model of atmospheric micrometeorite oxidation suggests that Archaean upper-atmosphere oxygen concentrations may have been close to those of the present-day Earth, and that the ratio of oxygen to carbon monoxide was sufficiently high to prevent noticeable inhibition of oxidation by carbon monoxide. The anomalous sulfur isotope (Δ33S) signature of pyrite (FeS2) in seafloor sediments from this period, which requires an anoxic surface environment, implies that there may have been minimal mixing between the upper and lower atmosphere during the Archaean.

  11. Implications of a reducing and warm (not hot) Archaean ambient mantle for ancient element cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Sonja

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the oxygen partial pressure (fO2) and potential temperature (TP) of the ambient convecting mantle throughout Earth's history. Rare Archaean eclogite suites have elemental and isotopic compositions indicative of formation of crustal protoliths in oceanic spreading ridges, hence unaffected by continental sources. These include some eclogite xenoliths derived from cratonic mantle lithosphere and orogenic eclogites marking the exhumation of oceanic crust at Pacific-type margins. Their compositions may retain a memory of the thermal and redox state of the Archaean convecting mantle sources that gave rise to their low-pressure protoliths. Archaean eclogites have TiO2-REE relationships consistent with fractional crystallisation of olivine±plagioclase and cpx during formation of picritic protoliths from a melt that separated from a garnet-free peridotite source, implying intersection of the solidus at ≤2.5 to 3.0 GPa [1]. Low melt fractions (Herzberg et al. (2010) Earth Planet Sci Lett 292; [3] Sizova et al. (2010) Lithos 116; [4] Rey&Coltice (2008) Geology 36; [5] Dasgupta (2013) RIMG 75; [6] Magni et al. (2014) G3 15; [7] Li&Lee (2004) EPSL 228; [8] Stagno et al. (2013) Nature 493; [9] Sverjensky et al. (2014) Nat Geosci 7; [10] Evans & Tomkins (2011) Earth Planet Sci Lett 308.

  12. Early tectonic history of the Marymia Inlier and correlation with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Archaean granite-greenstone rocks of the Marymia Inlier outcrop within Proterozoic rocks forming the Capricorn Orogen. Five major deformation events are recognised in the rocks of the Plutonic Well and Baumgarten greenstone belts. The first two events were Late Archaean and synchronous with major epithermal gold mineralisation in the belts. Palaeoproterozoic extensional faulting was probably related to the early stages of the Capricorn Orogeny. The fourth event records a compressional phase of the Capricorn Orogeny associated with greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereas the last major event involved wrench faulting associated with minor folding. The Archaean tectonic history, rock types and timing of mineralisation strongly suggest that the Marymia Inlier is part of the Yilgarn Craton, and that each of the provinces in the craton experienced the same geological history since 2.72 Ga. The inlier is now interpreted to include two components, one is the eastern or northern extension of either the Narryer Terrane. Murchison Province or Southern Cross Province, and the other is the northwestern extension of the Eastern Goldfields Province. The Jenkin Fault, which was active in Proterozoic times, separates these two components. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Early tectonic history of the Marymia Inlier and correlation with the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagas, L. [Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1999-02-01

    The Archaean granite-greenstone rocks of the Marymia Inlier outcrop within Proterozoic rocks forming the Capricorn Orogen. Five major deformation events are recognised in the rocks of the Plutonic Well and Baumgarten greenstone belts. The first two events were Late Archaean and synchronous with major epithermal gold mineralisation in the belts. Palaeoproterozoic extensional faulting was probably related to the early stages of the Capricorn Orogeny. The fourth event records a compressional phase of the Capricorn Orogeny associated with greenschist-facies metamorphism, whereas the last major event involved wrench faulting associated with minor folding. The Archaean tectonic history, rock types and timing of mineralisation strongly suggest that the Marymia Inlier is part of the Yilgarn Craton, and that each of the provinces in the craton experienced the same geological history since 2.72 Ga. The inlier is now interpreted to include two components, one is the eastern or northern extension of either the Narryer Terrane. Murchison Province or Southern Cross Province, and the other is the northwestern extension of the Eastern Goldfields Province. The Jenkin Fault, which was active in Proterozoic times, separates these two components. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 38 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. New Rb-Sr age determinations on the Archaean basement of eastern Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Archaean basement of Sierra Leone is a typical example of granite-greenstone terrains found in ancient continental nuclei. Reconnaissance field mapping showed that the area can be subdivided into old gneiss, which predates the greenstone belts, and young granite which is later than the greenstone belts. New Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on two suites of old tonalitic gneiss yield ages of 2786 +- 49 Ma and 2770 +- 137 Ma, which either reflect the time of formation of the original tonalites or their metamorphism. Three new Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on young granites yield ages of 2786 +- 143 Ma, 2780 +- 79 Ma and 2770 +- 50 Ma, which are interpreted as the time of emplacement. The widespread occurrence of similar young granites, throughout the Archaean of West Africa, suggests that these results date a major event in the evolution of this segment of the crust. A published Pb-Pb age of the old gneiss and the new ages of the young granite bracket the age of the greenstone belts to 3000-2770 Ma. However, if the Rb-Sr ages of the old gneiss reported in this paper reflect the time of their formation, the age of the greenstone belts is tightly bracketed to ca. 2770 Ma. There is no isotopic evidence for rocks substantially older than 3000 Ma in the West African Archaean. (Auth.)

  15. Physicochemical analysis of initial adhesion and biofilm formation of Methanosarcina barkeri on polymer support material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vi; Karunakaran, Esther; Collins, Gavin; Biggs, Catherine A

    2016-07-01

    The retention of selective biofilms of Methanosarcina species within anaerobic digesters could reduce start-up times and enhance the efficiency of the process in treating high-strength domestic sewage. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of the surface characteristics of six common polymer support materials on the initial adhesion of the model methanogen, Methanosarcina barkeri, and to assess the potential of these support materials as selective biofilm carriers. Results from both the initial adhesion tests and extended DLVO (xDLVO) model correlated with each other, with PVC (12% surface coverage/mm(2)), PTFE (6% surface coverage/mm(2)), and PP (6% surface coverage/mm(2)), shown to be the better performing support materials for initial adhesion, as well as subsequent biofilm formation by M. barkeri after 72h. Experimental results of these three support materials showed that the type of material strongly influenced the extent of adhesion from M. barkeri (pbiofilm development. This study highlights the potential of using the xDLVO model to rapidly identify suitable materials for the selective adhesion of M. barkeri, which could be beneficial in both the start-up and long-term phases of anaerobic digestion. PMID:27038917

  16. Functional organization of a single nif cluster in the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ehlers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 is able to utilize molecular nitrogen (N2 as its sole nitrogen source. We have identified and characterized a single nitrogen fixation (nif gene cluster in M. mazei Gö1 with an approximate length of 9 kbp. Sequence analysis revealed seven genes with sequence similarities to nifH, nifI1, nifI2, nifD, nifK, nifE and nifN, similar to other diazotrophic methanogens and certain bacteria such as Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the two glnB-like genes (nifI1 and nifI2 located between nifH and nifD. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences for the nitrogenase structural genes of M. mazei Gö1 showed that they are most closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri nif2 genes, and also closely resemble those for the corresponding nif products of the gram-positive bacterium C. acetobutylicum. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR analysis demonstrated that the M. mazei nif genes constitute an operon transcribed only under nitrogen starvation as a single 8 kb transcript. Sequence analysis revealed a palindromic sequence at the transcriptional start site in front of the M. mazei nifH gene, which may have a function in transcriptional regulation of the nif operon.

  17. Palaeoproterozoic prograde metasomatic-metamorphic overprint zones in Archaean tonalitic gneisses, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajunen, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Several occurrences of coarse-grained kyanite rocks are exposed in the Archaean area of eastern Finland in zones trending predominantly northwest-southeast that crosscut all the Archaean structures and, locally, the Palaeoproterozoic metadiabase dykes, too. Their metamorphic history illustrates vividly Palaeoproterozoic reactivation of the Archaean craton. The early-stage kyanite rocks were formed within the framework of ductile shearing or by penetrative metasomatism in zones of mobile brecciation. Static-state coarse-grained mineral growth during the ongoing fluid activity covered the early foliated fabrics, and metasomatic zoning developed. The early-stage metasomatism was characterized by Si, Ca and alkali leaching. The late-stage structures are dilatational semi-brittle faults and fractures with unstrained, coarse-grained fabrics often formed by metasomatic reactions displaying Mg enrichment along grain boundaries. Metamorphism proceeded from the low-T early-stage Chl-Ms-Qtz, Ky/And-St, eventually leading to the high-T late-stage Crd-Sil assemblages. The thermal peak, at 600-620°C/4-5 kbar, of the process is dated to 1852+2 Ma (U-Pb on xenotime. Al-silicate growth successions in different locations record small variations in the Palaeoproterozoic clockwise P-T paths. Pressure decreased by c. 1 kbar between the early and late stage, i.e. some exhumation had occurred. Fluid composition also changed during the progression, from saline H2O to CO2, rich. Weak retrograde features of high-T phases indicate a rapid cooling stage and termination of fluid activity. The early-stage Ky-St assemblages resemble those described from nearby Palaeoproterozoic metasediments in the Kainuu and North Karelia Schist Belts, where the metamorphic peak was achieved late with respect to Palaeoproterozoic structures. The static Ky-St metamorphism in kyanite rocks was generated by fluid-induced leaching processes at elevated T during the post-orogenic stage after

  18. Direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liu, Fanghua;

    2014-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is potentially an effective form of syntrophy in methanogenic communities, but little is known about the diversity of methanogens capable of DIET. The ability of Methanosarcina barkeri, to participate in DIET was evaluated in co-culture with Geobacter ...

  19. New isotopic and field evidence for the ages and distribution of Archaean rocks in east Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Precambrian shield of East Antarctica is composed of a number of recognised Archaean cratonic nuclei surrounded by Proterozoic metamorphic complexes. Poor exposure, inaccessibility and the effects of multiple tectonothermal overprints combine to confound the knowledge of the early history of these terranes. Against this, it is shown how recent advances in zircon geochronology allied with new petrological, geochemical and field observations have resulted in major revisions to the chronostratigraphy of several key areas, including Napier Complex of Enderby Land, Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group. 11 refs

  20. Archaean hydrothermal zircon in the Abitibi greenstone belt: Constraints on the timing of gold mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal zircons have been found in Archaean mesothermal Au-veins and altered wallrock selvages at Val d'Or, in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada. The zircons are paragenetically associated with vein quartz, tourmaline, mica, carbonate, scheelite, pyrite, and gold. Zirconium mobility, and the consequent occurrence of hydrothermal zircon, may be associated with the intense tourmalinisation characteristic of Archaean gold deposits in this district. The SHRIMP ion-microprobe has been used to analyse hydrothermal zircons from four separate mines spatially associated with the Bourlamaque batholith, and has yieleded ages constraining formation of the Au-bearing vein systems to within 20 Ma of emplacement of the pluton. The ion microprobe data reveal multiple stages of hydrothermal zircon growth in the vein systems, contemporaneous with the regional metamorphic peak and late kinematic activity along regional structures. Younger (including Proterozoic) ages previously obtained for the veins, using other minerals and isotopic schemes, must reflect either alteration or renewed mineral growth during much later reactivation of fluids along the same structures up to 400 Ma after initial formation of the veins. (orig.)

  1. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by a tectonic

  2. Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T L; Currenti, E; Wolin, M J

    2000-10-01

    A system is described that combines the fermentation of cellulose to acetate, CH4, and CO2 by Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter smithii with the fermentation of acetate to CH4 and CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri to convert cellulose to CH4 and CO2. A cellulose-containing medium was pumped into a co-culture of the cellulolytic R. albus and the H2-using methanogen, Mb. smithii. The effluent was fed into a holding reservoir, adjusted to pH 4.5, and then pumped into a culture of Ms. barkeri maintained at constant volume by pumping out culture contents. Fermentation of 1% cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was accomplished during 132 days of operation with retention times (RTs) of the Ms. barkeri culture of 7.5-3.8 days. Rates of acetate utilization were 9.5-17.3 mmol l(-1) day(-1) and increased with decreasing RT. The Ks for acetate utilization was 6-8 mM. The two-stage system can be used as a model system for studying biological and physical parameters that influence the bioconversion process. Our results suggest that manipulating the different phases of cellulose fermentation separately can effectively balance the pH and ionic requirements of the acid-producing phase with the acid-using phase of the overall fermentation. PMID:11092623

  3. Toxicity of long chain fatty acids towards acetate conversion by Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina mazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sérgio A; Salvador, Andreia F; Cavaleiro, Ana J; Pereira, M Alcina; Stams, Alfons J M; Alves, M Madalena; Sousa, Diana Z

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) can inhibit methane production by methanogenic archaea. The effect of oleate and palmitate on pure cultures of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina mazei was assessed by comparing methane production rates from acetate before and after LCFA addition. For both methanogens, a sharp decrease in methane production (> 50%) was observed at 0.5 mmol L(-1) oleate, and no methane was formed at concentrations higher than 2 mmol L(-1) oleate. Palmitate was less inhibitory than oleate, and M. concilii was more tolerant to palmitate than M. mazei, with 2 mmol L(-1) palmitate causing 11% and 64% methanogenic inhibition respectively. This study indicates that M. concilii and M. mazei tolerate LCFA concentrations similar to those previously described for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. In particular, the robustness of M. concilii might contribute to the observed prevalence of Methanosaeta species in anaerobic bioreactors used to treat LCFA-rich wastewater. PMID:27273786

  4. Biochar alleviates combined stress of ammonium and acids by firstly enriching Methanosaeta and then Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Luo, Chenghao; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of biochar of different particle sizes in alleviating ammonium (NH4(+)) inhibition (up to 7 g-N/L) during anaerobic digestion of 6 g/L glucose. Compared to the control treatment without biochar addition, treatments that included biochar particles 2-5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 75-150 μm in size reduced the methanization lag phase by 23.9%, 23.8% and 5.9%, respectively, and increased the maximum methane production rate by 47.1%, 23.5% and 44.1%, respectively. These results confirmed that biochar accelerated the initiation of methanization during anaerobic digestion under double inhibition risk from both ammonium and acids. Furthermore, fine biochar significantly promoted the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Comparative analysis on the archaeal and bacterial diversity at the early and later stages of digestion, and in the suspended, biochar loosely bound, and biochar tightly bound fractions suggested that, in suspended fractions, hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium was actively resistant to ammonium. However, acetoclastic Methanosaeta can survive at VFAs concentrations up to 60-80 mmol-C/L by improved affinity to conductive biochar, resulting in the accelerated initiation of acetate degradation. Improved methanogenesis was followed by the colonization of the biochar tightly bound fractions by Methanosarcina. The selection of appropriate biochar particles sizes was important in facilitating the initial colonization of microbial cells. PMID:26724437

  5. Utilization of methanol plus hydrogen by Methanosarcina barkeri for methanogenesis and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanosarcina barkeri grew on methanol plus H2. Both substrates were consumed in equimolar amounts. Growth was strictly dependently on the presence of acetate, which was required for the biosynthesis of cellular constituents. Only about 0.4% of the methane produced originated from acetate. By using deuterated methanol, it was demonstrated that methanogenesis from this compound under H2 did not occur via oxidation of methanol to CO2 and subsequent reduction but by direct reduction with H2. Growth yields with methanol plus H2 and with methanol alone were not significantly different: 2.8 g of cells per mol of methanol in mineral medium and 4.6 g of cells per mol of methanol in complex medium, respectively. Growth of M. barkeri on methanol plus H2 depended strictly on the presence of sodium ions in the medium. In the presence of 50 mM K+ the K/sub s/ for Na+ was 5 mM

  6. Manganiferous minerals of the epidote group from the Archaean basement of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Kolb, Jochen;

    2014-01-01

    The chemical compositions and crystal structures of Mn3+-containing minerals from the epidote group in Greenland rocks are investigated and described in detail. They occur in hydrothermally altered Archaean mafic sequences within the gneissic complex of the North Atlantic craton of West Greenland....... The Mn-containing minerals have a characteristic red to pink colour. A detailed microchemical study shows a significant inter- and intra-sample variation in Mn content. The samples from different parageneses can be classified as Mn-bearing epidote and Mn-bearing clinozoisite. The intra......-sample variation in the content of Al, Fe and Mn is on a very fine scale, but still allows for identification of a negative correlation between Mn and Fe. Textures indicate different stages of growth. Crystal chemical data are compared with literature data and illustrate the basic systematic differences between...

  7. Oxidation state of iron in komatiitic melt inclusions indicates hot Archaean mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatiites are volcanic rocks mainly of Archaean age that formed by unusually high degrees of melting of mantle peridotite. Their origin is controversial and has been attributed to either anhydrous melting of anomalously hot mantle or hydrous melting at temperatures only modestly greater than those found today. Here we determine the original Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of 2.7-Gyr-old komatiitic magma from Belingwe, Zimbabwe, preserved as melt inclusions in olivine, to be 0.10 ± 0.02, using iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This value is consistent with near-anhydrous melting of a source with a similar oxidation state to the source of present-day mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Furthermore, this low Fe3+/ΣFe value, together with a water content of only 0.2--0.3 wt%, excludes the possibility that the trapped melt contained significantly more water that was subsequently lost from the inclusions by reduction to H2 and diffusion. Loss of only 1.5 wt% water by this mechanism would have resulted in complete oxidation of iron (that is, the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio would be ∼1). There is also no petrographic evidence for the loss of molecular water. Our results support the identification of the Belingwe komatiite as a product of high mantle temperatures (∼1,700 C), rather than melting under hydrous conditions (3--5-wt% water), confirming the existence of anomalously hot mantle in the Archaean era.

  8. Radiometric ages and other isotopic data bearing on the evolution of Archaean crust and ores in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi area, eastern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vaasjoki, M.; Taipale, K.; Tuokko, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Archaean greenstone-gneiss terrain in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland has been isotopically studied in connection with regional bedrock mapping and local mineral exploration projects. The studies have aimed at testing correlations of lithologic units in partly poorly exposed areas, determining times of ore formation and obtaining ore genetic information in order to better understand the general evolution of the Archaean formations within the Fennoscandian Shield. Isotopi...

  9. DNA microarray analysis of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 reveals adaptation to different methanogenic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Raymond; Lentes, Sabine; Ehrenreich, Armin; Salmon, Kirsty; Saba, Karla; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Gunsalus, Robert P; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2005-05-01

    Methansarcina mazei Gö1 DNA arrays were constructed and used to evaluate the genomic expression patterns of cells grown on either of two alternative methanogenic substrates, acetate or methanol, as sole carbon and energy source. Analysis of differential transcription across the genome revealed two functionally grouped sets of genes that parallel the central biochemical pathways in, and reflect many known features of, acetate and methanol metabolism. These include the acetate-induced genes encoding acetate activating enzymes, acetyl-CoA synthase/CO dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase. Interestingly, additional genes expressed at significantly higher levels during growth on acetate included two energy-conserving complexes (the Ech hydrogenase, and the A1A0-type ATP synthase). Many previously unknown features included the induction by acetate of genes coding for ferredoxins and flavoproteins, an aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, enzymes for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids, and components of iron, cobalt and oligopeptide uptake systems. In contrast, methanol-grown cells exhibited elevated expression of genes assigned to the methylotrophic pathway of methanogenesis. Expression of genes for components of the translation apparatus was also elevated in cells grown in the methanol medium relative to acetate, and was correlated with the faster growth rate observed on the former substrate. These experiments provide the first comprehensive insight into substrate-dependent gene expression in a methanogenic archaeon. This genome-wide approach, coupled with the complementary molecular and biochemical tools, should greatly accelerate the exploration of Methanosarcina cell physiology, given the present modest level of our knowledge of these large archaeal genomes. PMID:15902489

  10. Acetate-dependent methylation of two corrinoid proteins in extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrinoid proteins have been implicated as methyl carriers in methane formation from acetate, yet specific corrinoid proteins methylated by acetate-derived intermediates have not been identified. In the presence of ATP, H2, and bromoethanesulfonic acid, label from 3H- or 2-14C-labeled acetate was incorporated into the protein fraction of cell extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri. Incorporated label was susceptible to photolysis, yielding labeled methane as the anaerobic photolysis product. size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated the presence of at least three labeled proteins with native molecular sizes of 480, 200, and 29 kDa, while electrophoresis indicated that four major labeled proteins were present. Dual-label experiments demonstrated that these four proteins were methylated rather than acetylated. Two of the proteins (480 and 29 kDa) contained the majority of radiolabel and were stably methylated. After labeling with [2-14C]acetate, the stable 14CH3-proteins were partially purified, and 14CH3-cofactors were isolated from each protein. UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC demonstrated these to be methylated corrinoids. When the protein. UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC demonstrated these to be methylated corrinoids. When the 480-kDa corrinoid protein was purified to 70% homogeneity, the preparation was found to have subunits of 40 and 30 kDa. The 480-kDa protein but not the 29-kDa protein was methylated during in vitro methanogenesis from acetate and demethylated as methanogenesis ceased, consistent with the involvement of this protein in methane formation

  11. Mechanism for Stabilizing mRNAs Involved in Methanol-Dependent Methanogenesis of Cold-Adaptive Methanosarcina mazei zm-15

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yi; Li, Jie; Jiang, Na; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2014-01-01

    Methylotrophic methanogenesis predominates at low temperatures in the cold Zoige wetland in Tibet. To elucidate the basis of cold-adapted methanogenesis in these habitats, Methanosarcina mazei zm-15 was isolated, and the molecular basis of its cold activity was studied. For this strain, aceticlastic methanogenesis was reduced 7.7-fold during growth at 15°C versus 30°C. Methanol-derived methanogenesis decreased only 3-fold under the same conditions, suggesting that it is more cold adaptive. Re...

  12. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen, and Formate Metabolism during Methanogenesis from Acetate by Thermophilic Cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zinder, S H; Anguish, T.

    1992-01-01

    CO and H2 have been implicated in methanogenesis from acetate, but it is unclear whether they are directly involved in methanogenesis or electron transfer in acetotrophic methanogens. We compared metabolism of H2, CO, and formate by cultures of the thermophilic acetotrophic methanogens Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. M. thermophila accumulated H2 to partial pressures of 40 to 70 Pa (1 Pa = 0.987 × 10-5 atm), as has been previously reported for this and othe...

  13. Further Rb-Sr age and isotope data on early and late Archaean rocks from the Rhodesian craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-rock Rb-Sr age measurements are presented which supplement and extend published data from the Rhodesian Archaean craton of southern Africa and demonstrate that (a) the Shabani area gneisses, which form the basement to the ca. 2700-2800 Ma-old Belingwe greenstone belt succession, give an age of 3570+-60 Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7000+-0.0005; (b) a suite of gneisses from the so-called Rhodesdale Batholith northeast of Que Que gives an age of 2760+-40 Ma with an initial ratio of 0.7015+-0.0002; (c) the Somabula tonalite pluton, which intrudes gneisses east of Shangani, gives an age of 2650+-40 Ma, with an initial ratio of 0.7012+-0.0001 (all errors at 1 sigma). The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios again demonstrate that Late Archaean granitic (sensu lato) rocks were not produced by reworking of similar rocks of Early Archaean age

  14. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  15. Ion microprobe 207Pb/206Pb zircon ages for gneiss-granitoid rocks from Bundelkhand massif: evidence for Archaean components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometric 207Pb/206Pb ages of individual zircons from the Bundelkhand massif, central India, have been determined by an ion microprobe. Samples from various major litho-units, viz. the granite gneiss, hornblende-, biotite- and leuco-granitoid are included in this study. The results provide evidence for the presence of Archaean crustal components within this massif. Zircons with ages of 3.0 to 3.2 Ga occur as xenocrysts in a sample of granite gneiss from Lalitpur having a minimum formation age of 2.5 Ga. Another sample of a highly deformed gneiss from Babina has a well-defined age of 2.7 Ga. Emplacement of hornblende-granitoid and biotite-granitoid took place in quick succession at ∼ 2.5 Ga. No firm age for the youngest plutonic component, the leuco-granitoid, could be obtained due to poor recovery of zircons suitable for analysis. The geochronological data confirm the suggestion, based on geochemical studies, that the gneisses and the granitoids in this region represent Archaean and post-Archaean components respectively. (author)

  16. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  17. The Archaean Granny Smith gold deposit, western Australia: age and Pb-isotope tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Granny Smith gold deposits are situated within a greenstone sequence in the Laverton-Leonora area of the Northeastern Goldfields Province of the Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. The greenstone sequence (U-Pb zircon age of 2677±6 Ma, felsic pyroclastic rock) was intruded by the Granny Smith Granodiorite at 2665±4 Ma. Gold mineralisation is located along a reactivated N-S Stricking, thrust which wraps around the granitoid intrusion, and within the granitoid intrusion. Initial lead-isotope compositions of the Granny Smith Granodiorite and ore-fluid Pb, estimated from K-feldspar and galena and lead tellurides, respectively, are slightly different. Calculations based on Pb isotope data for the host rocks, and the U-Pb zircon age of the Granny Smith Granodiorite, suggest that ore-fluid Pb was derived from a source with a similar initial lead-isotopic composition to the source of the Granny Smith Granodiorite but about 30 million years after the intrusion of the granitoid. The Pb-isotope data for granitoids of the Northeastern Goldfields fall in a distinct field different to that of the granitoids of the Norseman area and those from Kambalda to Menzies. (authors)

  18. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  19. Structure of the corrinoid:coenzyme M methyltransferase MtaA from Methanosarcina mazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Astrid; Thomas, Frank; Rueppel, Alma; Hensel, Reinhard; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Bayer, Peter; Faust, Annette

    2012-11-01

    The zinc-containing corrinoid:coenzyme M methyltransferase MtaA is part of the methanol-coenzyme M-methyltransferase complex of Methanosarcina mazei. The whole complex consists of three subunits: MtaA, MtaB and MtaC. The MtaB-MtaC complex catalyses the cleavage of methanol (bound to MtaB) and the transfer of the methyl group onto the cobalt of cob(I)alamin (bound to MtaC). The MtaA-MtaC complex catalyses methyl transfer from methyl-cob(III)alamin (bound to MtaC) to coenzyme M (bound to MtaA). The crystal structure of the MtaB-MtaC complex from M. barkeri has previously been determined. Here, the crystal structures of MtaA from M. mazei in a substrate-free but Zn(2+)-bound state and in complex with Zn(2+) and coenzyme M (HS-CoM) are reported at resolutions of 1.8 and 2.1 Å, respectively. A search for homologous proteins revealed that MtaA exhibits 23% sequence identity to human uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, which has also the highest structural similarity (r.m.s.d. of 2.03 Å for 306 aligned amino acids). The main structural feature of MtaA is a TIM-barrel-like fold, which is also found in all other zinc enzymes that catalyse thiol-group alkylation. The active site of MtaA is situated at the narrow bottom of a funnel such that the thiolate group of HS-CoM points towards the Zn(2+) ion. The Zn(2+) ion in the active site of MtaA is coordinated tetrahedrally via His240, Cys242 and Cys319. In the substrate-free form the fourth ligand is Glu263. Binding of HS-CoM leads to exchange of the O-ligand of Glu263 for the S-ligand of HS-CoM with inversion of the zinc geometry. The interface between MtaA and MtaC for transfer of the methyl group from MtaC-bound methylcobalamin is most likely to be formed by the core complex of MtaB-MtaC and the N-terminal segment (a long loop containing three α-helices and a β-hairpin) of MtaA, which is not part of the TIM-barrel core structure of MtaA. PMID:23090404

  20. Regional MT survey across an archaean craton in south Australia. Influence of sedimentary basins and plate boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Long-period MT data at more than 200 stations have been collected across the Late Archaean - Early Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia, during numerous field campaigns between 2002 and 2009. The total site coverage spans an area of approximately 800x500 km providing a unique dataset to image one of the oldest cratons in the world. The Gawler Craton is known for its mineral exploration potential, i.e. the IOCG Olympic Dam deposit (Heinson et al, 2006). MT data can help constrain the position of lithospheric structures which could provide clues to the genesis of mineral deposits throughout the region. Moreover, large parts of the craton are covered with sediments ranging from tens to thousands of meters in thickness. The sedimentary basins have a significant influence on the MT responses and if not taken into account can lead to erroneous results in a smooth inversion scheme due to their high conductances. We present 3D inversion models using a subset of sites in the period range of 10-10000s in order to image the subsurface resistivity distribution of the Gawler Craton. Initial 2D and 3D inversions of a subset of MT sites indicates an electrically resistive Archaean core. The thick sedimentary basins surrounding most of the Gawler Craton are taken into account by using starting models with the basins included as a priori information. Together with the inclusion of bathymetry data of the Southern Sea the inverse procedure has more constraints and is able to produce better results than an unconstrained inversion. The results provide additional constrains to the understanding of the evolution of the Archaean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton by imaging the crust and upper mantle. Tectonic models are largely based on limited outcrop due to thick regolith cover and domain boundaries inferred from potential field data. These can now be validated with the use of large-scale MT modelling.

  1. Archaean atmospheric evolution: evidence from the Witwatersrand gold fields, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Hartwig E.

    2005-04-01

    The Witwatersrand gold fields in South Africa, the world's largest gold-producing province, play a pivotal role in the reconstruction of the Archaean atmosphere and hydrosphere. Past uncertainties on the genetic model for the gold caused confusion in the debate on Archaean palaeoenvironmental conditions. The majority of Witwatersrand gold occurs together with pyrite, uraninite and locally bitumen, on degradational surfaces of fluvial conglomerates that were laid down between 2.90 and 2.84 Ga in the Central Rand Basin. Although most of the gold appears as a precipitate within, or associated with, post-depositional hydrothermal phases and along microfractures, available microtextural, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic data all indicate that this hydrothermal gold, analogous to some pyrite and uraninite, was derived from the local mobilisation of detrital particles. Some of the key pieces of evidence are a significant correlation of the gold, pyrite and uraninite with other heavy minerals as well as sedimentary lithofacies, local preservation of in-situ gold micronuggets and abundant rounded forms of pyrite and uraninite, compositional heterogeneity on a microscale of the gold as well as the rounded pyrite and uraninte, and radiometric age data that indicate an age of the gold, pyrite and uraninite that is older than the maximum age of deposition for the host sediment. None of these observations/data is compatible with any of the suggested hydrothermal models, in which auriferous fluids were introduced from an external source into the host rock succession after sediment deposition. In contrast, those arguments, used in favour of hydrothermal models, emphasise the microtextural position of most of the gold, which highlights the undisputed hydrothermal nature of that gold in its present position, but does not explain its ultimate source. Furthermore, the macro-scale setting of the stratiform ore deposits is in stark contrast to any known type of epigenetic

  2. The elusive Hadean enriched reservoir revealed by 142Nd deficits in Isua Archaean rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; O'Neil, Jonathan; Rosing, Minik T; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-01

    The first indisputable evidence for very early differentiation of the silicate Earth came from the extinct (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer. (142)Nd excesses measured in 3.7-billion-year (Gyr)-old rocks from Isua (southwest Greenland) relative to modern terrestrial samples imply their derivation from a depleted mantle formed in the Hadean eon (about 4,570-4,000 Gyr ago). As dictated by mass balance, the differentiation event responsible for the formation of the Isua early-depleted reservoir must also have formed a complementary enriched component. However, considerable efforts to find early-enriched mantle components in Isua have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that the signature of the Hadean enriched reservoir, complementary to the depleted reservoir in Isua, is recorded in 3.4-Gyr-old mafic dykes intruding into the Early Archaean rocks. Five out of seven dykes carry (142)Nd deficits compared to the terrestrial Nd standard, with three samples yielding resolvable deficits down to -10.6 parts per million. The enriched component that we report here could have been a mantle reservoir that differentiated owing to the crystallization of a magma ocean, or could represent a mafic proto-crust that separated from the mantle more than 4.47 Gyr ago. Our results testify to the existence of an enriched component in the Hadean, and may suggest that the southwest Greenland mantle preserved early-formed heterogeneities until at least 3.4 Gyr ago. PMID:23128231

  3. Free energy generation and transfers from Archaean hydrothermal vents to the first metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncini, E.; Kleidon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Dissipative structures are far from equilibrium systems which self - organize, maintaining a certain internal material order and require free energy in order to be conserved. From a geological point of view, thermal gradients were the most abundant sources of free energy on the early Earth. Here we demonstrate how chemical free energy can be produced by a geological process, serpentinization, associated to the electrochemical potential generation in off - axis hydrothermal vents. The basis for chemical free energy generation is the thermal gradient between the crust and the Archean ocean, which is enhanced by the release of latent heat during serpentinization. Power can be extracted from this thermal gradient to generate motion. The convective motion of heated, chemically reduced fluid produces a redox front when in contact with the acidic Archaean ocean, generating electrical energy to be used in chemical reactions. Further, in the presence of porous inorganic, heterogeneous matrices acting as catalysts, self - sustained reaction chains raised. The free energy thus available could be used to allow the possibility for the establishment of first organic auto - catalytic chains. Molecular evolutionary steps from acetyl CoA to RNA-cleavage gave then rise to the first proto-metabolic processes. We use simple models to calculate the maximum rates of power transfer from the thermal gradient to electric energy to estimate the maximum possible rate of chemical free energy generation by this process. The model also takes into account the heterogeneity of the mineral matrix and its capability to catalyze reactions and to adsorb molecules selectively. In conclusion, non equilibrium thermodynamics in combination with maximum power assumptions help us to determine the fundamental limits of how much chemical free energy can be generated from a geothermal heat flux, providing conditions for the emergence of metabolism.

  4. Evolution of the Gondwanaland Archaean Shield: ion microprobe zircon dating and southwestern Australia/Wilkes Land, Antartica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion microprobe has been used to study 207Pb/206Pb ages on 20μm-sized sites on single zircon grains from coastal rocks on either side of the rift in the Gondwanaland Archaean Shield between southwestern Australia and Wilkes Land, Antarctica. The ages on individual sites on zircon grains from a variety of rock types from southwestern Australia show a range from 1600 m.y. to about 3400 m.y., with an inverse dependence on the uranium abundance at each site. Ages of zircons from rocks from the Antartic region show a range from 1600 m.y. to 3100 m.y

  5. Genome sequencing of methanogenic Archaea Methanosarcina mazei TUC01 strain isolated from an Amazonian Flooded Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraúna, R. A.; Graças, D. A.; Ramos, R. T.; Carneiro, A. R.; Lopes, T. S.; Lima, A. R.; Zahlouth, R. L.; Pellizari, V. H.; Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Methanosarcina mazei is a strictly anaerobic methanogen from the Methanosarcinales order. This species is known for its broad catabolic range among methanogens and is widespread throughout diverse environments. The draft genome of a strain cultivated from the sediment of the Tucuruí hydroelectric power station, the fourth largest hydroelectric dam in the world, is described here. Approximately 80% of methane is produced by biogenic sources, such as methanogenic archaea from M. mazei species. Although the methanogenesis pathway is well known, some aspects of the core genome, genome evolution and shared genes are still unclear. A sediment sample from the Tucuruí hydropower station reservoir was inoculated in mineral media supplemented with acetate and methanol. This media was maintained in an H2:CO2 (80:20) atmosphere to enrich and cultivate M. mazei. The enrichment was conducted at 30°C under standard anaerobic conditions. After several molecular and cellular analyses, total DNA was extracted from a non-pure culture of M. mazei, amplified using phi29 DNA polymerase (BioLabs) and finally used as a source template for genome sequencing. The draft genome was obtained after two rounds of sequencing. First, the genome was sequenced using a SOLiD System V3 with a mate-paired library, which yielded 24,405,103 and 24,399,268 reads (50 bp) for the R3 and F3 tags, respectively. The second round of sequencing was performed using the SOLiD 5500 XL platform with a mate-paired library, resulting in a total of 113,588,848 reads (60 bp) for each tag (F3 and R3). All reads obtained by this procedure were filtered using Quality Assessment software, whereby reads with an average quality score below Phred 20 were removed. Velvet and Edena were used to assemble the reads, and Simplifier was used to remove the redundant sequences. After this, a total of 16,811 contigs were obtained. M. mazei GO1 (AE008384) genome was used to map the contigs and generate the scaffolds. We used the

  6. The gold content of some Archaean rocks and their possible relationship to epigenetic gold-quartz vein deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.; Saager, R.

    1985-10-01

    Gold mineralization in Archaean granite-greenstone environments, especially gold-quartz veins, contributes considerably to the world's gold production. The formation of epigenetic gold mineralization in greenstone belts is generally explained by the metamorphic secretion theory. This theory is based on the assumption that the source of the gold may be komatiitic or tholeiitic lavas, pyritic chemical or clastic sediments and even granitic rocks from which, as a result of regional metamorphic overprinting, gold was extracted and concentrated in suitable structures. It has been shown that in proposed potential source rocks, gold is predominantly associated with sulfide minerals and thus relatively easily accessible to secretion and reconstitution processes. A large number of various rock types originating from granite-greenstone terranes of the Kaapvaal and the Rhodesian cratons were geochemically investigated, and the following ranges for gold determined: volcanic rocks (komatiitic and tholeiitic): 0.1 372 ppb granitic rocks of the basement: 0.3 7.8 ppb iron-rich chemical sediments: 1.0 667 ppb Statistical treatment of the data reveals that volcanic rocks as well as iron-rich chemical sediments are favorable sources for epigenetic gold mineralization formed by metamorphic secretion, while the granitic rocks make less suitable primary gold sources. This finding explains the close spatial relationship which is common between gold-quartz veins and greenstone belts. The conspicuous abundance of epigenetic gold mineralization in the Archaean, however, is attributed to the unique geologic and metamorphic history of the granite-greenstone terranes.

  7. Generation of continental crust in the northern part of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, from Archaean to Neoproterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Kalsbeek, Feiko; Deng, Xiao-Dong; Frei, Robert; Kokfelt, Thomas Find; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Li, Jian-Wei; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Galindo, Antonio Carlos

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the origin and evolution of the magmatic rocks in the area north of the Patos Lineament in the Borborema Province (BP). This northeastern segment of NE Brazil is composed of at least six different tectonic blocks with ages varying from late-Archaean to late-Palaeoproterozoic. Archaean rocks cover ca. 5% of the region. They were emplaced over a period of 700 Ma, with at least seven events of magma generation, at 3.41, 3.36, 3.25, 3.18, 3.12, 3.03, and 2.69 Ga. The rocks are subalkaline to slightly alkaline, with affinity to I- and M-type magmas; they follow trondhjemitic or potassium calc-alkaline differentiation trends. They have epsilon Nd(t) of +1.4 to -4.2 and negative anomalies for Ta-Nb, P and Ti, consistent with a convergent tectonic setting. Both subducted oceanic crust and upper mantle (depleted or metasomatised) served as sources of the magmas. After a time lapse of about 350 m y., large-scale emplacement of Paleoproterozoic units took place. These rocks cover about 50% of the region. Their geochemistry indicates juvenile magmatism with a minor contribution from crustal sources. These rocks also exhibit potassic calc-alkaline differentiation trends, again akin to I- and M-type magmas, and show negative anomalies for Ta-Nb, Ti and P. Depleted and metasomatised mantle, resulting from interaction with adakitic or trondhjemitic melts in a subduction zone setting, is interpreted to be the main source of the magmas, predominanting over crustal recycling. U-Pb ages indicate generation of plutonic rocks at 2.24-2.22 Ga (in some places at about 2.4-2.3 Ga) and 2.13-2.11 Ga, and andesitic volcanism at 2.15 Ga. Isotopic evidence indicates juvenile magmatism (epsilon Nd(t) of +2.9 to -2.9). After a time lapse of about 200 m y. a period of within-plate magmatic activity followed, with acidic volcanism (1.79 Ga) in Orós, granitic plutonism (1.74 Ga) in the Seridó region, anorthosites (1.70 Ga) and A-type granites (1.6 Ga) in the Transverse Zone

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  9. Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Guoqiang; Bo, Tao; Yang, Yanfei; Tao, Yong; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping; Yan, Zhiying

    2016-04-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production. In this paper, it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD-MEC coupled system, methane yield was further increased by 24.1%, achieving to 360.2mL/g-COD, which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester. With the presence of Geobacter, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate (216.8mg COD/(L·hr)) and current density (304.3A/m(3)) were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter, resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%. Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm, and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter, suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Taken together, Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system, but also can enhance methane production. PMID:27090713

  10. Electromagnetic mini arrays (EMMA project). 3D modeling/inversion for mantle conductivity in the Archaean of the Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Pedersen, L. B.

    2009-04-01

    Two electromagnetic arrays are used in the EMMA project to study conductivity structure of the Archaean lithosphere in the Fennoscandian Shield. The first array was operated during almost one year, while the second one was running only during the summer time. Twelve 5-components magnetotelluric instruments with fluxgate magnetometers recorded simultaneously time variations of Earth's natural electromagnetic field at the sites separated by c. 30 km. To better control the source field and to obtain galvanic distortion free responses we have applied horizontal spatial gradient (HSG) technique to the data. The study area is highly inhomogeneous, thus classical HSG might give erroneous results. The method was extended to include anomalous field effects by implementing multivariate analysis. The HSG transfer functions were then used to control static shift distortions of apparent resistivities. During the BEAR experiment 1997-2002, the conductance map of entire Fennoscandia was assembled and finally converted into 3D volume resistivity model. We have used the model, refined it to get denser grid around measurement area and calculated MT transfer functions after 3D modeling. We have used trial-and-error method in order to further improve the model. The data set was also inverted using 3D code of Siripunvaraporn (2005). In the first stage we have used homogeneous halfspace as starting model for the inversion. In the next step we have used final 3D forward model as apriori model. The usage of apriori information significantly stabilizes the inverse solution, especially in case of a limited amount of data available. The results show that in the Archaean Domain a conductive layer is found in the upper/middle crust on contrary to previous results from other regions of the Archaean crust in the Fennoscandian Shield. Data also suggest enhanced conductivity at the depth of c. 100 km. Conductivity below the depth of 200-250 km is lower than that of the laboratory based estimates

  11. The origin of late archaean granitoids in the Sukuma land greenstone belt of northern Tanzania: Geochemical and isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitoids intruding the late Archaean sequences of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt of northern Tanzania belong to two distinct geochemical suites. Suite 1 is characterised by Na2O/K2O > 1 (1.04 - 4.67), high Sr/Y (56 - 204) and Ba/Rb ratios (6.1 - 27.1) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.08 - 0.25). The rocks are enriched in Sr (405 - 1264 ppm) and depleted in Yb (0.17 - 0.93 ppm) and Rb (56 -132 ppm). On chondrite-normalised REE diagrams, the rocks display highly fractionated patterns characterised by relative LREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 23 - 128 and (Gd/Yb)N = 3.10- 8.54) and lower concentrations of the HREE (YbN = 0.80 - 4.45). On primitive mantle-normalised spidergrams, Nb and Ti, together with P and Y are depleted relative to adjacent elements. The major and trace element characteristics of Suite 1 are comparable to those of typical Archaean TTG suites and High Silica Adakites (HSA). Suite 2 granitoids are characterised by Na2O/K2O N = 15 -86 and (Gd/Yb)N = 1.73 - 6.74) and are characterised by higher concentrations of the HREE (YbN = 2.1 - 6.5). On primitive mantle-normalised spidergrams, Suite 2 samples, like those of Suite 1, show relative depletion in Th, Nb and Ti, together with P and Y relative to adjacent elements. Sm-Nd mean crustal residence ages for both suites are indistinguishable and range between 2470 and 2720 Ma with a mean of 2610 ± 35 Ma (2 SE), similar to the emplacement age of 2620 ± 40 Ma. The granitoids are interpreted to have formed by partial melting at the base of a late Archaean thickened sub-arc basaltic crust. Melting to form the Suite 1 granitoids occurred in the eclogite stability field whereas Suite 2 formed by melting at shallower depth in the garnet amphibolite stability field. (author)

  12. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    systems suggest that ore-forming metasomatic fluids are derived from subduction-related devolitilization reactions, implying that orogenic Au-deposits in Archaean and Proterozoic supracrustal rock suites are related to subduction-style plate tectonics beginning early in Earth history. Justification of...... this metasomatic-tectonic relationship requires that 1) Phanerozoic orogenic Au-deposits form in subduction-zone environments, and 2) the geochemical similarity of Precambrian orogenic deposits to their younger counterparts is the result of having the same petrogenetic origin. Hydrogen and oxygen......-tectonic origin with Phanerozoic orogenic deposits and that this type of metasomatism is a unique result of subduction-related processes. Fuchsite from the ISB has a δ18O and δD of 7.7 to 17.9‰ and -115 to -61‰, respectively. δ18O of quartz from the same rocks is between 10.3 and 18.6‰. Muscovite-quartz oxygen...

  13. First record of 1.2 Ga quartz dioritic magmatism in the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon dating. Pb-Nd isotope tracer studies and major, trace and rare-earth element analyses have identified, for the first time. a Mesoproterozoic (1.2 Ga) quartz diorite intrusion in the central part of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton. Western Australia The quartz diorite is characterised by intergrowths of quartz and plagioclase, having low A/CNK (0 8). low K2O (0.28 wt%), Ba (54 ppm), Rb (11 ppm), Sr (92 ppm), Pb (13 ppm), U (1.7 ppm) and Th (6 ppm) contents, high Nd (41 ppm), Sm (10.5 ppm), Zr (399 ppm). Nb (18.5 ppm). Y (57.5 ppm) and Sc (19 ppm) contents. a low Pb isotope two-stage model μ value (6.3), and a primitive initial eNd value (+3.4) at 1.2 Ga. It is interpreted that the 1.2 Ga quartz diorite was derived from a predominantly mantle source, with minor crustal contamination, possibly from the surrounding Archaean monzogranites or their source region, during magma ascent. The age (1215 ± 11 Ma) of the intrusion overlaps with the timing of a major continental collisional orogeny in the Albany-Fraser Orogen, about 400km south, and is broadly coeval with the diamond-bearing Argyle lamproites in the east Kimberley Block. This study extends the history of granitoid magmatism in the central craton by more than 1.0 billion years (2.6 to 1.2 Ga), and has implications for isotopic data interpretations of tectonothermal events in the craton. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri. Purification, properties and encoding genes of the corrinoid protein MT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Harms, U; Thauer, R K

    1997-02-01

    In Methanosarcina barkeri, methanogenesis from methanol is initiated by the formation of methylcoenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M. This methyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by two enzymes, designated MT1 and MT2. Transferase MT1 is a corrinoid protein. The purification, catalytic properties and encoding genes of MT2 (MtaA) have been described previously [Harms, U. and Thauer, R.K. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 653-659]. We report here on the corresponding analysis of MT1. The corrinoid protein MT1 was purified to apparent homogeneity and showed a specific activity of 750 mumol min-1 mg-1. The enzyme catalyzed the methylation of its bound corrinoid in the cob(I)amide oxidation state by methanol. In addition to this automethylation, the purified enzyme was found to catalyze the methylation of free cob(I)alamin to methylcob(III)alamin. It was composed of two different subunits designated MtaB and MtaC, with apparent molecular masses of 49 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively. The subunit MtaC was shown to harbour the corrinoid prosthetic group. The genes mtaB and mtaC were cloned and sequenced. They were found to be juxtapositioned and to form a transcription unit mtaCB. The corrinoid-harbouring subunit MtaC exhibits 35% sequence similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli. PMID:9057830

  15. Sodium ions and an energized membrane required by Methanosarcina barkeri for the oxidation of methanol to the level of formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanogenesis from methanol by cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri was inhibited by the uncoupler tetrachlorosalicylanilide. This inhibition was reversed by the addition of formaldehyde. 14C labeling experiments revealed that methanol served exclusively as the electron acceptor, whereas formaldehyde was mainly oxidized to CO2 under these conditions. These data support the hypothesis that the first step in methanol oxidation depends on the proton motive force or a product thereof. Cell extracts of M. barkeri converted methanol and formaldehyde to methane under an H2 atmosphere. Under an N2 atmosphere, however, formaldehyde was disproportionated to CH4 and CO2, whereas methanol was metabolized to a very small extent only, irrespective of the presence of ATP. It was concluded that cell extracts of M. barkeri are not able to oxidize methanol. In further experiments, the sodium dependence of methanogenesis and ATP information by whole cells was investigated. Methane formation from methanol alone and the corresponding increase in the intracellular ATP content were strictly dependent on Na+. If, in contrast, methanol was utilized together with H2, methane and ATP were synthesized in the absence of Na+. From these experiments, it is concluded that in M. barkeri, Na+ is involved not in the process of ATP synthesis but in the first step of methanol oxidation

  16. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri: evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, methyl coenzyme M, and methylreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway of acetate catabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS was studied by using a recently developed assay for methanogenesis from acetate by soluble enzymes in cell extracts. Extracts incubated with [2-14C]acetate, hydrogen, and ATP formed 14CH4 and [14C]methyl coenzyme M as products. The apparent Km for acetate conversion to methane was 5 mM. In the presence of excess acetate, both the rate and duration of methane production was dependent on ATP. Acetyl phosphate replaced the cell extract methanogenic requirement for both acetate and ATP (the Km for ATP was 2 mM). Low concentrations of bromoethanesulfonic acid and cyanide, inhibitors of methylreductase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, respectively, greatly reduced the rate of methanogenesis. Precipitation of CO dehydrogenase in cell extracts by antibodies raised to 95% purified enzyme inhibited both CO dehydrogenase and acetate-to-methane conversion activity. The data are consistent with a model of acetate catabolism in which methylreductase, methyl coenzyme M, CO dehydrogenase, and acetate-activating enzymes are components. These results are discussed in relation to acetate uptake and rate-limiting transformation mechanisms in methane formation

  17. NrpRII mediates contacts between NrpRI and general transcription factors in the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, Katrin; Ehlers, Claudia; Kock, Jutta; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2010-11-01

    We report here on the formation of a complex between the two NrpR homologs present in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 and their binding properties to the nifH and glnK(1) promoters. Reciprocal co-chromatography demonstrated that NrpRI forms stable complexes with NrpRII (at an NrpRI : NrpRII molar ratio of ∼ 1 : 3), which are not affected by 2-oxoglutarate. Promoter-binding, analyses using DNA-affinity chromatography and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays, verified that NrpRII is not able to bind to either the nifH promoter or the glnK(1) promoter except when in complex with NrpRI. Specific binding of NrpRI to the nifH and glnK(1) promoters was shown to be highly sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate, regardless of whether only NrpRI, or NrpRI in complex with NrpRII, bound to the promoter. Finally, strong interactions between NrpRII and the general transcription factors TATA-binding proteins (TBP) 1-3 and the general transcription factor TFIIB (TFB) were demonstrated, interactions which are also sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate. On the basis of these findings we propose the following: under nitrogen sufficiency NrpRII binds from solution to either the nifH promoter or the glnK(1) promoter by simultaneously contacting NrpRI and TBP plus TFB, resulting in full repression of transcription; whereas, under nitrogen limitation, increasing 2-oxoglutarate concentrations significantly decrease the binding of NrpRI to the operator as well as the binding of NrpRII to TBP and TFB, ultimately allowing recruitment of RNA polymerase to the promoter. PMID:20875081

  18. Global transcriptomics analysis of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris change from syntrophic growth with Methanosarcina barkeri to sulfidogenic metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J.; Zhang, Weiwen

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Desulfovibrio vulgaris is a metabolically flexible microorganism. It can use sulfate as electron acceptor to catabolize a variety of substrates, or in the absence of sulfate can utilize organic acids and alcohols by forming a syntrophic association with hydrogen scavenging partner to relieve inhibition by hydrogen. These alternativemetabolic types increase the chance of survival for D. vulgaris in environments where one of the potential external electron acceptors becomes depleted. In this work, whole-genome D. vulgaris microarrays were used to determine relative transcript levels as D. vulgaris shifted its metabolism from syntroph in a lactate-oxidizing dual-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Syntrophic dual-cultures were grown in two independent chemostats and perturbation was introduced after six volume changes with the addition of sulfate. The results showed that 132 genes were differentially expressed in D. vulgaris 2 hours after addition of sulfate. Functional analyses suggested that genes involved in cell envelope and energy metabolism were the most regulated when comparing syntrophic and sulfidogenic metabolism. Up-regulation was observed for genes encoding ATPase and the membrane-integrated energy conserving hydrogenase (Ech) when cells shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. A five-gene cluster encoding several lipo- and membrane-bound proteins was down-regulated when cells were shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Interestingly, this gene cluster has orthologs found only in another syntrophic bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and four recently sequenced Desulfovibrio strains. This study also identified several novel c-type cytochrome encoding genes which may be involved in the sulfidogenic metabolism.

  19. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barke...

  20. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  1. Petrographic and mineragraphic investigations of the archaean gold placer at Mount Robert in the Pietersburg greenstone belt, Northern Transvaal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fossil gold placer on Mount Robert near Potgietersrus, northern Transvaal, occurs in the Uitkyk Formation. This formation consists of arenaceous rocks with interlayered conglomerates and shales, and occurs at the top of the Archaean Pietersburg Sequence which forms the Pietersburg greenstone belt. The host rock of the occurrence consists of conglomerates. Its fragments indicate that the provenance area consisted of acid porphyritic lava, chert, banded iron-formation, quartzite, basic lava, vein quartz, and shale. It is suggested that the Uitkyk sediments were transported over short distances and originated from the erosion of a greenstone terrane. The mineralogy of the ore is relatively simply and resembles that of the much younger Witwatersrand banket. Rounded allogenic and, to a lesser extent, idiomorphic to hypidiomorphic authigenic pyrite form the main constituents. Less abundant but genetically interesting ore minerals that have been found so far are leucoxene-rutile, chromite, molybdenite, zircon, carbonaceous matter, and brannerite. The Mount Robert occurrence can be regarded as a primitive forerunner of the Witwatersrand goldfield. Ineffective sedimentary enrichment processes and an environment unfavourable for life-forms that could have acted as biogenic gold and uranium concentrators are regarded as possible reasons for the low gold content and scarcity of uranium-bearing minerals in the investigated Uitkyk conglomerates

  2. Selection for Protein Kinetic Stability Connects Denaturation Temperatures to Organismal Temperatures and Provides Clues to Archaean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, M. Luisa; Risso, Valeria A.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the denaturation temperatures of proteins (Tm values) and the living temperatures of their host organisms (environmental temperatures: TENV values) is poorly understood. Since different proteins in the same organism may show widely different Tm’s, no simple universal relationship between Tm and TENV should hold, other than Tm≥TENV. Yet, when analyzing a set of homologous proteins from different hosts, Tm’s are oftentimes found to correlate with TENV’s but this correlation is shifted upward on the Tm axis. Supporting this trend, we recently reported Tm’s for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that mirror a proposed environmental cooling over long geological time, while remaining a shocking ~50°C above the proposed ancestral ocean temperatures. Here, we show that natural selection for protein kinetic stability (denaturation rate) can produce a Tm↔TENV correlation with a large upward shift in Tm. A model for protein stability evolution suggests a link between the Tm shift and the in vivo lifetime of a protein and, more specifically, allows us to estimate ancestral environmental temperatures from experimental denaturation rates for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins. The TENV values thus obtained match the proposed ancestral ocean cooling, support comparatively high Archaean temperatures, and are consistent with a recent proposal for the environmental temperature (above 75°C) that hosted the last universal common ancestor. More generally, this work provides a framework for understanding how features of protein stability reflect the environmental temperatures of the host organisms. PMID:27253436

  3. Archaean fluid-assisted crustal cannibalism recorded by low δ18O and negative ɛHf(T) isotopic signatures of West Greenland granite zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiess, Joe; Bennett, Vickie C.; Nutman, Allen P.; Williams, Ian S.

    2011-06-01

    The role of fluids during Archaean intra-crustal magmatism has been investigated via integrated SHRIMP U-Pb, δ18O and LA-MC-ICPMS 176Hf isotopic zircon analysis. Six rock samples studied are all from the Nuuk region (southern West Greenland) including two ~3.69 Ga granitic and trondhjemitic gneisses, a 3.64 Ga granitic augen gneiss, a 2.82 Ga granodioritic Ikkattoq gneiss, a migmatite with late Neoarchaean neosome and a homogeneous granite of the 2.56 Ga Qôrqut Granite Complex (QGC). All zircon grains were thoroughly imaged to facilitate analysis of magmatic growth domains. Within the zircon analysed, there is no evidence for metamictization. Initial ɛHf zircon values ( n = 63) are largely sub-chondritic, indicating the granitic host magmas were generated by the remelting of older, un-radiogenic crustal components. Zircon from some granite samples displays more than one 207Pb/206Pb age, and correlated with 176Hf/177Hf compositions can trace multiple phases of remelting or recrystallization during the Archaean. Model ages calculated using Lu/Hf arrays for each sample indicate that the crustal parental rocks to the granites, granodiorites and trondhjemites segregated from a chondrite-like reservoir at an earlier time during the Archaean, corresponding to known formation periods of more primitive tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses. Zircon from the ~3.69 Ga granite, the migmatite and QGC granite contains Eoarchaean cores with chondritic 176Hf/177Hf and mantle-like δ18O compositions. The age and geochemical signatures from these inherited components are identical to those of surrounding tonalitic gneisses, further suggesting genesis of these granites by remelting of broadly tonalitic protoliths. Zircon oxygen isotopic compositions ( n = 62) over nine age populations (six igneous and three inherited) have weighted mean or mean δ18O values ranging from 5.8 ± 0.6 to 3.7 ± 0.5‰. The 3.64 Ga granitic augen gneiss sample displays the highest δ18O with

  4. Archaean greenstone belt tectonism and basin development: some insights from the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    The sediments in two of South Africa's major Archaean greenstone belts, the Barberton and Pietersburg greenstone belts, span an age range of some 800 million years. Both greenstone belts represent remnants of extensive fold and thrust belts with complex, but different polyphase tectonic histories. The oldest sediments were deposited between circa 3470 and 3490 M.a. on oceanic like crust preserved in the Barberton belt, possibly at the same time as sedimentation on similar oceanic crust preserved in the Pietersburg belt. Thereafter, the geologic evolution of these two belts diverged considerably. In the Barberton belt, there is clear evidence that the oceanic crust and sediments were obducted onto an intra-arc basin environment within 50 million years of its formation. The sequence was later further imbricated by northwest directed thrust stacking between 3300-3200 M.a. Basin development during both periods of thrusting took place in close proximity to active "calc-alkaline" arc systems. Deformation of the sediments within these basins took place while the same sediments were being deposited. Sedimentation took place predominantly in subaqueous environments, ranging from submarine mid-fans below the photic zone to tidal flats and deltaic plains. The sediments represent a polyhistory successor-type basin: early basins developed along a complex subduction related plate boundary; these basins later evolved into foreland depositories along and within collisional environments of an accretionary orogen. Late in the history of the Barberton greenstone belt (circa 3100 M.a.), the rocks were in places thermally reactivated and probably subjected to extensional processes; these processes overlapped in time with the main episodes of economic gold mineralization, and are of "early Witwatersrand-basin" age. The oceanic-like crust (including associated sediments) preserved in the Pietersburg belt was not significantly deformed until at least 500 million years after its formation

  5. Archaean tonalitic-trondhjemitic and granitic plutonism in the Gaviao block, Sao Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil: geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granitic-gneissic terranes of the Gaviao Block in the central-southern Sao Francisco Craton are a Key area to the understanding of the evolution of the South American Platform. The Archaean granitic-gneissic rocks are intimately associated with the Umburanas and Contendas Mirante greenstone belts. The metamorphic grades vary from greenschist to amphibolite facies. These rocks were intensely deformed and intruded by Paleoproterozoic granites. The main evolution of the Gaviao Block is market by the formation of granitoid nuclei during various episodes of TTG plutonism between 3.2 and 3.4 Ga. The TDM Sm-Nd model ages for these granitoids range from 3.2 and 3.6 Ga, indicating involvement of sialic crust in their genesis, in agreement with the εNd(t) values between -4.0 and -1.3. Between 3.1 and 2.5 Ga, the Gaviao Block was affected by volcanic and sedimentary activity associated with the formation of the Umburanas and Contendas Mirante greenstone belts, intruded by granites about 2.75 and 2.5 Ga ago. During the paleoproterozoic, the Gaviao Block was regionally deformed and metamorphosed, and intruded by granites between 2.1 and 1.9 Ga. During the mesoproterozoic, tectonic and metamorphic activity occurred between 1.2 and 1.0 Ga as suggested by resetting of Rb-Sr and K-Ar systematics. Finally, regional tectono-thermal overprints in the areas occurred during the Neoproterozoic. These episodes are accompanied by the intrusion of mafic dikes at about 0.9 Ga K-Ar ages given by biotites fall within the range 0.5-0.7 Ga and mark the end of the cratonization stage. (author)

  6. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  7. The amalgamation of the supercontinent of North China Craton at the end of Neo-Archaean and its breakup during late Palaeoproterozoic and Meso-Proterozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟明国; 卞爱国; 赵太平

    2000-01-01

    The most important geological events in the formation and evolution of the North China Craton concentrate at two stages: 2 600-2 400 Ma and 2 000-1 700 Ma (briefly, we call them 2.5 Ga event and 1.8 Ga event respectively in this paper). We propose that the essences of these two events are: Several Archaean micro-continents amalgamated to form one supercontinent according to the plate tectonic principle with a small scale at about 2.5 Ga, and the supercontinent broke down by upwelling of an ancient mantle plume at about 1.8 Ga.

  8. Asteroids and Archaean crustal evolution: Tests of possible genetic links between major mantle/crust melting events and clustered extraterrestrial bombardments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, A. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Since the oldest intact terrestrial rocks of ca. 4.0 Ga and oldest zircon xenocrysts of ca. 4.3 Ga measured to date overlap with the lunar late heavy bombardment, the early Precambrian record requires close reexamination vis a vis the effects of megaimpacts. The identification of microtektite-bearing horizons containing spinals of chondritic chemistry and Ir anomalies in 3.5-3.4-Ga greenstone belts provides the first direct evidence for large-scale Archaean impacts. The Archaean crustal record contains evidence for several major greenstone-granite-forming episodes where deep upwelling and adiabatic fusion of the mantle was accompanied by contemporaneous crustal anatexis. Isotopic age studies suggest evidence for principal age clusters about 3.5, 3.0, and 2.7 (+/- 0.8) Ga, relics of a ca. 3.8-Ga event, and several less well defined episodes. These peak events were accompanied and followed by protracted thermal fluctuations in intracrustal high-grade metamorphic zones. Interpretations of these events in terms of internal dynamics of the Earth are difficult to reconcile with the thermal behavior of silicate rheologies in a continuously convecting mantle regime. A triggering of these episodes by mantle rebound response to intermittent extraterrestrial asteroid impacts is supported by (1) identification of major Archaean impacts from microtektite and distal ejecta horizons marked by Ir anomalies; (2) geochemical and experimental evidence for mantle upwelling, possibly from levels as deep as the transition zone; and (3) catastrophic adiabatic melting required to generate peridotitic komatites. Episodic differentiation/accretion growth of sial consequent on these events is capable of resolving the volume problem that arises from comparisons between modern continental crust and the estimated sial produced by continuous two-stage mantle melting processes. The volume problem is exacerbated by projected high accretion rates under Archaean geotherms. It is suggested that

  9. The Archaean sanukitoid series of the Baltic Shield: geological setting, geochemical characteristics and implications for their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach-Zhuchenko, S. B.; Rollinson, H. R.; Chekulaev, V. P.; Arestova, N. A.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Ivanikov, V. V.; Guseva, N. S.; Sergeev, S. A.; Matukov, D. I.; Jarvis, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Archaean high-Mg granitoids (sanukitoids) occur in the Karelian granite-greenstone terrain in the Baltic Shield in two distinct zones. In the west of the Shield sanukitoid intrusions formed between 2700 and 2720 Ma and consist of a single igneous phase that varies in composition from diorite to granite. In the Eastern part of the Shield, sanukitoid intrusions formed between 2730 and 2745 Ma and are strongly differentiated, varying in composition from ultramafic to felsic. All the sanukitoids are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE: La≤80 ppm, Ce≤150 ppm, La N/Yb N≤30-40), Sr≤2000 ppm, Ba≤2500 ppm, P 2O 5≤1.5%, alkalis (Na 2O+K 2O=5-10%), possess high mg# values (0.50-0.65), and show a negative Nb-Ta anomaly. They are spatially and temporally related to syenite intrusions and lamprophyre dykes. Sanukitoid intrusions in the Western and Eastern zones differ in composition. In the west, they have higher SiO 2 (mainly>60%) and lower alkalis, Sr, Ba, LREE than in the Eastern zone intrusions. The most differentiated intrusion, the Panozero intrusion in the Eastern zone, was formed in two magmatic cycles separated by ductile deformation. In the first cycle, ultramafic to monzonitic rocks formed, whereas, in the second cycle, the magmas were monzodioritic to quartz monzonite. Ultramafic and mafic rocks make up about 10% of the outcrop and occur as enclaves in monzonites and monzodiorites, and, as dykes, implies a number of discrete magmatic events. All rocks of the Panozero intrusion have high K 2O, and the composition of the initial melt, calculated from the weighted average of the first cycle magmas is monzodiorite (SiO 2=52%, mg#=0.55, Na 2O+K 2O˜6%). The presence of magmatic hornblende and biotite, a high carbonate content, widely distributed explosive breccias and evidence of liquid immiscibility are consistent with a high H 2O-CO 2 content in the sanukitoid melt. The geodynamic model which most satisfactorily explains our geological and

  10. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  11. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    An assembly of igneous (TTG-granitoids and S-type leucogranites and calc-alkaline-, tholeiite-, kometiite-, boninite- and adakite-series metavolcanics) and metamorphic (eclogite-, moderate-pressure (MP) granulite- and MP amphibolite-facies rocks) complexes, strikingly complete for Archaean structures, is preserved in the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield. At least four Meso-Neoarchaean different-aged (2.88-2.82; 2.81-2.78; ca. 2.75 and 2.735-2.72 Ga) calc-alkaline and adakitic subduction-type volcanics were identified as part of greenstone belts in the Belomorian province (Slabunov, 2008). 2.88-2.82 and ca. 2.78 Ga fore-arc type graywacke units were identified in this province too (Bibikova et al., 2001; Mil'kevich et al., 2007). Ca.2.7 Ga volcanics were generated in extension structures which arose upon the collapse of an orogen. The occurrence of basalt-komatiite complexes, formed in most greenstone belts in oceanic plateau settings under the influence of mantle plumes, shows the abundance of these rocks in subducting oceanic slabs. Multiple (2.82-2.79; 2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72; 2.69-2.64 Ga) granulite-facies moderate-pressure metamorphic events were identified in the Belomorian province (Volodichev, 1990; Slabunov et al., 2006). The earliest (2.82-2.79 Ga) event is presumably associated with accretionary processes upon the formation of an old continental crust block. Two other events (2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72 Ga) are understood as metamorphic processes in suprasubduction setting. Late locally active metamorphism is attributed to the emplacement of mafic intrusions upon orogen collapse. Three groups of crustal eclogites with different age were identified in the Belomorian province: Mesoarchaean (2.88-2.86 and 2.82-2.80 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts and oceanic high-Mg rocks (Mints et al., 2011; Shchipansky at al., 2012); Neoarchaean (2.72 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts. The formation of

  12. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism. (orig.)

  13. The Archaean gold-telluride-sulphide and gold-telluride mineralisation of a multiple stage hydrothermal vein deposit at the Commoner Mine, Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commoner Mine is situated on the western edge of the Midlands greenstone belt, 50 km west-southwest of Kadoma, Zimbabwe. Current geological interest in this deposit was initiated by the presence of coarse grained telluride minerals in ore exposed on 21 level in 1978. The deposit is a hydrothermal quartz-calcite vein. It was found that coarse grained gold-silver tellurides fill fractures which transect the telluride breccia. Comparison of the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the Commoner orebody with those of the Tertiary gold-telluride deposits of the Circum Pacific Belt and the Archaean deposits of Canada and Australia indicates that this mineralisation was probably deposited in a near-surface environment. It was found that the gold-telluride ores of the Commoner Mine display features characteristic of both plutonic-hydrothermal and volcanic-hydrothermal styles of telluride mineralisation

  14. Middle Archaean age of Sargur group by single grain zircon dating and geochemical evidence for the clastic origin of metaquartzite from J.C. Pura greenstone belt, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euhedral zircons from J.C. Pura metaquartzite were dated by single grain evaporation technique which yielded a Pb-Pb age of 3230 ± 5Ma. This date representing the maximum age of the Sargur metaquartzite is fully in accord with previous Sm-Nd model ages and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages (ca 3200 Ma) of Sargur rocks from nearby areas. The Sargur group is pervasively intruded by gneisses and granites around 3000 Ma. Still older gneisses seen in the neighbourhood such as the Gorur gneiss of 3300 Ma age may constitute a possible basement to the Sargur supracrustals and represent widespread early Archaean granitic crust of the Dharwar craton. (author). 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Rapid development of the late Archaean Hutti schist belt, Northern Karnataka: implications of new field data and SHRIMP U/Pb zircon ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palkanmardi conglomerate is one of many polymict conglomerates interbedded with greywackes in the NE of the Hutti schist belt. These conglomerates are up to a few metres thick, unsorted, and include rounded to sub-angular clasts of granodiorite, granite, vein quartz and metabasalt in a matrix of coarse- to medium-grained greywacke. Cross-bedding, convolute bedding and grading are well preserved in the interbedded greywackes in spite of deformation and hornfelsing during Late Archaean regional high temperature - low pressure metamorphism. These primary structures and lack of sorting in the conglomerates are consistent with deposition as turbidites and debrites in an unstable submarine environment. This new interpretation contrasts with previous views that the Palkanmardi conglomerate is autoclastic, pyroclastic-detrital or glacio-fluvial. The conglomerate-greywacke sequence occurs low in the lithostratigraphy and is overlain by metabasalts. A clast of granodiorite in the conglomerate bed at Palkanmardi village has yielded a SHRIMP weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb zircon age of 2576±12 Ma which is interpreted as the magmatic age of the erosional provenance. Moreover, SHRIMP zircon geochronology using a sample from the steep elongate wedge of granodiorite that extends for at least 150 km SE of the schist belt has yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2561±24 Ma and a concordia upper intercept age of 2580±31 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable within their errors and are interpreted as the age of magmatic crystallisation. Combined with the low stratigraphic position of the Palkanmardi conglomerate, the age data imply that basin development (volcanism and sedimentation) in the Hutti belt was not only rapid, but began very late in the Archaean history of this part of the Dharwar craton. (author)

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the catalytic domain of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) from M. mazei has been overexpressed in an N-terminally truncated form PylRS(c270) in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) from Methanosarcina mazei was overexpressed in an N-terminally truncated form PylRS(c270) in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The native PylRS(c270) crystals in complex with an ATP analogue belonged to space group P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.88, c = 70.43 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of PylRS(c270). Selenomethionine-substituted protein crystals were prepared in order to solve the structure by the MAD phasing method

  17. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri. Zinc dependence and thermodynamics of the methanol:cob(I)alamin methyltransferase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Thauer, R K

    1997-10-01

    In Methanosarcina barkeri, methanogenesis from methanol is initiated by the formation of methyl-coenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M. This methyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by two enzymes, designated methyltransferases 1 (MT1) and 2 (MT2). Transferase MT1, which is composed of a 50-kDa subunit, MtaB, and a 27-kDa corrinoid-harbouring subunit, MtaC, has been shown recently to catalyze the methylation of free cob(I)alamin with methanol [Sauer, K., Harms, U. & Thauer, R. K. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 670-677]. We report here that this reaction is catalyzed by subunit MtaB overproduced in Escherichia coli. MtaB also catalyzed the formation of methanol from methylcobalamin and H2O, the hydrolysis being associated with a free-energy change deltaG(o)' of approximately +7.0 kJ/mol. MtaB was found to contain 1 mol zinc, and its activity to be zinc dependent (pK(Zn2+) = 9.3). The zinc dependence of the MT2 (MtaA)-catalyzed reaction is also described (pK(Zn2+) = 9.6). PMID:9363780

  18. Demonstration of carbon-carbon bond cleavage of acetyl coenzyme A by using isotopic exchange catalyzed by the CO dehydrogenase complex from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purified nickel-containing CO dehydrogenase complex isolated from methanogenic Methanosarcina thermophila grown on acetate is able to catalyze the exchange of [1-14C] acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) (carbonyl group) with 12CO as well as the exchange of [3'-32P]CoA with acetyl-CoA. Kinetic parameters for the carbonyl exchange have been determined: Km (acetyl-CoA) = 200 microM, Vmax = 15 min-1. CoA is a potent inhibitor of this exchange (Ki = 25 microM) and is formed under the assay conditions because of a slow but detectable acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity of the enzyme. Kinetic parameters for both exchanges are compared with those previously determined for the acetyl-CoA synthase/CO dehydrogenase from the acetogenic Clostridium thermoaceticum. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the postulated role of CO dehydrogenase as the key enzyme for acetyl-CoA degradation in acetotrophic bacteria

  19. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  20. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  1. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri -- substitution of the corrinoid harbouring subunit MtaC by free cob(I)alamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Thauer, R K

    1999-05-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M formation from coenzyme M and methanol in Methanosarcina barkeri is catalysed by an enzyme system composed of three polypeptides MtaA, MtaB and MtaC, the latter of which harbours a corrinoid prosthetic group. We report here that MtaC can be substituted by free cob(I)alamin which is methylated with methanol in an MtaB-catalysed reaction and demethylated with coenzyme M in an MtaA-catalysed reaction. Methyl transfer from methanol to coenzyme M was found to proceed at a relatively high specific activity at micromolar concentrations of cob(I)alamin. This finding was surprising because the methylation of cob(I)alamin catalysed by MtaB alone and the demethylation of methylcob(III)alamin catalysed by MtaA alone exhibit apparent Km for cob(I)alamin and methylcob(III)alamin of above 1 mm. A possible explanation is that MtaA positively affects the MtaB catalytic efficiency and vice versa by decreasing the apparent Km for their corrinoid substrates. Activation of MtaA by MtaB was methanol-dependent. In the assay for methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase activity cob(I)alamin could be substituted by cob(I)inamide which is devoid of the nucleotide loop. Substitution was, however, only possible when the assays were supplemented with imidazole: approximately 1 mm imidazole being required for half-maximal activity. Methylation of cob(I)inamide with methanol was found to be dependent on imidazole but not on the demethylation of methylcob(III)inamide with coenzyme M. The demethylation reaction was even inhibited by imidazole. The structure and catalytic mechanism of the MtaABC complex are compared with the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. PMID:10215883

  2. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: A lead isotope study of an Archaean gold prospect in the Attu region, Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stendal, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lead isotope investigation of a gold prospect south of the village Attu in the northern part of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in central West Greenland. The Attu gold prospect is a replacement gold occurrence, related to a shear/mylonite zone along a contact between orthogneissand amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian orogenic belt. The mineral occurrence is small, less than 0.5 m wide, and can be followed along strike for several hundred metres. The mineral assemblage is pyrite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and gold. The host rocks to the gold prospect are granulite facies ‘brown gneisses’ and amphibolites. Pb-isotopic data on magnetite from the host rocks yield an isochron in a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, giving a date of 3162 ± 43 Ma (MSWD = 0.5. This date is interpreted to represent the age of the rocks in question, and is older than dates obtained from rocks elsewhere within the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. Pb-isotopic data on cataclastic magnetite from the shear zone lie close to this isochron, indicating a similar origin. The Pb-isotopic compositions of the ore minerals are similar to those previously obtained from the close-by ~2650 Ma Rifkol granite, and suggest a genetic link between the emplacement of this granite and the formation of the ore minerals in the shear/mylonite zone. Consequently, the age of the gold mineralisation is interpreted tobe late Archaean.

  3. Chronology of early Archaean granite-greenstone evolution in the Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa, based on precise dating by single zircon evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruener, Alfred; Byerly, Gary R.; Lowe, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Precise Pb-207/Pb-206 single zircon evaporating ages are reported for low-grade felsic metavolcanic rocks within the Onverwacht and Fig Tree Groups of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), South Africa, as well as for granitoid plutons bordering the belt. Dacitic tuffs of the Hooggenoeg Formation in the upper part of the Onverwacht Group are shown to yield ages between 3445 + or - 3 and 3416 + or - 5 Ma and to contain older crustal components represented by a 3504 + or - 4 Ma old zircon xenocryst. Fig Tree dacitic tuffs and agglomerates have euhedral zircons between 3259 + or - 3 Ma in age which are interpreted to reflect the time of crystallization. The comagmatic relationships between greenstone felsic volcanic units and the surrounding plutonic suites are keynoted. The data adduced show that the Onverwacht and Fig Tree felsic units have distinctly different ages and thus do not constitute a single, tectonically repeated unit as proposed by others. It is argued that conventional multigrain zircon dating may not accurately identify the time of felsic volcanic activity in ancient greenstones, and that the BGB in the Kaapval craton of southern Africa and greenstones in the Pilbara Block of Western Australia may have been part of a larger crustal unit in early Archaean times.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13927-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Borrelia burgdorferi isolate 5 LMP... 42 0.088 CU928175_480( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyc...me: Full=Putative leucine-rich repeat-containing p... 48 0.001 AE010299_1572( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina ac.... 41 0.15 AE010299_3209( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 41 0.15 EF084974_1( EF084974 |pid:none) Picea sitch...99( CP000679 |pid:none) Caldicellulosiruptor saccharoly... 39 0.75 EU136725_1( EU136725 |pid:none) Streptoco...9_2751( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 47 0.002 EU643474_6( EU643474 |pid:none) Adin

  5. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Y T; Zinder, S H

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) from Methanosarcina barkeri 227 was completed in this study by cloning and sequencing a 2.7-kb BamHI fragment containing the 3' end of nifK2 and 1,390 bp of the nifE2-homologous genes. Open reading frame nifK2 is 1,371 bp long including the stop codon TAA and encodes a polypeptide of 456 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the nifK2 and nifE2 gene products from M. barkeri showed that both genes cluster most closely with the corresponding nif-1 gene products from Clostridium pasteurianum, consistent with our previous analyses of nifH2 and nifD2. The nifE gene product is known to be homologous to that of nifD, and our analysis shows that the branching pattern for the nifE proteins resembles that for the nifD product (with the exception of vnfE from Azotobacter vinelandii), suggesting that a gene duplication occurred before the divergence of nitrogenases. Primer extension showed that nifH2 had a single transcription start site located 34 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start site for nifH2, and a sequence resembling the archaeal consensus promoter sequence [TTTA(A/T)ATA] was found 32 nucleotides upstream from that transcription start site. A tract of four T's, previously identified as a transcription termination site in archaea, was found immediately downstream of the nifK2 gene, and a potential promoter was located upstream of the nifE2 gene. Hybridization with nifH2 and nifDK2 probes with M. barkeri RNA revealed a 4.6-kb transcript from N2-grown cells, large enough to harbor nifHDK genes and their internal open reading frames, while no transcript was detected from NH4(+)-grown cells. These results support a model in which the nitrogenase structural genes in M. barkeri are cotranscribed in a single NH4(+)-repressed operon. PMID:8550408

  6. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Roy; A Sarkar; S Jeyakumar; S K Aggrawal; M Ebihara; H Satoh

    2004-12-01

    Trace, rare earth elements (REE), Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and O isotope studies have been carried out on ultramafic (harzburgite and lherzolite) dykes belonging to the newer dolerite dyke swarms of eastern Indian craton. The dyke swarms were earlier considered to be the youngest mafic magmatic activity in this region having ages not older than middle to late Proterozoic. The study indicates that the ultramafic members of these swarms are in fact of late Archaean age (Rb-Sr isochron age 2613 ± 177 Ma, Sri ∼0.702 ± 0.004) which attests that out of all the cratonic blocks of India, eastern Indian craton experienced earliest stabilization event. Primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of these dykes display enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), pronounced Ba, Nb and Sr depletions but very high concentrations of Cr and Ni. Chondrite normalised REE plots exhibit light REE (LREE) enrichment with nearly flat heavy REE (HREE; ( HREE)N ∼ 2-3 times chondrite, (Gd/Yb)N∼1). The Nd(t) values vary from +1.23 to −3.27 whereas 18O values vary from +3.16‰ to +5.29‰ (average +3.97‰ ± 0.75‰) which is lighter than the average mantle value. Isotopic, trace and REE data together indicate that during 2.6 Ga the nearly primitive mantle below the eastern Indian Craton was metasomatised by the fluid (±silicate melt) coming out from the subducting early crust resulting in LILE and LREE enriched, Nb depleted, variable Nd, low Sri(0.702) and low 18O bearing EMI type mantle. Magmatic blobs of this metasomatised mantle were subsequently emplaced in deeper levels of the granitic crust which possibly originated due to the same thermal pulse.

  7. Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09694-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36( AE005672 |pid:none) Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, ... 69 4e-10 CP000422_851( CP000422 |pid:none) Pediococcus pentosac...736( AY596297 |pid:none) Haloarcula marismortui ATCC 430... 62 5e-08 CP000422_806( CP000422 |pid:none) Pediococcus pentosac...99_2037( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 84 7e-15 CP000813...AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 65 4e-09 AY892319_1( AY892319 |pid:none) Synthetic construct Homo sa...M285308_18( AM285308 |pid:none) Spiroplasma citri GII3-3X chromos... 62 3e-08 AM236086_408( AM236086 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminosa

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13788-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available id ... 44 0.001 AY466441_16( AY466441 |pid:none) Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRLL 1...32... 108 4e-23 AE017343_266( AE017343 |pid:none) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neo... 108 4e-23 CU928179_8( ...4 AE010299_2239( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 77 2e-13 BX294147_33( BX294147 |pid:...001195 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trif... 42 0.009 CP000159_172( CP00...none) Bordetella avium 197N complete ... 38 0.096 AE010299_4447( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivor

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05913-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK223250 |pid:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for cell divisio... 106 1e-21 CU928174_159( CU928174 |pid:none) Zygosacch...rysogenum Wiscons... 87 9e-16 CU928175_480( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosacch...CU928176_17( CU928176 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain C... 45 0.006 AM...000552_6( CP000552 |pid:none) Prochlorococcus marinus str. MIT 9... 41 0.092 AE010299_1324( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina ac... Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS... 41 0.092 AE010299_3605( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08816-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma japonicum SJCHGC06661 ... 68 7e-10 D85197_1( D85197 |pid:none) Schizosaccharomyces pombe stil+ gene, ... ...yspira hyodysenteriae WA1,... 64 1e-08 CU928175_316( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ....ophila melanogaster chromoso... 61 9e-08 CP000099_2842( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina barkeri st...001357_1760( CP001357 |pid:none) Brachyspira hyodysenteriae WA1,... 59 6e-07 AC130598_17( AC130598 |pid:none) Oryza sa... clone AaFLC_B... 48 8e-04 AE010299_1893( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str...

  12. Identification and characterization of functional homologs of nitrogenase cofactor biosynthesis protein NifB from methanogens

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Aaron W.; Wiig, Jared A.; Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogenase biosynthesis protein NifB catalyzes the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent insertion of carbide into the nitrogenase cofactor, M cluster, in a chemically unprecedented and biologically important reaction. The observation that two naturally “truncated” NifB homologs from Methanosarcina acetivorans (NifBMa) and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (NifBMt) are functional equivalents of NifB from the diazotrophic organism, Azotobacter vinelandii, establishes the minimum ...

  13. Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Side-to-Side Proteomics with Virtual 2-D Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.

    2004-01-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-do...

  14. Reversing methanogenesis to capture methane for liquid biofuel precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Valerie W. C.; McAnulty, Michael J; Tripathi, Arti; Zhu, Fayin; Zhang, Limin; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Smith, Philip B.; Agrawal, Saumya; Nazem-Bokaee, Hadi; Gopalakrishnan, Saratram; Salis, Howard M.; James G. Ferry; Maranas, Costas D.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Thomas K. Wood

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy from remote methane reserves is transformative; however, unintended release of this potent greenhouse gas makes it imperative to convert methane efficiently into more readily transported biofuels. No pure microbial culture that grows on methane anaerobically has been isolated, despite that methane capture through anaerobic processes is more efficient than aerobic ones. Results Here we engineered the archaeal methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans to grow anaerobically on meth...

  15. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri--identification of the active-site histidine in the corrinoid-harboring subunit MtaC by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Thauer, R K

    1998-05-01

    The enzyme system catalyzing the formation of methyl-coenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M in Methanosarcina barkeri is composed of the three different polypeptides MtaA, MtaB and MtaC of which MtaC harbors a corrinoid prosthetic group. The heterologous expression of mtaA and mtaB in Escherichia coli has been described previously. We report here on the overproduction of the apoprotein of MtaC in E. coli, on its reconstitution to the active holoprotein with either cob(II)alamin or methyl-cob(III)alamin, and on the properties of the reconstituted corrinoid protein. Reconstituted MtaC was found to contain 1 mol bound cobamide/mol. EPR spectroscopic evidence is presented for a His residue as an axial ligand to Co2+ of the bound corrinoid. This active-site His was identified by site-directed mutagenesis as His136 in the MtaC sequence that contains four His residues. The reconstituted MtaC, in the cob(I)amide oxidation state, was methylated with methanol in the presence of MtaB and demethylated with coenzyme M in the presence of MtaA. In the presence of both MtaB and MtaA, methyl-coenzyme M was formed from methanol and coenzyme M at specific rates comparable to those determined for the enzyme system purified from M. barkeri. M. barkeri contains an isoenzyme of MtaA designated MtbA. The isoenzyme reacted with MtaC with only 2.5% of the activity of MtaA. PMID:9654068

  16. Trace element characteristics of mafic and ultramafic meta-igneous rocks from the 3.5 Ga. Warrawoona group: evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction beneath Archaean continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnesian- to Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts represent the dominant lithology in the Marble Bar Greenstone Belt, E-Pilbara Craton, and are locally associated with komatiitic basalts and rare komatiitic cumulates. Based on trace element characteristics, the extrusive and intrusive rocks from all three major stratigraphic units can be subdivided into LREE enriched and unfractionated to weakly LREE depleted groups. The former group is characterized by La/Smpm = 1.7-4.6, Gd/Ybpm = 1.23.2 and Nb/Thpm 0.1-0.5, while the latter rocks possess ratios of La/Smpm = 0.5-1.7, Gd/Ybpm = 0.8-1.9 and Nb/Thpm = 0.4-1.3. Nb/La -Nb/Th relationships in the LREE enriched samples indicate 7-28% contamination by crustal material similar in composition to Pilbara granitoids. LREE enrichment and strong negative HFSE anomalies, along with MgO = 2.2-22.0 wt% and SiO2 = 39.2-63.5 wt%, have been observed in numerous Archaean greenstone belts, and can be successfully modeled in this study by AFC processes. In contrast, strong HFSE depletion combined with unfractionated to slightly depleted LREE in rocks of the latter group require different processes. Melting of mantle material previously depleted by melt extraction, enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to the HFSE in an arc-like environment and HFSE fractionation as a result of garnet retention in the melting source cannot account for negative Nb, Ta, Ti, P and strong positive Pb anomalies. Introduction of small amounts of crustal material into a depleted or primitive mantle, as possibly indicated by Nb/Ta ratios between 12 and 18, also fails to reproduce the trace element abundances of the second group of rocks. Recycling of oceanic crust previously processed through a subduction zone (low Th/Nb, La/Nb) and sub-arc lithospheric mantle (high Th/Nb, La/Nb), and subsequent mixing into the Archaean mantle has been recently invoked by several workers (e.g. Kerrich et al., EPSL, 168, 101-115; 1999) to explain the origin of compositionally

  17. Geodynamic evolution of the West Africa between 2.2 and 2 Ga: the Archaean style of the Birimian greenstone belts and the sedimentary basins in northeastern Ivory-Coast; Evolution de l`Afrique de l`Ouest entre 2,2 Ga et 2 Ga: le style archeen des ceintures vertes et des ensembles sedimentaires birimiens du nord-est de la Cote-d`Ivoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, M.; Pouclet, A. [Orleans Univ., 45 (France); Delor, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Simeon, Y. [ANTEA, 45 - Orleans (France); Alric, G. [Etablissements Binou, 27 - Le Mesnil-Fuguet (France)

    1996-12-31

    The litho-structural features of Palaeo-proterozoic terrains of northeastern Ivory-Coast, greenstones belts and then sedimentary (basin Birimian), are similar to those of Archaean terrains. Their early deformation is only voluminal deformation due to granitoid intrusions, mainly between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga. The shortening deformation (main deformation) is expressed by right folds and transcurrent shear zones ca 2.1 Ga. Neither thrust deformation nor high pressure metamorphic assemblages are known. This pattern of flexible and hot crust, at least between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga, is pole apart to a collisional pattern, proposed for West African Craton by some authors. The Archaean/Palaeo-proterozoic boundary would not represent a drastic change of the geodynamic evolution of the crust. (authors). 60 refs., 5 figs., 6 photos.

  18. Precambrian evolution and cratonization of the Tarim Block, NW China: Petrology, geochemistry, Nd-isotopes and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Archaean gabbro-TTG-potassic granite suite and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Li, Huai-Kun; Santosh, M.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zou, Hai-Bo; Wang, Hongyan; Ye, Haimin

    2012-03-01

    We report field characteristics, petrography, geochemistry and isotopic ages of the Neoarchaean intrusive complex and the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt around Quruqtagh in the northern margin of the Tarim Block, NW China in an attempt to evaluate the evolution of the Precambrian basement of the Tarim Block. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the tonalite-trondhjemite complex with gabbroic enclaves and the slightly younger potassic granites crystallized at ca. 2.60 Ga and ca. 2.53 Ga respectively, and were metamorphosed at ca.1.85-1.80 Ga. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the amphibolite to granulite facies assemblages in the strongly deformed Paleoproterozoic gneiss-schist belt were generated during a major thermal event at 1.85-1.80 Ga, and were again overprinted by late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic metamorphism (1.1-0.95 Ga). Geochemically, the gabbros occurring within the tonalite-trondhjemite suite exhibit arc tholeiite signature and their chemical and Nd isotopic compositions suggest that they were derived from partial melting of a metasomatised and depleted mantle. The tonalites and trondhjemites have varied geochemical compositions but both preserve distinct Archaean TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) signatures. However, the ca. 2.53 Ga potassic granites have very different geochemical compositions as compared to the tonalite-trondjemite suite and show extreme enrichment of LREE and LILE, as well as a marked depletion of HREE and HFSE. Based on the geochemical and geochronological data presented in this contribution, we suggest that: (1) the gabbro-tonalite-trondhjemite suite and the late potassic granites represent an evolution from an arc system through the final collision and late or post-orogenic extension when the potassic granite was emplaced, thus building the cratonic architecture of the proto-crust of the Tarim Block; (2) the ca.1.9-1.8 Ga metamorphism marks an important orogenic event in the crystalline basement of the Tarim Block

  19. Contrasting petrogenesis of Mg-K and Fe-K granitoids and implications for post-collisional magmatism: case study from the late-Archaean Matok pluton (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Rapopo, Mafusi; Stevens, Gary; Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé; Zeh, Armin; Doucelance, Régis

    2014-05-01

    , and Mg-K suites, such as sanukitoids, the petrogenesis of which only requires metasomatized mantle. We propose that the most adequate geodynamic setting for the involvement of these two mantle sources is a postsubduction, collision-related slab breakoff event. Such a model accounts for (1) the postcollisional nature of both Mg-K (sanukitoids) and Fe-K magmas; (2) their close spatial and temporal relationships in several late-Archaean to Phanerozoic terranes; and (3) their differences in petrography and geochemistry. In addition, such a model also accounts for many other typical features of the late-collisional context, such as high-T metamorphism and large-scale melting of the orogenic crust, in response to thermal stabilization of the lithosphere and intrusion of mafic melts at shallow levels.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHH465 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available psfstrglrwvdhwcinyynnstvk*lhrnin ni*yy*ertaekilsrklildffivr*kiitligyi*k*ivi*yknlkkffh*fyn*cdl iy*d**sstkyg*rilkyifffiffllnkiysnisis...( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 39 0.24 CP000930_2260( CP000930 |pid:none) Heliobacterium mode... sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence mfitdlyankkkdvrmnerl*gkykkelaiaiedl*isegrprkrrnavk*nilvtvgkk ikrdavssger...kprrvkvdh*kkteetrwkskae*gespvr*gtngkevkrrkeefv*km gahpqtqymli*livnkycegkmkrnieviysvkrp*nckhde...tffslfffy*ikyivtlalvii*ynitkskiyxxsn Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kcl*rismqirkrtye*tkgyreni

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11094-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CP000721 |pid:none) Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB ... 40 0.30 AM746676_444( AM746676 |pid:none) Sorangium cellulosum 'So ce...oplasma gallisepticum strain ... 40 0.51 CP000852_584( CP000852 |pid:none) Caldivirga maquilin...**f*nvslmftfqtlkqsiltlnippn *pgnyhrsmisisiqlitlkrlilpml*i*l*spltlnlqlvklfnyseqwvyvicll*m kitnskvlslkrif*kklvnkdiv...472( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 46 0.007 DQ863334_1( DQ863334 |pid:none) Francisell...etobacter baumannii str. SD... 44 0.027 DQ056855_1( DQ056855 |pid:none) Cavia porcellus ClC-2 chloride c

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11322-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available si... 38 0.061 18 ( CU329670 ) Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome I. 52 0....e) Leishmania major strain Friedlin... 258 3e-67 CU928179_8( CU928179 |pid:none) Zygosacch...idiphilum infernorum V4,... 70 2e-10 AY466441_17( AY466441 |pid:none) Saccharopolyspora spinosa...1 9e-08 AY466441_16( AY466441 |pid:none) Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRLL 18... 61 1e-07 CP000634_687( CP000634 |pid:none) Agrobac...aromyces rouxii strain CB... 256 2e-66 AE010299_2239( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivoran

  3. Crenarchaeota in Lake Michigan sediment.

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, B.J.; Moser, D. P.; Alm, E W; Nealson, K. H.; Stahl, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    RNA from Lake Michigan sediment was hybridized with a DNA probe for archaeal 16S rRNA. There was a peak of archaeal rRNA abundance in the oxic zone and another immediately below it. Six contributing species were identified by PCR amplification of extracted DNA with primers specific for archaeal rDNA: two related to Methanosarcina acetivorans and four related to marine crenarchaeotal sequences. rRNA quantification using a DNA probe specific for this crenarchaeotal assemblage showed it is most ...

  4. Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Piyush Labhsetwar; Jeremy R. Ellermeier; Kohler, Petra R. A.; Ankur Jain; Taekjip Ha; Metcalf, William W.; Zaida Luthey-Schulten

    2014-01-01

    Progress towards a complete model of the methanogenic archaeum Methanosarcina acetivorans is reported. We characterized size distribution of the cells using differential interference contrast microscopy, finding them to be ellipsoidal with mean length and width of 2.9  μ m and 2.3  μ m, respectively, when grown on methanol and 30% smaller when grown on acetate. We used the single molecule pull down (SiMPull) technique to measure average copy number of the Mcr complex and ribosomes. A kinetic ...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04338-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein lmo1580 [imported] - Listeri... 46 0.001 CP000422_601( CP000422 |pid:none) Pediococcus pentosaceus AT....082 CP000422_340( CP000422 |pid:none) Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 257... 40 0.082 CP000517_655( CP000517 |pid:none) Lactobac...E010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 36 1.5 AM420293_4431( AM420293 |pid:none) Sacch...cal protein all1122 [imported] - Nostoc ... 43 0.010 CP000656_4969( CP000656 |pid:none) Mycobacterium gilvum...id:none) Thermofilum pendens Hrk 5, comp... 38 0.41 AE010299_1422( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetiv

  6. Trace methane oxidation studied in several Euryarchaeota under diverse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Moran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 13C-labeled methane to document the extent of trace methane oxidation by Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus, Archaeoglobus profundus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina acetivorans. The results indicate trace methane oxidation during growth varied among different species and among methanogen cultures grown on different substrates. The extent of trace methane oxidation by Mb. thermoautotrophicum (0.05 ± 0.04%, ± 2 standard deviations of the methane produced during growth was less than that by M. barkeri (0.15 ± 0.04%, grown under similar conditions with H2 and CO2. Methanosarcina acetivorans oxidized more methane during growth on trimethylamine (0.36 ± 0.05% than during growth on methanol (0.07 ± 0.03%. This may indicate that, in M. acetivorans, either a methyltransferase related to growth on trimethylamine plays a role in methane oxidation, or that methanol is an intermediate of methane oxidation. Addition of possible electron acceptors (O2, NO3–, SO22–, SO32– or H2 to the headspace did not substantially enhance or diminish methane oxidation in M. acetivorans cultures. Separate growth experiments with FAD and NAD+ showed that inclusion of these electron carriers also did not enhance methane oxidation. Our results suggest trace methane oxidized during methanogenesis cannot be coupled to the reduction of these electron acceptors in pure cultures, and that the mechanism by which methane is oxidized in methanogens is independent of H2 concentration. In contrast to the methanogens, species of the sulfate-reducing genus Archaeoglobus did not significantly oxidize methane during growth (oxidizing 0.003 ± 0.01% of the methane provided to A. fulgidus, 0.002 ± 0.009% to A. lithotrophicus and 0.003 ± 0.02% to A. profundus. Lack of observable methane oxidation in the three Archaeoglobus species examined may indicate that methyl-coenzyme M reductase, which is not present in

  7. First direct radiometric dating of Archaean stromatolitic limestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first direct dating of the depositional age of a sedimentary carbonate rock using long-lived radioactive decay schemes is reported. The Mushandike stromatolitic limestone, from the Masvingo (formerly Fort Victoria) greenstone belt of southern Zimbabwe, yeilds a Pb/Pb isochron age of 2,839 +- 33 Myr. (author)

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10796-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1444( AP009324 |pid:none) Staphylococcus aureus subsp. au... 49 7e-04 (Q6G9A7) RecName: Full=Probable ATP-depe...10299_334( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str. ... 56 4e-06 CP001392_1390( CP001392 |pid:none) Diaphorobacter sp...core = 2934 bits (1480), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 1510/1510 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 atatttcattttcaact...g-U12507-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U12507-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1831 Score = 40.1 bits (20), Expect = 0.007 Identities = 20/20 (100%) Stra...acaac 532 Score = 30.2 bits (15), Expect = 7.0 Identities = 15/15 (100%) Stra

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLJ276 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 of the complete genome. 44 0.47 1 CB823247 |CB823247.1 EST 4471 Ripe Apricot Fruit Lambda Zap II Library Prunus arme...ce ---TKEFKQQSRRIRLTEFFRGKHLYQIDFLKNNKLVKSIKLLIYSTH*kkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame ...ogy vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSH436 (VSH436Q) /CSM/VS/VS... sequence, section 4/5. 44 0.47 1 AE011082 |AE011082.1 Methanosarcina acetivorans str. C2A, section 427 of 5...B5 map 6, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 21 unordered pieces. 42 1.9 1 AC127325 |AC127325.4 Mus musculus chromosome

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01677-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ons: 6031789 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 174 Length of query: 863 Length of databa... Number of Sequences: 8361 Number of extensions: 21664 Number of successful extensions: 1936 Number of sequences better than...clone DKEYP-12H3 in l... 38 6.5 5 ( EY912042 ) RR3E505JQ RR3(NY) Raphanus raphani...000085 |pid:none) Burkholderia thailandensis E264 c... 44 0.007 BT052063_1( BT052063 |pid:none) Medicago truncat... clone 3797 mR... 36 1.9 AE010299_3129( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 36 1.9 CU9281

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08191-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oma japonicum isolate Anhu... 124 6e-27 CU928173_234( CU928173 |pid:none) Zygosacch...91 7e-17 CP000393_2151( CP000393 |pid:none) Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101... 88 5e-16 CP001037_1143( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos...54( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 71 8e-11 CU074274_1( CU074274 |pid:none) Podos...4_3359( CP000854 |pid:none) Mycobacterium marinum M, comple... 69 3e-10 AC1842( AC1842 ) WD-40 repeat protein [imported] - Nos...:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I... 62 3e-08 CP001037_6067( CP001037 |pid:none) Nostoc punctiforme P

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16301-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _40( CU928176 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain C... 69 1e-09 (Q9VZF4) RecName: Full=F-box/WD repea...89 ) WD-40 repeat protein [imported] - Nostoc sp. (str... 79 2e-17 CP000099_2768( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosa... AP009552 |pid:none) Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843... 69 9e-10 BT021777_1( BT021777 |pid:none) Bos taurus Notch...telium citrinum 17S ribosomal RNA, 5.8S ri... 204 1e-47 1 ( AY171066 ) Dictyostelium discoideum extrachromos... Anhu... 81 1e-23 AE010299_2454( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 113 4e-23 CP001037_1

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15284-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 CU928175_464( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... 41 5e-04 (Q9HAD4) RecName: Full=WD r...2 |pid:none) Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843... 57 1e-06 CP001037_1432( CP001037 |pid:none) Nostoc punctifor...m cDNA clone:ddc39h18, 5' ... 44 0.001 2 ( EC853652 ) HDE00001341 Hyperamoeba dachnaya Non-normalized (... 4... 55 7e-06 CP001099_247( CP001099 |pid:none) Chlorobaculum parvum NCIB 8327, ... 55 7e-06 CP001037_4354( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos... Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 p... 53 2e-05 AE010299_2454( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13631-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryptococcus neoformans var. neo... 244 2e-63 CU928179_8( CU928179 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain...terium Ellin34... 107 4e-22 AY466441_16( AY466441 |pid:none) Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRLL 18... 106 8... BX294012 |pid:none) Neurospora crassa DNA linkage grou... 237 2e-61 ( P28273 ) RecName: Full=Uncharac...s subsp. gri... 156 7e-37 AE010299_2239( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina acetivorans str.... 154 2e-36 AC...id:none) Variovorax paradoxus S110 chromo... 94 3e-18 CP001195_171( CP001195 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminosa

  15. AcEST: BP914792 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 >sp|Q8TIY5|FEN_METAC Flap structure-specific endonuclease OS=Methanosarcina acetivorans GN=fen PE=3 SV=1 Length = 338 Score...ture-specific endonuclease OS=Meth... 41 0.002 sp|A3DMG2|FEN_STAMF Flap structure-specific endonuc...lease OS=Stap... 39 0.014 sp|Q8TXU4|FEN_METKA Flap structure-specific endonuc...lease OS=Meth... 39 0.014 sp|P61942|FEN_NANEQ Flap structure-specific endonuclease OS=Nano... 38 ...0.018 sp|Q46D63|FEN_METBF Flap structure-specific endonuclease OS=Meth... 38 0.018 sp|A1RSC7|FEN_PYRIL Flap structure

  16. A Method for Identification of Selenoprotein Genes in Archaeal Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingfeng Li; Yanzhao Huang; Yi Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The genetic codon UGA has a dual function: serving as a terminator and encoding selenocysteine. However, most popular gene annotation programs only take it as a stop signal, resulting in misannotation or completely missing selenoprotein genes. We developed a computational method named Asec-Prediction that is specific for the prediction of archaeal selenoprotein genes. To evaluate its effectiveness, we first applied it to 14 archaeal genomes with previously known selenoprotein genes, and Asec-Prediction identified all reported selenoprotein genes without redundant results. When we applied it to 12 archaeal genomes that had not been researched for selenoprotein genes, Asec-Prediction detected a novel selenoprotein gene in Methanosarcina acetivorans. Further evidence was also collected to support that the predicted gene should be a real selenoprotein gene. The result shows that Asec-Prediction is effective for the prediction of archaeal selenoprotein genes.

  17. Identification of Essential Glutamates in the Acetate Kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila

    OpenAIRE

    Singh-Wissmann, Kavita; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Miles, Rebecca D.; Ferry, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of acetate (CH3COO− + ATP⇄CH3CO2PO32− + ADP). A mechanism which involves a covalent phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate has been proposed, and chemical modification studies of the enzyme from Escherichia coli indicate an unspecified glutamate residue is phosphorylated (J. A. Todhunter and D. L. Purich, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 60:273–280, 1974). Alignment of the amino acid sequences for the acetate kinases from E. coli (Bacteria domain)...

  18. Methanogenesis from Choline by a Coculture of Desulfovibrio sp. and Methanosarcina barkeri

    OpenAIRE

    Fiebig, K; Gottschalk, G.

    1983-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing vibrio was isolated from a methanogenic enrichment with choline as the sole added organic substrate. This organism was identified as a member of the genus Desulfovibrio and was designated Desulfovibrio strain G1. In a defined medium devoid of sulfate, a pure culture of Desulfovibrio strain G1 fermented choline to trimethylamine, acetate, and ethanol. In the presence of sulfate, more acetate and less ethanol were formed from choline than in the absence of sulfate. When grown...

  19. Relationships between anaerobic consortia and removal efficiencies in an UASB reactor degrading 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Cigal, Canan

    2008-04-01

    To gain more insight into the interactions between anaerobic bacteria and reactor performances (chemical oxygen demand-COD, 2,4 dichlorophenol-2,4 DCP removals, volatile fatty acid-VFA, and methane gas productions) and how they depended on operational conditions the microbial variations in the anaerobic granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 DCP was studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first part, the numbers of methanogens and acedogens in the anaerobic granular sludge were counted at different COD removal efficiencies. The relationships between the numbers of methanogens, the methane gas production and VFA production were investigated. The COD removal efficiencies increased to 74% from 30% while the number of total acedogens decreased to 10 from 30 cfu ml(-1). The number of total methanogens and acedogens varied between 11 x 10(3) and 10 x 10(9)MPN g(-1) and 10 and 30 cfu ml(-1) as the 2,4 DCP removal efficiencies were obtained between 60% and 99%, respectively. It was seen that, as the number of total acedogens decreased, the COD removal efficiencies increased. However, the number of total methanogens increased as the COD removal efficiencies increased. Correlations between the bacterial number and with the removal efficiencies obtained in different operational conditions were investigated. From the results presented in this paper a high correlation between the number of bacteria, COD removals, methane gas percentage, 2,4 DCP removals and VFA was observed. In the second part, methanogen bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge were identified. Microbial observations and biochemical tests were applied to identify the anaerobic microorganisms from the anaerobic granular sludge. In the reactor treating 2,4 DCP, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanococcus voltae, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanogenium bourgense and

  20. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages for archaean rocks in western Karnataka, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 3020 +- 230 Ma for basal metavolcanics of the Kudremukh - West Coast greenstone belt and a Rb-Sr whole rock age of 3280 +- 230 Ma for the underlying granitoid geneisses are presented. These ages indicate that the filling of an ensialic basin with volcanic and sedimentary rocks began at around 3000 Ma and confirm earlier studies which concluded that the dominant gneisses of Karnataka represent a major period of primary crust formation in the South Indian Craton at about 3300 Ma. Both the early granitoid gneisses and the younger meta-volcanics were derived from unfractionated mantle sources which has not previously been depleted or enriched in LIL elements. (author)

  1. Paleomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Strik, G.H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally accepted that plate tectonics is the dominant mechanism since 2 billion years ago, but for older periods in the Earth's history, this is still a topic of debate. Plate tectonics cause large-scale horizon...

  2. Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Archaean Peninsular Gneiss around Gorur, Hassan district, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peninsular Gneiss around Gorur in the Dharwar craton, reported to be one of the oldest gneisses, shows nearly E-W striking gneissosity parallel to the axial planes of a set of isoclinical folds (DhF1). These have been over printed by near-coaxial open folding (DhF1a) and non-coaxial upright folding on almost N-S trend (DhF2). A whole rock Rb-Sr isochron of eight trondhjemitic gneisses sampled from two adjacent quarries yields an age of 3204±30Ma with Sri of 0.7011±6 (2σ). These are marginally different from the results of Beckinsale and coworkers (3315±54 Ma, Sri=0.7006±3) based on a much wider sampling. The results indicate that the precursors of Gorur gneisses had a short crystal residence history of less than a 100 Ma. (author). 28 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Zircon Lu-Hf systematics: Evidence for the episodic development of Archaean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. E.; Tatsumoto, M.; Farquhar, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A combined U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic study of zircons was undertaken in order to determine the provenance and age of an Archean granite-greenstone terrain and to test the detailed application of the Lu-Hf system in various Archean zircons. The eastern Wawa subprovince of the Superior province consists of the low grade Michipicoten and Gamitagama greenstone belts and the granitic terrain. The Hf isotopic data indicate that the typical lithological features of a greenstone belt cycle could be accommodated in a crustal growth model that involved decreasing depth of melting in three isotopically distinct reservoirs: mantle, lower crust and upper crust. The model age of the sources given by the intersection of the lower crustal curve with the bulk earth evolution curve is about 2900 My, in good agreement with the zircon U-Pb basement age. This linear array also has a similar intersection age to that of Proterozoic carbonatite complexes. The general convergence of the other reservoir vectors around this age suggests that mantle depletion, crustal extraction and intracrustal differentiation were all part of the same episodic event. It is also apparent that recycling of older basement was important in the formation of many of the later greenstone belt rocks.

  4. The photochemical origins of life and photoreaction of ferrous ion in the archaean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, David C.

    1990-05-01

    A general argument is made for the photochemical origins of life. A constant flux of free energy is required to maintain the organized state of matter called life. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy probably require to initiate this organization and certainly required for the evolution of life to occur. The completion of this argument will require the experimental determination of suitable photochemical reactions. Our work shows that biogenetic porphyrins readily photooxidize substrates and emit hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. These results are consistent with the Granick hypothesis, which relates a biosynthetic pathway to its evolutionary origin. We have shown that photoexcitation of ferrous ion at neutral pH with near ultraviolet light produces hydrogen with high quantum yield. This same simple system may reduce carbon dioxide to formaldehyde and further products. These reactions offer a solution to the dilemma confronting the Oparin-Urey-Miller model of the chemical origin of life. If carbon dioxide is the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction may provide the reduced carbon necessary for the formation of amino acids and other biogenic molecules. These results suggest that this progenitor of modern photosynthesis may have contributed to the chemical origins of life.

  5. A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life

    OpenAIRE

    Brasier, Martin; McLoughlin, Nicola; Green, Owen; Wacey, David.

    2006-01-01

    The rock record provides us with unique evidence for testing models as to when and where cellular life first appeared on Earth. Its study, however, requires caution. The biogenicity of stromatolites and ‘microfossils’ older than 3.0 Gyr should not be accepted without critical analysis of morphospace and context, using multiple modern techniques, plus rejection of alternative non-biological (null) hypotheses. The previous view that the co-occurrence of biology-like morphology and carbonaceous ...

  6. Palaeomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Gerardus Henricus Martina Anna

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally accept

  7. Paleomagnetism of late Archaean flood basalt terrains : implications for early Earth geodynamics and geomagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, G.H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies are e.g. important for demonstrating and quantifying horizontal movement and rotation of pieces of the Earth's crust. The constant movement and recycling of plates, in other words plate tectonics, is an important mechanism for the Earth to lose its heat. It is generally accept

  8. Biomarkers in Archaean banded iron formations : examples from Pilbara and Dhawar Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orberger, B.; Pinti, D. L.; Cloquet, C.; Hashizume, K.; Soyama, H.; Jayananda, M.; Wirth, R.; Gallien, J. P.; Massault, M.; Rouchon, V.

    The origin of Archeaen banded iron formations (BIF) and the role of biosphere in Fe precipitation is still highly debated. In order to elucidate these processes, detailed mineralogical and textural analyses combined with δ 15 N, δ 56 Fe and δ 13 C data were obtained on Fe-oxide bands from Marble Bar chert Unit (MB, 3.46 Ga, Pilbara craton, W. Australia) and a BIF from the Bababudan Group (BG, 2.7-2.9 Ga, Dhawar Craton, Southern India). Both samples are composed of alternating quartz and Feoxide bands with wavy micro-textures. CI-normalized REE patterns show that MB reflects hydrothermal fluid/basalt interactions, while BG precipitated from a hydrothermal fluid/seawater mixture. In MB, nano-cristalline hematite replaced magnetite, Mgcalcite and Fe-sulfides producing a matlike surface, preserving nanometric N-bearing amorphous carbon nodules. Measured C/N ratios (2.3 to 52) are typical of Precambrian organic matter. The δ 56 Fe of -0.40±0.02% suggests MOR-hydrothermal fluids as a Fe-source, while a δ 15 N of +7.4±0.4% is compatible with nitrification- denitrification processes and δ 13 C of -19.9±0.1% support an organic origin. BG is composed of intergrown magnetite and hematite. Disseminated grunerite and magnetite grew during low T metamorphism. Fe-oxide spherules compose vermicular- filaments that nucleated perpendicular to quartz surfaces. Fe-oxide spherule bunches are perfectly preserved in the silica bands forming micrometric mats, which contain heterogeneously distributed N (˜0.09at.%) and C (0.51 at.%, C/N=5.73). Bulk δ 13 C of -15.35%±0.10 points to an organic origin for C. The ?56 Fe in Fe and Si layers (0.75% to 2.16%) is compatible with a chemical precipitation for BIF. A negative correlation between ?56 Fe and the Th/U ratio suggests that Fe isotopic variations are related to fluid circulation and re-precipitation of Fe-oxides. High ?15 N, on one Feoxide layer, of +21.8±0.7%, corresponds to that observed for Archeaen BIFs and may be related to nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of Fe.

  9. A precise UPb zircon age for the Archaean Pongola Supergroup volcanics in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegner, E.; Kroner, A.; Hunt, P.

    1994-01-01

    UPb dating of single abraded zircon grains from a Pongola Supergroup rhyodacite sample collected in southern Swaziland yields a crystallization age of 2985??1 Ma. This date is significantly older than our previously reported UPb age determined on highly discordant and unabraded zircons from the same sample. The new zircon age indicates that the formation of the Pongola volcanics occurred not much later than the emplacement of the youngest granitoids thought to be broadly coeval with the Dominion Group (Robb et al., 1991), and before deposition of the Lower West Rand Group (Barton et al., 1989). ?? 1994.

  10. Geological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Archaean Kaap Valley pluton, Barberton mountain land, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaap Valley pluton consists predominantly of a homogeneous weakly foliated, hornblende-bearing tonalite. It is among the oldest granitoid bodies yet recognized in the environs of the Barberton greenstone belt, yielding 207Pb/206Pb mineral ages of about 3300 Ma and a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of about 3500 Ma. The Kaap Valley pluton is distinctive in many respects. Whereas all other gneiss plutons in the area are characterized by a trondhjemitic bulk composition with mafic mineralogies dominated by biotite, the Kaap Valley pluton is tonalitic in bulk composition with hornblende (plus minus minor biotite) as its major mafic phase. In this paper, the results of a detailed geological, geochemical and Pb-isotopic study of the Kaap Valley pluton are presented. Questions relating to the origin of the body are considered, with an emphasis on the formation of a tonalitic magma which is more mafic than those typically encountered in the region. Although exposure does not permit a detailed structural study of the gneiss pluton consideration is given to its mode of emplacement

  11. Identification of SmtB/ArsR cis elements and proteins in archaea using the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bose

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial genome sequencing projects have revealed an apparently wide distribution of SmtB/ArsR metal-responsive transcriptional regulators among prokaryotes. Using a position-dependent weight matrix approach, prokaryotic genome sequences were screened for SmtB/ArsR DNA binding sites using data derived from intergenic sequences upstream of orthologous genes encoding these regulators. Sixty SmtB/ArsR operators linked to metal detoxification genes, including nine among various archaeal species, are predicted among 230 annotated and draft prokaryotic genome sequences. Independent multiple sequence alignments of putative operator sites and corresponding winged helix-turn-helix motifs define sequence signatures for the DNA binding activity of this SmtB/ArsR subfamily. Prediction of an archaeal SmtB/ArsR based upon these signature sequences is confirmed using purified Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A protein and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Tools used in this study have been incorporated into a web application, the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED; http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~PIGED/home.htm, facilitating comparable studies. Use of this tool and establishment of orthology based on DNA binding signatures holds promise for deciphering potential cellular roles of various archaeal winged helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators.

  12. Identification of SmtB/ArsR cis elements and proteins in archaea using the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Michael; Slick, David; Sarto, Mickey J; Murphy, Patrick; Roberts, David; Roberts, Jacqueline; Barber, Robert D

    2006-08-01

    Microbial genome sequencing projects have revealed an apparently wide distribution of SmtB/ArsR metal-responsive transcriptional regulators among prokaryotes. Using a position-dependent weight matrix approach, prokaryotic genome sequences were screened for SmtB/ArsR DNA binding sites using data derived from intergenic sequences upstream of orthologous genes encoding these regulators. Sixty SmtB/ArsR operators linked to metal detoxification genes, including nine among various archaeal species, are predicted among 230 annotated and draft prokaryotic genome sequences. Independent multiple sequence alignments of putative operator sites and corresponding winged helix-turn-helix motifs define sequence signatures for the DNA binding activity of this SmtB/ArsR subfamily. Prediction of an archaeal SmtB/ArsR based upon these signature sequences is confirmed using purified Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A protein and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Tools used in this study have been incorporated into a web application, the Prokaryotic InterGenic Exploration Database (PIGED; http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~PIGED/home.htm), facilitating comparable studies. Use of this tool and establishment of orthology based on DNA binding signatures holds promise for deciphering potential cellular roles of various archaeal winged helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators. PMID:16877320

  13. Towards a Computational Model of a Methane Producing Archaeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress towards a complete model of the methanogenic archaeum Methanosarcina acetivorans is reported. We characterized size distribution of the cells using differential interference contrast microscopy, finding them to be ellipsoidal with mean length and width of 2.9 μm and 2.3 μm, respectively, when grown on methanol and 30% smaller when grown on acetate. We used the single molecule pull down (SiMPull technique to measure average copy number of the Mcr complex and ribosomes. A kinetic model for the methanogenesis pathways based on biochemical studies and recent metabolic reconstructions for several related methanogens is presented. In this model, 26 reactions in the methanogenesis pathways are coupled to a cell mass production reaction that updates enzyme concentrations. RNA expression data (RNA-seq measured for cell cultures grown on acetate and methanol is used to estimate relative protein production per mole of ATP consumed. The model captures the experimentally observed methane production rates for cells growing on methanol and is most sensitive to the number of methyl-coenzyme-M reductase (Mcr and methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme-M methyltransferase (Mtr proteins. A draft transcriptional regulation network based on known interactions is proposed which we intend to integrate with the kinetic model to allow dynamic regulation.

  14. Rerouting Cellular Electron Flux To Increase the Rate of Biological Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, Jennie L; Ortiz, Alicia M; Buan, Nicole R

    2015-10-01

    Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane, a gas that is both an efficient renewable fuel and a potent greenhouse gas. We observed that overexpression of the cytoplasmic heterodisulfide reductase enzyme HdrABC increased the rate of methane production from methanol by 30% without affecting the growth rate relative to the parent strain. Hdr enzymes are essential in all known methane-producing archaea. They function as the terminal oxidases in the methanogen electron transport system by reducing the coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine sulfonate) heterodisulfide, CoM-S-S-CoB, to regenerate the thiol-coenzymes for reuse. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, HdrABC expression caused an increased rate of methanogenesis and a decrease in metabolic efficiency on methylotrophic substrates. When acetate was the sole carbon and energy source, neither deletion nor overexpression of HdrABC had an effect on growth or methane production rates. These results suggest that in cells grown on methylated substrates, the cell compensates for energy losses due to expression of HdrABC with an increased rate of substrate turnover and that HdrABC lacks the appropriate electron donor in acetate-grown cells. PMID:26162885

  15. Radioelemental, petrological and geochemical characterization of the Bundelkhand craton, central India: implication in the Archaean geodynamic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Labani; Nagaraju, P.; Singh, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Roy, Sukanta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out radioelemental (232Th, 238U, 40K), petrological and geochemical analyses on granitoids and gneisses covering major rock formations of the Bundelkhand craton, central India. Our data reveal that above characteristics are distinct among granitoids (i.e. pink, biotite and grey granitoids) and gneisses (i.e. potassic and sodic types). Pink granitoid is K-feldspar-rich and meta-aluminous to per-aluminous in character. Biotite granitoid is meta-aluminous in character. Grey granitoid is rich in Na-feldspar and mafic minerals, granodiorite to diorite in composition and meta-aluminous in character. Among these granitoids, radioelements (Th, U, K) are highest in pink granitoid (45.0 ± 21.7 ppm, 7.2 ± 3.4 ppm, 4.2 ± 0.4 %), intermediate in biotite granitoid (44.5 ± 28.2 ppm, 5.4 ± 2.8 ppm, 3.4 ± 0.7 %) and lowest in grey granitoid (17.7 ± 4.3 ppm, 4.4 ± 0.6 ppm, 3.0 ± 0.4 %). Among gneisses, potassic-type gneisses have higher radioelements (11.8 ± 5.3 ppm, 3.1 ± 1.2 ppm, 2.0 ± 0.5 %) than the sodic-type gneisses (5.6 ± 2.8 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.5 ppm, 1.4 ± 0.7 %). Moreover, the pink granitoid and the biotite granitoid have higher Th/U (6 and 8, respectively) compared to the grey granitoid (Th/U: 4), implying enrichment of Th in pink and biotite granitoids relative to grey granitoid. K/U among pink, biotite and grey granitoids shows little variation (0.6 × 104, 0.6 × 104, 0.7 × 104, respectively), indicating relatively similar increase in K and U. Therefore, mineralogical and petrological data along with radioelemental ratios suggest that radioelemental variations in these lithounits are mainly related to abundances of the radioactive minerals that have formed by the fractionation of LILE from different magma sources. Based on present data, the craton can be divided into three distinct zones that can be correlated with its evolution in time and space. The central part, where gneisses are associated with metavolcanics of greenstone belt, is characterized by lowest radioelements and is the oldest component. The southern part, dominated by pink granitoid, is characterized by highest radioelements and is the youngest part. The northern part, dominated by grey and biotite granitoid, is characterized by moderate radioelements.

  16. REE distributions in a high-grade Archaean gneiss complex in Scotland: Implications for the genesis of ancient sialic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen rocks from the Lewisian Gneiss of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, which represent three distinct lithological types at granulite to greenschist facies of metamorphism show rare-earth element patterns which seem not to have been disturbed by their complex metamorphic history. Some indication of their origin can be obtained by simple geochemical models. (Auth.)

  17. Geochemical and biologic constraints on the Archaean atmosphere and climate – A possible solution to the faint early Sun paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Brid, D. K.; Sleep, N. H.;

    absence of substantial compensation for the lower solar irradiance by greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, we have examined the factors that controlled Earth’s albedo. These are primarily the surface albedo of Earth and the abundance and properties of clouds. We have applied a model that takes into...... account the apparent growth of Earth continents (Collerson and Kamber 1999) and the absence of land vegetation during the Precambrian for the evolution of the surface albedo, and a model for the abundance and properties of clouds that takes into account the lower abundance of biogenic cloud condensation...... nuclei in a less productive prokaryotic world. The higher transparency of the atmosphere for short wave incoming solar radiation and the lower surface albedo on an early Earth dominated by oceans, provided sufficient compensation for the lower solar irradiance to allow the presence of liquid oceans, even...

  18. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-25

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 Å wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ∼ 3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ω-shaped loop and a short β-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  19. The genes coding for the hsp70(dnaK) molecular chaperone machine occur in the moderate thermophilic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider; Lange, Marianne; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    response by hsp70(dnaK), and a similar response by trkA. The data suggest that the moderate thermophile TM-1 has an active Hsp70(DnaK)-chaperone machine in contrast to hyperthermophilic archaea, and that trkA is a stress gene, inasmuch as it responds like classic heat-shock genes to stressors that induce a...... typical heat-shock response. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......-negative bacteria - first described in the S-6 molecule and later found to be present in all homologs from archaea and Gram positives. The genes responded to a temperature elevation in a manner that demonstrated that they are heat-shock genes, functionally active in vivo. Ammonia also induced a heat-shock type of...

  20. The role of zinc in the methylation of the coenzyme M thiol group in methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüer, Markus; Haumann, Michael; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Thauer, Rudolf K; Dau, Holger

    2002-04-01

    Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from methanogenic archaea is a cobalamin-dependent enzyme composed of three different subunits: MtaA, MtaB and MtaC. MtaA is a zinc protein that catalyzes the methylation of coenzyme M (HS-CoM) with methylcob(III)alamin. We report zinc XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) results indicating that, in the absence of coenzyme M, zinc is probably coordinated by a single sulfur ligand and three oxygen or nitrogen ligands. In the presence of coenzyme M, one (N/O)-ligand was replaced by sulfur, most likely due to ligation of the thiol group of coenzyme M. Mutations in His237 or Cys239, which are proposed to be involved in ligating zinc, resulted in an over 90% loss in enzyme activity and in distinct changes in the zinc ligands. In the His237-->Ala and Cys239-->Ala mutants, coenzyme M also seemed to bind efficiently by ligation to zinc indicating that some aspects of the zinc ligand environment are surprisingly uncritical for coenzyme M binding. PMID:11985589

  1. The genes coding for the hsp70(dnaK) molecular chaperone machine occur in the moderate thermophilic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider; Lange, Marianne; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    response by hsp70(dnaK), and a similar response by trkA. The data suggest that the moderate thermophile TM-1 has an active Hsp70(DnaK)-chaperone machine in contrast to hyperthermophilic archaea, and that trkA is a stress gene, inasmuch as it responds like classic heat-shock genes to stressors that induce a...

  2. Ensialic tectonic setting of the archaean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt: Nd and Pb isotopic evidence from the Bonfim metamorphic complex, Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonfim Metamorphic Complex is one of the sialic fragments that make up the Archaen crust of the Southern Sao Francisco Craton, eastern Brazil. The northern part of the Bonfim Metamorphic Complex, located in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero region, was investigated on the basis of petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology. This complex comprises eight lithostratigraphic units, six of them Neo Archaen in age, composed of trondhjemitic to granitic gneisses, intrusive granitoids and and amphibolites. The other two units are Mesoproterozoic and probably Phanerozoic mafic dikes. The origin of rock protoliths of the Bonfim Metamorphic Complex goes back to the 3200 Ma ago, as suggested by inherited U-Pb age components and Sm-Nd (TDM) crus formation ages. The main evolution of the Northern Bonfim Metamorphic Complex was associated with the Rio das Velhas Tectonothermal Event (2780 - 2700 Ma) that correlates with major Neo Archean events in the Southern Sao Francisco Craton. The Rio das Velhas event, in the Northern Bonfim Metamorphic Complex, is characteriszed by widespread metamorphism, calc-alkaline (tonalite bodies) and tholeitic magmatism within both the sialic crust and Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The geological features together with geochemical signatures suggest a convergent margin setting for the Neoproterozoic evolution, which final steps are represented by an intrusive granite activity dated by U-Pb zircon at 2703± 24/20 Ma. During the proterozoic, the Neo-Archaen crust was affected by thermotectonic overprints, under low-grade facies metamorphic conditions, as suggested by resetting of the Rb-Sr (whole rock), and K-Ar (mineral) isotopic systems. Finally, from the petrological, geochemical and geochronological data, this paper presents a global tectonic model for the geological evolution from the Meso-to Neo Archaen in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero region. This model comprises the following geological setting and processes: active margins, mantelic plumes, magma mixing and mingling, partial melting of the lower Archaen sialic crust by mantelic underplating, extensional tectonics and ocean basin generation, ultramafic, mafic, calc alkaline and granite magmatism, tectonic inversion and closing basin during the Rio das Velhas Tectonothermal Event. (author)

  3. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsbeek, Feiko; Higgins, A.K.; Henriksen, Niels; Pulvertaft, T. Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice) reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, whi...

  4. Geochronology and evolution of the late-Archaean basement and Proterozoic rocks in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-Pb zircon and monazite studies, together with Rb-Sr and K-Ar total-rock and mineral studies, have been undertaken on various suites of amphibolite-grade gneisses and schists, granulites, intrusive granites, volcanic rocks, and dolerites in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field. These studies cover all the major rock units of the region, and lead to the establishment of an overall chronology which is geologically consistent, and with which any petrogenetic hypothesis or model of mineralization is constrained

  5. Pb-Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from the Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for the antiquity of the eastern Dharwar craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibam, B.; Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, R.

    2011-08-01

    207Pb-206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and the eastern parts of the Dharwar craton have been determined using an ion microprobe. Detrital zircons in metasedimentary rocks from both yielded ages ranging from 3.2 to 3.5 Ga. Zircons from orthogneisses from the two parts also yielded similar ages. Imprints of younger events have been discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that the evolution of the southwestern part of eastern Dharwar craton involved a significant amount of older crust (>3.0 Ga). This would suggest that crust formation in both the western and eastern parts of the Dharwar craton took place over similar time interval starting in the Mesoarchaean at ca. 3.5 Ga and continuing until 2.5 Ga. Our data coupled with geological features and geodynamic setting of the Dharwar craton tend to suggest that the eastern Dharwar craton and the western Dharwar craton formed part of a single terrane.

  6. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from the Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for the antiquity of the eastern Dharwar craton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Maibam; J N Goswami; R Srinivasan

    2011-08-01

    207Pb–206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and the eastern parts of the Dharwar craton have been determined using an ion microprobe. Detrital zircons in metasedimentary rocks from both yielded ages ranging from 3.2 to 3.5 Ga. Zircons from orthogneisses from the two parts also yielded similar ages. Imprints of younger events have been discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that the evolution of the southwestern part of eastern Dharwar craton involved a significant amount of older crust (< 3.0 Ga). This would suggest that crust formation in both the western and eastern parts of the Dharwar craton took place over similar time interval starting in the Mesoarchaean at ca. 3.5 Ga and continuing until 2.5 Ga. Our data coupled with geological features and geodynamic setting of the Dharwar craton tend to suggest that the eastern Dharwar craton and the western Dharwar craton formed part of a single terrane.

  7. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: A lead isotope study of an Archaean gold prospect in the Attu region, Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Stendal, Henrik; Frei, Robert; Stensgaard, Bo Møller

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a lead isotope investigation of a gold prospect south of the village Attu in the northern part of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in central West Greenland. The Attu gold prospect is a replacement gold occurrence, related to a shear/mylonite zone along a contact between orthogneissand amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian orogenic belt. The mineral occurrence is small, less than 0.5 m wide, and can be followed along strike for several hundred metres. The mineral assemblage is ...

  8. Palaeomagnetism of Archaean rocks of the Onverwacht Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt (southern Africa): Evidence for a stable and potentially reversing geomagnetic field at ca. 3.5 Ga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggin, A.J.; Wit, M.J. de; Langereis, C.G.; Zegers, T.E.; Voute, S.; Dekkers, M.J.; Drost, K.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from the Palaeoarchaean Era (3.2–3.6 Ga) have the potential to provide us with a great deal of information about early conditions within, and processes affecting, the Earth's core, mantle, and surface environment. Here we present new data obtained from some of the oldest palaeoma

  9. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  10. Shrimp U-Pb in zircon and lead-isotope constraints on the timing and source of an Archaean granulite-hosted lode-gold deposit at Griffin's Find, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon age of a syn- to late- gold mineralization pegmatite dyke from a granulite-hosted lode-gold deposit at Griffin's Find Western Australia, provides a minimum age constraint on gold mineralization of 2632±3 Ma. A nearby syenogranite has an indistinguishable SHRIMP U-Pb in zircon age of 2636±10 Ma. These age constraints are within error of a previously published age of 2636±3 Ma for gold mineralization and peak metamorphism at Griffin's Find, determined by a Pb-Pb isochron for ore and alteration minerals, and similar to a U-Pb in zircon age of 2640±1 Ma for peak metamorphism. This age is also compatible with that of other age determinations on gold mineralization from lower metamorphic-grade settings elsewhere in the Yilgarn Craton. A minimum age of 2669±36 (σ) Ma, determined by a concordant analysis on an inherited zircon core by SHRIMP II, is suggested for the source rock of the pegmatite dykes. Two other analyses, which yield 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2676±20 and 2660±20 Ma with 77-92% concordance, support the presence of an old inherited component in the source of the pegmatite magma A Pb-Pb isochron, comprising two whole-rock and two K-feldspar analyses for samples from the granite, gives a precise age of 2680±6 Ma, which is tentatively interpreted to reflect an old inherited component in a ca. 2636 Ma felsic intrusion. The geochronological results detailed in this study, together with previous data, suggest the emplacement of a regional granitic batholith in high-grade metamorphic settings at the time of fold mineralization. (authors)

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1140 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1140 ref|YP_303598.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A0027 [Methanosarcina bark...eri str. Fusaro] gb|AAZ69018.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A0027 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_303598.1 0.078 24% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0339 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0339 ref|YP_300087.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_B3757 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ68991.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_B3757 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_300087.1 1.3 24% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0000 ref|YP_306433.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2958 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71853.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_306433.1 0.029 34% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0012 ref|YP_304864.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1321 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ70284.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1321 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_304864.1 0.39 34% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0045 ref|YP_305810.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71230.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305810.1 2e-18 32% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0035 ref|YP_303708.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A0143 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ69128.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_303708.1 1e-10 42% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-29-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-29-0004 ref|YP_305025.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1490 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ70445.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1490 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305025.1 1.4 26% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0058 ref|YP_305810.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71230.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305810.1 6e-19 33% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0028 ref|YP_305972.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2479 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71392.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2479 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305972.1 9e-19 35% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1179 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1179 ref|YP_305972.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2479 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71392.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2479 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305972.1 1e-09 31% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2145 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2145 ref|YP_305913.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2413 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71333.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305913.1 0.12 24% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0286 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0286 ref|YP_304217.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A0658 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ69637.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_304217.1 0.19 25% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-01-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-01-0076 ref|YP_306433.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2958 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71853.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_306433.1 3.6 30% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0874 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0874 ref|YP_305025.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1490 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ70445.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A1490 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305025.1 0.001 21% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1006 ref|YP_306263.1| cell surface protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71683.1| cell surface protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_306263.1 0.032 22% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0062 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0062 ref|YP_305810.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71230.1| leucine-rich-repeat protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_305810.1 4e-21 34% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2526 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2526 ref|YP_306419.1| hypothetical protein Mbar_A2944 [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusar...o] gb|AAZ71839.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro] YP_306419.1 0.072 19% ...

  8. Biotic and abiotic dynamics of a high solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Andreas; Probst, Maraike; Hinterberger, Stephan; Müller, Horst; Insam, Heribert

    2016-03-01

    A solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system for biomethane production was observed in 12 three-week batch fermentations. Reactor performance was monitored using physico-chemical analysis and the methanogenic community was identified using ANAEROCHIP-microarrays and quantitative PCR. A resilient community was found in all batches, despite variations in inoculum to substrate ratio, feedstock quality, and fluctuating reactor conditions. The consortia were dominated by mixotrophic Methanosarcina that were accompanied by hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanocorpusculum. The relationship between biotic and abiotic variables was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance. High amounts of biogas were produced in batches with high copy numbers of Methanosarcina. High copy numbers of Methanocorpusculum and extensive percolation, however, were found to negatively correlate with biogas production. Supporting these findings, a negative correlation was detected between Methanocorpusculum and Methanosarcina. Based on these results, this study suggests Methanosarcina as an indicator for well-functioning reactor performance. PMID:26860425

  9. Microbial Ecology of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinder, Stephen H.

    2000-04-15

    This grant supported research on methanogenic archaea. The two major areas that were supported were conversion of acetic acid to methane and nitrogen fixation by Methanosarcina. Among the achievements of this research were the isolation of novel methanogenic cultures, elucidation of the pathways from acetate to methane, description of a specific DNA-binding complex in nitrogen fixing methanogens, and demonstration of an alternative nitrogenase in Methanosarcina.

  10. Laser spectroscopic real time measurements of methanogenic activity under simulated Martian subsurface analog conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmack, J.; Böhm, M.; Brauer, C.; Löhmannsröben, H.G.; de Vera, J.P.; Möhlmann, D.; Wagner, D

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, chemolithoautothrophic and anaerobic microorganisms such as methanogenic archaea are regarded as model organisms for possible subsurface life on Mars. For this reason, the methanogenic strain Methanosarcina soligelidi (formerly called Methanosarcina spec. SMA-21), isolated from permafrost-affected soil in northeast Siberia, has been tested under Martian thermo-physicalconditions. In previous studies under simulated Martian conditions, high survival rates of these microorganisms w...

  11. The geochemical history of the sedimentary rocks of the Witwatersrand as reflected in the mineralogy of the heavy-mineral assemblage of the uranium-bearing reefs of the Central Rand Group / Georgette Smits

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Georgette

    1990-01-01

    The well-known Archaean gold deposit on the Witwatersrand is the world's principal source of this precious metal. A tectonically active hinterland comprising Archaean granite-greenstone terrane and pre-Witwatersrand sediments provided the detritus which was deposited at major points of fluvial influx along the northern and western periphery of the Witwatersrand Basin during the sedimentation of the Central Rand Group. The geochemical characteristics of the environment which pre...

  12. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, William W. [University of Illinois

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  13. A Review of the Isotopic and Trace Element Evidence for Mantle and Crustal Processes in the Hadean and Archean: implications for the Onset of Plate Tectonic Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Katie A.; Tappe, Sebastian; Stern, Richard A.; Webb, Susan J.; Ashwal, Lewis D.

    2016-03-01

    Plate tectonics plays a vital role in the evolution of our planet. Geochemical analysis of Earth’s oldest continental crust suggests that subduction may have begun episodically about 3.8 to 3.2 billion years ago, during the early Archaean or perhaps more than 3.8 billion years ago, during the Hadean. Yet, mantle rocks record evidence for modern-style plate tectonics beginning only in the late Archaean, about 3 billion years ago. Here we analyse the nitrogen abundance, as well as the nitrogen and carbon isotopic signatures of Archaean placer diamonds from the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa, which formed in the upper mantle 3.1 to 3.5 billion years ago. We find that the diamonds have enriched nitrogen contents and isotopic compositions compared with typical mantle values. This nitrogen geochemical fingerprint could have been caused by contamination of the mantle by nitrogen-rich Archaean sediments. Furthermore, the carbon isotopic signature suggests that the diamonds formed by reduction of an oxidized fluid or melt. Assuming that the Archaean mantle was more reduced than the modern mantle, we argue that the oxidized components were introduced to the mantle by crustal recycling at subduction zones. We conclude, on the basis of evidence from mantle-derived diamonds, that modern-style plate tectonics operated as early as 3.5 billion years ago.

  14. Effects of Temperature on Methanogenesis in a Thermophilic (58°C) Anaerobic Digestor

    OpenAIRE

    Zinder, S H; Anguish, T.; Cardwell, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The short-term effects of temperature on methanogenesis from acetate or CO2 in a thermophilic (58°C) anaerobic digestor were studied by incubating digestor sludge at different temperatures with 14C-labeled methane precursors (14CH3COO− or 14CO2). During a period when Methanosarcina sp. was numerous in the sludge, methanogenesis from acetate was optimal at 55 to 60°C and was completely inhibited at 65°C. A Methanosarcina culture isolated from the digestor grew optimally on acetate at 55 to 58°...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06921-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Vibrio cholerae strain Amazonia i... 64 3e-09 AE003852_1736( AE003852 |pid:non...9451_1( AY829451 |pid:none) Vibrio cholerae strain Amazonia 35... 45 0.001 AL8445...as haloplanktis ... 66 5e-10 AE008384_2976( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina maz...Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 1... 41 0.025 AE008384_2292( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina mazei strain G...e) Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepi... 54 4e-06 CP000896_1224( CP000896 |pid:none) Acholeplasma

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15593-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vvlnmpf*lnhhmkvevlqtl*lrtipsmansiivy lcqmqiklksmem*lwvkvmltlvlvfkygipmv*ifkvii*iyhqvqlvfvqvlkm*ms sqil**lqelafifvkvvmifv*kim...3 0.046 CP000102_931( CP000102 |pid:none) Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSM 30... 37 0.054 AM114193_1137( AM1141...ococcoides burtonii DSM 6... 42 0.10 CP000102_881( CP000102 |pid:none) Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSM ...osarcina acetivorans str.... 41 0.17 CP000102_1351( CP000102 |pid:none) Methanosphaera stadtmana...0102_139( CP000102 |pid:none) Methanosphaera stadtmanae DSM 30... 40 0.30 AP009386_1606( AP009386 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivoran

  17. Evolution structurale et métamorphique de la croûte continentale archéenne ( craton de Dherwar, Inde du Sud)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhallier, Hughes

    1994-01-01

    Mémoire de Géosciences-Rennes, n°60, 277 p., ISBN : 2-995532-55-9 The aim of this thesis is to characterize the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of an Archaean continental segment (>2.5 Ga). The studied area is the Dharwar craton (South India) where deeper and deeper structurallevels outcrop from North to South. This area has not been affected by post-Archaean defonnation. We show that the disclosed strain field is the result of interfering gravitational diapiric bodies and regional shor...

  18. New Rb-Sr isotope data from the Mzumbe Gneiss Suite, the oldest granitoid in the Mzumbe Terrane, Natal Metamorphic Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the rocks of the Mzumbe Gneiss suite display a close similarity to many Archaean, high-alumina tonalite-trondhjemite suites, an origin by the reactivation of a pre-existing Archaean or early Proterozoic infrastructure during the Namaqua-Natal orogenesis, can be effectively excluded. It is proposed that the Natal Metamorphic Provunce was formed by the generation and successive accretion of discrete fragments of juvenile crust onto the southern margin of the Kaapvaal craton between ∼1200 and 900 Ma. 1 fig., 9 refs

  19. Can fractional crystallization, mixing and assimilation processes be responsible for jamaican-type adakites? Implications for generating eoarchaean continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    Hastie, A.R.; Fitton, J.G.; Mitchell, S. F.; Neill, I.; Nowell, G.M.; Millar, I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the Earth’s first continental land masses were generated is important because the processes responsible directly affected the evolution of the planet’s primordial silicate interior, and also its atmosphere and hydrosphere. Archaean continental crust is dominated by rocks of the trondhjemite–tonalite–granodiorite (TTG) suite. These can be divided into (1) a mid- to late Archaean (3.5–2.5 Ga) suite with low SiO2 and high MgO, Sr and transition element contents, and (2) an Eoar...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16333-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1347( CP000739 |pid:none) Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 pl... 41 0.19 CP000099_1867( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina...cluding cell wall 4.0 %: vacuolar >> prediction for Contig-U...kvansffldlqicitvqvvgnlpcvglspylggqvpnavwvellipfsdlqvypnalis sitfqtqvqdhqgvffigdisagnfvppykvledgsna...fkllsniyllllifiisllfi* tkkkqinkkhiylyyff*lkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame...lgykviipfskititpsttktf ngilitgasnefydliymddlyfsngtvcmeesseypyyqlgqllngasdqyntgnvnfk svsklfrgfptieyqlynnykaii

  1. Novel Functions of an Iron-Sulfur Flavoprotein from Trichomonas vaginalis Hydrogenosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smutná, T.; Pilařová, K.; Tarábek, Ján; Tachezy, J.; Hrdý, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2014), s. 3224-3232. ISSN 0066-4804 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-09208J Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Methanosarcina thermophila * nitric oxide * Trichomonas vaginalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK061906 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061906 001-041-H10 AF317651.1 Methanosarcina barkeri pyruvate carboxylase biotin -containing su ... ATP-binding subunit PYCA (pycA), and bifunctional biotin ... ligase/biotin ... operon repressor PYCB (birA) genes, ...

  3. Similar evolution in delta (CH4)-C-13 and model-predicted relative rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis during mesophilic methanization of municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Vavilin, V. A.; Qu, X; Mazéas, L.; Lemunier, M.; Duquennoi, C.; Mouchel, J.M.; P. He; Bouchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    Similar evolution was obtained for the stable carbon isotope signatures d 13CH4 and the model-predicted relative rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis during mesophilic methanization of municipal solid wastes. In batch incubations, the importance of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis changes in time. Initially, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis dominated, but increasing population of Methanosarcina sp. enhances aceticlastic methanogenesis. Later, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis inte...

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    , utilizing the substrates acetate, methanol and methylamines but not hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Strain Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P was able to grow mixotrophically on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide with methane formation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurring after methanol depletion. All six...

  5. Anaerobic Treatment of Methanolic Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.; Geest, van der A.Th.; Hobma, S.W.; Laan, van der J.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although it is well known that methanol can be fermented directly by a specific species of methane bacteria, viz. Methanosarcina barkeri, until now little information was available about the effect of important environmental factors on the anaerobic fermentation of methanol. As methanol can be the m

  6. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  7. Diversity and three-dimensional structures of the alpha Mcr of the methanogenic Archaea from the anoxic region of Tucuruí Lake, in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bessa Santana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaeans are organisms of considerable ecological and biotechnological interest that produce methane through a restricted metabolic pathway, which culminates in the reaction catalyzed by the Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr enzyme, and results in the release of methane. Using a metagenomic approach, the gene of the a subunit of mcr (mcrα was isolated from sediment sample from an anoxic zone, rich in decomposing organic material, obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam reservoir in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The partial nucleotide sequences obtained were 83 to 95% similar to those available in databases, indicating a low diversity of archaeans in the reservoir. Two orders were identified -the Methanomicrobiales, and a unique Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU forming a clade with the Methanosarcinales according to low bootstrap values. Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional (3D structures, for this the partial nucleotide sequence of the mcrα were isolated and translated on their partial amino acid sequences. The 3D structures of the archaean mcrα observed in the present study varied little, and presented approximately 70% identity in comparison with the mcrα of Methanopyrus klanderi. The results demonstrated that the community of methanogenic archaeans of the anoxic C1 region of the Tucurui reservoir is relatively homogeneous.

  8. Diversity of burial rates in convergent settings decreased as Earth aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary

    2016-05-01

    The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth’s geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained. Here we use both detrital zircon ages and metamorphic pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information from metasedimentary units deposited in proposed convergent settings from Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terrains to characterize the evolution of minimum estimates of burial rate (km.Ma‑1) as a function of the age of the rocks. The demonstrated decrease in burial rate correlates positively with a progressive decrease in the production of juvenile felsic crust in the Archaean and Proterozoic. Burial rates are also more diverse in the Archaean than in modern times. We interpret these features to reflect a progressive decrease in the diversity of tectonic processes from Archaean to present, coupled with the emergence of the uniquely Phanerozoic modern-style collision.

  9. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Robert P; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Norman, Marc D

    2003-10-01

    The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are comprised dominantly of sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite of rocks. Here we present direct experimental evidence showing that partial melting of hydrous basalt in the eclogite facies produces granitoid liquids with major- and trace-element compositions equivalent to Archaean TTG, including the low Nb/Ta and high Zr/Sm ratios of 'average' Archaean TTG, but from a source with initially subchondritic Nb/Ta. In modern environments, basalts with low Nb/Ta form by partial melting of subduction-modified depleted mantle, notably in intraoceanic arc settings in the forearc and back-arc regimes. These observations suggest that TTG magmatism may have taken place beneath granite-greenstone complexes developing along Archaean intraoceanic island arcs by imbricate thrust-stacking and tectonic accretion of a diversity of subduction-related terranes. Partial melting accompanying dehydration of these generally basaltic source materials at the base of thickened, 'arc-like' crust would produce compositionally appropriate TTG granitoids in equilibrium with eclogite residues. PMID:14534583

  10. Long term biosustainability in a high energy, low diversity crustal biome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L-H.; Wang, P-L.; Rumble, D.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; SherwoodLollar, B.; Boice, E.; Pratt, L.; Brodie, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Andersen,G.L.; DeSantis, T.; Moser, D.P.; Kershaw, D.; Onstott, T.

    2006-10-01

    Geochemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of alkaline saline groundwater at 2.8 kilometers depth in Archaean metabasalt revealed a microbial biome dominated by a single phylotype affiliated with thermophilic sulfate reducers belonging to Firmicutes. These sulfate reducers were sustained by geologically produced sulfate and hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to maintain activities for millions of years with no apparent reliance on photosynthetically derived substrates.

  11. A Summary of the Precambrian Granitoid Rocks of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Barton

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Precambrian granitoid rocks underlie approximately 60 percent of the Kruger National Park. They occur primarily in the western portion of the park and comprise a wide variety of rock including granites, granodiorites, tonalites, trondhjemites and syenites spanning more than 1 500 Ma from the Archaean to the Proterozoic. Remnants of old greenstone belts are also found.

  12. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hoorn; M. Roddaz; R. Dino; E. Soares; C. Uba; D. Ochoa-Lozano; R. Mapes

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of nort

  13. Diversity of burial rates in convergent settings decreased as Earth aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Gautier; Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth's geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained. Here we use both detrital zircon ages and metamorphic pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information from metasedimentary units deposited in proposed convergent settings from Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terrains to characterize the evolution of minimum estimates of burial rate (km.Ma(-1)) as a function of the age of the rocks. The demonstrated decrease in burial rate correlates positively with a progressive decrease in the production of juvenile felsic crust in the Archaean and Proterozoic. Burial rates are also more diverse in the Archaean than in modern times. We interpret these features to reflect a progressive decrease in the diversity of tectonic processes from Archaean to present, coupled with the emergence of the uniquely Phanerozoic modern-style collision. PMID:27216133

  14. Rb/Sr geochronology in whole rocks and minerals of the Cumaru granodiorite, Serra dos Gradaus, Para state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cumaru granodiorite occurs in the Serra dos Gradaus region, southeastern part of the Metallogenic Province of Carajas, Para. Rb-Sr systematics have been provided in whole rocks and minerals for samples of the Cumaru granodiorite thus an age of 2543 ± 53 Ma, with an initial isotopic ratio of 0.70311 ± 34 (MSWD+1.87) was obtained for whole rocks samples. Taking in account that these rocks are not affected by metamorphism and/or deformation, we consider the age of 2543 ± 53 Ma as an emplacement age corresponding to the crystallization of the body. Such an age confirms the existence of a late Archaean plutonic event in the Serra dos Gradaus area and the interpretation of the Cumaru granodiorite as a contemporaneous and cogenetic body of the Juruena type granites (Ca. 2000 Ma old), as proposed previously, must be definitively abandoned. Therefore, Archaean ages for the greenstone belt sequence (Gradaus group) as well as for the Xingu complex in this area are also confirmed, although by indirect evidence. The age obtained implies that the latter represents an Archaean metamorphic basement in the Serra dos Gradaus region rather than the reworking of the late archaean granitics rocks during the Transmazonian orogenic event. The initial isotopic ratio of 0.70311 ± 34 is close to a mantellic or low time of crustal residence source material ratios at the end of Archaean times. Therefore, comparison with isotopic initial ratios of other granitic rocks which occur in the Rio Maria region identifies an evolution line with a Rb-Sr ratio of 0.25 for a crustal source material that would have separated from mantle about 2.8 Ga ago. (author)

  15. The development of continental crust through geological time: the South African case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd isotopic compositions and 147Sm/144Nd ratios were measured in fifty-eight South African shales and greywackes with depositional ages ranging from 0.2 to 3.3 b.y. Elements such as the rare earths, which are poorly soluble in water and not fractionated during exogeneous processes, preserve the signature of the original crustal source. The 147Sm/144Nd ratios appear to be approximately constant throughout the time interval sampled. We calculated Nd model ages of crustal differentiation. Knowing that the shales represent a true blend of different continental areas we consider these model ages representative of the mean ages of their primitive continental sources. Then, using the inverse technique developed by Allegre and Rousseau in 1984, we computed a growth curve for the continental crust in South Africa. Two periods of important crustal genesis (Archaean and around 1.5 b.y.) can be compared with the observed geology and with other continental crust growth curves obtained in previous studies in southern Africa and in Australia. The observation of large variations in the MgO content and Ni, Cr, U and Th concentrations between Archaean South African shales and post-Archaean samples compared to the constancy of the 147Sm/144Nd ratios leads us to propose that the Archaean crust was composed of both granite (70.5%) and a mafic component (29.5%) which could have been komatiite. The small dispersion of 147Sm/144Nd ratios suggests that erosion and sedimentation processes yielded homogeneous Archaean shales. The present-day continental crust is much more heterogeneous, because it has undergone several episodes of recycling. Thus recent shales are characterized by more variable 147Sm/144Nd ratios. (orig.)

  16. AcEST: DK960501 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Methanopyrus kandl... 57 8e-08 sp|Q46CS0|SYA_METBF Alanyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Methanosarc...nyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Methanosarcina ace... 55 4e-07 sp|A3DKB6|SYA_CLOTH Ala...nyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Methanosarcina maz... 54 5e-07 sp|Q7NI36|SYA_GLOVI Ala...acterized protein OS=Neuro... 67 1e-09 tr|B8MHZ5|B8MHZ5_9EURO Alanyl-tRNA synthetase, putative OS=Talar...Methanococcoides b... 59 3e-08 sp|P61710|SYA_METMP Alanyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Methanococcus mari... 58 4e-08 sp|Q8KG04|SYA_CHLTE Ala

  17. Acetate conversion in anaerobic biogas reactors: Traditional and molecular tools for studying this important group of anaerobic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Lange, Marianne;

    2000-01-01

    Different methods were applied to study the role of aceticlastic methanogens in biogas reactors treating solid waste and wastewater. We used traditional microbiological methods, immunological and 16S rRNA ribosomal probes for detection of the methanogens. Using this approach we identified...... the methanogenic spp. and their activity. In biofilm systems, such as the UASB reactors the presence of the two aceticlastic methanogens could be correlated to the difference in the kinetic properties of the two species. In biogas reactors treating solid wastes, such as manure or mixture of manure and organic...... industrial waste, only Methanosarcina spp. were identified.Methanosarcina spp. isolated from different plants had different kinetics depending on their origin. Relating the reactor performance data to measurement of the activity by conventional microbiological methods gave a good indication of the microbial...

  18. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  19. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  20. [Acetyl-CoA cleavage and synthesis in methanogens]. Progress report, September 1994--August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The acetyl-CoA decarbonylase synthase (ACDS) complex has been detected in a variety of methanogens including species of Methanosarcina, Methanothrix (i.e., Methanosaeta), and Methanococcus. The multienzyme complex from Methanosarcina barkeri is composed of five different subunits, possibly arranged in an {alpha}{sub 6}{beta}{sub 6}{gamma}{sub 6}{delta}{sub 6}{var_epsilon}{sub 6} structure with the individual subunits of molecular masses (kDa) of 89, 60, 50, 48, and 20, respectively. This progress report summarizes the work from the past 21 months on studies directed toward understanding how the ACDS complex functions in the physiology of acetate-cleaving, and acetate-synthesizing methanogens.

  1. Antigenic distinctiveness, heterogeneity, and relationships of Methanothrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1987-01-01

    A detailed immunologic analysis of Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon (the type species of the genus), Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1, and Methanothrix concilii GP6 was performed. A variety of poly- and monoclonal antibody probes for a comprehensive panel of reference organisms were used to determine immunogenicity, antigenicity, and relationships. The three organisms are antigenically distinct but interrelated, forming an immunologically cohesive group, weakly related to methanosarcinae. A prom...

  2. Effect of Gramicidin on Methanogenesis by Various Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrell, Ken F.; Hamilton, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    Methanogenesis by Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strains was extremely sensitive to gramicidin, total inhibition being observed at 0.2 μg/ml. In contrast, methane synthesis by Methanococcus voltae, Methanogenium marisnigri, Methanosarcina mazei, and Methanospirillum hungatei were resistant to the highest concentrations of gramicidin tested (40 μg/ml), although spheroplasts of Methanospirillum hungatei were extremely sensitive. Other species tested showed intermediate sensitivity to gram...

  3. CbiZ, an amidohydrolase enzyme required for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor cobinamide in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of a pathway for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor dicyanocobinamide (Cbi) from the environment was established by genetic and biochemical means. The pathway requires the function of a previously unidentified amidohydrolase enzyme that converts adenosylcobinamide to adenosylcobyric acid, a bona fide intermediate of the de novo coenzyme B12 biosynthetic route. The cbiZ gene of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Göl was cloned, was overproduced in Escherichia...

  4. [Community Structure and Succession of Methanogens in Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-na; Wang, Lei; Xia, Meng-jing; Su, Yue; Li, Zhen-shan

    2015-09-01

    Methanogens are the key microorganisms for landfill stabilization. RT-PCR and qPCR detecting system were employed to determine the types and abundance of methanogens in 2-15 year-old solid wastes that sampled from Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing. The organic components were almost stable and the pH values were in alkaline range, which indicated that the landfill was in the methanogenic process. Methanobacterials, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were detected, among which Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina are acetoclastic, and Methanobacterials are hydrogenotrophic. As landfill processing, within this time range, although the bacterial abundance was significantly decreased, the amount of methanogens was first increased and then decreased, and finally became stable after being landfilled for 9 years. Methanosarcina was the dominate taxa. Significant correlations were found between the methanogens and the volatile fatty acids, but the correlations between methanogens and larger molecular organic matters were relatively weak or even absent. Taken together, our study revealed that the amount of methanogens were affected by substrates, but hardly influenced by the conversion of large molecules in these wastes landfilled for more than 2 years. PMID:26717715

  5. Polycyclic migmatites from southern of Minas Gerais state and adjacent parts: structural/petrographic characterization and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais and adjacent parts of the State of Sao Paulo (SE Brazil) is built up by gray gneisses (Barbacena and Amparo Complexes), pink gneisses (Pinhal Complex) and granulites (Guaxupe Complex) areas, the oldest of them of Archaean ages. Structural, petrographic, geochronological and geologic data indicate that in fact each of those complexes is the result of a long evolution including successive phases of deformation, anatexis and intrusions. The extensive migmatization of the Archaean rocks during the Lower and Upper Proterozoic combined with the intrusion of huge granitoid bodies suggest that the considered region has been involved in successively continental approaches by subduction/collision processes. (author)

  6. The diamondiferous roots of our wandering continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantle xenoliths and minerals, including diamonds, found in the mainly Cretaceous kimberlites on the Kalahari craton provide evidence for the stabilization of a thick pool predominantly peridotitic continental nucleus in the Archaean. This was followed by widespread formation of lesser amounts of eclogite added to the lithosphere throughout the Proterozoic. Most diamonds were derived from the Archaean peridotite and Proterozoic eclogite and were liberated into kimberlite by xenolith disaggregation. The mantle lithosphere is heterogeneous and has undergone considerable modification by such processes as intrusive igneous activity, metasomatism of different styles, subsolidus metamorphism, deformation and probably the recycling of oceanic crust throughout much of its history. Diamond formation and preservation is similarly complex. The kimberlite-borne mantle sample provides a unique window of information about continental evolution in which the diamonds and their occasional encapsulated inclusions play a key role. 88 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  7. Na and Pb isotope studies bearing on the crystal evolution of Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd-and Pb-isotopes have been determined on composite samples of selected granites, gneisses, and metasediments from SE Brazil, which range in age from Archaean to Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano). A brief introduction to Sm-Nd systematics is followed by discussion of the Sm-Nd isotope data on the composite samples which yield model Nd ages of 3.3-1.3 Ga. Pb isotope compositions are consistent with those model ages, and Nd-and Pb-isotopes together indicate that, as in southern Africa, the main period of crustal growth was in the Late Archaean and Early to Middle proterozoic. The Brasiliano event appears to have been characterized by relatively little new continental crust. (author)

  8. In search of Archean basement from Rio Maria region, southeastern of Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Maria Region, southeastern part of the Amazonian craton (Brazil), displays a typical Archaean granite-greenstone association intruded by Proterozoic granites. The greenstone is crosscut by Archaean granitoids, such as the Rio Maria granodiorite. Clear field contacts between the Xingu gneisses and the granodiorite are lacking, making it difficult to determine the stratigraphic sequence. U-Pb data for zircons from the Xingu gneiss and the Rio Maria granodiorite provide upper intercept ages of 2971 +30/ -28 Ma and 2874 +9/ -10 Ma respectively on the Concordia diagram. 2.97 Ga is the most ancient age ever obtained on zircons from gneisses of the Amazonian craton. It provides an upper limit for the beginning of the continental crust formation in this part of the craton. (author)

  9. Isotopic studies of the late Archean plutonic rocks of the Wind River Range, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.; Worl, R.G.; Simmons, K.R.; Nkomo, I.T.; Wenner, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two late Archaean intrusive events were documented in the Wind River Range by isotopic studies of the Rb-Sr and U-Th-Pb systems in whole-rock samples and the U-Pb systematics for zircon. An age of approx 2630(20) m.y. for the Louis Lake batholith and apparent ages of 2504(40) to 2575(50) m.y. for the Bear Ears pluton were obtained. Post-magmatic hydrothermal events approximately Tertiary in age, lowered delta 18O values and disturbed parent-daughter relationships in most of the isotopic systems investigated. The two intrusive units apparently were derived from different protoliths. Initial isotopic ratios and petrochemistry for the Louis Lake batholith are consistent with an early Archaean trondhjemitic to tonalitic source. The protolith for the Bear Ears pluton must have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism that caused loss of Rb and U prior to magma generation. -L.C.H.

  10. Geological Guide to Selected Areas of the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    J.W. Bristow; Sweeney, R.; F.J. Venter

    1986-01-01

    The Kruger National Park (KNP) contains a considerable variety of rock types, ranging from Archaean granitoids to Recent sedimentary deposits. Some 3 500 million years of geological history is represented in an approximately 85 km east-west section at the southern area of the Kruger National Park. Older rocks are typically found in the western half of the KNP and to the east rock units become progressively younger. Some of the more important rock types found in the KNP include greenstones of ...

  11. Electric lithosphere-astenosphere boundary in the north-west Fennoscandia as revealed from magnetotelluric data (MaSca project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetotelluric images of the electric lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB) below the north-western Fennoscandian Shield show that thickest lithosphere is in the Proterozoic Domain, not in Archaean. The Magnetotelluric (MT) method is well suited to map the depth to the LAB. The electric lithosphere is defined as the resistive outer shell overlying a highly conducting zone (astenosphere) in the upper mantle. A few extensive field campaigns have been undertaken in the Summers of 2011 to 2014 within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes". The MaSca survey crosses two important boundaries: (i) the transition zone from the stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia; (ii) the boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic crust and upper mantle. In this study we present the electrical resistivity models obtained from 279 MT sites (70 long-period stations among them) acquired from 2011 to 2013. We also used other sources of data available in the study area: the IMAGE observatory data, the BEAR array and two small arrays of Finnish Geological Survey (GTK). We present the results of 2D lithospheric-scale inversions obtained along four selected profiles: three profiles are NW-SE directed, thought to be perpendicular to estimated regional strike and one profile crosses the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary, thus NE-SW directed. The final interpretation models revealed thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian province and reaches depth of 300 km. The Archaean lithosphere is thinner, with depth of 200 km to 250 km.

  12. Magmatism of the Kenya Rift Valley : a review.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary–Recent magmatism in the Kenya Rift Valley was initiated c. 35 Ma, in the northern part of Kenya. Initiation of magmatism then migrated southwards, reaching northern Tanzania by 5–8 Ma. This progression was accompanied by a change in the nature of the lithosphere, from rocks of the Panafrican Mozambique mobile belt through reworked craton margin to rigid, Archaean craton. Magma volumes and the geochemistry of mafic volcanic rocks indicate that magmatism has resulted from the interacti...

  13. Country rock contamination of marginal mafic granulites bordering the Nain Plutonic Suite : implications for mobilization of Sr during high-grade contact metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Royse, Katherine; Noble, Stephen; Tarney, John; Cadman, Andy

    1999-01-01

    The marginal mafic granulites that locally border the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) have a range of initial Nd-isotope ratios that overlap with that of the NPS anorthosites and associated Nain dykes. The similarity in Nd-isotope data suggests that gneissic Archaean country rocks have contaminated all the anorthosites, marginal mafic granulites, and dykes. Sr-isotope data for the mafic granulites and dykes support a country rock contamination scenario but preclude wholesale assimilation of rocks s...

  14. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction

    OpenAIRE

    s Franck; Bounama, C.; Von Bloh, W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. We find that from the Archaean to the future a procaryotic biosphere always exists. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of comp...

  15. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  16. Mineralkogical and Petrochemical Characterisitics and Genesis of Laoniugou Geneiss in Jiapigou Gold Mine,Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明; 徐克勤; 等

    1992-01-01

    Detailed mineralogical and petrochemical studies show that the Laoniugou gneiss of the Jiapigou gold mine is composed mainly of plagioclase gneiss and irregular to lentiform plagioclase amphibolite melanic enclaves.The major element contents show an obvious bimodal and trondhjemitic series evolutional trend.This situation is significantly different from that encountered in bimodal calc-alkalic volcanic rocks in the rift-type Archaean greenstone belt.The contents of Rb,Sr and Ba are 7-21 ppm,153-363ppm and 201-1451 ppm respectively ,close to those of common Archaean grey gneisses.All the samples of plagioclase gneisses show positive Eu anomalies (even up to 4.6).The protoliths of the plagioclase gneiss are high-Al2O3 trondhjemitic series rocks,belonging to typical TTG of Archaean high-grade metamorphic terrain .The gneiss is quite similar to the B-type Amitsoq gneiss of W.Greenland .The authors believe that the plagioclase amphibolite enclaves are the relics of ancient oceanic crust while the plagioclase gneiss is the TTG ancient intrusive rock resulting from partial melting of the oceanic crust.

  17. No climate paradox under the faint early Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Minik T; Bird, Dennis K; Sleep, Norman H; Bjerrum, Christian J

    2010-04-01

    Environmental niches in which life first emerged and later evolved on the Earth have undergone dramatic changes in response to evolving tectonic/geochemical cycles and to biologic interventions, as well as increases in the Sun's luminosity of about 25 to 30 per cent over the Earth's history. It has been inferred that the greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO(2) and/or CH(4) compensated for the lower solar luminosity and dictated an Archaean climate in which liquid water was stable in the hydrosphere. Here we demonstrate, however, that the mineralogy of Archaean sediments, particularly the ubiquitous presence of mixed-valence Fe(II-III) oxides (magnetite) in banded iron formations is inconsistent with such high concentrations of greenhouse gases and the metabolic constraints of extant methanogens. Prompted by this, and the absence of geologic evidence for very high greenhouse-gas concentrations, we hypothesize that a lower albedo on the Earth, owing to considerably less continental area and to the lack of biologically induced cloud condensation nuclei, made an important contribution to moderating surface temperature in the Archaean eon. Our model calculations suggest that the lower albedo of the early Earth provided environmental conditions above the freezing point of water, thus alleviating the need for extreme greenhouse-gas concentrations to satisfy the faint early Sun paradox. PMID:20360739

  18. Biomethane production and microbial community response according to influent concentration of molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Sang Don; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between methane production performance and active microbial community dynamics at different loading rates by increasing influent substrate concentration. The model system was an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using molasses wastewater. The active microbial community was analyzed using a ribosomal RNA-based approach in order to reflect active members in the UASB system. The methane production rate (MPR) increased with an increase in organic loading rate (OLR) from 3.6 to 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1) and then it decreased with further OLR addition until 9.7 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1). The UASB reactor achieved a maximum methane production rate of 0.48 L·L(-1)·day(-1) with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 91.2 % at an influent molasses concentration of 16 g COD·L(-1) (OLR of 5.5 g COD·L(-1)·day(-1)). In the archaeal community, Methanosarcina was predominant irrespective of loading rate, and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta increased with loading rate. In the bacterial community, Firmicutes and Eubacteriaceae were relatively abundant in the loading conditions tested. The network analysis between operation parameters and microbial community indicated that MPR was positively associated with most methanogenic archaea, including the relatively abundant Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, except Methanofollis. The most abundant Methanosarcina was negatively associated with Bifidobacterium and Methanosaeta, whereas Methanosaeta was positively associated with Bifidobacterium. PMID:26810080

  19. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L−1d−1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg−1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg−1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L−1 d−1 VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08273-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as vkfeqnienpfsfkhikilssleelqelpdtnkviltssqdletgfsrelfiqwcsdpkt Frame B: fi*fdginyqiysiiwskr*ittmlfirn**flyiirlwskl*frlfiirt...d:none) Bordetella parapertussis strain ... 59 2e-08 AE008384_695( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina mazei strain... CR628336 |pid:none) Legionella pneumophila str. Par... 50 4e-06 AY596297_1159( AY596297 |pid:none) Haloarcula marismortui... 58 2e-12 CP000852_446( CP000852 |pid:none) Caldivirga maquilingensis IC-167... 63 2e-12 AP009049_2585( AP00...none) Burkholderia thailandensis E264 ... 46 0.003 CP000387_1483( CP000387 |pid:none) Streptococcus sanguini

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15706-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Cellvibrio japonicus Ueda107, co... 62 2e-07 ( P39614 ) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferas...e) Methanosarcina mazei strain Goe... 76 1e-11 CP000140_1372( CP000140 |pid:none) Parabacteroides distaso...in Toham... 62 1e-07 CP000140_1308( CP000140 |pid:none) Parabacteroides distasonis AT...l=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferase ypjH;... 60 5e-07 X63290_1( X63290 |pid:non...e) Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, ... 85 3e-14 ( Q58457 ) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized glycosyltransferas

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14238-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available WX13710.rev CAWX Helobdella robusta Primary Ear... 46 3.0 1 ( CP000099 ) Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusaro,...E017341_263( AE017341 |pid:none) Cryptococcus neoformans var. neo... 50 2e-04 BC054206_1( BC054206 |pid:none) Xenopus laevi...ISHFQQ KVKKNLINQLNKF*qwnhnlhhqcfhlikilkflklvnllknivi*lv*fqimltqhhl* dimihqfin*fillqimlnkvi*v*ervvidky Transl...iikmnqkm*i*emkliqiivkknimkmmekvimrmekv mnmkkvmkrvvvevmkkkmkkmqvmqvilmikk**kkrkfqiqnqhq*rnh*iiyqsiii krnlqi...... 48 0.76 1 ( FH646534 ) CHO_OF4987xc08f1.ab1 CHO_OF4 Nicotiana tabacum ge... 48 0.76 1 ( FH241614 ) CHO_O

  3. Prefix list for each organism - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophila melanogaster HSA Homo sapiens SPO Schyzosaccharomyces pombe S99 Synech... 7120 Ava Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 Glv Gloeobacter violaceus Npun Nostoc punctiforme sp. PCC73102 Pm1 Proch... Fal Frankia alni ACN14a Fra Frankia sp. CcI3 Gox Gluconobacter_oxydans_621H Hal Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 Mac Methanosarcina ac...hii OT3 Pst Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 Rhe Rhizobium_etli_CFN_42 Rle Rhizobium leguminosarum Rso Ralstonia solanac...ococcus sp. CC9902 NCR Neurospora crassa 74-OR23-1A SCE Saccharomyces cerevisiae Joomla SEF URLs by Ar

  4. Insight into the mechanism of biological methanol activation based on the crystal structure of the methanol-cobalamin methyltransferase complex

    OpenAIRE

    Hagemeier, Christoph H.; Kr̈er, Markus; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Warkentin, Eberhard; Ermler, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Some methanogenic and acetogenic microorganisms have the catalytic capability to cleave heterolytically the CO bond of methanol. To obtain insight into the elusive enzymatic mechanism of this challenging chemical reaction we have investigated the methanol-activating MtaBC complex from Methanosarcina barkeri composed of the zinc-containing MtaB and the 5-hydroxybenzimidazolylcobamide-carrying MtaC subunits. Here we report the 2.5-Å crystal structure of this complex organized as a (MtaBC)2 hete...

  5. Effects of the earthworm .i.Eisenia andrei./i. on methanogens in a cattle-impacted soil: A microcosm study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubová, Anna; Goberna, M.; Šimek, Miloslav; Chroňáková, Alica; Pižl, Václav; Insam, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2012), s. 32-40. ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB060814; GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA ČR GA526/09/1570 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) GAJU142/2010/P; Evropská unie(XE) MEIF-CT-2006-041034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cattle winter pasture * methane emission * Methanosarcina sp. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012

  6. Lithospheric conductivity along the GGT/SVEKA transect in the Fennoscandian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, I.; Korja, T.; Petersen, L. B.

    2003-04-01

    LITHOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY ALONG THE GGT/SVEKA TRANSECT IN THE FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD I. Lahti (1), T. Korja (1), L. Pedersen (2) and BEAR Working Group (1) Department of Geophysics, University of Oulu, Finland (2) Department of Earth Sciences, University of Uppsala, Sweden toivo.korja@oulu.fi The GGT/SVEKA transect traverses the main tectonic units in the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield in NE-SW direction. These units are the Archaean Karelian Province in the northeast and several Palaeoproterozoic arc complexes in the Svecofennian Domain in the southwest. Since 1985 over 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings of which 140 are short period and 10 long period soundings have been made in the survey area. We have performed several 2-D Occam inversions of the MT data using the REBOCC code (Siripunvaraporn and Egbert, 2000) to generate smooth conductivity models for the survey area. The best fitting model with the RMS error below 3.0% is obtained by using the determinant of impedance tensor as the inverted parameter. Highly conductive dipping conductors at both sides of the boundary zone between the arc complexes in southern and central Finland are seen in the final model. Both conductors represent borders of major crustal segments possibly indicating two subductions in the research area. In contrast, only minor conductivity variations are seen at the lithological boundary between the Karelian and Svecofennian domains in central Finland whereas a southwestward dipping conductor beneath the Palaeoproterozoic Kainuu Belt is revealed. The conductor suggests the presence of Palaeoproterozoic graphite bearing sedimentary rocks beneath the Archaean rocks of the Iisalmi complex. Lower crustal conductor is absent to NE from the Kainuu Belt while the conductor is present in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain to southwest from the Kainuu Belt. Thus, the main conductivity boundary between the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere is located beneath the Kainuu Belt

  7. Petrology of the anorogenic, oxidised Jamon and Musa granites, Amazonian Craton: implications for the genesis of Proterozoic A-type granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Rämö, O. Tapani; de Magalhães, Marilia Sacramento; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano

    1999-03-01

    The 1.88 Ga Jamon and Musa granites are magnetite-bearing anorogenic, A-type granites of Paleoproterozoic age. They intrude the Archaean rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain in the eastern part of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. A suite of biotite±amphibole monzogranite to syenogranite, with associated dacite porphyry (DP) and granite porphyry (GP) dykes, dominates in these subalkaline granites that vary from metaluminous to peraluminous and show high FeO/(FeO+MgO) and K 2O/Na 2O. In spite of their broad geochemical similarities, the Jamon and Musa granites show some significant differences in their REE patterns and in the behaviour of Y. The Jamon granites are related by fractional crystallisation of plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, biotite, magnetite±amphibole±apatite±ilmenite. Geochemical modelling and Nd isotopic data indicate that the Archaean granodiorites, trondhjemites and tonalites of the Rio Maria region are not the source of the Jamon Granite and associated dyke magmas. Archaean quartz diorites, differentiated from the mantle at least 1000 m.y. before the emplacement of the granites, have a composition adequate to generate DP and the hornblende-biotite monzogranite magmas by different degrees of partial melting. A larger extent of amphibole fractionation during the evolution of the Musa pluton can explain some of the observed differences between it and the Jamon pluton. The studied granites crystallised at relatively high fO 2 and are anorogenic magnetite-series granites. In this aspect, as well as concerning geochemical characteristics, they display many affinities with the Proterozoic A-type granites of south-western United States. The Jamon and Musa granites differ from the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite suites of north-eastern Canada and from the reduced rapakivi granites of the Fennoscandian Shield in several aspects, probably because of different magmatic sources.

  8. Integrating geologic and satellite radar data for mapping dome-and-basin patterns in the In Ouzzal Terrane, Western Hoggar, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Djemai, Safouane; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Brahmi, Boualem; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Kienast, Jean-Robert

    2014-11-01

    The In Ouzzal Terrane (IOT) located in the north-western part of the Tuareg Shield forms an elongated N-S trending block, more than 400 km long and 80 km wide. It involves an Archaean crust remobilized during a very high-temperature metamorphic event related to the Palaeoproterozoic orogeny. The IOT largely crops out in the rocky and sandy desert of Western Hoggar. It corresponds mainly to a flat area with some reliefs composed of Late Panafrican granites, dyke networks or Cambrian volcanic rocks. These flat areas are generally covered by thin sand veneers. They are favorable for discriminating bedrock geological units using imaging radar, backscattering measurements, and field checking, because the stony desert is particularly sensitive to the radar parameters such as wavelength or polarization. The main radar data used are those obtained with the ALOS-PALSAR sensor (L-band), in ScanSAR mode (large swath) and Fine Beam modes. The PALSAR sensor has been also compared to ENVISAT-ASAR and to optical imagery. Detailed mapping of some key areas indicates extensive Archaean dome-and-basin patterns. In certain parts, the supracrustal synforms and orthogneiss domes exhibit linear or circular features corresponding to shear zones or rolling structures, respectively. The geological mapping of these dome-and-basin structures, and more generally of the Archaean and Proterozoic lithological units, is more accurate with the SAR imagery, particularly when using the L-band, than with the optical imagery. A quantitative approach is carried out in order to estimate the backscatter properties of the main rock types. Due to the large variety of configurations, radar satellite imagery such as ALOS PALSAR represents a key tool for geological mapping in arid region at different scales from the largest (e.g., 1:500,000) to the smallest (e.g., 1:50,000).

  9. Metallogeny and lead isotopic composition of base metal sulfide deposits in the Rappen area, northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Early Proterozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Rappen district in northern Sweden were deposited at a destructive plate margin to the south of the Archaean craton of the western Baltic Shield. The volcano-sedimentary suite was intruded by two generations of early Proterozoic granites at ca. 1.89 1.85 Ga and ca.1.82 1.78 Ga, respectively, and metamorphosed at upper amphibolite facies conditions. Small stratabound iron, copper, and zinc deposits occur in felsic to mafic tuffs and arkosic sediments. Small deposits of molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium formed during the emplacement of the younger granites. The lead isotopic compositions of sulfide trace lead from the various deposits are highly heterogeneous. In the 206Pb/204Pb 207Pb/204Pb diagram they fall on mixing arrays between little evolved early Proterozoic lead and highly radiogenic Caledonian lead. The least radiogenic lead isotopic compositions from the various deposits have a wide range of 207Pb/204Pb ratios and thus indicate variable involvement of Archaean crustal lead in the Proterozoic deposits. Deposits hosted by siliciclastic rocks have higher 207Pb/204Pb ratios than deposits hosted in mafic to felsic tuffites. The lead isotopic heterogeneity suggests that the lead in the various deposits was locally derived and, furthermore, that the sedimentary rocks in part originated from the Archaean craton to the north. Lead mixing arrays in the 206Pb/204Pb 207Pb/204Pb diagram demonstrate that in Paleozoic time radiogenic lead was mobilized and transported in the basement. Source ages calculated from the mixing arrays (ca.1.9 Ga and ca.1.8 Ga) correspond to the age of the Early Proterozoic volcanism and metamorphism respectively. One group of deposits includes lead from at least three sources and illustrates that radiogenic lead was multiply mobilized and transported in the Proterozoic basement. It occurs in deposits that occur in zones that became permeable during the reactivations of the basement.

  10. The Precambrian of Transangaria, Yenisei Ridge (Siberia): Neoproterozoic microcontinent, Grenville-age orogen, or reworked margin of the Siberian craton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmichev, Alexander B.; Sklyarov, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yenisei Ridge was traditionally perceived as an uplifted segment of the western Siberian craton affected by Neoproterozoic collision events. However, the suggestions for Archaean or Palaeoproterozoic ('Siberian') basement in Transangaria have not been confirmed by reliable geochronological data. A new view regards most of the Ridge, namely, its Transangarian segment, to be an exotic Neoproterozoic terrane that collided with Siberia in the late Neoproterozoic. This paper presents new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrating that Archaean rocks (2611 ± 12 Ma) actually exist in this territory. We also provide a review of published U-Pb zircon ages for igneous and metamorphic rocks of Transangaria together with our new age data. This geochronological dataset clarifies the geology of the Yenisei Ridge and leads to new conclusions, as follows. (1) It is likely that Transangaria was originally underlain by an Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic basement, similar to that of the Siberian craton. (2) Geochronological data do not confirm the idea of widespread "Greenvillian age" granitoides in Transangaria. (3) The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Yenisei Ridge segment of the Siberian craton margin includes the following events. (i) Collision of an unidentified terrane with the western margin (in recent coordinates) of the Siberian craton during 900-855 Ma. The colliding terrane is no longer present in the current structure. (ii) Dextral shearing during 830-800 Ma may have been caused by counter-clockwise rotation of the Siberian craton. (iii) Extensional conditions prevailed during 800-700 Ma. The Isakovka oceanic basin formed at this time interval. (iv) Thrusting of the Isakovka island arc and accretionary prism onto the Siberian margin occurred during the late Neoproterozoic (650-630 Ma) and caused high-pressure metamorphism.

  11. Early mantle differentiation: constraint from 146Sm-142Nd systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new ultra-high precision 142Nd/144Nd measurements of early Archaean rocks using the new generation thermal ionization mass spectrometer TRITON. Repeated measurements of the Ames Nd standard demonstrate that the 142Nd/144Nd ratio can be determined with external precision of 2 ppm (2s), allowing confident resolution of anomalies as small as 5 ppm. A major analytical improvement lies in the elimination of the double normalization procedure required to correct our former measurements from a secondary mass fractionation effect. Our new results indicate that metasediments, meta-basalts and orthogneisses from the 3.6 - 3.8 Ga West Greenland craton display positive 142Nd anomalies ranging from 8 to 15 ppm. Using a simple two-stage model with initial e143Nd value of 1.9 ± 0.6 e-units, coupled 147Sm-143Nd and 146Sm-142Nd chronometry constrains mantle differentiation to 50 to 200 Ma after formation of the solar system. This chronological constraint is consistent with differentiation of the Earth's mantle during the late stage of crystallization of a magma ocean. We have developed a two-box model describing 142Nd and 143Nd isotopic evolution of depleted mantle during the subsequent evolution of the crust-mantle system. Our results indicate that early terrestrial proto-crust had a lifetime of ca. 500 Ma in order to produce the observed Nd isotope signature of Archaean rocks. In the context of this two box mantle-crust system, we model the evolution of isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of depleted mantle as a function of the mantle stirring time. Using the dispersion of 142Nd/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios observed in early Archaean rocks, we constrain the stirring time of early Earth's mantle to 100 - 150 Ma, a factor of 5 to 10 shorter than stirring time inferred from modern oceanic basalts. (author)

  12. The Discovery of Native Ruthenium in Nuanquanzi and Tuling—Shihu Gold Deposits:Implications for Source of Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭齐鸣; 许虹

    1994-01-01

    Native ruthenium and platinum-bearing hedleyite were recognized two gold deposits contained in Archaean metamorphic rocks in northern China.They are coexistent with native gold,quartz and pyrite.The high W content of native ruthenium may reflect the precipitation of ores in a W-rich hydrothermal system at moderate to high temperatures,The presence of platinum-group minerals(PGM)in the two deposits suggests that Au and PGE were both derived from mantle-source rocks.

  13. Modern-style plate subduction preserved in the Palaeoproterozoic West African craton

    OpenAIRE

    Ganne, Jérôme; Andrade, V.; Weinberg, R.F.; Vidal, O.; Dubacq, B.; Kagambega, N.; Naba, S.; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Allibon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of onset of modern-style plate tectonics is debated. The apparent lack of blueschist metamorphism(1)-a key indicator of modern plate subduction(2)-in rocks aged more than about 1 billion years calls into question the existence of plate tectonics during the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic eras(3,4). Instead, plate tectonics and subduction could have either not occurred at that time(5), or could have proceeded differently(6) owing to warmer conditions in the early Earth mantle(7). Her...

  14. Hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy of a Mars analogue environment at the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Cudahy, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A visible and near infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral dataset of the Early Archaean North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, has been analysed for indications of hydrothermal alteration. Occurrence maps of hydrothermal alteration minerals were produced. It was found that using a spatial resolution on the ground of approximately 5 m and spectral coverage from 0.4 to 2.5 mm was sufficient to delineate several hydrothermal alteration zones and associated veins, including phyllic, serpentinitic and chloritic alteration. These results suggest this level of spectral and spatial resolution would be ideal for localising shallow epithermal activity, should such activity have existed, on the surface of Mars.

  15. Sources and provenance of the early proterozoic terrigenous rocks of the Udokan Group, south part of the Kodar-Udokan Depression: results of Sm-Nd isotopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sm-Nd isotopic-geochemical studies of sandstones and alevropelite rocks of the Udokan series of the Kodar-Udokan Depression were carried out aimed at stripping the regions and sources of terrigenous rocks in the Kodar subzone. It has been ascertained that the the rocks studied are characterized by model age TNd (DM) = 2.3 - 2.7 bln. years. Formation of the Udokan subzone terrigenous rocks occurred due to main sources, i.e. Archaean rocks of the Aldan Shield and Early Proterozoic continental crust

  16. Global Carbon Cycle of the Precambrian Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiewióra, Justyna

    The carbon isotopic composition of distinct Archaean geological records provides information about the global carbon cycle and emergence of life on early Earth. We utilized carbon isotopic records of Greenlandic carbonatites, diamonds, graphites, marbles, metacarbonates and ultramafic rocks to...... investigate carbon fluxes between Precambrian Earth’s mantle and crust and to trace the evolution of life in the Eoarchaean oceans. The world’s desire for diamonds gives us a unique opportunity to obtain insight into the nature of metasomatic fluids affecting the subcratonic lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath...

  17. Structural and geochemical mapping of a Fe-mineralized quartz-mica rich unit in the Ringvassøya Greenstone Belt, West Troms Basement Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Elvenes, Hallgeir

    2015-01-01

    Ringvassøy is one of a chain of large coastal islands representing the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic West Troms Basement Complex (WTBC), west of the Caledonides. On Ringvassøy, a basement of mainly tonalitic gneiss is overlain by the Ringvassøy Greenstone Belt (RGB), which is metamorphosed up to middle amphibolite facies. Tonalitic gneiss in the west and southeast of the island has U–Pb zircon ages of 2.84–2.82 Ga, similar to U–Pb zircon ages of 2.85–2.83 Ga for metavolcanics in the RGB. Mafic...

  18. Fractionation behavior of chromium isotopes during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes;

    2015-01-01

    paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during the Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation of chromate...... into the calcite lattice to investigate isotopic changes facilitated by the coprecipitation process. Our experiments indicate enrichment in Cr concentration in the precipitates compared to the solutions, consistent with previous reports of Cr enrichment in chemical sediments compared to ambient seawater...

  19. Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Magnus; Malehmir, Alireza; Troll, Valentin R.; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; Juhlin, Christopher; Ask, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Carbonatites are rare, carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that make up a minute portion of the crust only, yet they are of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although they occur in all continents and from Archaean to present, the deeper plumbing system of carbonatite ring-complexes is usually poorly constrained. Here, we show that carbonatite ring-complexes can be explained by caldera-style volcanism. Our geophysical investigation of the Alnö carbonatite ring-co...

  20. An efficient lightning energy source on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. D.

    1992-09-01

    Miller and Urey suggested in 1959 that lightning and corona on the early Earth could have been the most favorable sources of prebiotic synthesis. In 1991 Chyba and Sagan reviewed the presently prevailing data on electrical discharges on Earth and they raised questions as to whether the electrical sources of prebiotic synthesis were as favorable as was claimed. The proposal of the present paper is that localized lightning sources associated with Archaean volcanoes could have possessed considerable advantages for prebiotic synthesis over the previously suggested global sources.

  1. Deep borehole testing techniques developed for Canada's nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic energy of Canada Limited's nuclear fuel waste management program is presently centred around the concept of deep burial of immobilized fuel waste within igneous plutons of the Archaean Canadian Shield. Contaminant transport within this host medium would be by movement through rock fractures. Consequently, as part of the overall concept assessment phase, hydrogeological research has been initiated to assess potential pathways for contaminant leaks to the biosphere. Determination of accurate rock mass and fracture hydraulic conductivities and travel times are essential to the deep burial concept. The techniques used and the preliminary results are described. (Auth.)

  2. Two Mesoarchaean terranes in the Reguibat shield of NW Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Roger; Loughlin, Susan; Gillespie, Martin; Del Rio, Maria de las Mercedes; Horstwood, Matthew; Crowley, Quentin George; Darbyshire, Fiona; Pitfield, Peter; Henney, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Two domains have previously been recognized in the Archaean Reguibat Shield of NW Mauritania, based primarily on their gross lithological differences (Rocci et al., 1991). New fieldwork has identified a major ductile shear zone (Tâçarât -Inemmaûdene Shear Zone) se-parating these domains and new geochronological studies show that the two domains record different Mesoarchaean histories. As such, the two domains are redefined as the Choum-Rag el Abiod Terrane and Tasiast-Tijirit Terrane. Previo...

  3. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes;

    Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation and isotopic fractionation of chromate into the calcite lattice. Our experiments indicate...... no Cr isotope fractionation in the oceans. These experiments represent a first step toward understanding the Cr isotope signal of carbonates where fractionations will likely be ≤ 0.3 ‰ and as such, pave the way for future work to enable a reliable application of the Cr isotope proxy. References: [1...

  4. The contribution of remote sensing to an understanding of the geology of Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major remote-sensing operation involving radar imagery and airbone magnetism and spectrometry has been successfully conducted in Gabon. The three methods used give complementary results. Lateral radar imagery and radiometry (U, K, Th) have supplied much new information on the Upper and Lower Proterozoic, but in areas affected by intense peneplanation and lateritisation they are less effective. Conversely, Airbone magnetism gives a deeper vision into the ground: particularly it revealed that the extent of greenstone belts had been significantly underestimated on existing geological maps. In addition, the trends in these belts have given a new insight into late Archaean tectonics in northern Gabon

  5. HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN JAIPANDA WATERSHED, WEST BENGAL STATE, INDIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBODH CHANDRA PAL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the hydrogeomorphological conditions of Jaipanda watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological studies were carried out, through visual interpretation of satellite data (LANDSAT, ETM+ with adequate ground truth. The study shows that the Jaipanda river basin is occupied by granites and gneisses of Archaean age. The recent alluvium deposits are present along the steam courses. The study area is traversed by various directional features or lineaments and most of them are NE-SW, ENE-WSW and EW directions. Groundwater potential of geomorphological unites viz. Denudational hill, Residual hill, Pediment, Pediplain and Valley fill is discussed.

  6. Metabolic adaptation of microbial communities to ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Yan, Han; Li, Ning; He, Jin; Ding, Yueling; Dai, Lingling; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6 ± 0.9% in the stable period (day 40-55) to 21.3 ± 1.5% in the last period (day 71-110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000-6,000 mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9 ± 0.3 to 10.4 ± 0.2 L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial 'ammonium inhibition'. PMID:27312792

  7. Biomethanation and microbial community changes in a digester treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Tao, Yu; Hu, Jianmei; Liu, Gang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2016-08-01

    Using a high-salinity-adapted inoculum and a moderate stepwise-increased organic loading rate (OLR), a stable digester performance was achieved in treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system. The specific methane yield was distinctly enhanced, reaching 0.203LCH4/gCODadded, compared to literature values (0.140-0.154LCH4/gCODadded) from the salty sludges. OLR adjustment and the fecal substrate substantially influenced population changes in the digester. Within the bacterial subpopulations, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Bacteroides declined, accompanied by the increase of Clostridium and Trigonala over time. The results show Trigonala was derived from the substrate and accumulated inside the digester. The most abundant methanogen was Methanosarcina in the inoculum and the digestates. The Methanosarcina proliferation can be ascribed to its metabolic versatility, probably a feature of crucial importance for high-salinity environments. Other frequently observed methanogens were outcompeted. The population similarity at the genus level between inoculum and digestates declined during the initial stage and afterwards increased. PMID:27155261

  8. Methane yields and methanogenic community changes during co-fermentation of cattle slurry with empty fruit bunches of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Andreas; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Wagner, Andreas O; Insam, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    The biomethane potential and structural changes of the methanogenic community in a solid-state anaerobic digestion process co-digesting cattle slurry and empty fruit bunches were investigated under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Phylogenetic microarrays revealed the presence of two hydrogenotrophic genera (Methanoculleus and Methanobrevibacter) and one acetoclastic genus (Methanosarcina). Methanosarcina numbers were found to increase in both mesophilic and thermophilic treatments of empty fruit bunches. Methanobrevibacter, which dominated in the cattle slurry, remained constant during anaerobic digestion (AD) at 37°C and decreased in numbers during digestion at 55°C. Numbers of Methanoculleus remained constant at 37°C and increased during the thermophilic digestion. Physicochemical data revealed non-critical concentrations for important monitoring parameters such as total ammonia nitrogen, free ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in all treatments after AD. The biomethane potential of empty fruit bunches was higher under thermophilic conditions than under mesophilic conditions. PMID:25453442

  9. Mitigation of ammonia inhibition by internal dilution in high-rate anaerobic digestion of food waste leachate and evidences of microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Cho, Si-Kyung; Shin, Hang-Sik; Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-09-01

    A high-rate anaerobic digestion of food waste leachate were tested using intermittent continuously stirred tank reactors (iCSTRs) to evaluate how severe ammonia inhibition could be mitigated with internal dilution strategy, and to identify how bacterial and archaeal community respond in genus and species level. Experimental results show that the digestion performance was well maintained up to hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 40 days but could not keep steady-state as HRT decreased to 30 days due to severe free ammonia (FA) inhibition. Coupling internal dilution was the key to relieve the inhibition since it reduced FA concentration as low as 62 mg/L even at HRT 30 days, which corresponds to organic loading rate of 5 g COD/L/d, demonstrating CH4 yield of 0.32 L CH4 /g CODadded . It was confirmed that the dilution offers iCTSRs manage severe ammonia inhibition with the balanced community structure between bacteria and archaea in this high-rate anaerobic digestion. Genus and species level pyrosequencing evidence that FA inhibition to community dynamics of Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta is strongly connected to methanogenesis, and Methanosarcina plays a key role in an iCSTR with the dilution. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1892-1901. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26927830

  10. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomei, F.A.; Rouse, D.; Maki, J.S.; Mitchell, R.

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics D-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ..mu..m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. 62 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Evaluation of methanogenic treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T H; Whang, L M; Lei, C N; Chen, C F; Chiang, T Y; Lin, L B; Chen, H W; Liu, P W G; Cheng, S S

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. Under methanogenic conditions, a sludge from a full-scale UASB treating TFT-LCD wastewater was able to degrade 2,000 mg/L of TMAH within 10 h and attained a specific degradation rate of 19.2 mgTMAH/gVSS-h. Furthermore, several chemicals including some surfactants, DMSO, and sulfate were examined for their potential inhibitory effects on TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. The results indicated that surfactant S1 (up to 2%) and DMSO (up to 1,000 mg/L) presented negligible inhibitory effects on TMAH degradation, while surfactant S2 (0.2-1%) might inhibit methanogenic reaction without any TMAH degradation for 3-5 h. At sulfate concentrations higher than 300 mg/L, a complete inhibition of methanogenic reaction and TMAH biodegradation was observed. Results from cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei were the dominant methanogens in the UASB treating TMAH-containing TFT-LCD wastewater. PMID:20651446

  12. Effect of ferrihydrite biomineralization on methanogenesis in an anaerobic incubation from paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Li; Xu, Jielong; Tang, Jia; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-05-01

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) can be one of the major factors controlling methane production from anaerobic sedimentary environments, such as paddy soils and wetlands. Although secondary iron mineralization following Fe(III) reduction is a process that occurs naturally over time, it has not yet been considered in methanogenic systems. This study performed a long-term anaerobic incubation of a paddy soil and ferrihydrite-supplemented soil cultures to investigate methanogenesis during ferrihydrite biomineralization. The results revealed that the long-term effect of ferrihydrite on methanogenesis may be enhancement rather than suppression documented in previous studies. During initial microbial ferrihydrite reduction, methanogenesis was suppressed; however, the secondary minerals of magnetite formation was simultaneous with facilitated methanogenesis in terms of average methane production rate and acetate utilization rate. In the phase of magnetite formation, microbial community analysis revealed a strong stimulation of the bacterial Geobacter, Bacillus, and Sedimentibacter and the archaeal Methanosarcina in the ferrihydrite-supplemented cultures. Direct electric syntrophy between Geobacter and Methanosarcina via conductive magnetite is the plausible mechanism for methanogenesis acceleration along with magnetite formation. Our data suggested that a change in iron mineralogy might affect the conversion of anaerobic organic matter to methane and might provide a fresh perspective on the mitigation of methane emissions from paddy soils by ferric iron fertilization.

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  14. Emergence of blueschists on Earth linked to secular changes in oceanic crust composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; White, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The oldest blueschists--metamorphic rocks formed during subduction--are of Neoproterozoic age, and 0.7-0.8 billion years old. Yet, subduction of oceanic crust to mantle depths is thought to have occurred since the Hadean, over 4 billion years ago. Blueschists typically form under cold geothermal gradients of less than 400 °C GPa-1, so their absence in the ancient rock record is typically attributed to hotter pre-Neoproterozoic mantle prohibiting such low-temperature metamorphism; however, modern analogues of Archaean subduction suggest that blueschist-facies metamorphic conditions are attainable at the slab surface. Here we show that the absence of blueschists in the ancient geological record can be attributed to the changing composition of oceanic crust throughout Earth history, which is a consequence of secular cooling of the mantle since the Archaean. Oceanic crust formed on the hot, early Earth would have been rich in magnesium oxide (MgO). We use phase equilibria calculations to show that blueschists do not form in high-MgO rocks under subduction-related geothermal gradients. Instead, the subduction of MgO-rich oceanic crust would have created greenschist-like rocks--metamorphic rocks formed today at low temperatures and pressures. These ancient metamorphic products can hold about 20% more water than younger metamorphosed oceanic crust, implying that the global hydrologic cycle was more efficient in the deep geological past than today.

  15. Geology and exploration of the Rum Jungle Uranium Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rum Jungle Uranium Field was discovered by a private prospector in 1949. A total of 3530 tonnes of uranium oxide was mined and treated from four ore-bodies by Territory Enterprises Pty. Limited who managed the Rum Jungle Project on behalf of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission until the closure of operations in 1971. One small low grade uranium orebody remains to be developed. Lead, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel were found zoned sub vertically with uranium at one deposit. One medium sized lead, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel deposit remains to be developed and one small copper deposit with minor uranium was mined. The basemetal deposits show a regional zoning relationship with the known uranium mineralization. Uranium and basemetal mineralization is hosted by graphitic or chloritic, pyritic shales at the contact with a magnesite. These rocks are in the lower part of a sequence of Lower Proterozoic sediments which unconformably overlie Archaean basement complexes. The sediments and complexes are displaced by Giants Reef Fault and sub-parallel shears and linears may further control mineralization. Nearly 50km of the prospective shale/magnesite contact was tested by total count radiometric surveys, various electrical methods, auger, rotary percussion and diamond drilling. The source for the uranium mineralization was probably the Archaean basement complexes from which uranium was initially deposited as protore by either chemical precipitation or clay adsorption in the shale units or as detrital placers in quartz pebble conglomerates immediately overlying the basement complexes. (author)

  16. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  17. Warming the early Earth - CO2 reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Von Paris, P; Grenfell, L; Patzer, B; Hedelt, P; Stracke, B; Trautmann, T; Schreier, F

    2008-01-01

    Despite a fainter Sun, the surface of the early Earth was mostly ice-free. Proposed solutions to this so-called "faint young Sun problem" have usually involved higher amounts of greenhouse gases than present in the modern-day atmosphere. However, geological evidence seemed to indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Archaean and Proterozoic were far too low to keep the surface from freezing. With a radiative-convective model including new, updated thermal absorption coefficients, we found that the amount of CO2 necessary to obtain 273 K at the surface is reduced up to an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. For the late Archaean and early Proterozoic period of the Earth, we calculate that CO2 partial pressures of only about 2.9 mb are required to keep its surface from freezing which is compatible with the amount inferred from sediment studies. This conclusion was not significantly changed when we varied model parameters such as relative humidity or surface albedo, obtaining CO2 ...

  18. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail: keisato@usp.br, e-mail: osigajr@usp.br, e-mail: ianmcr@usp.br, e-mail: wmspres@usp.br, e-mail: baseimas@usp.br; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  19. Sr, Pb and Nd isotope studies and their bearing on the petrogenesis of the Jalor and Siwana complexes, Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jalor and Siwana complexes belong to the Malani igneous suite, Rajasthan, India and are characterised by within - plate, A - type granites associated with coeval felsic and mafic volcanism. Sr, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions of the two complexes have been determined. Sr isotopic studies reveal an isochron age of 725 ± 7 Ma for the felsic rocks of the Jalor complex, with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7062±0.0020. Three highly differentiated granites from Siwana plot on the same near-isochron, indicating that the complexes are coeval. The Pb and Nd isotopic ratios range between (206Pb/204Pb = 18.52-21.28., 207Pb/204Pb = 15.58-15.98, 208Pb/204Pb/204 Pb=38.53.-40.8) and (143Nd/144Nd=0.5122-0.5127, 147Sm/144Nd=0.1260-0.157) respectively. Pb and Nd isotopic compositions of the Siwana samples show that the magma is mantle derived; for the Jalor complex the combined Sr, Nd and Pb data indicate primary mantle derivation with a variable degree of crustal contamination, with the assimilated crust being most likely of Archaean age. The petrogenesis of the two complexes is interpreted as an effect of fractionation of a primary mantle derived magma, simultaneous with assimilation of rocks from the lower crust. The data further document the presence of Archaean crust in the area. (author). 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Acaiaca Granulite Complex, MG: age, petrogenesis and tectonics implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-SR and Pb-Pb geochronological work has been carried out on rocks from the Acaiaca granulite complex (mainly pyribolites, piriclasites and plagiogranulites) in Minas Gerais state. The results are interpreted together with petrographical and geochemical data, in order to delineate the evolution of those rocks. The Rb-Pb whole rock isochrons are concordant in age (around 2.0 b.y.) and they define the Transamazonian orogeny as the main event in the investigated area. In addition, the Sr and Pb evidences suggest a strong reworking of prior continental crust at that time. In turn, the estimation of P-T conditions of regional metamorphism based on geo thermo barometric calculations and on petrology resulted in T ≅ 700-900O C and Ptot =5,6-8 and 8-10 Kbar. The whole group of data is coherent with the development of is Transamazonian mobile zone of ensialic character, along the eastern border of an Archaean fragment. Within an area considered cratonic during the Upper Proterozoic. A model of evolution of the Sao Francisco Craton as well the differences between the Archaean and early Proterozoic domains are discussed. (M.V.M.)

  1. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. The Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal fold belt adjacent to the Kaapvaal Craton: 1. Distribution of Mesoproterozoic collisional terranes deduced from results of regional surveys and selected profiles in the western and southern parts of the fold belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliston, W. P.; Schoch, A. E.; Cole, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sixteen tectonic terranes of the Namaqua-Natal metamorphic complex are distinguished (the Aggeneys, Agulhas, Bladgrond, Gamka, Grootdrink, Grünau, Fraserburg, Upington, Margate, Mossel, Mzumbe, Okiep, Olifantshoek, Steinkopf, Pofadder, and Tugela terranes). Evidence obtained from field investigations in the outcrop regions of Namaqualand and Natal are correlated with the geophysical data, enabling recognition of terrane suboutcrops in the regions covered by Phanerozoic deposits in the south. This is illustrated by nine selected profiles over the western and southern parts of the metamorphic complex. Four terranes that have not been observed in outcrop are postulated (Agulhas, Fraserburg, Gamka and Mossel terranes) and may represent extensions of some of the Natal terranes (Mzumbe and Margate terranes). The depth to Moho is generally about 40 km, diminishing dramatically at the present continental edge to as little as 15 km. Listric thrust ramps may originate on rises of the gently undulating topography of the Moho zone. Zones of thrusting and later shearing often exploit older structures and fabrics. The terranes that participated in the Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal Orogeny exhibit a dichotomy of vergences regionally. Those that moved to the northeast and north accreted onto the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton before becoming part of the Kalahari Craton. Terranes with vergences to the south and southwest were amalgamated onto other Archaean cratons. All of the composite cratons took part in the assembly of Rodinia.

  3. Whole-rock geochemistry of some tonalite and high Mg/Fe gabbro, diorite, and granodiorite plutons (sanukitoid suites in the Kuhmo district, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asko Käpyaho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New whole-rock geochemical analyses (major and trace elements of three tonalite plutons and high Mg/Fe granodiorites and diorites, termed sanukitoid suites, are presented from Neoarchaean Kuhmo district, eastern Finland. The 2.83 Ga and 2.78 Ga tonalites displayonly moderate fractionation of LREE/HREE thus demanding only minor or no residual garnet in their respective source regions. However, the more prominent HREE depletion in the 2.75 Ga tonalites requires more significant garnet residue. The relatively wide compositional variation in the tonalites implies that Archaean TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite magmatism was derived in general from sources that exhibited considerable mineralogical heterogeneity. The ~2.70 – 2.74 Ga high-Mg/Fe granodiorites and diorites are characterised by strong fractionation of LREE/HREE, relatively high Ba and Sr, and elevated abundances of Cr and Ni as well systematic depletions in P and Ti, which are all typical features of Archaean sanukitoid suites. Some of the granodiorite plutons contain compositionally intermediate high-K enclaves, which share these geochemical characteristics, implying a contribution of mafic-intermediate LILE- and LREE-enriched source for the magma. The geochemical characteristics of the studied plutonic rocks demonstrate the role of contrasting sources for the tonalites and sanukitoid suites in the Kuhmo district.

  4. Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Macey, P.H.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R.M.; Potter, C.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Miller, J.A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.

    2011-01-01

    New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

  5. Growth of continental crust and its episodic reworking over >800 Ma: evidence from Hf-Nd isotope data on the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Moyen, Jean-François; Doucelance, Régis; Martin, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Precambrian, and in particular during the Archaean eon (4.0-2.5 Ga), is still a matter of debate. In particular, it is not yet clear in which tectonic environment the genesis of crust took place and how the large volume of granitoid rocks that form ~70% of the Archaean crust were extracted from the mantle. Many studies highlighted that radiogenic isotope systems, especially Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd, are powerful tools to unravel the respective extent of crustal growth and recycling in Archaean terranes. This work presents coupled Hf and Nd isotope data (analyzed both in situ in accessory minerals and in whole rock samples) of Meso- to Neoarchaean granitoids, applied to unravel the processes of crust formation and evolution of the Pietersburg crustal block in South Africa. This crustal segment, the northermost one of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, is separated from older crust (3.65-3.10 Ga) by a large-scale suture zone, and the processes related to amalgamation of both blocks and their subsequent evolution are still unclear. The Pietersburg block is made up of a wide range of Archaean granitoid rocks, including tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series, high-K monzogranites as well as (grano)diorites belonging to the so-called "sanukitoid" group [1], all intruded by late Paleoproterozoic alkaline complexes. Age determinations highlighted two stages of granitoid formation: (1) TTG magmatism took place episodically over >400 Ma between 3.34 and 2.89 Ga, with a major pulse at 2.97-2.90 Ga; while (2) all the other (high-K) granitoid types emplaced subsequently between 2.84 and 2.69 Ga before a long magmatic shutdown until the intrusion of alkaline complexes at ~2.00 Ga [2-3]. Isotope systematics reveal that these two stages are related to juvenile crust formation and crust reworking, respectively. Indeed, all Hf-Nd isotope data from TTG gneisses are suprachondritic, pointing to a juvenile origin and precluding

  6. The Ingul block of the Ukrainian Shield (the East European Craton): multiple stress changes during the Palaeoproteozoic tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintov, O. B.; Mychak, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Ingul block occupies the central part of the Ukrainian Shield in the Sarmatian crustal segment of the East European Craton. It is situated between two groups of Archaean blocks, the Middle Dniepr and Azov blocks in the east, and the Podolian and Bug blocks, in the southwest. In the Archaean and the earliest Palaeoproterozoic these western and eastern Archaean blocks had different structural evolutions and thus most probably were separated by an ocean. The Ingul block appears to have been formed during the closure of that ocean. Structurally, the Ingul block is a part of an up to 200 km wide zone of NS-trending dextral strike-slip faults. It extends far to the south and to the north and is also marked by the Kherson-Smolensk transregional fault zone. Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rock complexes occur at the margins of the Ingul block whereas its middle part is completely Palaeoproterozoic. Its formation began during the 2.1-2.05 Ga collisional closing of the assumed ocean and the docking of the Archaean eastern and western continental blocks with each other. It was accompanied by dextral strike-slip faulting and strong compression. As a result, the Golovanevsk and Ingulets-Krivoi Rog suture zones were formed along the edges of the Eastern and Western Sarmatian microplates. Between 2.05 and 1.75 Ga, intense tectonothermal reworking and strike-slip faulting took place in the Ingul block. Several phases of deformation have been recognized. These are: • At 2.05-2.0 Ga - the Kherson phase of extension (azimuth/dip angle of the tension axis σ3 278/10, the compression axis σ1 8/00, dextral strike-slip faulting) accompanied by the intrusion of the Novo-Ukrainka monzogranitoids and some anatectic granitoids, and the formation of the Kherson-Smolensk fault zone, • At 2.0-1.8 Ga - two subsequent phases of compression: (1) the Kirovograd phase (σ1 49/00, σ3 319/00) and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults in the central part

  7. New U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Choma-Kalomo Block (Zambia) and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier (Zimbabwe), with implications for the extent of the Zimbabwe Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Sarah; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Master, Sharad; Frei, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Choma-Kalomo Block is a north-east trending, Mesoproterozoic terrane located in southern Zambia. It is composed of as yet undated gneissic basement with a high-grade metamorphosed supracrustal metasedimentary sequence, which is intruded by hornblende granites and gneisses of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith, that is dated between ca. 1.37 and 1.18 Ga. Our new zircon U-Pb age data on metasedimentary rocks of the Choma-Kalomo Block identifies samples of different ages, with slightly different provenances. The oldest metasedimentary rock is a muscovite-biotite schist, which has only Palaeoproterozoic detrital zircons, the two age clusters around 2.03-2.02 Ga and 1.8-1.9 Ga, correspond to the ages of granitic intrusion, and metamorphism, in the Magondi Mobile Belt on the western side of the Archaean Zimbabwe Craton. The second sample is a garnetiferous paragneiss, which contains both Palaeoproterozoic (2.04 Ga), and Mesoproterozoic zircons, ca. 1.36 Ga, derived from the granites of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. The third sample is a biotite-muscovite schist, in which the detrital zircon ages fall into four separate clusters: ca. 3.39 Ga, ca. 2.7-2.6 Ga, ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga (with a peak at ca. 1.18 Ga), and 1.55 - 1.28 Ga. The Archaean zircons in this sample are derived from the Zimbabwe Craton, while the Palaeoproterozoic samples come from the Magondi belt, and the youngest zircons come from both phases of the Choma-Kalomo Batholith. A possible connection between the Choma-Kalomo Block and the Dete-Kamativi Inlier - some 150 km to the south-east in western Zimbabwe - has been proposed on the basis of similarities in the nature of their Sn-Ta-muscovite pegmatite mineralisation. The Dete-Kamativi Inlier, which is part of the Magondi Mobile Belt, is a window into Palaeoproterozoic north-east trending belts of deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal rocks. By dating localities which we suspect form the basement to the surrounding younger sediments, along with selected pegmatites

  8. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla;

    2014-01-01

    attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why......Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar...... to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were...

  9. Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses using a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    3380 mL CH4/day/L, corresponding to a yield of 239 mL CH4/g VS. Aceticlastic Methanosarcina mazei was the dominant methanogen in the methanogenesis stage. This work demonstrates that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step of methane production using desugared......Hydrogen and methane production from desugared molasses by a two‐stage thermophilic anaerobic process was investigated in a series of two up‐flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The first reactor that was dominated with hydrogen‐producing bacteria of Thermoanaerobacterium...... thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans could generate a high hydrogen production rate of 5600 mL H2/day/L, corresponding to a yield of 132 mL H2/g volatile solid (VS). The effluent from the hydrogen reactor was further converted to methane in the second reactor with the optimal production rate of...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14948-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Uncultured Group I marine crenarch... 206 3e-51 CP000743_430( CP000743 |pid:none) Methanococcus aeolicus Nan...0867_1522( CP000867 |pid:none) Methanococcus maripaludis C6, c... 195 6e-48 (A6VG76) RecName: Full=Peptide chain release fact...1e-44 CP000099_398( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusa... 182 4e-44 CP000559_1495( CP000559 |pid:none) Methanoc...7 3.6 CU928180_522( CU928180 |pid:none) Kluyveromyces thermotolerans str... 37 3.6 CP000300_1087( CP000300 |pid:none) Methanococ...omo sapiens cDNA clone: LNG12751, Sugano cDNA li... 88 3e-30 4 >( AF298834 ) Dict

  11. Overproduction, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of YncE, an iron-regulated Sec-dependent periplasmic protein from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The YncE protein of E. coli has been overproduced and purified and preliminary crystallographic analysis has been performed to 2.1 Å resolution. The structure reveals a seven-bladed β-propeller fold. The yncE gene of Escherichia coli encodes a predicted periplasmic protein of unknown function. The gene is de-repressed under iron restriction through the action of the global iron regulator Fur. This suggests a role in iron acquisition, which is supported by the presence of the adjacent yncD gene encoding a potential TonB-dependent outer-membrane transporter. Here, the preliminary crystallographic structure of YncE is reported, revealing that it consists of a seven-bladed β-propeller which resembles the corresponding domain of the ‘surface-layer protein’ of Methanosarcina mazei. A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insight into the function of this protein

  12. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. PMID:26853042

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16436-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 e-114 CU633870_115( CU633870 |pid:none) Podospora anserina genomic DNA c... 344 e-114 AJ621287_1( AJ621287...015928 |pid:none) Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VP... 39 0.90 CP000099_229( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina...nkkkkkkgrppp Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: LIFFFLININKFIIIEIKIFYFL...098096_5( EU098096 |pid:none) Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei Av... 325 2e-99 A67854_1( A67854 |pid:none) Sequence 26 from Paten...0615_1648( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 271 8e-71 AM902716_277( AM902716 |pid:none) Bordetella petrii stra

  14. Methane-producing bacteria - Natural fractionations of the stable carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, L. M.; Hayes, J. M.; Gunsalus, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for determining the C-13/C-12 fractionation factors for methane-producing bacteria are described, and the fractionation factors (CO2/CH4) for the reduction of CO2 to CH4 by pure cultures are 1.045 for Methanosarcina barkeri at 40 C, 1.061 for Methanobacterium strain M.o.H. at 40 C, and 1.025 for Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum at 65 C. The data are consistent with the field determinations if fractionation by acetate dissimilation approximates fractionations observed in natural environments. In other words, the acetic acid used by acetate dissimilating bacteria, if they play an important role in natural methane production, must have an intramolecular isotopic fractionation (CO2H/CH3) approximating the observed CO2/CH4 fractionation.

  15. AcEST: DK963134 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A4EAA5 Definition tr|A4EAA5|A4EAA5_9ACTN Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Collinsella aero..................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A4EAA5|A4EAA5_9ACTN Putative uncharacter... OS=Vitis... 34 9.0 >tr|A4EAA5|A4EAA5_9ACTN Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Collinsella aerofaci...s Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significan...tease vpr OS=Bacillu... 30 8.5 >sp|Q8TMG9|CAPPA_METAC Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Methanosarcina ace

  16. Microbial Community Response to Seasonal Temperature Variation in a Small-Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Michel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial and Archaeal communities in a 1.14 m3 ambient temperature anaerobic digester treating dairy cow manure were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP and direct sequencing of the cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR products. Results indicate shifts in the structure of the both the Archaeal and Bacterial communities coincided with digester re-inoculation as well as temperature and loading rate changes. Following re-inoculation of the sour digester, the predominant Archaea shifted from Methanobrevibacter to Methanosarcina, which was the most abundant Archaea in the inoculum. Methonosarcina was replaced by Methanosaeta after the resumption of digester loading in the summer of 2010. Methanosaeta began to decline in abundance as the digester temperature cooled in the fall of 2010 while Methanobrevibacter increased in abundance. The microbial community rate of change was variable during the study period, with the most rapid changes occurring after re-inoculation.

  17. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings. PMID:25265327

  18. Production of volatile derivatives of metal(loid)s by microflora involved in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, K; Wickenheiser, E B; Mehring, M; Hirner, A V; Hensel, R

    2000-07-01

    Gases released from anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities contain considerable amounts of volatile methyl and hydride derivatives of metals and metalloids, such as arsine (AsH(3)), monomethylarsine, dimethylarsine, trimethylarsine, trimethylbismuth (TMBi), elemental mercury (Hg(0)), trimethylstibine, dimethyltellurium, and tetramethyltin. Most of these compounds could be shown to be produced by pure cultures of microorganisms which are representatives of the anaerobic sewage sludge microflora, i.e., methanogenic archaea (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio vulgaris, D. gigas), and a peptolytic bacterium (Clostridium collagenovorans). Additionally, dimethylselenium and dimethyldiselenium could be detected in the headspace of most of the pure cultures. This is the first report of the production of TMBi, stibine, monomethylstibine, and dimethylstibine by a pure culture of M. formicicum. PMID:10877769

  19. Evaluation of functional microbial community's difference in full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic digesters feeding with different organic solid waste: Effects of substrate and operation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qigui; Kobayashi, Takuro; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-10-01

    Samples taken from the full-scale and lab-scale anaerobic digesters feeding with different organic solid waste were investigated with assessment of the substrate effects. To understand the substrate effects on the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, twelve samples were analyzed by constructing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and statistical analysis. Microbial diversity varied according to substrate types and operating parameters. With acetoclastic methanogen of genus Methanosaeta predominated in full scale and Methanosarcina predominated in the lab-scale digesters, a significant difference archaeal communities were found. Principal component analysis clearly indicates that both bacterial and archaeal communities create independent clusters according to substrate types. However, the relationship between acetogenic bacteria and the acetoclastic methanogens had a similar variation tends in most of full-scale and lab-scale reactors. Canonical correlation analysis and variance partitioning analysis implied that bacterial and archaeal community variations were significantly affected by substrate and the operation conditions. PMID:26119052

  20. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens in sterile granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After...... several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing ill. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only ill. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while...... the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (K-s and mu(max)) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or ill, mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating...

  1. Immobilization patterns and dynamics of acetate-utilizing methanogens immobilized in sterile granular sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1999-01-01

    Sterile granular sludge was inoculated with either Methanosarcina mazeii S-6, Methanosaeta concilii GP-6, or both species in acetate-fea upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to investigate the immobilization patterns and dynamics of aceticlastic methanogens in granular sludge. After...... several months of reactor operation, the methanogens were immobilized, either separately or together. The fastest immobilization was observed in the reactor containing ill. mazeii S-6. The highest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor with only ill. mazeii S-6 immobilized, while...... the lowest effluent concentration of acetate was observed in the reactor where both types of methanogens were immobilized together. No changes were observed in the kinetic parameters (K-s and mu(max)) of immobilized M. concilii GP-6 or ill, mazeii S-6 compared with suspended cultures, indicating...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14991-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ......done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CP000099_1947( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina bar...GAAAA Gap no gap Contig length 637 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start...g/Contig-U14991-1Q.Seq.d (637 letters) Database: CSM 8402 sequences; 8,075,542 total...1-1 (Contig-U14991-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U14991-1Q.Seq.d (637 letters) Database: ddbj_A 92,845,959 sequences; 95,242,211,685 total...ne... 40 0.004 2 ( AV171704 ) Mus musculus 17-day embryo head cDNA, partial seq... 40 0.30

  3. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and lipids. Spatial microbial distribution and activity was studied in digested materials fractionated into size of particles > 200 mum, 50-200 mum and 0.45-50 mum. With manure, the main pool of methanogenic activity from propionate, butyrate and hydrogen was associated with the particles > 200 mum......, while the activity of acetotrophic methanogens was uniformly distributed in all fractions. When digesting manure and lipids, an enhanced methanogenesis was detected both for particles > 200 mum and the 50-200 mum fraction. The molecular methods -temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), cloning...... library and sequencing of 16S rDNA - showed presence of a restricted number of archaeal species in both reactors. The vast majority of clones was phylogenetically most closely related to Methanosarcina siciliae....

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06912-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AM398681 |pid:none) Flavobacterium psychrophilum JIP... 36 0.37 D89131_1( D89131 |pid:none) Schizosaccharom...46( AH2246 ) hypothetical protein alr3527 [imported] - Nostoc ... 33 4.1 AE010299_2095( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina ac...3 ) hypothetical protein all7630 [imported] - Nostoc ... 40 0.025 (Q0WPT7) RecName: Full=Uncharacterized met...54 1e-06 CP001472_2201( CP001472 |pid:none) Acidobacterium capsulatum ATCC ... 53 3e-06 CP001037_2906( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos...248357_139( BX248357 |pid:none) Corynebacterium diphtheriae grav... 47 2e-04 CP000099_2260( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosa

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04495-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ediate fi... 38 0.097 (Q9VG76) RecName: Full=C-Myc-binding protein homolog; &AE014297... 37 0.17 D30788_1( D30788 |pid:none) Schizosa... maturase ... 44 4.4 1 ( DQ257530 ) Ecdeiocolea monostachya voucher NSW 709043 matura... 44 4.4 1 ( DQ257529 ) Ecdeiocolea monostach...ya voucher NSW 716273 matura... 44 4.4 1 ( DQ257528 ) Ecdeiocolea monostach...3 2.4 AE008384_1833( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina mazei strain Goe... 33 3.1 FN392319_1213( FN392319 |pid:none) Pich...omes pro... 36 0.48 CP001037_4048( CP001037 |pid:none) Nostoc pu

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15176-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tivorans str.... 95 4e-18 CP000422_50( CP000422 |pid:none) Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 2574... 95 4e-18 CP0..._754( CP000580 |pid:none) Mycobacterium sp. JLS, complete ... 105 2e-21 CP000438_3721( CP000438 |pid:none) Pseudomonas aeruginosa... 100 1e-19 AM236080_1240( AM236080 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. vic... 100 1e-19 AE017333_3315( AE017333 |pid:none) Bac...e-18 CP000764_1482( CP000764 |pid:none) Bacillus cereus subsp. cytotoxi... 95 3e-18 CP001037_1816( CP001037 |pid:none) Nos...toc punctiforme PCC 73102, c... 95 3e-18 AE010299_2037( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosarcina ace

  7. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance. PMID:22456234

  8. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition. PMID:25261128

  9. Evolution of microbial community along with increasing solid concentration during high-solids anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Si, Dandan; Chen, Qingwu

    2016-09-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD), a promising method with smaller reactor and less heating energy consumption, showed relatively lower digestion efficiency sometimes and higher tolerance to some inhibitors. To investigate the phenomena, the archaeal and bacterial communities in four anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge with total solids (TS) of 10-19% were investigated. Although acetoclastic methanogenesis conducted mainly by genus Methanosarcina was still the main pathway producing methane, the total ratio of acetoclastic methanogens decreased along with the increased TS. In contrary, the relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens increased from 6.8% at TS 10% to 22.3% at TS 19%, and methylotrophic methanogens from 10.4% to 20.9%. The bacterial community was dominated by five phyla. Acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria affiliated to Firmicutes decreased following the increase of TS; while the proteolysis phylum Bacteroidetes increased, with a tolerant family ST-12K33 notably existing in the digesters at TS 17% and 19%. PMID:27235970

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15254-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ton-coupled amino acid transporter 2; ... 82 3e-14 AL513466_15( AL513466 |pid:none) Neurospora crassa DNA lin...99_492( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina barkeri str. Fusa... 35 6.8 BC105242_1( BC105242 |pid:none) Bos taurus solute carrier fami...J575144 |pid:none) Sordaria macrospora partial smu623... 39 0.47 (Q8WUX1) RecName: Full=Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid tr...0 1e-13 AM393725_1( AM393725 |pid:none) Synthetic construct Homo sapiens c... 80 2e-13 (Q8BHK3) RecName: Full=Proton-coupled amin...... 77 2e-12 AY162214_1( AY162214 |pid:none) Homo sapiens proton/amino acid tra... 77 2e-12 BT037234_1( BT03

  11. Carbon isotope effects associated with aceticlastic methanogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Risatti, J. B.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate have been determined for Methanosarcina barkeri 227 and for methanogenic archaea in sediments of Wintergreen Lake, Michigan. At 37 degrees C, the 13C isotope effect for the reaction acetate (methyl carbon) --> methane, as measured in replicate experiments with M. barkeri, was - 21.3% +/- 0.3%. The isotope effect at the carboxyl portion of acetate was essentially equal, indicating participation of both positions in the rate-determining step, as expected for reactions catalyzed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. A similar isotope effect, - 19.2% +/- 0.3% was found for this reaction in the natural community (temperature = 20 degrees C). Given these observations, it has been possible to model the flow of carbon to methane within lake sediment communities and to account for carbon isotope compositions of evolving methane. Extension of the model allows interpretation of seasonal fluctuations in 13C contents of methane in other systems.

  12. Flux networks in metabolic graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms

  13. AcEST: DK946117 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cterized protein MJ1198 OS=Methanocaldococcus jannaschii GN=MJ1198 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 761 Score...ETMA Chaperone protein dnaJ OS=Methanosarcina mazei GN=dnaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 389 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expec...llula baltica GN=dnaJ PE=3 SV=1 Length = 391 Score = 33.5 bits (75), Expect = 0.75 I...ntaining gene 18 protein OS=Mus musculus GN=Tnrc18 PE=1 SV=2 Length = 2878 Score = 33.1 bits (74), Expec...dicted protein (Fragment) OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens GN=PHYPADRAFT_38592 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 85 Score

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15359-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00450_519( CP000450 |pid:none) Nitrosomonas eutropha C91, compl... 60 3e-07 CP000300_1111( CP000300 |pid:none) Methanococco...1H2 sequ... 48 0.91 1 ( DQ191761 ) Monosiga ovata Hoglet (hoglet) mRNA, complete cds. 48 0.91 1 ( AY013583 ) Haliotis kamtschatkana...lyphosphate kinase (PP... 48 0.91 1 ( AE014298 ) Drosophila melanogaster chromosome X, comp...9 CP000713_1310( CP000713 |pid:none) Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, compl... 66 3e-09 CP000099_988( CP000099 |pid:none) Methanosarcina...ne) Erwinia tasmaniensis strain ET1... 64 1e-08 CP000744_77( CP000744 |pid:none) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7, comp

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16041-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4e-09 AK030031_1( AK030031 |pid:none) Mus musculus adult male testis cDN... 66 4e-09 ( P31254 ) RecName: Full=Ubiquitin-like modifier...plysi... 32 3.1 2 ( BJ326447 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dda16c17, 5' ... 36 3.1 3 ( AJ235273 ) Rickettsia prowaze...mobifida fusca YX, complete ... 57 3e-06 AE008384_1533( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina mazei...Bos taurus ubiquitin-like modifier... 55 1e-05 AM746676_3862( AM746676 |pid:none) Sorangium cellulosum 'So c...63( CP000561 |pid:none) Pyrobaculum calidifontis JCM 115... 52 7e-05 CP000863_564( CP000863 |pid:none) Acinetobacter bauma

  16. Comparing activated carbon of different particle sizes on enhancing methane generation in upflow anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suyun; He, Chuanqiu; Luo, Liwen; Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Cui, Lifeng

    2015-11-01

    Two sizes of conductive particles, i.e. 10-20 mesh granulated activated carbon (GAC) and 80-100 mesh powdered activated carbon (PAC) were added into lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, respectively, to testify their enhancement on the syntrophic metabolism of alcohols and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in 95days operation. When OLR increased to more than 5.8gCOD/L/d, the differences between GAC/PAC supplemented reactors and the control reactor became more significant. The introduction of activated carbon could facilitate the enrichment of methanogens and accelerate the startup of methanogenesis, as indicated by enhanced methane yield and substrate degradation. High-throughput pyrosequencing analysis showed that syntrophic bacteria and Methanosarcina sp. with versatile metabolic capability increased in the tightly absorbed fraction on the PAC surface, leading to the promoted syntrophic associations. Thus PAC prevails over than GAC for methanogenic reactor with heavy load. PMID:26298405

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSI155 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Candidatus Cloacamonas acidamino... 64 2e-09 EU272902_13( EU272902 |pid:none) Vibrio cholerae strain Amazon...tis ... 66 5e-10 AE008384_2976( AE008384 |pid:none) Methanosarcina mazei strain Goe... 66 7e-10 CP000434_153( CP000434 |pid:non... ( AE014828 ) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 14 section 1... 34 2e-04 13 ( CU469464 ) Candidatus Phytoplasma ma...0447_2583( CP000447 |pid:none) Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB ... 66 5e-10 CP000058_100( CP000058 |pid:none) Pseudomon...VS (Link to library) VSI155 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U06921-1 VSI155E (Link

  18. Early mantle differentiation: constraint from {sup 146}Sm-{sup 142}Nd systematics; Radioactivite eteinte du {sup 146}Sm et differenciation precoce du manteau terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, G

    2005-07-15

    We present new ultra-high precision {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd measurements of early Archaean rocks using the new generation thermal ionization mass spectrometer TRITON. Repeated measurements of the Ames Nd standard demonstrate that the {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio can be determined with external precision of 2 ppm (2s), allowing confident resolution of anomalies as small as 5 ppm. A major analytical improvement lies in the elimination of the double normalization procedure required to correct our former measurements from a secondary mass fractionation effect. Our new results indicate that metasediments, meta-basalts and orthogneisses from the 3.6 - 3.8 Ga West Greenland craton display positive {sup 142}Nd anomalies ranging from 8 to 15 ppm. Using a simple two-stage model with initial e{sup 143}Nd value of 1.9 {+-} 0.6 e-units, coupled {sup 147}Sm-{sup 143}Nd and {sup 146}Sm-{sup 142}Nd chronometry constrains mantle differentiation to 50 to 200 Ma after formation of the solar system. This chronological constraint is consistent with differentiation of the Earth's mantle during the late stage of crystallization of a magma ocean. We have developed a two-box model describing {sup 142}Nd and {sup 143}Nd isotopic evolution of depleted mantle during the subsequent evolution of the crust-mantle system. Our results indicate that early terrestrial proto-crust had a lifetime of ca. 500 Ma in order to produce the observed Nd isotope signature of Archaean rocks. In the context of this two box mantle-crust system, we model the evolution of isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of depleted mantle as a function of the mantle stirring time. Using the dispersion of {sup 142}Nd/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratios observed in early Archaean rocks, we constrain the stirring time of early Earth's mantle to 100 - 150 Ma, a factor of 5 to 10 shorter than stirring time inferred from modern oceanic basalts. (author)

  19. Earthquake Rupture at Focal Depth, Part I: Structure and Rupture of the Pretorius Fault, TauTona Mine, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesakkers, V.; Murphy, S.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the structure of the Archaean Pretorius fault in TauTona mine, South Africa, as well as the rupture-zone that recently reactivated it. The analysis is part of the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) project that utilizes the access to 3.6 km depth provided by the mining operations. The Pretorius fault is a ~10 km long, oblique-strike-slip fault with displacement of up to 200 m that crosscuts fine to very coarse grain quartzitic rocks in TauTona mine. We identify here three structural zones within the fault-zone: (1) an outer damage zone, ~100 m wide, of brittle deformation manifested by multiple, widely spaced fractures and faults with slip up to 3 m; (2) an inner damage zone, 25-30 m wide, with high density of anastomosing conjugate sets of fault segments and fractures, many of which carry cataclasite zones; and (3) a dominant segment, with a cataclasite zone up to 50 cm thick that accommodated most of the Archaean slip of the Pretorius fault, and is regarded as the `principal slip zone' (PSZ). This fault-zone structure indicates that during its Archaean activity, the Pretorius fault entered the mature fault stage in which many slip events were localized along a single, PSZ. The mining operations continuously induce earthquakes, including the 2004, M2.2 event that rejuvenated the Pretorius fault in the NELSAM project area. Our analysis of the M2.2 rupture-zone shows that (1) slip occurred exclusively along four, pre-existing large, quasi-planer segments of the ancient fault-zone; (2) the slipping segments contain brittle cataclasite zones up to 0.5 m thick; (3) these segments are not parallel to each other; (4) gouge zones, 1-5 mm thick, composed of white `rock-flour' formed almost exclusively along the cataclasite-host rock contacts of the slipping segments; (5) locally, new, fresh fractures branched from the slipping segments and propagated in mixed shear-tensile mode; (6) the maximum observed shear displacement is 25 mm in

  20. Influence of hexavalent chromium on lactate-enriched Hanford groundwater microbial communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenahally, Anil C [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yuan, Tong [University of Oklahoma; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction and immobilization of chromate (Cr(VI)) is a plausible bioremediation strategy. However, higher Cr(VI) concentrations may impose stress on native Cr-reducing communities. We sought to determine if Cr(VI) would influence the lactate enriched native microbial community structure and function in groundwater from the Cr contaminated site at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were amended with lactate and Cr(VI) (0.0, 0.1 and 3.0 mg/L). Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI) concentrations, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition in bioreactors were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and some differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) was reduced in the bioreactors. With lactate enrichment, the native communities did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. Native bacterial communities were diverse, whereas after lactate enrichment, Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., were the most predominant groups in all bioreactors. Similarly, the Archaea diversity significantly decreased from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%), Halobacteriales (12%), Methanoregula (8%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%) after lactate enrichment. Composition of several key functional genes was distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant probes (chrA), Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result the 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not appear to give chromate reducing strains a competitive advantage for proliferation or for increasing Cr-reduction.

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenahally, Anil C [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yuan, Tong [University of Oklahoma; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Hazen, Terry C [ORNL; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D. [Oklahoma University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  2. Laser spectroscopic real time measurements of methanogenic activity under simulated Martian subsurface analog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmack, Janosch; Böhm, Michael; Brauer, Chris; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    On Earth, chemolithoautothrophic and anaerobic microorganisms such as methanogenic archaea are regarded as model organisms for possible subsurface life on Mars. For this reason, the methanogenic strain Methanosarcina soligelidi (formerly called Methanosarcina spec. SMA-21), isolated from permafrost-affected soil in northeast Siberia, has been tested under Martian thermo-physical conditions. In previous studies under simulated Martian conditions, high survival rates of these microorganisms were observed. In our study we present a method to measure methane production as a first attempt to study metabolic activity of methanogenic archaea during simulated conditions approaching conditions of Mars-like environments. To determine methanogenic activity, a measurement technique which is capable to measure the produced methane concentration with high precision and with high temporal resolution is needed. Although there are several methods to detect methane, only a few fulfill all the needed requirements to work within simulated extraterrestrial environments. We have chosen laser spectroscopy, which is a non-destructive technique that measures the methane concentration without sample taking and also can be run continuously. In our simulation, we detected methane production at temperatures down to -5 °C, which would be found on Mars either temporarily in the shallow subsurface or continually in the deep subsurface. The pressure of 50 kPa which we used in our experiments, corresponds to the expected pressure in the Martian near subsurface. Our new device proved to be fully functional and the results indicate that the possible existence of methanogenic archaea in Martian subsurface habitats cannot be ruled out.

  3. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eAschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  4. Basement Characteristics and Crustal Evolution of the Copper-Gold Metallogenic Belt in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River: Some Isotope Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Studies of the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicate that the basement of the copper-gold metallogenic belt of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has "two-layer structure" and partly has "multi-layered structure", and is inhomogeneous and shows the distinct feature of E-W provincialism. The calculated model lead ages (t1) are mostly greater than 2600 Ma, and the model neodymium ages (TDM) vary from 953 to 2276 Ma and concentrate in two time intervals: 1800- 2000 Ma and 1200- 1600 Ma. It is concluded that the basement of the MBYR is composed of the Late Archaeozoic to Middle Proterozoic metamorphic series and that the crust was initiated in the Archaean and continued to grow in the Early and Middle Proterozoic, and the proportion of new crust formed by mantle differentiation during the Late Proterozoic is low.

  5. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda De Castro, Luis Felipe; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures) such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow. PMID:27167213

  6. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  7. Early impact basins and the onset of plate tectonics. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental crustal dichotomy of the Earth (high and low density crust) was established nearly 4 billion years ago. Therefore, subductable crust was concentrated at the surface of the Earth very early in its history, making possible an early onset for plate tectonics. Simple thermal history calculations spanning 1 billion years show that the basin forming impact thins the lithosphere by at least 25%, and increases the sublithosphere thermal gradients by roughly 20%. The corresponding increase in convective heat transport, combined with the highly fractured nature of the thinned basin lithosphere, suggest that lithospheric breakup or rifting occurred shortly after the formation of the basins. Conditions appropriate for early rifting persisted from some 100,000,000 years following impact. We suggest a very early stage of high temperature, fast spreading "microplate" tectonics, originating before 3.5 billion years ago, and gradually stabilizing over the Archaean into more modern large plate or Wilson Cycle tectonics.

  8. The stratigraphy of the Steep Rock Group, N.W. Ontario, with evidence of a major unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M. E.; Nisbet, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Steep Rock Group is exposed 6 km north of Atikokan, 200 km west of Thunder Bay. It is situated on the southern margin of the Wabigoon Belt of the Archaean Superior Province, N. W. Ontario. Reinvestigation of the geology of the Group has shown that the Group lies unconformably on the Tonalite Complex to the east. This unconformity has been previously suspected, from regional and ine mapping but no conclusive outcrop evidence for its existence has as yet been published. The strike of the group, comprised of Basal Conglomerate, Carbonate Member, Ore Zone and Ashrock is generally north-northwest dipping steeply to the southwest. Of the 7 contacts between the Steep Rock Group and the Tonalite Complex, 3 expose the unconformity (The Headland, S. Roberts Pit, Trueman Point), and 4 are faulted. These three outcrops demonstrate unequivocally that the Steep Rock group was laid down unconformably on the underlying Tonalite Complex, which is circa 3 Ga old.

  9. Uranium mineralization at Anomaly 2J, South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory, and its significance concerning regional structure and stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A weak airborne anomaly was examined in the field and the presence of uranium confirmed. Rotary-percussion drilling showed the presence of uranium but a subsequent programme of diamond and rotary-percussion drilling indicated that the concentration of uranium was uneconomic. Within the tuffs and volcanics of the prospect the uranium existed as uranyl phosphates within the oxidized zone. Geological mapping and the diamond drill core showed that the Stag Creek Volcanics are part of the Lower Proterozoic Masson Formation, probably with member status, rather than the expression of an Archaean basement ridge. This change in the interpretation of the fundamental structure of the Pine Creek Geosyncline has led to a re-examination of the stratigraphy and to suggestions which differ from the current concept. (author)

  10. A review of recent studies in the Pine Creek geosyncline with special reference to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lower Proterozoic metasediments of the Pine Creek Geosyncline form a chronostratigraphic sequence of mainly greenschistand amphibolite-grade shallow-marine to supratidal pelites, psammites, carbonate rocks, and volcaniclastics which in places rests unconformably on Archaean basement. Granite and later dolerite intrude the sequence, and are associated with the major orogenic 1800-m.y. event which regionally metamorphosed the sediments. Most mineralisation is stratabound, and can be related at least partly to volcanic activity. Uranium mineralisation is mainly confined to particular carbonate-rich horizons near basement. Specialist studies indicate that uranium was leached from its souce rock, and probably carried as carbonate complexes in highly saline fluids at between 100 and 350 deg. C. Precipitation took place by redox reactions in breccia zones in carbonate rocks; these zones were formed by carbonate solution or diapiric movement of evaporites which preceded the carbonate

  11. Early Precambrian mantle derived rocks in the southern Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica: age and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalsky, E.V.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Roland, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks occurring as lenses, boudins, and tectonic slabs within metamorphic units in the southern Mawson Escarpment display mantle characteristics of either a highly enriched, or highly depleted nature. Fractionation of these mantle rocks from their sources may be as old as Eoarchaean (ca 3850 Ma) while their tectonic emplacement probably occurred prior to 2550 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP data). These results provide for the first time evidence for Archaean suturing within East Antarctica. Similar upper mantle sources are likely present in the northern Mawson Escarpment. A younger age limit of these rocks is 2200 Ma, as indicated by presumably metamorphic zircon ages while their magmatic age may be constrained by single zircon dates at 2450-2250 Ma. The area of the northern Mawson Escarpment is most likely of ensimatic origin and includes mafic rocks which were derived from distinct mantle source(s) during Palaeoproterozoic time.

  12. Pb Isotope Study of Some Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on Pb-Pb isochron data of more than 40 Precambrian polymetallic deposits, the authors consider that there are four mineralization periods for the Precambrian copper deposits in China, and the major copper deposits were formed at about 1800 Ma; there are three mineralization periods for gold deposits formed from Archaean to Proterozoic. By studying hundreds of lead isotope data from some Mesozoic continental subvolcanic Cu and Ag polymetallic deposits and fine-disseminated gold deposits, the authors found that the calculation based on the lead single-stage evolution model or two-stage evolution model cannot give the true ore-forming ages but can provide more information about mineralization and material sources of the deposits.

  13. Biological Membranes in Extreme Conditions: Simulations of Anionic Archaeal Tetraether Lipid Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Pineda De Castro

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of organisms that have cells bound by di-ester phospholipids, archaeal membranes consist of di- and tetraether phospholipids. Originating from organisms that withstand harsh conditions (e.g., low pH and a wide range of temperatures such membranes have physical properties that make them attractive materials for biological research and biotechnological applications. We developed force-field parameters based on the widely used Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF to enable the study of anionic tetraether membranes of the model archaean Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by computer simulations. The simulations reveal that the physical properties of these unique membranes depend on the number of cyclopentane rings included in each lipid unit, and on the size of cations that are used to ensure charge neutrality. This suggests that the biophysical properties of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells depend not only on the compositions of their membranes but also on the media in which they grow.

  14. Genomics and Metagenomics of Extreme Acidophiles in Biomining Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over 160 draft or complete genomes of extreme acidophiles (pH metagenomic studies of such environments. This provides a rich source of latent data that can be exploited for understanding the biology of biomining environments and for advancing biotechnological applications. Genomic and metagenomic data are already yielding valuable insights into cellular processes, including carbon and nitrogen management, heavy metal and acid resistance, iron and sulfur oxido-reduction, linking biogeochemical processes to organismal physiology. The data also allow the construction of useful models of the ecophysiology of biomining environments and provide insight into the gene and genome evolution of extreme acidophiles. Additionally, since most of these acidophiles are also chemoautolithotrophs that use minerals as energy sources or electron sinks, their genomes can be plundered for clues about the evolution of cellular metabolism and bioenergetic pathways during the Archaean abiotic/biotic transition on early Earth. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt 1130683.

  15. Review of the application of isotopic studies to the genesis of Cu-Au mineralisation at Olympic Dam and Au mineralisation at Porgera, the Tennant Creek district and Yilgarn Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the application of radiogenic isotopes to the study of four Cu-U and Au deposits or deposit types in the Australasian region: Olympic Dam, Porgera, the Proterozoic Au deposits of the Tennant Creek district and the Archaean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton. In each case it has been possible to date the mineralisation and to correlate ore formation with a specific igneous event or stage in crystal evolution. In three cases it was also possible to use radiogenic isotopes to trace the source of the metal(s) or to constrain the fluid pathway. The results of K-Ar , 39Ar/40Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals associated with gold deposits, SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon, and conventional Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic tracing of the ore fluids are reported to illustrate the power of radiogenic isotopes in ore-genesis studies

  16. Isotopic and trace element studies of the origin emplacement and deformation of Archaen mineral deposits in the granite-greenstone terrains of the Kaapvaal Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granite-greenstone terrains of the Kaapvaal Craton contain among the oldest metamorphic rocks recognized on Earth and also contain a geographically disproportionately large abundance of mineral concentrations (in particular Au and Sb). However, very little is known about these occurrences a far as the source and age of the rocks in which they occur, the age of the mineralization, the nature and ages of the deformational events affecting the host rocks and the mineralization, the source of the mineralization (in particular Au, Sb and Cu), the mode of concentration of the mineralization, the behaviour of the occurrences in response to metamorphism, why some rocks are mineralized and other compositionally similar rocks are not, and whether or not the occurrences are temporally unique in terms of Earth history, i.e. are they only typical of the Archaean before 3500 Ma ago The objectives of this project were to study these eight aspects

  17. Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Malehmir, Alireza; Troll, Valentin R; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; Juhlin, Christopher; Ask, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Carbonatites are rare, carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that make up a minute portion of the crust only, yet they are of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although they occur in all continents and from Archaean to present, the deeper plumbing system of carbonatite ring-complexes is usually poorly constrained. Here, we show that carbonatite ring-complexes can be explained by caldera-style volcanism. Our geophysical investigation of the Alnö carbonatite ring-complex in central Sweden identifies a solidified saucer-shaped magma chamber at ~3 km depth that links to surface exposures through a ring fault system. Caldera subsidence during final stages of activity caused carbonatite eruptions north of the main complex, providing the crucial element to connect plutonic and eruptive features of carbonatite magmatism. The way carbonatite magmas are stored, transported and erupt at the surface is thus comparable to known emplacement styles from silicic calderas. PMID:23591904

  18. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Shergottites and Nakhlites: Implications for Martian Mantle Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Brandon, A. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Treiman, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics study of four enriched shergottites (Zagami, Shergotty, NWA856 and Los Angeles), and three nakhlites (Nakhla, MIL03346 and Yamato 000593) in order to further understand processes occurring during the early differentiation of Mars and the crystallization of its magma ocean. Two fractions of the terrestrial petrological analogue of nakhlites, the Archaean Theo's flow (Ontario, Canada) were also measured. The coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes provide direct insights on the mineralogy of the melt sources. In contrast to Sm/Nd, Lu/Hf ratios can be very large in minerals such as garnet. Selective partial melting of garnet bearing mantle sources can therefore lead to characteristic Lu/Hf signatures that can be recognized with Hf-176/Hf-177Hf ratios.

  19. Brazil Geologic Basic Survey Program - Limoeiro - Sheet SB.25-Y-C-V -Pernambuco State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Limoeiro map-sheet (SB.25-Y-C-V;1:100,000 scale), State of Pernambuco is delimited by the meridians 35000'W to 35030' W and parallels 7030' S to 8000' S. The sheet covers an area of about 3,000 km2. The basement rocks probable Archaean age consist of gneiss and migmatite. The basement rocks are overlain by Lower Proterozoic metasediments (schist and para gneiss), locally with flows (amphibolite), metamorphosed in the middle to high amphibolite facies. Geochemical surveys including stream sediment sampling and rock chip sampling were carried out. Ground geophysics included magnetometer, gravity and radiometric (scintillometer) surveys. A provisional metallogenetic map at 1:100,000 scale was prepared on which areas with potential for economic deposits of gold, apatite, barium copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, niobium, iron, titanium and vanadium are shown. (author)

  20. Expansion of the granitic post-orogenic magmatism in the formation of Serrinha (Northeastern Bahia, B R), Sao Francisco craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pedra Vermelha Granitic Massif, located at the North area of Serrinha Nucleus, presents a circular shape, being intrusive at the Archaean geoscience-magmatic basement rocks and the Paleoproterozoic volcano sedimentary sequences. The single zircon U-Pb dating yield a crystallization age of 2080 ± 8 Ma. The geological, petrographic al and litogeochemical characteristics of the studied rocks are similar to those of the Morro do Lopes granitic magmatism (2076 ± 6 a 2071 ± 6 Ma), which is located at the South area of this nucleus. These allow us to infer that those post-orogenic alkaline bodies are widespread throughout the Serrinha Nucleus and constitute its last Paleoproterozoic magmatic expression. (author)

  1. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    2005-11-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. We find that from the Archaean to the future a procaryotic biosphere always exists. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  2. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  3. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  4. The precambrian crustal evolution and mineralization cycle of uranium in the northeast of norern China platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the evolution history of the crust the region is divided into three Precambrian structural structural units: (1) Archaean craton; (2) Early Proterozoic zone of fold; (3) Middle-late Proterozoic depression zone. The Archaean-craton mainly consists of granite complex and metasediments. They form the first generation of uranium sources. Proterozoic is characterized by the obvious cycle of sedimentation which consists of the second generation of uranium source. There were multiplestage and congenetic nature in the formation of uranium deposit. The mineralization of uranium coincides with geotectonicdeveloping stage -- igneous activity -- metamorphism in their time. The formation of uranium deposits generally underwent the weathering and erosion of original uraniferous bodies-the migration, redeposition and reformed concentration by metamorphism and metamorphosed hydrothermal solution, and the mineralization was not only of intermittence, but also of inheritance. The evolutional process of forming uranium deposits undergoing various geological function of a structural cycle in the uranium geochemical anomalous area is called uranium mineralizational cycle. The Northeast of Northern China Platform had undergone multiple times structural movements causing migration and concentration of uranium and having mutiple cycle mineralizational character. Corresponding to the three main developing stages of the crustal evolution the Precambrian uranium mineralization in the Northeast of northern China platform area may be divided into three cycles: Late Archaeozoic mineralizational cycle, Early Proterozoic mineralizational cycle, and Middle Proterozoic mineralizational cycle. It is possible to search for potential uranium metallogenetic provinces to study the crustal evolution and the multiple cycle characters of uranium minerogenetic process in the Northern China platform

  5. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  6. Geochemistry and petrology of the indium-bearing polymetallic skarn ores at Pitkäranta, Ladoga Karelia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, M.; Sundblad, K.; Cook, N. J.; Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The historic mining district of Pitkäranta in the Ladoga region, Fennoscandian Shield, was exploited for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn and Ag in the nineteenth to twentieth centuries. The Pitkäranta region is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks, which, together with gneissic Archaean dome structures, constitute an allochthonous terrane complex that amalgamated to the Archaean continent during the Svecokarelian orogeny at 1.9-1.8 Ga. This crustal complex was intruded by 1.8 Ga Late orogenic granites, 1.54 Ga anorogenic rapakivi granites and 1.45 Ga dolerites. The polymetallic skarn ores of Pitkäranta extend over a 25-km-long zone in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and formed from hydrothermal solutions, which emanated from the anorogenic rapakivi granites and reacted with marble layers. Four major ore types are recognised after the dominating metal: Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn, respectively. These types are not restricted to individual mines or mine fields but represent end members in zonation patterns within each ore body. Pitkäranta was the second discovery site in the world for indium but has been without modern documentation for more than 75 years. The indium contents in the ores are up to 600 ppm, in most cases sphalerite-hosted. The only roquesite-bearing sample in this study had an indium grade of 291 ppm and an In/Zn ratio of 51 (close to the criteria for the limiting conditions for creating an In-rich mineral). The Pitkäranta ores have a potential for future small-scale exploitation, but all such plans are hampered by high contents if Bi, Cd and As.

  7. Geochemistry and geochronology of this pegmatoidal granite of Sankari-Tiruchengode area, Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tiruchengode pegmatoidal granite is emplaced in a high-grade terrain represented by amphibolite-facies gneisses and the associated Satyamangalam supracrustals of archaean-proterozoic age in central Tamil Nadu. This calc-alkaline granite is post-tectonic and peraluminous in nature. Its modal and chemical composition corresponds to granite (s.s.). It shows depletion of Y, Th, Rb, P and Ti when compared to the archaean high-level granite. Rb-Sr whole rock isochron data of the granite yields an age of 390 ± 40 Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.71002 ± 0.00038. A positive correlation of SiO2 Na2O+K2O, Rb/Sr, and negative correlation of CaO, FeOt and TiO2 with Differentiation Index' indicates operation of fractional crystallisation process in the formation of the granite. However, the chemical and mineralogical characters suggest that the Tiruchengode granite is a S-type granite formed in a continental collision tectonic setting showing later abortive rifting. Presence of numerous metasedimentary xenoliths within the granite and the higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio also indicate its S-type character. It is likely that the Pan-African tectonothermal event which started during late proterozoic-early palaeozoic and extended during middle palaeozoic times (390 Ma) might have reactivated the megalineaments resulting in crustal instability and generation of the S-type granite. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Mineral resources of the Precambrian shiled of central West Greenland (66 deg. to 70 deg. 15'N). Part 2. Mineral occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stendal, H.; Moeller Nielsen, B.; Secher, K.; Steenfelt, A.

    2004-07-01

    This report forms part of an assessment of the mineral resource potential of central West Greenland conducted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland 2000-2003. It presents the principles applied in classifying and describing 160 compiled mineral occurrences from the region as well as an evaluation of the mineral resource potential. The assessed region is underlain by an Archaean basement of tonalitic orthogneisses with intercalated supracrustal belts representing both continental and volcanic arc environments. The basement has been variably reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian collisional orogen and has been intruded by minor volumes of arc-related magmas in the core zone of the orogen. There are no mines in the region, and previous production has been limited to graphite. Many mineral showings have been recorded by commercial companies and the Survey during exploration since the 1960s, but none have so far become economically feasible. Most of the known occurrences are located in supracrustal belts and comprise banded ironformation, semi-massive to massive sulphides, together with syn- and epigenetic gold and copper. Pyrochlore and diamonds are found within a 0.6 Ga old carbonatite-kimberlite province and some pegmatites are rich in monazite. Based on the abundance, spatial distribution, size, grade, age and genesis of the mineral occurrences it is concluded that the following types of mineral occurrences have a potential for becoming economically feasible: 1) Syn- and epigenetic gold in Archaean supracrustal rocks. 2) Graphite in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks. 3) Speciality metals in carbonatite. 4) Diamonds in kimberlitic dykes. (au)

  9. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterno R Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014.

  10. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  11. Continental mantle lithosphere, and shallow level enrichment processes in the Earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continental mantle lithosphere may be a significant reservoir for incompatible elements, and it remains a key natural laboratory in which to investigate element fractionation processes in the upper mantle. Major, trace element and isotope data on mantle xenoliths, lamproites and kimberlites, and on selected continental flood basalts are integrated to develop a model for the continental mantle lithosphere. It is argued that the composition of such mantle lithosphere, and hence its density, thickness and capacity to generate basalt, varies with age. Archaean mantle lithosphere is characterised by relatively low FeO abundances, which are attributed to komatiite extraction, and thus it is intrinsically less dense than the surrounding asthenosphere. In contrast the post-Archaean mantle lithosphere may be compositionally similar to that sampled recently as spinel peridotite inclusions in alkali basalts. It is therefore sufficiently fertile to contribute in the generation of continental flood basalts, and dense enough to be more readily delaminated and incorporated into the asthenosphere source regions of ocean basalts. Combining the available data on mantle xenoliths and continental flood basalts suggests that the continental mantle lithosphere contains less than 10% of the K, and 3.5% of the Sr and Nd in the crust/mantle system. Many continental mafic rocks have distinctive isotope ratios with low εNd, variable εSr and often low 206Pb/204Pb. In particular the combination of slightly elevated 87Sr/86Sr at low 206Pb/204Pb is increasingly regarded as a feature of the continental mantle lithosphere. Elemental data on lamproites, kimberlites, melilitites and oceanic basalts demonstrate that potassic phase(s) strongly influence(s) U/Pb fractionation in the upper mantle. In most cases the potassic phase appears to be phlogopite, consistent with the negative Rb/Sr-U/Pb arrays inferred from Sr- and Pb-isotopes. (orig./WL)

  12. Variation of stable silicon isotopes. Analytical developments and applications in Precambrian geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    silica for the silicification process. Calculations show that classical water-rock interaction can not influence the silicon isotope variation due to the very low concentration of Si in seawater (49 ppm). The data are consistent with a two end-member component mixture between basalt and chert. The secular increase in chert isotope composition through time is confirmed by the present data. Possible factors that could account for different gradients of δ30Si vs. δ18O are changes of seawater isotope signature, the water temperature or secondary alteration. The last section describes potential changes in the source of Granitoids in the Archaean: the Si isotope perspective. Sodic tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) intrusive units make up large components of the Archaean crust. In contrast, today's continental crust is more potassic in composition (GMS group: granite-monzonite-syenite). Processes that lead to this changeover from ''sodic'' to ''potassic'' crust are the subject of this section. Silicon isotope measurements were combined with major and trace element analyses on different generations of TTG and GMS group intrusive units from 3.55 to 3.10 Ga from the study area. δ30Si-values show a slight temporal increase during different pluton generations, with sodic intrusive units demonstrating the lowest Si-isotope composition. The small increase in silicon isotope composition with time might be due to different temperature conditions in the source of granitoids, with Na-rich, light δ30Si granitoids emerging at higher temperatures. A similarity in δ30Si between Archaean K-rich plutons and Phanerozoic K-rich plutons is confirmed.

  13. Eclogite xenoliths from the Lace kimberlite, Kaapvaal craton: From convecting mantle source to palaeo-ocean floor and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Viljoen, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths of ≥2.5 Ga age (in situ Pb-Pb data on clinopyroxene) from the Lace kimberlite on the Kaapvaal craton were investigated in order to constrain: (1) the nature and evolution of their protoliths; (2) the extent to which they preserve information on the state of the asthenospheric mantle source that gave rise to their low-pressure protoliths; and (3) the effect of their deep recycling on the radiogenic isotope evolution of the convecting mantle. Their elemental relationships are consistent with low-pressure fractionation of olivine ± plagioclase and clinopyroxene during oceanic crust formation, whereby the residual melt was enriched in rare-earth elements (REE), high field-strength elements and Y, producing inverse correlations of ΣREE with the size of Eu- and Sr-anomalies. LREE-depletion may indicate loss of on average 20% of a partial melt upon subduction and metamorphism (eclogitisation) of oceanic crust, which did not, however, contribute to juvenile growth of continental crust. The eclogites have median Sm/Nd (0.40) and Lu/Hf (0.27) similar to Depleted Mantle, and lower U/Pb (0.02) and Th/Pb (0.02). If deeply subducted, these rocks cannot explain unradiogenic Nd and Hf, and radiogenic Pb isotope compositions in the sources of some modern ocean island basalts. Low incompatible trace-element contents similar to picrites, and Yb concentrations at a given TiO2 content similar to modern MORB, indicate derivation of the protoliths by average melt fractions of ∼ 0.20- 0.25 that left a spinel peridotite residue at pressures ≤2.5 to 3.0 GPa. This shallow intersection of the peridotite solidus suggests moderate Archaean ambient mantle potential temperatures of ≤1420 to 1470 °C. Samples filtered for clinopyroxene fractionation and metasomatism have V/Sc (4.7 ± 1.2; n = 11) indicating lower fO2 (-1.9 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer = ΔFMQ) than modern MORB. This is in part

  14. Silica enrichment, graphic granite and aquamarine growth: a new exploration guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BHASKARA RAO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Granitic pegmatites are traditionally known to contain graphic, perthitic and myrmekitic intergrowths related to quartz and K- and Na- feldspars. They are further considered to characterise the pegmatite types distinguishing them from the granites and other related plutonic rock types. Graphic granite is accepted also as a synonym to granitic pegmatite. Systematic studies, by the author and colleagues, on the granitic pegmatite gem deposits have permitted the definition of two aquamarine gem provinces in ENE Brazil, one in the NeoProterozoic and the other in the Archaean sequences. Potash feldspars in the pegmatites in the former show perthitic intergrowths, whereas in the latter graphic intergrowth dominates with anomalously coarse centimetric quartz along the cleavages of K-feldspar. Several granitic pegmatites hosted in Archaean complex, in Lages Pintadas Aquamarine Province, Santa Cruz, RN State, present this texture-structure. Graphic intergrowth is attributed to the eutectic crystallization, succeeded by hydrothermal fluids with silica enrichment permitting the growth through diffusion and nucleation of quartz and along cleavages of potash feldspar. In the Archaean terrain, the abundance of recycled chert forming metapsammitic migmatites traversed by numerous quartz veins and coarse graphic granites, has contributed to the growth of beryl and also the aquamarines.Pegmatitos graníticos são tradicionalmente conhecidos por terem intercrescimentos gráficos, pertíticos e mirmequíticos, relacionados a quartzo e feldspatos potássicos e sódicos. Também são considerados para caracterizar os tipos de pegmatitos, distinguindo-os dos granitos e outros tipos de rochas plutônicas relacionadas. Granito gráfico é aceito como sinônimo do pegmatito granítico. Estudos sistemáticos, do autor e seus colegas, sobre depósitos de pegmatitos graníticos de gemas permitiram a definição de duas províncias de gemas águas marinhas no ENE do Brasil

  15. Generation of Palaeoproterozoic tonalites and associated high-K granites in southwestern Tanzania by partial melting of underplated mafic crust in an intracontinental setting: Constraints from geochemical and isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani; Maboko, Makenya A. H.

    2016-09-01

    The southwestern part of the 2.0-1.8 Ga Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt in the Njombe area of SW Tanzania is intruded by two types of synchronous granitic rocks with different chemical and petrological characteristics. The first type consists of hornblende-rich tonalites that have major element compositions similar to those of Archaean TTG but differ significantly in their trace element composition. The tonalites are spatially and closely associated with felsic, high-K, I-type granites, some of which are gneissic and/or aplitic. U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that the emplacement of tonalites at 1887 ± 11 Ma was largely contemporaneous with emplacement of high-K granitic gneisses at 1877 ± 15 Ma and aplitic granites at 1857 ± 19 Ma. The data also reveal the presence of Archaean crust of 2648 ± 25 Ma in the zircon cores of some samples in the otherwise Palaeoproterozoic terrane. The tonalites are characterized by MgO contents of 1.60-4.11 wt.% at a SiO2 range of 58.1-67.9 wt.%, the Mg# of 34-55, lower Sr contents (220-462 ppm) and less fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 3.55-12.9) compared to Archaean TTG (Sr > 500 ppm, La/YbCN > 20). These features, coupled with the εNd (1887 Ma) values of + 0.37 to - 0.66 as well as the associated mafic enclaves are suggestive of derivation of the tonalites by low pressure (below the garnet stability) partial melting of a mantle-derived mafic underplate that was subsequently contaminated with small amounts of pre-existing igneous crustal rocks. The evolved nature of the high-K granites (MgO = 0.20-1.30 wt.%, SiO2 = 65.5-73.9 wt.%, Mg# = 25-42, εNd = - 3.20 to - 4.75) coupled with old TDM ages which are 200-1000 Ma older than their emplacement age requires a higher degree of assimilation of older crustal material by the magma derived from partial melting of the underplated mafic crust which was subsequently followed by crystal fractionation involving plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole. The close spatial and temporal

  16. Petrogenesis and emplacement of the TTG and K-rich granites at the Buzwagi gold mine, northern Tanzania: Implications for the timing of gold mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2016-07-01

    The Buzwagi gold mine, found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania, is underlain by Neoarchaean mafic volcanic rocks which are intruded by a massive body of ultramafic rocks that are cross-cut by grey colored TTG and pink microcline K-rich granites. Geochemical alteration studies for the sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites show that the LFSE and REE were significantly mobilized during the shearing and subsequent injection of hydrothermal fluid events whereas the HFSE remained virtually unchanged. The Buzwagi mine TTG exhibit geochemical characteristics of other worldwide known TTG (Al2O3 ~ 15.0 wt.%; Na2O/K2O ratios of 1.19-5.16, low concentration of heavy REE with Y contents of 3-7 ppm and Yb = 0.3-0.5 ppm leading to high Sr/Y ratios (61-152) and La/Yb = 32-140) which are comparable to those of Phanerozoic adakites. The Buzwagi mine TTG are characterized by strongly fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 23-100) with slightly negative to no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.77-1.05), negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti, and εNd (2713) values of + 1.19 to + 1.77. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics are interpreted as formation of the TTG by partial melting of the hydrous basaltic crust at pressures and depths where garnet and amphibole were stable phases in the late Archaean subduction zone. The Buzwagi mine K-rich granites differ from their TTG counterparts in having elevated concentrations of incompatible elements like K, Zr, Th, Hf, and REE. They however share similar Nd-isotopic compositions (εNd (2674 Ma) = + 1.19 to + 1.22), and some geochemical features including fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 13-204) with slightly negative to no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.78-0.89) and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti. These geochemical features and isotopic signatures have been interpreted as formation of the K-granites by anhydrous partial melting of the TTG (and greenstones). The Buzwagi mine K-granites were emplaced at 2674

  17. Qingyuan high-grade granite-greenstone terrain in the Eastern North China Craton: Root of a Neoarchaean arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Chong; Wang, Xinping; Yang, Shuyan

    2015-11-01

    The Qingyuan high-grade granite-greenstone terrain is one of the first recognized granite-greenstone terrains in the Eastern North China Craton. Similar to other Archaean terrains, its tectonic environment is debated: was it an intra-continental rift or a modern analogy of arc? Occurrence and petrogenesis of major igneous series, the ultramafic-mafic and felsic volcanic rocks (> 2510 Ma) and the plutons of the quartz diorite (2570-2510 Ma), TTG (2570-2510 Ma) and quartz monzodiorite (2510-2490 Ma) series in Xinbin area are investigated. The mafic intrusives and volcanic rocks have high MgO content (5.4-7.5 wt.%) and Mg-number (48-61). They show slightly depleted to flat trace element patterns. The ultramafic rocks (serpentinite) could be genetically related to the mafic rocks. The meta-dacite-rhyolite is adakitic with enriched light and middle REEs and LILEs, but significantly depleted HFSEs. The quartz diorite has high Mg-number (60-64), moderately enriched light and middle REEs and LILEs. The TTG shows distinct light but moderate middle REE-enrichment, prominent Nb-Ta-depletion but Zr-Hf-enrichment (Zr/Sm > 100). The quartz monzodiorite has moderate light and middle REE-enrichment, significant Nb-Ta-depletion, and negative Eu-/Sr-anomalies. The TTG has more depleted Sr-Nd isotopes (εNdt = + 2-+ 6; 87Sr/86Srt = ~ 0.700) than all the others (εNdt = 0-+ 2; 87Sr/86Srt = 0.701-703). Their petrogenesis can be explained by an Archaean-style subduction defined as a mantle wedge-absent flat-'hot'-subduction with significant vertical tectonism in the overriding slab: the ultramafic-mafic rocks were originated from primitive mantle; the meta-dacite-rhyolite was originated from the eclogite facies overriding crust; the quartz diorite was a mixture of melts from mantle and the overriding crust; the TTG was from the subducting slab under amphibolite to amphibole-bearing eclogite facies; and the quartz monzodiorite was from the subducting slab after the derivation of the TTG

  18. Cobalt and precious metals in sulphides of peridotite xenoliths and inferences concerning their distribution according to geodynamic environment: A case study from the Scottish lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Hannah S. R.; McDonald, Iain; Faithfull, John W.; Upton, Brian G. J.; Loocke, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abundances of precious metals and cobalt in the lithospheric mantle are typically obtained by bulk geochemical analyses of mantle xenoliths. These elements are strongly chalcophile and the mineralogy, texture and trace element composition of sulphide phases in such samples must be considered. In this study we assess the mineralogy, textures and trace element compositions of sulphides in spinel lherzolites from four Scottish lithospheric terranes, which provide an ideal testing ground to examine the variability of sulphides and their precious metal endowments according to terrane age and geodynamic environment. Specifically we test differences in sulphide composition from Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in northern terranes vs. Palaeozoic lithospheric mantle in southern terranes, as divided by the Great Glen Fault (GGF). Cobalt is consistently elevated in sulphides from Palaeozoic terranes (south of the GGF) with Co concentrations > 2.9 wt.% and Co/Ni ratios > 0.048 (chondrite). In contrast, sulphides from Archaean cratonic terranes (north of the GGF) have low abundances of Co (< 3600 ppm) and low Co/Ni ratios (< 0.030). The causes for Co enrichment remain unclear, but we highlight that globally significant Co mineralisation is associated with ophiolites (e.g., Bou Azzer, Morocco and Outokumpu, Finland) or in oceanic peridotite-floored settings at slow-spreading ridges. Thus we suggest an oceanic affinity for the Co enrichment in the southern terranes of Scotland, likely directly related to the subduction of Co-enriched oceanic crust during the Caledonian Orogeny. Further, we identify a distinction between Pt/Pd ratio across the GGF, such that sulphides in the cratonic SCLM have Pt/Pd ≥ chondrite whilst Palaeozoic sulphides have Pt/Pd < chondrite. We observe that Pt-rich sulphides with discrete Pt-minerals (e.g., PtS) are associated with carbonate and phosphates in two xenolith suites north of the GGF. This three

  19. Role of a unique population of lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria in forming microbial Fe-mats at the Loihi Seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, D.; Rentz, J. A.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Loihi Seamount, located 30 km SE of the island of Hawai'i, is among the most active volcanos on Earth. The summit, at a depth of 1100m, includes a 250m deep caldera (Pele's Pit) formed by an eruption in 1996. The summit, and especially Pele's Pit, are the site of extensive low to intermediate temperature (10° to 65°C) hydrothermal venting, emanating both from diffuse fissures and orifices that have substantial flow rates. The vent fluid is characterized by a low sulfide content, high CO2 concentrations and Fe(II) amounts in the 10s to 100s of μM. Associated with all vents are extensive deposits of iron oxyhydroxides that typically have 107 to 108 bacterial cells/cc associated with them. The morphology of the Fe-oxides are indicative of biological origins. We have isolated microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria from Loihi and describe here `Mariprofundus ferroxydans' a unique bacterium that forms a filamentous iron oxide mineral. `M. ferroxydans' is the first cultured representative of a novel division of the Proteobacteria, known previously only from clones from different hydrothermal vent sites. Molecular evidence from Loihi mats based on clone libraries and terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicate that this lineage of Fe-oxidizing organisms are common inhabitants at Loihi. We speculate that this organism and its relatives form the basis of an active microbial mat community that owe their existence to the inherent gradients of Fe(II) and O2 that exist at the Loihi vents. In a geological context this is interesting because the Loihi summit and caldera are in an O2-minima zone; O2 concentrations in the bulk seawater are around 0.5 mg/l. In effect, Loihi could serve as a proxy for the late Archaean and early Proterozoic periods when the Earth's atmosphere went from reducing to oxidizing, and it is speculated that abundant Fe(II) in the Earth's oceans served as a major sink for O2 production

  20. Dynamics of the Precambrian Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchuk, L. L.; Gerya, T. V.; van Reenen, D. D.; Smit, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    The Precambrian continental crust is mainly composed of (1) granite greenstone belts (GGB) and (2) granulite facies complexes (GFC). The GFC are often separated from GGB by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with characteristic sense of movements reflecting thrusting of GFC onto cratonic rocks. The isotope age of the shear zones is identical to GFC, while the latter are always younger than the granite greenstone belts. The dynamics relationships between these two geological units strongly determine tectonic evolution of the Precambrian continental crust. Numerous thermobarometric studies of magmatic and metamorphic rocks show that the Archaean to Early Protorozoic crust as well as the Mantle were hot and therefore relatively soft. Such geothermal regimes may limit separation and movement of micro continents, limiting collisional mechanisms in evolution of the Precambrian crust. The goal of this paper is to show evidence for an alterative model that is based on the mechanism of gravitational redistribution of rocks within the Precambrian continental crust, which might be initiated by a fluid/heat flow related to mantle plumes. The model is tested on the basis of geological, geochemical, geophysical and petrologic data for many paired GFT GGB complexes around the word. Studied granulite complexes are located in between Archaean GGB from which they are separated by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with reverse sense of movements. The most important evidence for this mechanism is: (i) the near isobaric cooling (IC) and (ii) decompression cooling (DC) shapes of the retrograde P T paths recorded in GFC, while rocks from the juxtaposed GGB in footwalls of the bounding shear zones record P T loops. The Pmax of the loops corresponds to the Pmin, recorded in GFC. Thus the GGB P T loop reflects the burial and ascending of the juxtaposed GGB while the GFC P T path records the exhumation only. The identical isotopic age of GFC and contacting rocks from the shear

  1. Timing of deposition and provenance of stromatolitic carbonates from the 2.7 Ga. Belingwe Greenstone Belt/Zimbabwe Craton: constraints from Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pb-Pb isochron ages have been obtained for stromatolitic limestones from the late Archaean Belingwe Greenstone Belt, providing direct age constraints on the deposition of these shallow water marine sediments. Samples from the Manjeri Formation and stratigraphically upper Cheshire Formation yield ages of 2700±49 Ma (MSWD = 13) and 2543±53 Ma (MSWD 5.6), respectively. These data are in agreement with published U-Pb zircon and Pb-Pb whole rock ages of stratigraphically enclosing volcanics, and we interpret our Pb-Pb ages as the timing of diagenesis and minimum age of carbonate precipitation. A 2400±53 Ma age (MSWD = 0.66) for one sample from the Cheshire Formation is considered to be unrelated to a depositional/ diagenetic event. We infer that this age may reflect a craton wide thermal/ chemical disturbance event or tectonic activity along the crustal-scale Mtshingwe fault. Carbonate samples collected from a sheared contact have also been subjected to Pb isotope analysis in an attempt to obtain absolute age constraints on deformation. Geological information precludes this age from being meaningful and this, along with a high MSWD value, indicates open-system behaviour and/or mixing relationships between isotopic end-members. A step-dissolution procedure using dilute acetic and hydrochloric acids has been applied to sub-samples from individual hand-specimens. This technique enables to recover radiogenic and common Pb, and thus is of particular utility where single hand-specimens are to be dated. Calculated model μ-values for Manjeri and Cheshire limestones are 8.4±0.02 and 9.02±0.01, similar to values for ca. 3.5 and 2.9 Ga.- old Archaean basement units adjacent to the Belingwe Belt. Negative ε-Nd (T-deposition) and ∫Sm/Nd suggest derivation of the REE from old, LREE enriched continental crust. 2-stage Nd model ages for the carbonates indicate that precursor rocks were extracted from the mantle 3.5 - 3.8 Ga. (Cheshire Formation) and 3.3 Ga. (Manjeri

  2. Intracratonic Palaeoproterozoic granitoids in northern Finland: prolonged and episodic crustal melting events revealed by Nd isotopes and U-Pb ages on zircon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Ahtonen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Zircons from twelve Palaeoproterozoic granitoids from the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex (CLGC and from the Hetta Complex (HC in northern Finland were dated using the NORDSIM ion microprobe. In addition, U-Pb age determinations on zircons from two samples were made using TIMS. Results reveal a wide range of U-Pb ages from 2.13Ga to 1.76 Ga. The oldest samples include the porphyritic, weakly deformed Nilipää granite, which has an ion probe concordia age of 2126±5 Ma, compatible with the previously published TIMS age of 2136±5 Ma. The Tohmo granodiorite provided a slightly younger ion microprobe age of 2105±4 Ma. The age of these two granitoids overlaps the depositional age of Karelian cratonic metasediments, suggesting that they represent an unusual tectonic setting for granitoid magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield. The Ruoppapalo granodiorite, which is also porphyritic and weakly deformed, yielded an ion probe zircon concordia age of 1905±5 Ma, in accord with the conventional TIMS result. The strongly deformed Molkoköngäs granite has an ion probe concordia age of 1855±13 Ma, which is within error limits the same as the TIMS age, 1843±23 Ma. The Pernu monzogranite has a concordia age of 1813±6 Ma. All other granitoids in the CLGC, including those of appinitic affinity, as well as a leucosome from the Kappera migmatite in the Hetta Complex, are dated at 1.79 – 1.76 Ga, although many granitoids have older inherited zircons. The abundance of deformed granitoids of this age show that intensive ductile deformation, metamorphism and melting occurred at around 1.79 – 1.76 Ga in the northern Fennoscandian Shield, coeval with post-collisional magmatism in the southern part of the Shield. Most granitoids in the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex have strongly negative εNd values (1.8 Ga, ranging from -8 to -5. It is evident that they have a major Archaean component in their source, indicating derivation from Archaean crust during

  3. Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dennis Sprott

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis of archaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation.

  4. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  5. Acid resistance of methanogenic bacteria in a two-stage anaerobic process treating high concentration methanol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xuefei; REN Nanqi

    2007-01-01

    In this study,the two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket(UASB)system and batch experiments were employed to evaluate the performance of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of high concentration methanol wastewater.The acid resistance of granular sludge and methanogenic bacteria and their metabolizing activity were investigated.The results show that the pH of the first UASB changed from 4.9 to 5.8 and 5.5 to 6.2 for the second reactor.Apparently,these were not the advisable pH levels that common metha nogenic bacteria could accept.The methanogenic bacteria of the system,viz.Methanosarcina barkeri,had some acid resistance and could still degrade methanol at pH 5.0.If the methanogenic bacteria were trained further,their acid resistance would be improved somewhat.Granular sludge of the system could protect the methanogenic bacteria within its body against the impact of the acidic environment and make them degrade methanol at pH 4.5.The performance of granular sludge was attributed to its structure,bacteria species,and the distribution of bacterium inside the granule.

  6. Methanogenic community dynamics in anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and food waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Lin; Jiane Zuo; Ruofan Ji; Xiaojie Chen; Fenglin Liu; Kaijun Wang; Yunfeng Yang

    2012-01-01

    A lab-scale continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR),used for anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) at different mixture ratios,was operated for 178 days at the organic loading rate of 3 kg VS (volatile solids)/(m3.day).The dynamics of the Archaeal community and the correlations between environmental variables and methanogenic community structure were analyzed by polymerase chain reactions - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and redundancy analysis (RDA),respectively.PCR-DGGE results demonstrated that the mixture ratio of FVW to FW altered the community composition of Aachaea.As the FVW/FW ratio increased,Methanoculleus,Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina became the predominant methanogens in the community.Redundancy analysis results indicated that the shift of the methanogenic community was significantly correlated with the composition of acidogenic products and methane production yield.Different mixture ratios of substrates led to different compositions of intermediate metabolites,which may affect the methanogenic community.These results suggested that the analysis of microbial communities could be used to diagnose anaerobic processes.

  7. Diversity of prokaryotes at a shallow submarine vent of Panarea Island (Italy by high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. Maugeri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine microbial community composition and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system off Panarea Island (Italy, we examined bacterial and archaeal communities of sediment and fluid samples from a hot vent by 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing technique. Both high abundant (>1% of total sequences, low abundant (from 0.1 to <1% and rare (< 0.1% phylogenetic groups were responsible for the distinct prokaryotic communities characterizing the heated sediment and fluid. The bacterial and archaeal communities from sediment were dominated by sequences affiliated with Rhodovulum genus (Alphaproteobacteria, including phototrophic ferrous-iron-oxidizing purple bacteria, Thiohalospira and Thiomicrospira (Gammaproteobacteria, typically involved in the sulphur cycle, and Methanococcus (Euryarchaeota. Fluid communities were dominated by anoxygenic phototrophic members of Chlorobium, followed by Thiomicrospira (Gammaproteobacteria, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter and Sulfurospirillum (Epsilonproteobacteria, and Methanosarcina (Euryarchaeota. Obtained sequences were affiliated with prokaryotes taking a key part in the carbon, iron and sulphur cycling at the shallow hydrothermal system off Panarea Island. Despite the huge sequencing efforts, a great number of Bacteria and Archaea still remains unaffiliated at genus level, indicating that Black Point vent represents a hotspot of prokaryotic diversity.

  8. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms. PMID:25561057

  9. Secondary fermentation in the runen of a sheep given a diet based on molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J B; Loughnan, M L; Nolan, J V; Leng, R A

    1979-03-01

    1. The extent of conversion of acetate-carbon to carbon dioxide in the rumen of a 40 kg wether consuming 1 kg molasses/d was estimated using isotope-tracer-dilution techniques. 2. There was a high rate of conversion of acetate to CO2 (6.0 g C/d) in the rumen. There were high concentrations in the rumen of Methanosarcina approximately 6 x 10(9)/ml which represents a significant proportion of the rumen bacterial biomass. These organisms are usually found in mud and sludge and are capable of oxidizing acetate. 3. The most likely explanation of these results was that there was an extensive secondary or sludge-type fermentation occurring in the rumen which results in volatile fatty acids being converted to CO2 and methane. In similar studies with sheep given lucerne (Medicago sativa) diets, conversion of acetate-C to CO2 within the rumen was not evident. 4. It is suggested that a major effect of the presence of secondary fermentation processes in the rumen may be to reduce availability of energy nutrients to the animal, and to alter the ratio protein:energy in the absorbed nutrients. PMID:427091

  10. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined. PMID:26386423

  11. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athaydes Francisco Leite

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance.

  12. Electromicrobiology: Electron Transfer via Biowires in Nature and Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting developments in the field of electromicrobiology has been the discovery of electrically conductive pili (e-pili in Geobacter species that transport electrons with a metallic-like mechanism. The e-pili are essential for extracellular electron transport to Fe(III oxides and longrange electron transport through the conductive biofilms that form on the anodes of microbial fuel cells. The e-pili also facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter and Methanosaeta or Methanosarcina species. Metatranscriptomic studies have demonstrated that Geobacter/Methanosaeta DIET is an important process in anaerobic digesters converting brewery wastes to methane. Increasing e-pili expression through genetic modification of regulatory systems or adaptive evolution yields strains with enhanced rates of extracellular electron transfer. Measurement of the conductivity of individual e-pili has demonstrated that they have conductivities higher than those of a number of synthetic conducting organic polymers. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that aromatic amino acids play an important role in the electron transport along e-pili, suggesting opportunities to tune e-pili conductivity via genetic manipulation of the amino acid composition of e-pili. It is expected that e-pili will be harnessed to improve microbe-electrode processes such as microbial electrosynthesis and for the development of novel biosensors. Also, e-pili show promise as a sustainable ‘green’ replacement for electronic materials that contain toxic components and/or are produced with harsh chemicals.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of cellulosic material: Batch experiments and modelling based on isotopic data and focusing on aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic methanogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing stable carbon isotope data to account for aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic pathways of methane generation, a model was created to describe laboratory batch anaerobic decomposition of cellulosic materials (office paper and cardboard). The total organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, methane production volume, and methane and CO2 partial pressure values were used for the model calibration and validation. According to the fluorescent in situ hybridization observations, three groups of methanogens including strictly hydrogenotrophic methanogens, strictly aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosaeta sp.) and Methanosarcina sp., consuming both acetate and H2/H2CO3 as well as acetate-oxidizing syntrophs, were considered. It was shown that temporary inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens by non-ionized volatile fatty acids or acidic pH was responsible for two-step methane production from office paper at 35 oC where during the first and second steps methane was generated mostly from H2/H2CO3 and acetate, respectively. Water saturated and unsaturated cases were tested. According to the model, at the intermediate moisture (150%), much lower methane production occurred because of full-time inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens. At the lowest moisture, methane production was very low because most likely hydrolysis was seriously inhibited. Simulations showed that during cardboard and office paper biodegradation at 55 oC, non-aceticlastic syntrophic oxidation by acetate-oxidizing syntrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant methanogenic pathways.

  14. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. PMID:25463927

  15. Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5 A resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B-ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13 A distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central alphabeta-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. PMID:19020348

  16. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  17. Temperature impacts differentially on the methanogenic food web of cellulose-supplemented peatland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver; Horn, Marcus A; Kolb, Steffen; Drake, Harold L

    2015-03-01

    The impact of temperature on the largely unresolved intermediary ecosystem metabolism and associated unknown microbiota that link cellulose degradation and methane production in soils of a moderately acidic (pH 4.5) fen was investigated. Supplemental [(13) C]cellulose stimulated the accumulation of propionate, acetate and carbon dioxide as well as initial methane production in anoxic peat soil slurries at 15°C and 5°C. Accumulation of organic acids at 15°C was twice as fast as that at 5°C. 16S rRNA [(13) C]cellulose stable isotope probing identified novel unclassified Bacteria (79% identity to the next cultured relative Fibrobacter succinogenes), unclassified Bacteroidetes (89% identity to Prolixibacter bellariivorans), Porphyromonadaceae, Acidobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae as main anaerobic degraders of cellulose-derived carbon at both 15°C and 5°C. Holophagaceae and Spirochaetaceae were more abundant at 15°C. Clostridiaceae dominated the degradation of cellulose-derived carbon only at 5°C. Methanosarcina was the dominant methanogenic taxa at both 15°C and 5°C. Relative abundance of Methanocella increased at 15°C whereas that of Methanoregula and Methanosaeta increased at 5°C. Thaumarchaeota closely related to Nitrosotalea (presently not known to grow anaerobically) were abundant at 5°C but absent at 15°C indicating that Nitrosotalea sp. might be capable of anaerobic growth at low temperatures in peat. PMID:24813682

  18. Determination of the archaeal and bacterial communities in two-phase and single-stage anaerobic systems by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-10-01

    2-Phase anaerobic digestion (AD), where the acidogenic phase was operated at 2day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the methanogenic phase at 10days HRT, had been evaluated to determine if it could provide higher organic reduction and methane production than the conventional single-stage AD (also operated at 12days HRT). 454 pyrosequencing was performed to determine and compare the microbial communities. The acidogenic reactor of the 2-phase system yielded a unique bacterial community of the lowest richness and diversity, while bacterial profiles of the methanogenic reactor closely followed the single-stage reactor. All reactors were predominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, mainly Methanolinea. Unusually, the acidogenic reactor contributed up to 24% of total methane production in the 2-phase system. This could be explained by the presence of Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter, and their activities could also help regulate reactor alkalinity during high loading conditions through carbon dioxide production. The enrichment of hydrolytic and acidogenic Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Bacteroidetes in the acidogenic reactor would have contributed to the improved sludge volatile solids degradation, and ultimately the overall 2-phase system's performance. Syntrophic acetogenic microorganisms were absent in the acidogenic reactor but present in the downstream methanogenic reactor, indicating the retention of various metabolic pathways also found in a single-stage system. The determination of key microorganisms further expands our understanding of the complex biological functions in AD process. PMID:26456614

  19. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  20. Biogas production and microbial community shift through neutral pH control during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Fenwu; Yong, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiayuan; Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Min; Jia, Honghua

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory-scale reactors, in which the pH could be auto-adjusted, were employed to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation with pig manure (7.8% total solids) at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. Results showed that the performance of anaerobic digestion was strongly dependent on pH value. Biogas production and methane content at neutral pH 7.0 were significantly higher (16,607mL, 51.81%) than those at pH 6.0 (6916mL, 42.9%) and 8.0 (9739mL, 35.6%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and Shannon's index indicated that the samples contained highly diverse microbial communities. The major genus at pH 7.0 was Methanocorpusculum, compared with that was Methanosarcina at both pH 6.0 and 8.0. Our research revealed that cultures maintained at pH 7.0 could support increased biogas production, which has significant implications for the scale-up biogas engineering. PMID:26944458

  1. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  2. Community shifts within anaerobic digestion microbiota facing phenol inhibition: Towards early warning microbial indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Simon; Bize, Ariane; Bureau, Chrystelle; Bouchez, Théodore; Chapleur, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Performance stability is a key operational issue for anaerobic digestion (AD) and phenolic compounds are regularly mentioned as a major cause of digester failures. To get more insights into AD microbiota response to a wide range of inhibition levels, anaerobic batch toxicity assays were conducted with ten phenol concentrations up to 5.00 g/L. Final AD performance was not impaired up to 1.00 g/L. However, progressive shifts in microbial community structure were detected from 0.50 g/L. The methanogenic function was maintained along with increasing initial phenol concentrations up to 2.00 g/L thanks to the emergence of genus Methanoculleus at the expense of Methanosarcina. Within syntrophic populations, family Syntrophomonadaceae proportion was gradually reduced by phenol while Synergistaceae gained in importance in the microbiome. Moreover, at 2.00 g/L, the relative abundance of families belonging to order Clostridiales dropped, leading to the predominance of populations assigned to order Bacteroidales even though it did not prevent final AD performance deterioration. It illustrates the high level of adaptability of archaeal and bacterial communities and suggests the possibility of determining early warning microbial indicators associated with phenol inhibition. PMID:27208731

  3. Performance and methanogenic community of rotating disk reactor packed with polyurethane during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed anaerobic rotating disk reactor (ARDR) packed with polyurethane was used in continuous mode for organic waste removal under thermophilic (55 oC) anaerobic conditions. This paper reports the effects of the rotational speed on the methanogenic performance and community in an ARDR supplied with acetic acid synthetic wastewater as the organic substrate. The best performance was obtained from the ARDR with the rotational speed (ω) of 30 rpm. The average removal of dissolved organic carbon was 98.5%, and the methane production rate was 393 ml/l-reactor/day at an organic loading rate of 2.69 g/l-reactor/day. Under these operational conditions, the reactor had a greater biomass retention capacity and better reactor performance than those at other rotational speeds (0, 5 and 60 rpm). The results of 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis indicated that the major methanogens in the reactor belonged to the genus Methanosarcina spp. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis suggested that the cell density of methanogenic archaea immobilized on the polyurethane foam disk could be concentrated more than 2000 times relative to those in the original thermophilic sludge. Scanning electron microphotographs showed that there were more immobilized microbes at ω of 30 rpm than 60 rpm. A rotational speed on the outer layer of the disk of 6.6 m/min could be appropriate for anaerobic digestion using the polyurethane ARDR

  4. Methane production and simultaneous sulphate reduction in anoxic, salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Marsh, L.M.; Polcin, S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been generally believed that sulphate reduction precludes methane generation during diagenesis of anoxic sediments1,2. Because most biogenic methane formed in nature is thought to derive either from acetate cleavage or by hydrogen reduction of carbon dioxide3-6, the removal of these compounds by the energetically more efficient sulphate-reducing bacteria can impose a substrate limitation on methanogenic bacteria 7-9. However, two known species of methanogens, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanococcus mazei, can grow on and produce methane from methanol and methylated amines10-13. In addition, these compounds stimulate methane production by bacterial enrichments from the rumen11,14 and aquatic muds13,14. Methanol can enter anaerobic food webs through bacterial degradation of lignins15 or pectin16, and methylated amines can be produced either from decomposition of substances like choline, creatine and betaine13,14 or by bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide17, a common metabolite and excretory product of marine animals. However, the relative importance of methanol and methylated amines as precursors of methane in sediments has not been previously examined. We now report that methanol and trimethylamine are important substrates for methanogenic bacteria in salt marsh sediments and that these compounds may account for the bulk of methane produced therein. Furthermore, because these compounds do not stimulate sulphate reduction, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction can operate concurrently in sulphate-containing anoxic sediments. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Dynamic functional characterization and phylogenetic changes due to Long Chain Fatty Acids pulses in biogas reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The process stability of biogas plants is often deteriorated by the accumulation of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA). The microbial community shifts due to LCFA disturbances have been poorly understood as the molecular techniques used were not able to identify the genome characteristics of uncultured microorganisms, and additionally, the presence of limited number of reference genomes in public databases prevented the comprehension of specific functional roles characterizing these microorganisms. The present study is the first research which deciphers by means of high throughput shotgun sequencing the dynamics of the microbial community during an inhibitory shock load induced by single pulses of unsaturated LCFA at two different concentrations (i.e. 2 g/L-reactor and 3 g/L-reactor). The metagenomic analysis showed that only the microbes associated with LCFA degradation could encode proteins related to "chemotaxis" and "flagellar assembly", which promoted the ability to move towards the LCFA sources so as to degrade them. Moreover, the syntrophic interactions found between Syntrophomonas sp. together with Methanosarcina sp. were possibly assigned to the menaquinone-electron transfer. Finally, it was proven that a previously exposed to LCFA inoculum is more efficient in the degradation process of LCFA due to the specialization of the microbial consortium. PMID:27353502

  6. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition. PMID:27154312

  7. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6 years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  8. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  9. Conductive Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Accelerate Syntrophic Methane Production from Butyrate Oxidation in Two Different Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianchao; Lu, Yahai

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic methanogenesis is an essential link in the global carbon cycle and a key bioprocess for the disposal of organic waste and production of biogas. Recent studies suggest direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is involved in electron exchange in methanogenesis occurring in paddy soils, anaerobic digesters, and specific co-cultures with Geobacter. In this study, we evaluate the possible involvement of DIET in the syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in the enrichments from two lake sediments (an urban lake and a natural lake). The results showed that the production of CH4 was significantly accelerated in the presence of conductive nanoscale Fe3O4 or carbon nanotubes in the sediment enrichments. Observations made with fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope indicated that microbial aggregates were formed in the enrichments. It appeared that the average cell-to-cell distance in aggregates in nanomaterial-amended enrichments was larger than that in aggregates in the non-amended control. These results suggested that DIET-mediated syntrophic methanogenesis could occur in the lake sediments in the presence of conductive materials. Microbial community analysis of the enrichments revealed that the genera of Syntrophomonas, Sulfurospirillum, Methanosarcina, and Methanoregula were responsible for syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in lake sediment samples. The mechanism for the conductive-material-facilitated DIET in butyrate syntrophy deserves further investigation. PMID:27597850

  10. Archaeal communities associated with roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis) in Beijing Cuihu Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Li, Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Li, Yan Hong

    2015-05-01

    The richness, phylogeny and composition of archaeal community associated with the roots of common reed (Phragmites australis) growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China was investigated using a 16S rDNA library. In total, 235 individual sequences were collected, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that 69.4 and 11.5 % of clones were affiliated with the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota, respectively. In Euryarchaeota, the archaeal community was dominated by species in following genera: Methanobacterium in the order Methanobacteriales (60.7 %); Methanoregula and Methanospirillum in the order Methanomicrobiales (20.2 %), and Methanomethylovorans, Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales (17.2 %). Of 27 sequences assigned to uncultured Crenarchaeota, 22 were grouped into Group 1.3, and five grouped into Group 1.1b. Hence, the archaeal communities associated with reed roots are largely involved in methane production, and, to a lesser extent, in ammonia oxidization. Quantification of the archaeal amoA gene indicated that ammonia oxidizing archaea were more numerous in the rhizosphere soil than in the root tissue or surrounding water. A total of 19.1 % of the sequences were unclassified, suggesting that many unidentified archaea are probably involved in the reed wetland ecosystem. PMID:25739566

  11. Optimization and microbial community analysis of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Lv, Chen; Tong, Juan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of microwave pretreatment (MW) on co-digestion of food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) have never been investigated. In this study, a series of mesophilic biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the optimized ratio of FW and SS based on MW, and the evolution of bacterial and archaeal community was investigated through high-throughput sequencing method. Results showed that the optimized ratio was 3:2 for co-digestion of FW and SS based on MW, and the methane production was 316.24 and 338.44mLCH4/gVSadded for MW-FW and MW-SS, respectively. The MW-SS was superior for methane production compared to MW-FW, in which accumulation of propionic acid led to the inhibition of methanogenesis. Proteiniborus and Parabacteroides were responsible for proteins and polysaccharides degradation for all, respectively, while Bacteroides only dominated in co-digestion. Methanosphaera dominated in MW-FW at the active methane production phase, while it was Methanosarcina in MW-SS and mono-SS. PMID:26496214

  12. Assessment of hydrogen metabolism in commercial anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Tobias; Theiss, Juliane; Röske, Kerstin; Rother, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance. PMID:26995607

  13. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc and sulfate-rich seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Anne Baldwin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based biochemical reactor that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over six years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolysable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales Order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR, that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales OTUs. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time.

  14. Microbial Community Succession During Lactate Amendment of Chromium Contaminated Groundwater Reveals a Predominance of Pelosinus spp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Campbell, James H [ORNL; Moberly, James G [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Faybishenko, Boris A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure and metabolism in contaminated ecosystems are potentially controlled not only by the different populations within the community, but a myriad of dynamic physicochemical parameters as well. The goal of the current work was to determine the impact of organic acid enrichment, in this case lactate, on the succession of the native microbial community from a contaminated groundwater aquifer. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors were inoculated with Hanford 100-H groundwater and incubated for 95 days to obtain a stable, enriched community. The microbial community experienced a shift in the population dynamics over time to eventually form a community with far less diversity than the original. The final community was dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp. with small amounts of other bacteria and archaea including methanogens. The resultant diversity was far decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from three phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from one phylum). Isolation efforts were successful in attaining new species of Pelosinus and known members of Methanosarcina barkerii along with several sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing consortia members. The continuous-flow reactors allowed for testing physiochemical factors with microbial community dynamics on a smaller, replicable, scale while also facilitating the isolation of several previously uncultured community members. These lab-scale simulations will presumably allow for a deeper understanding of the community metabolism with specific carbon amendments that can inform future in situ efforts.

  15. Performance and dynamic characteristics of microbial communities in an internal circulation reactor for treating brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu; Miao, Heng-Feng; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale internal circulation (IC) anaerobic reactor fed with brewery wastewater was operated at 35 degrees C + 1 degrees C. The influent was pumped into the bottom of the IC reactor by a pulse pump, whereas the effluent was drawn from the upper outlet and allowed to flow into the effluent tank. The biogas volume was recorded using a gas container connected to a biogas metre. The results indicated that the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) of the IC reactor was 19.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day; at which point, the dominant archaeal populations found in the sludge using the polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were Methanosaeta species. The COD removal efficiencies of the reactor exceeded 85%, with a maximum specific methane production rate of 210 mL CH4/g volatile suspended solids (VSS)/day and a coenzyme F420 content of 0.16 micromol/g VSS, respectively. The main archaeal species in the sludge samples at different OLRs varied greatly, as compared with the organisms in the inoculated sludge. The dominant archaeal species in the treated sludge at low OLRs were Methanosarcina species, whereas those at high OLRs were Methanosaeta species. PMID:24527653

  16. Syntrophic microbial communities on straw as biofilm carrier increase the methane yield of a biowaste-digesting biogas reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Bengelsdorf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas from biowaste can be an important source of renewable energy, but the fermentation process of low-structure waste is often unstable. The present study uses a full-scale biogas reactor to test the hypothesis that straw as an additional biofilm carrier will increase methane yield; and this effect is mirrored in a specific microbial community attached to the straw. Better reactor performance after addition of straw, at simultaneously higher organic loading rate and specific methane yield confirmed the hypothesis. The microbial communities on straw as a biofilm carrier and of the liquid reactor content were investigated using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing by means of 454 pyrosequencing technology. The results revealed high diversity of the bacterial communities in the liquid reactor content as well as the biofilms on the straw. The most abundant archaea in all samples belonged to the genera Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina. Addition of straw resulted in a significantly different microbial community attached to the biofilm carrier. The bacterium Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans and methanogenic archaea of the genus Methanoculleus dominated the biofilm on straw. Syntrophic interactions between the hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus sp. and members of the hydrogen-producing bacterial community within biofilms may explain the improved methane yield. Thus, straw addition can be used to improve and to stabilize the anaerobic process in substrates lacking biofilm-supporting structures.

  17. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m(-3)  d(-1) ) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  18. Dynamic variation of the microbial community structure during the long-time mono-fermentation of maize and sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Johanna; Theuerl, Susanne; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Huth, Markus; Tölle, Rainer; Klocke, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the development of the microbial community during a long-term (337 days) anaerobic digestion of maize and sugar beet silage, two feedstocks that significantly differ in their chemical composition. For the characterization of the microbial dynamics, the community profiling method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in combination with a cloning-sequencing approach was applied. Our results revealed a specific adaptation of the microbial community to the supplied feedstocks. Based on the high amount of complex compounds, the anaerobic conversion rate of maize silage was slightly lower compared with the sugar beet silage. It was demonstrated that members from the phylum Bacteroidetes are mainly involved in the degradation of low molecular weight substances such as sugar, ethanol and acetate, the main compounds of the sugar beet silage. It was further shown that species of the genus Methanosaeta are highly sensitive against sudden stress situations such as a strong decrease in the ammonium nitrogen (NH₄(+)-N) concentration or a drop of the pH value. In both cases, a functional compensation by members of the genera Methanoculleus and/or Methanosarcina was detected. However, the overall biomass conversion of both feedstocks proceeded efficiently as a steady state between acid production and consumption was recorded, which further resulted in an equal biogas yield. PMID:25712194

  19. A comprehensive microbial insight into two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; Lim, Juntaek; Lee, Changsoo; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-09-01

    Microbial community structures were assessed in a two-stage anaerobic digestion system treating food waste-recycling wastewater. The reactors were operated for 390 d at 10 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 25 to 4 d. Stable operation was achieved with the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 73.0-85.9% at organic loading rate of up to 35.6 g COD/L·d. Performance of the acidogenic reactors, however, changed significantly during operation. This change coincided with transition of the bacterial community from one dominated by Aeriscardovia- and Lactobacillus amylovorus-related species to one dominated by Lactobacillus acetotolerans- and Lactobacillus kefiri-like organisms. In methanogenic reactors, the microbial community structures also changed at this stage along with the shift from Methanoculleus- to Methanosarcina-like organisms. This trend was confirmed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling joint plot of microbial shifts along with performance parameters. These results indicated that the overall process performance was relatively stable compared to the dynamic changes in the microbial structures and the acidogenic performance. PMID:20678786

  20. There is a baby in the bath water: AcrB contamination is a major problem in membrane-protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystals of an E. coli AcrB contaminant were grown from 95% pure CorA preparations. This very frequently occurring problem in membrane-protein crystallography laboratories is reported, as well as suggestions to avoid it. In the course of a crystallographic study of the Methanosarcina mazei CorA transporter, the membrane protein was obtained with at least 95% purity and was submitted to crystallization trials. Small crystals (<100 µm) were grown that diffracted to 3.42 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.74, c = 514.0 Å. After molecular-replacement attempts using available CorA structures as search models failed to yield a solution, it was discovered that the crystals consisted of an Escherichia coli contaminating protein, acriflavine resistance protein B (AcrB), that was present at less than 5% in the protein preparations. AcrB contamination is a major problem when expressing membrane proteins in E. coli since it binds naturally to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resins. Here, the structure is compared with previously deposited AcrB structures and strategies are proposed to avoid this contamination

  1. Ecophysiology of terminal carbon metabolizing bacteria in anoxic sedimentary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical, radiotracer, and microbiological experiments were used to understand the transformation of simple carbon compounds by anaerobic bacteria in diverse aquatic sediments and laboratory cultures. The mildly acidic sediments of Knack Lake (pH 6.2), displayed low rates of organic decomposition, and methane formation occurred almost exclusively from acetate. Low pH inhibited methanogenesis and organic decomposition. Fall turnover in Lake Mendota sediments was associated with dramatic changes in environmental parameters including: elevated concentrations of sulfate and carbon metabolites, increased rates of sulfate reduction, decreased levels of methanogenesis, increased ratio (by viable counts) of sulfate reducing to methanogenic bacteria, and higher 14CO2/14C4 + 14CO2 gas ratios produced during the biodegradation of 14C-carbon substrates (e.g., acetate and methanol). Hydrogen consumption by sulfate reducers in Lake Mendota sediments and in co-cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri led to an alteration in the carbon and electron flow pathway resulting in increased CO2, sulfide production, and decreased methanogenesis. These data agreed with the environmental observations in Lake Mendota that high sulfate concentrations resulted in higher ratios of CO2/CH4 produced from the degradation of organic matter. A new glycine-metabolizing acetogenic species was isolated and characterized from Knaack Lake which further extended the known diversity of anaerobic bacteria in nature

  2. Stable carbon isotope fractionation by methanogens growing on different Mars regolith analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navita; Kral, Timothy A.

    2015-07-01

    In order to characterize stable carbon (13C/12C) isotope fractionation of metabolically produced methane by methanogens in martian settings, Methanothermobacter wolfeii, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum were cultured on four different Mars regolith analogs - JSC Mars-1, Artificial Mars Simulant, montmorillonite, and Mojave Mars Simulant - and also in their growth supporting media. These chemoautotrophic methanogens utilize CO2 for their carbon source and H2 for their energy source. When compared to the carbon isotope signature of methane when grown on their respective growth media, M. wolfeii and M. barkeri demonstrated variability in carbon isotope fractionation values during methanogenesis on the Mars analogs, while M. formicicum showed subtle or negligible difference in carbon isotope fractionation values. Interestingly, M. wolfeii and M. barkeri have shown relatively consistent enriched values of 12C on montmorillonite, a kind of clay found on Mars, compared to other Mars regolith analogs. In general, M. barkeri showed large carbon isotope fractionation compared to M. wolfeii and M. formicicum during methanognesis on various kinds of analogs. Stable carbon isotope fractionation is one of the techniques used to infer different origins, environments, and pathways of methanogensis. The results obtained in this novel research can provide clues to determine ambiguous sources of methane on Mars.

  3. Expanding the Diet for DIET: Electron Donors Supporting Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer (DIET) in Defined Co-Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Nevin, Kelly P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Mu, Bo-Zhong; Lovley, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has been recognized as an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for syntrophic growth, but previous studies on DIET with defined co-cultures have only documented DIET with ethanol as the electron donor in the absence of conductive materials. Co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens metabolized propanol, butanol, propionate, and butyrate with the reduction of fumarate to succinate. G. metallireducens utilized each of these substrates whereas only electrons available from DIET supported G. sulfurreducens respiration. A co-culture of G. metallireducens and a strain of G. sulfurreducens that could not metabolize acetate oxidized acetate with fumarate as the electron acceptor, demonstrating that acetate can also be syntrophically metabolized via DIET. A co-culture of G. metallireducens and Methanosaeta harundinacea previously shown to syntrophically convert ethanol to methane via DIET metabolized propanol or butanol as the sole electron donor, but not propionate or butyrate. The stoichiometric accumulation of propionate or butyrate in the propanol- or butanol-fed cultures demonstrated that M. harundinaceae could conserve energy to support growth solely from electrons derived from DIET. Co-cultures of G. metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri could also incompletely metabolize propanol and butanol and did not metabolize propionate or butyrate as sole electron donors. These results expand the range of substrates that are known to be syntrophically metabolized through DIET, but suggest that claims of propionate and butyrate metabolism via DIET in mixed microbial communities warrant further validation. PMID:26973614

  4. Volume ratios between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system affect their performance and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-25

    An experimental temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system, with the thermophilic digester operated at neutral pH and with a balanced acidogenesis and methanogenesis (referred to as NT-TPAD), was evaluated with respect to the microbial communities and population dynamics of methanogens when digesting dairy cattle manure at 15-day overall system hydraulic retention time (HRT). When fed a manure slurry of 10% total solid (TS), similar system performance, 36-38% volatile solid (VS) removal and 0.21-0.22 L methane g(-1) VS fed, was achieved between a 5-day and 7.5-day HRT for the thermophilic digester. However, the thermophilic digester achieved a greater volumetric biogas yield when operated at a 5-day RT than at a 7.5-day HRT (6.3 vs. 4.7 L/L/d), while the mesophilic digester had a stable volumetric biogas yield (about 1.0 L/L/d). Each of the digesters harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, and some of the methanogens were significantly correlated with methane productions. Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta were the most important methanogenic genera in the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters, respectively. The microbiological findings may help understand the metabolism that underpins the anaerobic processes within each of the two digesters of TPAD systems when fed dairy manure. PMID:26232524

  5. Methanogens rapidly transition from methane production to iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, O; Shusta, S S; Valentine, D L

    2016-03-01

    Methanogenesis, the microbial methane (CH4 ) production, is traditionally thought to anchor the mineralization of organic matter as the ultimate respiratory process in deep sediments, despite the presence of oxidized mineral phases, such as iron oxides. This process is carried out by archaea that have also been shown to be capable of reducing iron in high levels of electron donors such as hydrogen. The current pure culture study demonstrates that methanogenic archaea (Methanosarcina barkeri) rapidly switch from methanogenesis to iron-oxide reduction close to natural conditions, with nitrogen atmosphere, even when faced with substrate limitations. Intensive, biotic iron reduction was observed following the addition of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite and complex organic matter and was accompanied by inhibition of methane production. The reaction rate of this process was of the first order and was dependent only on the initial iron concentrations. Ferrous iron production did not accelerate significantly with the addition of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) but increased by 11-28% with the addition of phenazine-1-carboxylate (PCA), suggesting the possible role of methanophenazines in the electron transport. The coupling between ferrous iron and methane production has important global implications. The rapid transition from methanogenesis to reduction of iron-oxides close to the natural conditions in sediments may help to explain the globally-distributed phenomena of increasing ferrous concentrations below the traditional iron reduction zone in the deep 'methanogenic' sediment horizon, with implications for metabolic networking in these subsurface ecosystems and in past geological settings. PMID:26762691

  6. Shifts in methanogenic community composition and methane fluxes along the degradation of discontinuous permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Kiss, Andrea; Yang, Sizhong; Wagner, Dirk; Svenning, Mette M

    2015-01-01

    The response of methanogens to thawing permafrost is an important factor for the global greenhouse gas budget. We tracked methanogenic community structure, activity, and abundance along the degradation of sub-Arctic palsa peatland permafrost. We observed the development of pronounced methane production, release, and abundance of functional (mcrA) methanogenic gene numbers following the transitions from permafrost (palsa) to thaw pond structures. This was associated with the establishment of a methanogenic community consisting both of hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium, Methanocellales), and potential acetoclastic (Methanosarcina) members and their activity. While peat bog development was not reflected in significant changes of mcrA copy numbers, potential methane production, and rates of methane release decreased. This was primarily linked to a decline of potential acetoclastic in favor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Although palsa peatland succession offers similarities with typical transitions from fen to bog ecosystems, the observed dynamics in methane fluxes and methanogenic communities are primarily attributed to changes within the dominant Bryophyta and Cyperaceae taxa rather than to changes in peat moss and sedge coverage, pH and nutrient regime. Overall, the palsa peatland methanogenic community was characterized by a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs). These OTUs seem to be indicative for methanogenic species that thrive in terrestrial organic rich environments. In summary, our study shows that after an initial stage of high methane emissions following permafrost thaw, methane fluxes, and methanogenic communities establish that are typical for northern peat bogs. PMID:26029170

  7. Multiple effects of trace elements on methanogenesis in a two-phase anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating starch wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Li, Chao; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-08-01

    For enhancing anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating food processing wastewater due to speed-limited methanogenesis step, multiple effects of trace element (TE) supplementation on methanogenesis of a two-phase AnMBR were firstly investigated in batch tests. TE supplementation included individual element, combination and recovery of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn supplementation. Multiple effects of TE supplementation were highest stimulated by 22.4 ± 5.6 % (TE313) for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, 43.1 ± 12.5 % (TE303) for specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and 13.9 ± 3.7 % (TE405) for biomass growth, respectively, although only 7.5 ± 0.6 % (TE106) for methane production. Dosage of TEs played a critical role in methane production, COD removal and biomass growth of the AnMBR's methanogenesis. Low dosages of TE supplementation improved the COD removal and slightly stimulated the COD bioconverting to methane and biomass, but their specific methanation activities were inhibited in the initial rapid methanogenesis stage. Several methanation functional species were increased in abundance like Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus. PMID:26879957

  8. Hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Eva M; Gallagher, Joseph J; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Resasco, Joaquin; Yu, Yi; Sun, Yujie; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Michelle C Y; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-09-15

    Natural photosynthesis harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 and water to value-added chemical products for sustaining life. We present a hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion in which sustainable electrical and/or solar input drives production of hydrogen from water splitting using biocompatible inorganic catalysts. The hydrogen is then used by living cells as a source of reducing equivalents for conversion of CO2 to the value-added chemical product methane. Using platinum or an earth-abundant substitute, α-NiS, as biocompatible hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts and Methanosarcina barkeri as a biocatalyst for CO2 fixation, we demonstrate robust and efficient electrochemical CO2 to CH4 conversion at up to 86% overall Faradaic efficiency for ≥ 7 d. Introduction of indium phosphide photocathodes and titanium dioxide photoanodes affords a fully solar-driven system for methane generation from water and CO2, establishing that compatible inorganic and biological components can synergistically couple light-harvesting and catalytic functions for solar-to-chemical conversion. PMID:26305947

  9. Screening of anaerobic activities in sediments of an acidic environment: Tinto River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-11-01

    The Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. A geomicrobiological model of the different microbial cycles operating in the sediments was recently developed through molecular biological methods, suggesting the presence of iron reducers, methanogens, nitrate reducers and hydrogen producers. In this study, we used a combination of molecular biological methods and targeted enrichment incubations to validate this model and prove the existence of those potential anaerobic activities in the acidic sediments of Tinto River. Methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, denitrifying and hydrogen-producing enrichments were all positive at pH between 5 and 7. Methanogenic enrichments revealed the presence of methanogenic archaea belonging to the genera Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter. Enrichments for sulfate-reducing microorganisms were dominated by Desulfotomaculum spp. Denitrifying enrichments showed a broad diversity of bacteria belonging to the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Sedimentibacter, Lysinibacillus, Delftia, Alcaligenes, Clostridium and Desulfitobacterium. Hydrogen-producing enrichments were dominated by Clostridium spp. These enrichments confirm the presence of anaerobic activities in the acidic sediments of the Tinto River that are normally assumed to take place exclusively at neutral pH. PMID:22956355

  10. Microbial ecology overview during anaerobic codigestion of dairy wastewater and cattle manure and use in agriculture of obtained bio-fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Jihen; Miladi, Baligh; Farhat, Amel; Nouira, Said; Hamdi, Moktar; Gtari, Maher; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2015-12-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of dairy wastewater (DW) and cattle manure (CM) was examined and associated with microbial community's structures using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction yield of 88.6% and biogas production of 0.87 L/g VS removed were obtained for the C/N ratio of 24.7 at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. The bacterial DGGE profile showed significant abundance of Uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Synergistetes bacterium. The Syntrophomonas strains were discovered in dependent association to H2-using bacteria such as Methanospirillum sp., Methanosphaera sp. and Methanobacterium formicicum. These syntrophic associations are essential in anaerobic digesters allow them to keep low hydrogen partial pressure. However, high concentrations of VFA produced from dairy wastes acidification allow the growth of Methanosarcina species. The application of the stabilised anaerobic effluent on the agriculture soil showed significant beneficial effects on the forage corn and tomato plants growth and crops. PMID:26386416

  11. Microbial community structure in lake and wetland sediments from a high Arctic polar desert revealed by targeted transcriptomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena K Stoeva

    Full Text Available While microbial communities play a key role in the geochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants in anaerobic freshwater sediments, their structure and activity in polar desert ecosystems are still poorly understood, both across heterogeneous freshwater environments such as lakes and wetlands, and across sediment depths. To address this question, we performed targeted environmental transcriptomics analyses and characterized microbial diversity across three depths from sediment cores collected in a lake and a wetland, located on Cornwallis Island, NU, Canada. Microbial communities were characterized based on 16S rRNA and two functional gene transcripts: mcrA, involved in archaeal methane cycling and glnA, a bacterial housekeeping gene implicated in nitrogen metabolism. We show that methane cycling and overall bacterial metabolic activity are the highest at the surface of lake sediments but deeper within wetland sediments. Bacterial communities are highly diverse and structured as a function of both environment and depth, being more diverse in the wetland and near the surface. Archaea are mostly methanogens, structured by environment and more diverse in the wetland. McrA transcript analyses show that active methane cycling in the lake and wetland corresponds to distinct communities with a higher potential for methane cycling in the wetland. Methanosarcina spp., Methanosaeta spp. and a group of uncultured Archaea are the dominant methanogens in the wetland while Methanoregula spp. predominate in the lake.

  12. Shifts in methanogenic community composition and methane fluxes along the degradation of discontinuous permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marianne Svenning

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The response of methanogens to thawing permafrost is an important factor for the global greenhouse gas budget. We tracked methanogenic community structure, activity, and abundance along the degradation of sub-Arctic palsa peatland permafrost. We observed the development of pronounced methane production, release, and abundance of functional (mcrA methanogenic gene numbers following the transitions from permafrost (palsa to thaw pond structures. This was associated with the establishment of a methanogenic community consisting both of hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium, Methanocellales and potential acetoclastic (Methanosarcina members and their activity. While peat bog development was not reflected in significant changes of mcrA copy numbers, potential methane production and rates of methane release decreased. This was primarily linked to a decline of potential acetoclastic in favour of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Although palsa peatland succession offers similarities with typical transitions from fen to bog ecosystems, the observed dynamics in methane fluxes and methanogenic communities are primarily attributed to changes within the dominant Bryophyta and Cyperaceae taxa rather than to changes in peat moss and sedge coverage, pH and nutrient regime. Overall, the palsa peatland methanogenic community was characterized by a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs. These OTUs seem to be indicative for methanogenic species that thrive in terrestrial organic rich environments. In summary, our study shows that after an initial stage of high methane emissions following permafrost thaw, methane fluxes and methanogenic communities establish that are typical for northern peat bogs.

  13. Differential stability of TATA box binding proteins from archaea with different optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitz, Annette; Soppa, Jörg; Krejtschi, Carsten; Hauser, Karin

    2009-09-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is involved in promoter recognition, the first step of transcription initiation. TBP is universally conserved and essential in archaea and eukaryotes. In archaea, TBPs have to be stable and to function in species that cover an extremely wide range of optimal growth temperatures (OGTs), from below 0 °C to more than 100 °C. Thus, the archaeal TBP family is ideally suited to study the evolutionary adaptation of proteins to an extremely wide range of temperatures. We characterized the thermostability of one mesophilic and one thermophilic TBP by infrared spectroscopy. Transition temperatures ( Tms) of thermal unfolding have been determined using TBPs from Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37 °C) and from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (OGT 65 °C). Furthermore, the influence of protein and salt concentration on thermostability has been characterized. Together with previous studies, our results reveal that the Tms of archaeal TBPs are closely correlated with the OGTs of the respective species. Noteworthy, this is also true for the TBP from M. mazei representing the first characterized TBP from a mesophilic archaeon. In contrast, the only characterized eukaryotic TBP of the mesophilic plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a Tm more than 40 °C above the OGT.

  14. Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Qiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2 reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.

  15. Nvar-epsilon-acetyl-β-lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified β-amino acid that was identified as Nvar-epsilon-acetyl-β-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This β-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, Nvar-epsilon-acetyl-β-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. Nvar-epsilon-Acetyl-β-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of Nvar-epsilon-acetyl-β-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique β-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated

  16. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by 176Hf/177Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle (εHf > 0) and crustal contributions ((εHf Hf + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution (εHf - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  17. Modélisation magnétotellurique de la structure géologique profonde de l’unité granulitique de l’In Ouzzal (Hoggar occidental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Abderrezak; Akacem, Nouredine; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Abtout, Abdeslam; Kienast, Jean-Robert

    2008-11-01

    Magnetotelluric modeling of the deep geologic structure of In Ouzzal Granulitic Unit (western Hoggar). The In Ouzzal Granulitic Unit (IOGU) or In Ouzzal Terrane (IOT) is an Archaean block belonging to the Hoggar terrane mosaic. It has been reworked during the Eburnean and is characterized by ultrahigh temperature metamorphism of the structures, which are likely to be old dome and basin structures. The aim of this study, based on a survey of 12 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings, was to characterize the IOGU deep lateral boundaries and to see if it is possible to reconstruct some of these old dome and basin structures after their transformation by metamorphism and deformation. MT data analysis and modeling show that IOGU boundaries extend downwards, at least down to the crust's basement, and may represent suture zones. Inside the terrane, the MT observations do not allow separation between dome and basin structures, because these features are severely stretched. However, the main MT transverse response feature is a deeply rooted great accident, which may be interpreted as a major fault that separates IOGU into two compartments.

  18. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  19. Strontium hydrogeochemistry of thermal groundwaters from Baikal and Xinzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焰新; 沈照理

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports our work on the strontium hydrogeochemistry of thermal groundwa-ters in the Baikal Rift System (BRS) in Russia and Mongolia and the Xinzhou basin of the Shanxi Rift System (SRS) in northern China. Though similar in geological background, groundwaters from the BRS and the Xinzhou basin have different strontium isotope compositions. Both the strontium contents and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of thermal water samples from Xinzhou are higher than those of most samples from Baikal. The major reason is the difference in hostrock geochemistry. The hos-trocks of the Xinzhou waters are Archaean metamorphic rocks, while those of the Baikal waters except the Kejielikov spring are Proterozoic or younger rocks. In the study areas, cold groundwaters usually show lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio due to shorter water-rock interaction history and lower equilibration degree. Strontium hydrogeochemistry often provides important information about mixing processes. Ca/Sr ratio can be used as an important hydrogeochemical pa

  20. Thermal-stable proteins of fruit of long-living Sacred Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen-Miller, J; Lindner, Petra; Xie, Yongming; Villa, Sarah; Wooding, Kerry; Clarke, Steven G; Loo, Rachel R O; Loo, Joseph A

    2013-09-01

    Single-seeded fruit of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique from NE China have viability as long as ~1300 years determined by direct radiocarbon-dating, having a germination rate of 84%. The pericarp, a fruit tissue that encloses the single seeds of Nelumbo, is considered one of the major factors that contribute to fruit longevity. Proteins that are heat stable and have protective function may be equally important to seed viability. We show proteins of Nelumbo fruit that are able to withstand heating, 31% of which remained soluble in the 110°C-treated embryo-axis of a 549-yr-old fruit and 76% retained fluidity in its cotyledons. Genome of Nelumbo is published. The amino-acid sequences of 11 "thermal proteins" (soluble at 100°C) of modern Nelumbo embryo-axes and cotyledons, identified by mass spectrometry, Western blot and bioassay, are assembled and aligned with those of an archaeal-hyperthermophile Methancaldococcus jannaschii (Mj; an anaerobic methanogen having a growth optimum of 85°C) and with five mesophile angiosperms. These thermal proteins have roles in protection and repair under stress. More than half of the Nelumbo thermal proteins (55%) are present in the archaean Mj, indicating their long-term durability and history. One Nelumbo protein-repair enzyme exhibits activity at 100°C, having a higher heat-tolerance than that of Arabidopsis. A list of 30 sequenced but unassembled thermal proteins of Nelumbo is supplemented. PMID:24363819

  1. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  2. A tantative discussion on the mineralization characteristics and minerogenetic conditions of metasedimentary uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metasedimentary uranium deposits in China occur chiefly in Archaean and Proterozoic metamorfic rock system from Northern China Platform, in which intrusion of granite or migmatization took place and they are located above the surface of denudation of the old basement. The palaeogeographic environment of formation of the uranium deposits is in the basement depression of littoral-epicontinental facies near palaeo-coastal line. The mineralization characteristics are variable with different locations in northern China where the uranium deposits lie: Uranium ore bodies far from granite occur as stratoid, which are essentially conformable with the occurrence of strata and are controlled by strata and lithologies. The primary uranium mineral is pitchblende with fine grains and arranges in orientation along the stratification. The uranium ore bodies in the outer contact zone near granite or migmatized area occur as nested. The primary uranium mineral is uraninite with coarse grains, occurring as veins and stockworks. In comparison with the uranium deposits in Northern Australia, both are essentially similar. But in time of formation, and no covers have been found. The formation of the deposits is: U-rich strata were formed in the sedimentary process; strata of uranium mineralization were formed in the regional metamorphic process; economic uranium deposits were formed after previous U-bearing formations suffering from thermometamorphism which is caused by migmatization or intrusion of granite

  3. Paragenesis of Cr-rich muscovite and chlorite in green-mica quartzites of Saigaon–Palasgaon area, Western Bastar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Randive; M M Korakoppa; S V Muley; A M Varade; H W Khandare; S G Lanjewar; R R Tiwari; K K Aradhi

    2015-02-01

    Green mica (fuchsite or chromian-muscovite) is reported worldwide in the Archaean metasedimentary rocks, especially quartzites. They are generally associated with a suite of heavy minerals and a range of phyllosilicates. We report the occurrence of green-mica quartzites in the Saigaon–Palasgaon area within Bastar Craton in central India. Mineralogical study has shown that there are two types of muscovites; the chromium-containing muscovite (Cr2O3 0.84–1.84%) and muscovite (Cr2O3 0.00–0.22%). Chlorites are chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 3.66–5.39%) and low-chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 0.56–2.62%), and as such represent ripidolite–brunsvigite varieties. Back scattered electron images and EPMA data has revealed that chlorite occurs in two forms, viz., parallel to subparallel stacks in the form of intergrowth with muscovite and independent crystals within the matrix. The present study indicates that the replacement of chromium-containing chlorite by chromium-containing muscovite is found to be due to increasing grade of metamorphism of chromium-rich sediments. However, the absence of significant compositional gap between aforementioned varieties indicates disparate substitution of cations, especially chromium, within matrix chlorites. The chromium-containing muscovite and muscovite are two separate varieties having distinct paragenesis.

  4. Bronzite Granophyre: New insight on Vredefort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, A. M.; Reid, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Vredefort Dome is located near the center of the Witwatersrand Basin, about 120 km southeast of Johannesburg, South Africa. Its origin is enigmatic, ranging from a major impact event to endogenous processes, either igneous or tectonic. A unique melt rock, the 'Bronzite' Granophyr, occurs in the Vredefort structure as vertical ring dikes along the contact between sedimentary collar and core of Archaean granites, and as vertical dikes extending northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest in the granitic core. The granophyre rocks have an unusual composition and high content of recrystallized sedimentary inclusions compared to common intrusive igneous rocks with similar SiO2 content (61 to 70 percent by weight). The unique nature of the granophyre has been underlined in previous studies and origin hypotheses as an impact melt or as a highly contaminated intrusive mafic magma have also been discussed. We present new results obtained from a recent detailed petrographic and geochemical study of a very large and texturally diverse suite of 'Bronzite' Granophyre, representing all dikes occurring at Vredefort.

  5. A Special Issue (Part-II): Mafic-ultramafic rocks and alkaline-carbonatitic magmatism and associated hydrothermal mineralization - dedication to Lia Nikolaevna Kogarko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogarko, Lia N.; Gwalani, Lalchand G.; Downes, Peter J.; Randive, Kirtikumar R.

    2015-10-01

    This is the second part of a two-volumespecial issue of Open Geoscience (formerly Central European Journal of Geosciences) that aims to be instrumental in providing an update of Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks and Alkaline- Carbonatitic Magmatism and Associated Hydrothermal Mineralization. Together, these two volumes provide a detailed and comprehensive coverage of the subjects that are relevant to the research work of P.Comin-Chiaramonti (Italy) and LiaN. Kogarko (Russia) towhomPart-I and Part- II have been respectively dedicated. To a significant extent, the development of advanced sampling technologies related to alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism by Lia N. Kogarko, has allowed geoscientists to measure and sample the deep crust of the planet not only for the exploration for the mineral deposits, but also to answer basic scientific questions about the origin and evolution of alkaline rocks (kimberlites, lamproites and related rocks associated with carbonatites). The papers presented in this Part-II of the special issue cover the petrology and geochemistry of the rocks collected from the surface and penetrated by drilling. Lia Kogarko proposed a new theory for the evolution of alkaline magmatism in the geological history of the Earth - that the appearance of alkaline magmatism at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary (~2.5 - 2.7 Ga), and its growing intensity, was related to changes in the geodynamic regime of the Earth and oxidation of the mantle due to mantle-crust interaction.

  6. Magnetic anomalies across Bastar craton and Pranhita–Godavari basin in south of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu

    2009-02-01

    Aeromagnetic anomalies over Bastar craton and Pranhita –Godavari (P –G)basin in the south of central India could be attributed to NW –SE striking mafic intrusives in both the areas at variable depths.Such intrusions can be explained considering the collision of the Bastar and Dharwar cratons by the end of the Archaean and the development of tensile regimes that followed in the Paleoproterozoic,facilitating intrusions of mafic dykes into the continental crust.The P –G basin area,being a zone of crustal weakness along the contact of the Bastar and Dharwar cratons, also experienced extensional tectonics.The inferred remanent magnetization of these dykes dips upwards and it is such that the dykes are oriented towards the east of the magnetic north at the time of their formation compared to their present NW –SE strike.Assuming that there was no imprint of magnetization of a later date,it is concluded that the Indian plate was located in the southern hemisphere,either independently or as part of a supercontinent,for some span of time during Paleoproterozoic and was involved in complex path of movement and rotation subsequently. The paper presents a case study of the utility of aeromagnetic anomalies in qualitatively deducing the palaeopositions of the landmasses from the interpreted remanent magnetism of buried intrusive bodies.

  7. Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. V. 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication was needed to update our knowledge of the 'older' mineral deposits and mineral fields and to record in detail the geology of more recent discoveries. The discovery of copper over 300 years ago in Namaqualand was followed by even more dramatic finds - diamonds in the Kimberley area; gold and uranium in the Witwatersrand conglomerates; platinum, chromite, vanadium, iron, nickel and copper within certain horizons of the unique Bushveld Complex; iron, manganese and asbestos within the Transvaal sequence; and last, the large coal deposits within the Karoo sequence. This discoveries prompted further exploration which lead to the establishment of rich diamond mines in South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana, uranium in South West Africa/Namibia, nickel in Zimbabwe, and copper, tin and other base metal mines in other parts of Southern Africa. Volume one contains 79 papers. Two introductory papers are followed by 36 papers describing various Archaean mineral deposits. Volume two contains a 100 papers and commences with 25 papers dealing with aspects of mineralization. Descriptions of mineral deposits from various metamorphic mobile belts in Southern Africa are included in 22 papers. Late Proterozoic mineral deposits from South West Africa/Namibia are described in a series of 11 papers. The Phanerozoic deposits of the Karoo Sequence are discussed in 29 papers, followed by 7 papers describing mineralization associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. The final four papers discuss mineral occurences extending through to Recent Times, including present-day surficial deposits

  8. The setting of mineralization in a portion of the Eersteling goldfield, Pietersburg granite-greenstone terrane, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eersteling goldfield is situated in the Pietersburg granite-greenstone terrane within greenstones of the Archaean Eersteling Formation (Pietersburg Group). In the vicinity of the Eersteling Gold Mine, gold occurs in quartz-carbonate vein systems within coupled shear zones. This mineralization occurs within two settings: in east-west-trending shear zones located at lithological contacts or within discrete units (the Pienaar, Doreen, and Girlie reefs); and in Riedal shear zones between east-west trending zones (the Maltz, Dog, and unnamed reefs). In both cases, gold grades are highest within steeply plunging, structurally controlled pay shoots or boudins. Pay shoots in the Pienaar, Maltz, Dog, and an unnamed reef are characterized by the presence of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite; arsenopyrite is absent or present in extremely minor amounts. Secondary calcite occurs as large crystals in extension fractures and as a finegrained infilling around clasts. Pay shoots in the Doreen and Girlie reefs are characterized by the presence of arsenopyrite and pyrite while pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite characterize low-grade zones. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Distribution of uranium in early Precambrian gold-bearing conglomerates of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the uranium and gold-bearing pyritic quartz pebble conglomerates of the Proterozoic Witwatersrand sediments, uranium is bimodally distributed. It occurs as detrital phases, generally uraninite, and finely disseminated in low concentrations within the matrix. The method for 235U-fission track autoradiography in mica detectors has been used to investigate in particular the spatial distribution of the disseminated uranium in the matrix. The distributions of uranium of pyritic conglomerate samples from the Witwatersrand sediments has been compared with samples from the Uitkyk Formation of the Archaean Pietersburg Greenstone Belt. In the samples from the Uitkyk Formation only the disseminated form of uranium was detected. Micromapping of uranium shows that uranium was repeatedly redistributed during and/or after regional metamorphism. A very recent redistribution of uranium caused by weathering was reported in the Uitkyk conglomerate samples. No support was found for a synsedimentary introduction of the non-detrital uranium into the basins of deposition, which would require a prevailing oxidizing atmosphere during the early Precambrian

  10. Emanation-Sedimentary Metallogenic Series and Models of the Proterozoic Rift in the Kangdian Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Kangdian axis basement can be divided into two tectonic layers. The lower tectonic layer is the crystalline basement which is made up of the Archaean Dibadu Formation and early Proterozoic Dahongshan Group. The former is a kata-metamorphic basic volcano-sedimentary formation of the old geosyncline (old continental nucleus), and the latter is a medium-grade metamorphosed alkali-rich basic volcanic (emanation)-sedimentary formation of the Yuanjiang-Dahongshan marginal rift. They are in disconformable contact. The upper tectonic layer is the folded basement, and made up of the middle-late Proterozoic Kunyang Group. It is the result of Dongchuan-Yuanjiang intercontinental rifting with discordant contract with the underlying and overlying strata. Along with the evolution of Proterozoic from early to late, four types of emanation-sedimentary deposits in the Kangdian axis rift were formed in turn: ① emanation-sedimentary iron-copper-gold deposits related to basic volcanic rocks in the Yuanmou-Dahongshan marginal rift; ② emanation-sedimentary iron-copper deposits related to intermediate-basic volcanic rocks in the early stage of the Dongnchuan-Yuanjiang intercontinental rift; ③ emanation-sedimentary copper deposits related to sedimentary rocks in the middle stage; ④ copper deposits related to the late tectonic reworking. From early to late Proterozoic, with the evolution of the Kangdian axis rift and lowering volcanic basicity, the ore-forming elements also evolved from Fe, Cu and (Au) through Cu and Fe to Cu.

  11. Geochemical constraints on mobility of uranyl ions in the palaeoproterozoic lithofacies associations of Jhamarkotra formation from Aravalli Supergroup of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onset of Proterozoic Eon marks deposition of huge sediments along passive margins of Archaean cratonic basins. The global phenomena took place in an early anoxic environment which gradually changed to oxygenating environment primarily through the degassing of the then upper mantle. A similar sedimentation pattern is also observed along the western flanks of the Bundelkhand-Aravalli Archaean craton in the northwestern Indian shield where the Aravalli Supergroup was deposited as the Palaeoproterozoic ensemble. Regional Geology: Jhamarkotra Formation forms the upper sequence of the Lower Aravalli Group of the Aravalli Supergroup (Roy and Jakhar, 2002). The associated carbonate lithofacies are host rocks to one of the largest stromatolitic rock phosphate deposits of Asia. The black shale facies are host to uranium mineralization (Singh et al., 1995, Mahadevan, 1995), strike NESW and have linear occurrence along the eastern margin of the rock phosphate bearing dolomitic horizon. The black shale lithofacies overlie carbonate lithofacies in the Jhamarkotra Formation. However due to deformation and shearing both the lithofacies are conspicuously intermingled. The black shale lithofacies were deposited in the anoxic environment with the oxygen concentration varying between gyttja and sapropel conditions (Sharma, et al., 1989). The deposition of carbonate lithofacies took place in fault bounded half-grabens representing a shallow water shelf sequence (Roy, 1988). Results: Uranium occurrences from Jhamarkotra Formation have been reported from Umra, Karouli, Rama, and Ghasiar in black shales and associated carbonate lithofacies. All these locations are widely distributed in an area of about one thousand square kilometer. Uranium occurrences in the Jhamarkotra Formation are mutually exclusive with the rock phosphate occurrences (Roy, 1995). Also, characteristically the associated dolomitic carbonates, which are non-phosphatic, show high positive d13C enrichment (Purohit et al

  12. The Pangidi Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt, India: Mesoproterozoic Sm-Nd isochron age and evidence for significant crustal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pangidi Anorthosite Complex (PAC) is a small, magmatically layered body emplaced into high-grade supracrustal rocks and metamorphosed together with the host rocks in the southern sector of the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt, South India. It is dominated by coarse-grained anorthosite and leuconorite, minor leuco-gabbronorite and ultramafics with chromitites. The anorthositic rocks contain plagioclase (An55-70) + orthopyroxene (En50-60) + augite + amphibole + ilmenite + magnetite with accessory olivine, biotite, apatite and rarely coronal garnet related to metamorphic reconstitution. Despite a less calcic plagioclase composition in the anorthosites, the major and trace element distributions are akin to comparable litho types (at similar SiO2 wt %) of the Kondapalli layered anorthosite complex in close proximity. However, the PAC shows distinct effects of metamorphism and significant modal volume of secondary hydrous mineral phases unlike the latter. A five point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron gives 1739 ± 220 million years (Ma) (2δ) age for the complex, which constraints the younger limit to its intrusion and probably metamorphism under amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. The PAC is characterized by strikingly low εNd(at1750 Ma) of -14.4± 3.7, indicating the importance of crustal contamination in its genesis possibly involving significantly older (Late Archaean) crustal components. (author)

  13. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Junges, Sergio Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Resende, Marcelo Goncalves [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental

    2000-03-01

    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 {+-} 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial e{sub CHUR} values between -10.5 and -14.9) and T{sub DM} values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  14. Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere: Seismicity patterns in the Manyara-Natron-Magadi basins and Oldoinyo Lengai volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Rodzianko, A.; Rasendra, N.; Msabi, M.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.

    2013-12-01

    The CRAFTI project consists of a 2-year seismic acquisition program to quantify the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism during the early stages of continental rifting in Archaean and Proterozoic lithosphere. The Kenya provides an ideal study system, as it comprises several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle. We present preliminary results from 38 broadband seismometers deployed in Tanzania in January 2013, and 4 stations in Kenya deployed in July 2013. The network includes a rift-perpendicular transect, and spans parts of 3 discrete rift basins in different stages of development: Manyara, Natron, Magadi. Initial analyses indicate relatively low noise levels at all stations deployed in Maasai bomas and rural schools, and good to excellent transmission, except near Quaternary Gelai, Oldoinyo Lengai, and Kitumbeine volcanoes. We present time-space relations of seismicity for the first 6 months' of data, and focal mechanisms for the largest events during that time period. Hypocentral locations are compared with the locations of eruptive centers, dike intrusions, and sub-surface projections of faults mapped in a complementary part of the CRAFTI project. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquake activity will help identify the contributions of faulting and magmatism in each basin, and in the identification of subsurface magma reservoirs in this youthful rift system.

  15. Transition From a Magmatic to a Tectonic Rift System : Seismotectonics of the Eyasi- Manyara Region, Northern Tanzania, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaric, J.; Perrot, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Wambura, R. F.; Tiberi, C.; Petit, C.; Le Gall, B.; Sue, C.

    2008-12-01

    How a rift system propagates and breaks throughout a cold and thick continental crust remains poorly known. Only few places allow to address the question. In the East African Rift System (EARS), the eastern magma- rich branch abruptly splits into two amagmatic arms (the Eyasi and Manyara faulted systems), south of a E-W volcanic chain (the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt), as crossing the Archaean Tanzanian craton margin. We present the first detailed seismotectonic picture of the Eyasi-Manyara rifts where a network of ~25 seismometers was settled from June to November 2007 (SEISMO-TANZ'07 seismological experiment). From the seismicity recorded by the network, we identify active faults and discuss the stress field framework obtained from the inversion of focal mechanisms. We use the determined depth of earthquakes (1) to discuss the crustal structure of the transition zone from a magma-rich to a magma-starved section of the EARS and (2) to further emphasize the rheological control on depth distributions in the EARS (Albaric et al., Tectonophysics, 2008). The stress and strain directions deduced from our work are also used to question recently published kinematics and conceptual models of the EARS (Calais et al., Geol. Soc. London, 2006 ; Le Gall et al., Tectonophysics, 2008).

  16. Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

  17. Srisailam and Palnad sub-basins: potential geological domains for unconformity - related uranium mineralisation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracratonic Cuddapah Basin is the second largest Purana basins in Peninsular India and its northern part has shown immense potential of uranium mineralisation, especially unconformity-related, with deposits established in the marginal parts of Srisailam and Palnad Sub-basins, Nalgonda and Guntur districts, Andhra Pradesh. These sub-basins expose thick sedimentary columns comprising arenaceous, argillaceous and calcareous sediments of Meso- to Neoproterozoic age and are deposited predominantly over Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic basement granitoids and greenstone belt of Archaean age. Signatures of substantial basement and post-depositional reactivations are quite apparent in the area represented by multiple faults, fractures and mafic and felsic intrusives. Such geological domains provide spatial and temporal favourability for uranium metallogeny, especially when basement granitoids are fertile. The uranium mineralisation is mainly localised along fracture zones proximal to basement-cover sediment unconformity and occur as elongated pods, fine veins and cavity and grain boundary fillings. Mineralised zones are invariably associated with significant alteration features like illitisation, chloritisation and kaolinization. Primary uranium ore minerals viz. pitchblende, uraninite and coffinite are found generally associated with sulphides and organic matter. However, there is marginal difference in mineralisation pattern in these sub-basins as uranium is mainly hosted by granitoids just below the unconformity in Srisailam Sub-basin while it is dominantly associated with cover sediments in Palnad Sub-basin. Recent integrated surface and sub-surface studies have also indicated uranium potential in deeper parts of these sub-basins. (author)

  18. Estimating the distribution of strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr in the Precambrian of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kaislaniemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a rock based on its age and Rb/Sr ratio is presented. This method, together with data from the Rock Geochemical Database of Finland (n=6544 is used to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Precambrian of Finland and in its different major units. A generalization to cover the whole area of Finland is achieved by smoothing of estimation points. The estimation method is evaluated by comparing its results to published Rb-Sr isotope analyses (n=138 obtained on the Finnish Precambrian. The results show correspondence to different geological units of Finland,but no systematic difference between Archaean and younger areas is evident. Evaluation of the method shows that most of the estimates are reliable and accurate to be used as background material for provenance studies in archaeology, paleontology and sedimentology. However, some granitic rocks may have large (>1.0 % relative errors.Strontium concentration weighted average of the estimates differs only by 0.001 from the average 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.730 of the rivers on the Fennoscandian shield.

  19. Osmium isotope ratios of PGM grains associated with the Freetown Layered Complex, Sierra Leone, and their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Keiko; Cabri, Louis J.; Hart, Stanley R.

    1991-03-01

    Osmium isotope ratios for two types of platinum group mineral (PGM) nuggets of eluvial (residual) origin, associated with the Freetown Layered Gabbro Complex, were determined in-situ using an ion microprobe. The values for erlichmanite nuggets are ≈1.08. Those for PGM inclusions in Pt-Fe alloy nuggets are higher, ranging from 1.2 to 2.1. Ratios of187Os/186Os vary between the nuggets, but they are consistent within individual nuggest. The data suggest early formation of the erlichmanite nuggets, prior to a postulated substantial contribution of crustal Os. The Pt-Fe alloy nuggets, on the other hand, were formed later in a residual melt which was contaminated by crustal Os due to the assimilation (<10%) or the gaseous/fluid transport of Os from Archaean host rocks into the magma. The lack of systematic mineralogical and chemical changes of the Complex and extensive granulitization in the adjacent host rocks and xenoliths may favor the latter process. The lack of high187Os/186Os ratios, consistent187Os/186Os values within individual nuggets and their textures and mineralogy suggest that the studied PGM nuggets were not formed during lateritization or in low-temperature depositional environments.

  20. Ancient landscapes and the relationship with microbial nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sasha N; Murphy, Daniel V; Waite, Ian S; Rushton, Steven P; O'Donnell, Anthony G

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) drive nitrification and their population dynamics impact directly on the global nitrogen cycle. AOA predominate in the majority of soils but an increasing number of studies have found that nitrification is largely attributed to AOB. The reasons for this remain poorly understood. Here, amoA gene abundance was used to study the distribution of AOA and AOB in agricultural soils on different parent materials and in contrasting geologic landscapes across Australia (n = 135 sites). AOA and AOB abundances separated according to the geologic age of the parent rock with AOB higher in the more weathered, semi-arid soils of Western Australia. AOA dominated the younger, higher pH soils of Eastern Australia, independent of any effect of land management and fertilization. This differentiation reflects the age of the underlying parent material and has implications for our understanding of global patterns of nitrification and soil microbial diversity. Western Australian soils are derived from weathered archaean laterite and are acidic and copper deficient. Copper is a co-factor in the oxidation of ammonia by AOA but not AOB. Thus, copper deficiency could explain the unexpectedly low populations of AOA in Western Australian soils. PMID:27480661

  1. Rare earth chemistry of gold-bearing sedimentary carbonate horizons from the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ankerite, gold ore bodies of the Dome Mine, Timmins, Ontario are interflow units, 1 to 3 m thick in a sequence of tholeiitic basalts. The units consist of discontinuous layers of ferroan dolomite, chert and pyroclastic material, and laminations of iron sulfides, tourmaline, and graphite. They have been interpreted as sediments on the basis of their internal structure. Seven Rare Earth elements (REE) (Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, on 10 samples of carbonate material from the ankerite units. The chondrite normalized REE plots have relatively flat patterns with, in some cases, positive Europium anomalies. The flat patterns suggest that the fluids from which the carbonate precipitated was in equilibrium with volcanic rocks of tholeiitic and komatiitic composition. The positive Europium anomalies imply that the fluids were reducing at times. Such patterns are characteristic of Archaean sediments and also the precipitates associated with the discharge of hydrothermal solutions from vents on the East Pacific Rise

  2. Formation of supercontinents linked to increases in atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Allen, Charlotte M.

    2008-08-01

    Atmospheric oxygen concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere rose from negligible levels in the Archaean Era to about 21% in the present day. This increase is thought to have occurred in six steps, 2.65, 2.45, 1.8, 0.6, 0.3 and 0.04 billion years ago, with a possible seventh event identified at 1.2 billion years ago. Here we show that the timing of these steps correlates with the amalgamation of Earth's land masses into supercontinents. We suggest that the continent-continent collisions required to form supercontinents produced supermountains. In our scenario, these supermountains eroded quickly and released large amounts of nutrients such as iron and phosphorus into the oceans, leading to an explosion of algae and cyanobacteria, and thus a marked increase in photosynthesis, and the photosynthetic production of O2. Enhanced sedimentation during these periods promoted the burial of a high fraction of organic carbon and pyrite, thus preventing their reaction with free oxygen, and leading to sustained increases in atmospheric oxygen.

  3. Rb-Sr geochronology from Sao Felix to Xingu: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr systematics have been applied on rocks from the Sao Felix do Xingu region, in the southeastern part of the State of Para. An age of 2716 ± 34 Ma with IR of 0.70292 ± 0.00030 (MSWD = 1.54) and an age of 2677 ± 50 Ma with IR of 0.70161 ± 0.00022 (MSWD = 5.21) had been obtained for a granitic body and a tonalitic body respectively, both of them associated to the green stones belts that occur in this area. Gneisses from the Xingu complex gave an age of 2574 ± 57 Ma with an IR of 0.70416 ± 0.00054 (MSWD = 5.06). An age of 1653 ± 14 Ma with IR of 0.70823 ± 0.02361 (MSWD = 1.71) had been obtained for the Velho Guilherme granite that crosscut the granite-green stones terrains. Such geochronological data show the existence of a magmatic event between 2.72 Ga and 2.68 Ga and permit us to conclude on the archaean age of the green stones terrains. (author)

  4. SHRIMP Age of Exotic Zircons in the Mengyin Kimberlite, Shandong, and Their Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Due to various courses of formation of zircons from kimberlites, different kinds of zircons can provide useful information about the mantle and the crystallization of kimberlites. We chose 9 typical ones out of 33 zircons from the Shengli-1 kimberlite pipe in Mengyin County, Shandong Province to study their ages and formation by means of SHRIMP,CL, Raman spectroscopy, etc. The result shows that the 207pb/206Pb ages of many zircons vary from 2567±13 Ma to 2636±42 Ma, which are close to the age of Archaean granitoid (2457.3±47 Ma) in the study area. The contents of U and Th in the samples are higher than those of zircons crystallized in kimberlite and vary from 89 to 398 ppm as well as from 10 to 283 ppm. Color zones are obvious in these samples under the CL. The inclusions are composed of feldspar, quartz, apatite,etc. The above results show that the zircon samples came from the crust of the earth, which means that the kimberlite magmas are contaminated by crustal substances. The position where a great deal of volatile escapes and even explodes during rapid rise of magmas is located at the boundary of the ancient basement and the Precambrian stratum.

  5. Salt sources and water-rock interaction on the Yilgarn Block, Australia: isotopic and major element tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal drainage basins in the south east of Western Australia are underlain by predominantly granitoid rocks. The regional shallow ground water are NaCl brines. Ratios of 87Sr/86Sr in the brines are 0.7155 ± 0.0015, which are close to the ratio of modern marine Sr (0.7092). A two-component isotopic mixing model, with end members of marine Sr and Sr from basement granitoid rocks, implies strongly that ≤ 5% of the Sr is derived from rock weathering and ≥ 95% is marine. The isotopic composition of S in gypsum crystallised from the brines is + 19.8 ± 0.3 per mille (CDT). This value is close to that of S in Recent evaporites (+ 21.5 ± 1 CDT) and confirms that weathering of Archaean sulphides, with δ 34S of 0 ± 4 per mille (CDT), has contributed insignificant amounts of S to the brines. The isotopic data are compatible with a late Tertiary to Recent age for the Sr and S and, by implication, for the salts as a whole. (author)

  6. Petrography, age and origin of the Schiel alkaline complex, northern Transvaal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. M.; Barton, E. S.; Smith, C. B.

    1996-02-01

    UPb ion microprobe data for zircon from syenitic phases of the Schiel alkaline complex, South Africa, indicate that it was emplaced at about 1.85 Ga and that it contains xenocrystic zircon of about 2.0 Ga and Archaean ages. Zircon with an age of 2.0 Ga may be derived from the hornblende granite (fenite) associated with the complex. In contrast, RbSr and uranogenic PbPb whole rock data suggest an age of about 2.1 Ga and may reflect mixing of Pb from at least two sources: the lithospheric source of the magma and the crust into which the magma was intruded. SmNd whole-rock isotopic data yield an apparent isochron age of about 2.3 Ga, but are interpreted to indicate that the syenitic magma was derived from a lithospheric source that underwent LREE enrichment between about 2.6 and 2.8 Ga ago. This source is chemically similar to that of the 2.05 Ga Phalaborwa complex, suggesting that both complexes were derived from a common, more primitive source but at different times. Emplacement of the Schiel alkaline complex may have been related to rifting leading to deposition of the rocks of the Soutpansberg Group.

  7. Geological Guide to Selected Areas of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Bristow

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kruger National Park (KNP contains a considerable variety of rock types, ranging from Archaean granitoids to Recent sedimentary deposits. Some 3 500 million years of geological history is represented in an approximately 85 km east-west section at the southern area of the Kruger National Park. Older rocks are typically found in the western half of the KNP and to the east rock units become progressively younger. Some of the more important rock types found in the KNP include greenstones of the Barberton Mountain Land (approximately 3 500 million years old, granitoid rocks of the Nelspruit Batholith (approximately 3 200 million years old, syenitic intrusions associated with the Phalaborwa Complex (approximately 2 050 million years old, Soutpansberg volcanics and sediments (approximately 1 750 million years old, Timbavati Gabbros (approximately 1 450 million years old?, Karoo sediments and Lebombo volcanics (approximately 200 - 170 million years old and Cretaceous to Recent sedimentary deposits which are best developed in the eastern region of the park.

  8. Rare earth element trends and cerium-uranium-manganese associations in weathered rock from Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Koongarra, Australia, three drill cores form the Cahill Schist Formation containing U-ore, and regolith above it containing secondary U-ore, were studied to ascertain the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) and U. The unaltered schist has a REE trend similar to the Post Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS), which is, therefore, used as a normalising standard. Unweathered rock from the zone of primary U mineralisation contained strong enrichment of the heavy REEs, and this pattern is retained during most of the weathering. Strongly bleached and very weathered shallow samples from this zone do not show enrichment of HREEs. In general, however, weathering appears to have little effect on the pattern of REEs in the bulk rock at this site. Zones rich in Mn oxy-hydroxides, occurring as coatings on fissure surfaces, contain large concentrations of Ce and U, with a clear Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce* = 3.8). The Ce and U apparently occur together as microcrystalline oxides within (1-2 μm diameter) globules on mineral surfaces in the Mn-rich zones. 46 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Tanzania: integrated interpretation of aeromagnetic and radiometric maps for mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of interpreting regional geophysical data in geological terms to establish a frame of reference for mineral exploration is demonstrated with examples selected from a country-wide airborne survey of Tanzania. Attention is drawn to the continued need for cooperative evaluation of geophysical data by geologists and geophysicists. The regional magnetic and radiometric survey undertaken by Geosurvey International, covered a total flight line length of more than 1 000 000 km at a line spacing of 1 km. A brief outline of magnetic and radiometric interpretation procedures and objectives is given. This joint magnetic-radiometric interpretation has substantially improved the understanding of the regional geology of Tanzania. Five examples are selected from the regional geophysical data to show its application, and limitation, to geological mapping and, in particular, to mineral exploration. Each of these examples is from a different geological setting, the age of which ranges from Archaean through Lower and Upper Proterozoic to Karoo (Palaeozoic/Mesozoic), with concomitant variety of metallogenic environments, It is concluded that the integrated interpretation approach, when the implications of the different data sets are understood by all involved, would always put geologists and geophysicists at an advantage in their joint efforts to locate economic mineral deposits. (author)

  10. Searching for giant, ancient impact structures on Earth: The Mesoarchaean Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Adam A.; McDonald, Iain; Dyck, Brendan; Keulen, Nynke

    2012-07-01

    A 100 km-scale, circular region in the Archaean North Atlantic Craton centred at 65°15'N, 51°50'W near Maniitsoq town in West Greenland comprises a set of highly unusual geological features that were created during a single event involving intense crushing and heating and are incompatible with crustal orogenic processes. The presently exposed features of the Maniitsoq structure were buried 20-25 km below the surface when this event occurred at c. 3 Ga, during waning convergent orogeny. These features include: a large aeromagnetic anomaly; a central 35×50 km2 large area of comminuted quartzo-feldspathic material; regional-scale circular deformation; widespread random fractures with featherlike textures; intense fracture cleavage; amphibolite-granite-matrix breccias unrelated to faulting or intrusions; formation and common fluidisation of microbreccias; abundant evidence of direct K-feldspar and plagioclase melting superimposed on already migmatised rocks; deformation of quartz by slip; formation of planar elements in quartz and plagioclase; and, emplacement of crustally contaminated ultramafic intrusions and regional scale hydrothermal alteration under amphibolite-facies conditions. The diagnostic tools employed to identify impacting in the upper crust are inadequate for structures preserved deep within the continental crust. Nevertheless, the inferred scale, strain rates and temperatures necessary to create the Maniitsoq structure rule out a terrestrial origin of the structure.

  11. Crustal Growth Rate of the North China Platform:a Method of Estimating Mass Equilibrium between Crust and Mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海飞; 张本仁; 等

    1994-01-01

    The results indicate that the mass fractions of the crust The following equation is proposed in this paper to estimate the crustal growth rate of the North China Platform on the basis of mass equilibrium between the crust and the mantle:x=CPM1-(C1/C2)RM·CPM1/CCC2-(C1/C2)RM·C2CCduring different geological periods are close to the real mass fractions of the crust in the upper mantle and the whole mantle(2-2.5% and 0.5-0.6%, respectively;Hofmann, 1986),and the discrepancy of the results is probably related to that the heterogeneous contribution of the mantle to the crust both in space and in element .The re-sults also show that the mass of the Archaean crust is only half that of the Proterozoic crust, and the crustal mass remained unchanged from Proterozoic to Paleozoic ,suggesting that the plate movement at least started from the Late Proterozoic.

  12. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  13. The structural controls of gold mineralisation within the Bardoc Tectonic Zone, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia: implications for gold endowment in shear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Anthony A.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Bierlein, Frank P.

    2007-08-01

    The Bardoc Tectonic Zone (BTZ) of the late Archaean Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, is physically linked along strike to the Boulder-Lefroy Shear Zone (BLSZ), one of the richest orogenic gold shear systems in the world. However, gold production in the BTZ has only been one order of magnitude smaller than that of the BLSZ (˜100 t Au vs >1,500 t Au). The reasons for this difference can be found in the relative timing, distribution and style(s) of deformation that controlled gold deposition in the two shear systems. Deformation within the BTZ was relatively simple and is associated with tight to iso-clinal folding and reverse to transpressive shear zones over a <12-km-wide area of high straining, where lithological contacts have been rotated towards the plane of maximum shortening. These structures control gold mineralisation and also correspond to the second major shortening phase of the province (D2). In contrast, shearing within the BLSZ is concentrated to narrow shear zones (<2 km wide) cutting through rocks at a range of orientations that underwent more complex dip- and strike-slip deformation, possibly developed throughout the different deformation phases recorded in the region (D1-D4). Independent of other physico-chemical factors, these differences provided for effective fluid localisation to host units with greater competency contrasts during a prolonged mineralisation process in the BLSZ as compared to the more simple structural history of the BTZ.

  14. Back-Arc Extension in the Southern Andes: A Review and Critical Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.

    1981-03-01

    The interpretation that the mafic 'rocas verdes' (green rocks) complex of the southern Andes represents part of the uplifted floor of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous back-arc basin has proved particularly useful in understanding the geological evolution of the southern Andes, the north Scotia Ridge and the Antarctic Peninsula. Clear field evidence of the back-arc setting of the 'rocas verdes' gabbro-sheeted dyke - pillow lava ophiolitic assemblages has encouraged fruitful petrological and geochemical comparison with mid-ocean ridge and marginal basin basalts, other onshore ophiolite complexes, and Archaean greenstone belts. Uncertainty still surrounds estimates of the original width and depth of the basin, as well as the proportion of new mafic crust, compared with relict sialic crust, in the basin floor. These questions are unresolved, owing mainly to the considerable Lower Cretaceous turbiditic basin infill and the effects of mid-Cretaceous compressional deformation. While the field relations clearly indicate that the 'rocas verdes' basin is not an older piece of ocean floor 'trapped' behind a volcanic arc, it is not yet clear whether the basin is directly subduction-related or falls in the category of back-arc 'leaky transforms' like the proto-Gulf of California or apparent 'rip-off' features like the Andaman Sea.

  15. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  16. Earth's oldest mantle fabrics indicate Eoarchaean subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Reddy, Steven M.; Nutman, Allen P.; Friend, Clark R. L.; Bennett, Vickie C.

    2016-02-01

    The extension of subduction processes into the Eoarchaean era (4.0-3.6 Ga) is controversial. The oldest reported terrestrial olivine, from two dunite lenses within the ~3,720 Ma Isua supracrustal belt in Greenland, record a shape-preferred orientation of olivine crystals defining a weak foliation and a well-defined lattice-preferred orientation (LPO). [001] parallel to the maximum finite elongation direction and (010) perpendicular to the foliation plane define a B-type LPO. In the modern Earth such fabrics are associated with deformation of mantle rocks in the hanging wall of subduction systems; an interpretation supported by experiments. Here we show that the presence of B-type fabrics in the studied Isua dunites is consistent with a mantle origin and a supra-subduction mantle wedge setting, the latter supported by compositional data from nearby mafic rocks. Our results provide independent microstructural data consistent with the operation of Eoarchaean subduction and indicate that microstructural analyses of ancient ultramafic rocks provide a valuable record of Archaean geodynamics.

  17. Petrology and physical conditions of metamorphism of calcsilicate rocks from low- to high-grade transition area, Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, B. L.; Natarajan, R.; Govil, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Calc-silicate rocks comprising quartz, plagioclase, diopside, sphene, scapolite, grossularite-andradite and wollastonite occur as lensoid enclaves within the greasy migmatitic and charnockitic gneisses of the Archaean amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zone in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. The calc-silicate rocks are characterized by the absence of K-feldspar and primary calcite, presence of large modal quartz and plagioclase and formation of secondary garnet and zoisite rims around scapolite and wollastonite. The mineral distributions suggest compositional layering. The chemical composition and mineralogy of the calc-silicate rocks indicate that they were derived from impure silica-rich calcareous sediments whose composition is similar to that of pelite-limestone mixtures. From the mineral assemblages the temperature, pressure and fluid composition during metamorphism were estimated. The observed mineral reaction sequences require a range of X sub CO2 values demonstrating that an initially CO2-rich metamorphic fluid evolved with time towards considerably more H2O-rich compositions. These variations in fluid composition suggest that there were sources of water-rich fluids external to the calc-silicate rocks and that mixing of these fluids with those of calc-silicate rocks was important in controlling fluid composition in calc-silicate rocks and some adjacent rock types as well.

  18. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Ponte Nova - Sheet SF.23-X-B-II - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report refers to the Ponte Nova Sheet (SF.23-X-B-II) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The Sheet covers the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, in the Mantiqueira Geotectonic Province, to the eastern part of Sao Francisco Geotectonic Province, as defined in the project. The high grade metamorphic rocks to low amphibolite, occurring in the area were affected by a marked low angle shearing transposition, and show diphtheritic effects. Archaean to Proterozoic ages are attributed to the metamorphites mostly by comparison to similar types of the region. Three deformed events were registered in the region. Analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on geological mapping, laboratorial analyses, gravimetric and air magnetometry data, and available geochronologic data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II, in the text. Major element oxides, trace-elements, and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the Sheet. Gneisses quarries (industrial rocks) in full exploration activity have been registered, as well as sand and clay deposits employed in construction industry. Metallogenetic/Provisional analysis points out the area as a favorable one for gold prospection. (author)

  19. Application of X-ray diffraction technique for determining triclinicity of alkali-feldspar from the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal Area, North Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zoned rare metal pegmatites of Archaean age in the Jharsuguda district of north Orissa, eastern India, are well-known for their potentiality for Nb, Ta, and Be minerals. They also contain limited Li, Bi, Th, and U minerals. Because of the economic concentrations of the ore minerals of Nb-Ta and Be, they are being mined for recovering columbite-tantalite and beryl. In this paper, the values of triclinicity of alkali-feldspars, determined by X-ray diffraction, are presented and, based on the same data, the evolutionary history of the rare metal pegmatites is traced. The values of triclinicity range from 0.83 to 0.97 with an average of 0.92. The high values of triclinicity suggest that the investigated alkali-feldspars from the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal area belong to the category of maximum microcline. It would, thus, mean that during the crystallisation of alkali-feldspar, and by implication their host rare metal pegmatites, not only was the rate of cooling slow, the temperature of crystallisation was also falling. Accordingly, it is interpreted that the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal area crystallised slowly under a falling-temperature regime in deep-seated plutonic conditions. The presence of large beryl crystals in the rare metal pegmatites also supports this interpretation. (author)

  20. Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Irina V.; Petrov, Vjacheslav A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Ivanova, Polina G.; Merzlikin, Nikolay V.; Sazonov, Alexey E.; Ogorodova, Ludmila M.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella. Conclusions/Significance Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. PMID:27447938

  1. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  2. Current status of uranium exploration in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the few occurrences of Gondwana (Jurassic), Miocene and later sediments, most of Sri Lanka consists of Precambrian rocks of Archaean age. These rocks underwent metamorphism under amphibolite and granulite facies conditions about 200 Ma ago. Nine anomalous areas for uranium mineralization were identified after a preliminary geochemical survey of the whole island, except for the northwestern Miocene belt. Consistent low contents of uranium in stream sediment samples suggested that solution or hydromorphic dispersion of uranium is not a prominent mechanism and that most of the uranium dispersion is rather mechanical in nature in most of the country. Six of the above areas lie either within or close to the boundary between the Highland Series and the Vijayan Complex. The latter mainly consists of granitic gneisses, hornblende biotite gneisses, granitoids and migmatites formed under amphibolite facies conditions. Denser sampling (one sample per 1 km2) in Phase II of the programme in two areas, namely Maha Cya and Mala Oya, indicated that further exploration work would be worthwhile. A number of samples from these areas had uranium values greater than 500 ppm. Further, the composition of the amphiboles and pyroxenes from rocks of the Maha Cya area are comparable to those in rocks from known areas of uranium mineralization such as the Mary Kathleen uranium deposit in Australia. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  3. isotopic assessment of relative contributions from crust and mantle sources to the magma genesis of Precambrian granitoid rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Th-Pb isotopic data for Precambrian granitoids (i.e. granites and intermediate calc-alkaline plutonic rocks) from Greenland, Scotland and Zimbabwe are used to assess the relative contributions to magma genesis of various source materials. Ancient continental crustal contributions are identified by negative epsilonsub(Nd) values in the magmas at time of formation. Initial 87Sr/86Sr (Srsub(i)) values identify crustal contributions as derived from deep (low Rb/Sr) or upper (high Rb/Sr) crust. Pb isotopic data, expressed as model μ1 (238U/204Pb) values, permit the distinction between deep (low U/Pb) and upper (high U/Pb) crustal contributions. However, it is not usually possible to distinguish between mantle (low Rb/Sr) and deep crustal sources using Srsub(i) values. In contrast, Nd and Pb isotopic data permit such a distinction to be made. The granitoids isotopically analysed for the present study range from calcalkaline types with mantle or mixed mantle-crust isotopic characteristics (for example, late Archaean orthogneisses from west Greenland) to true granites probably produced solely by anatexis of ancient sialic crust (for example, Badcall Quay red granite, northwest Scotland; Qorqut granite, west Greenland; Mont d'Or granite, Zimbabwe). (author)

  4. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction

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    S. Franck

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. We find that from the Archaean to the future a procaryotic biosphere always exists. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  5. Lithospheric layering in the North American craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2010-08-26

    How cratons-extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust-formed and remained largely unchanged for more than 2,500 million years is much debated. Recent studies of seismic-wave receiver function data have detected a structural boundary under continental cratons at depths too shallow to be consistent with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as inferred from seismic tomography and other geophysical studies. Here we show that changes in the direction of azimuthal anisotropy with depth reveal the presence of two distinct lithospheric layers throughout the stable part of the North American continent. The top layer is thick ( approximately 150 km) under the Archaean core and tapers out on the surrounding Palaeozoic borders. Its thickness variations follow those of a highly depleted layer inferred from thermo-barometric analysis of xenoliths. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is relatively flat (ranging from 180 to 240 km in depth), in agreement with the presence of a thermal conductive root that subsequently formed around the depleted chemical layer. Our findings tie together seismological, geochemical and geodynamical studies of the cratonic lithosphere in North America. They also suggest that the horizon detected in receiver function studies probably corresponds to the sharp mid-lithospheric boundary rather than to the more gradual lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. PMID:20740006

  6. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 ± 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial eCHUR values between -10.5 and -14.9) and TDM values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  7. The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen

    with system performances. Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were the most important methanogenic genera in the digesters where intense hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis occurred, while Methanosaeta established itself in the mesophilic digesters with sufficient retention time and low concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The populations of all the quantified methanogen genera (Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta , and Methanoculleus) were inversely correlated or associated with high concentrations of VFA. The results of DGGE and qPCR were confirmed and improved by the pyrosequencing data (Chapter 8). Different operation conditions led to the development of different microbial communities that resulted in the functional differences among AD systems. The bacterial community tended to be more diverse in the digesters with more lenient conditions. Firmicutes was a major phylum in each AD system and might be associated with system performance. Chloroflexi was a major phylum in each thermophilic digester with balanced hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis, so it might be indicative of efficient operations of thermophilic digesters. Thermotogae only appeared as a major phylum in the AT-TPAD system and might be important to its performance. The results of my studies had impacts on the development of renewable bioenergy. On one hand, the two new thermophilic cellulolytic isolates may be further evaluated for development of CBP strains. On the other hand, the series of comparative and integrated studies of different AD systems provided new knowledge that may guide future research and development of AD systems, particularly TPAD systems. Furthermore, the correlation between system performances and microbial communities may help improve design and operation of AD in general.

  8. Development of biofilm in anaerobic reactors treating wastewater from coffee grain processing Desenvolvimento de biofilme em reatores anaeróbios tratando água residuária do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro

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    Fátima R. L. Fia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the use of anaerobic fixed bed reactors has been established in Brazil for the treatment of different effluents. As the capability of retaining microorganisms by support media (fixed bed is a factor influencing the performance of these reactors, the present study aims at evaluating the influence of three fixed bed on the effectiveness of treating an effluent with high pollution potential: wastewater from coffee grain processing (WCP, with organic matter concentrations varying from 812 to 5320 mg L-1 in the form of chemical oxygen demand (COD. Support media used for the immobilization of biomass were: blast furnace slag, polyurethane foam and #2 crushed stone with porosities of 53, 95 and 48%, respectively. The mean efficiency of COD removal in the reactor filled with polyurethane foam was 80%, attributed to its higher porosity index, which also provided greater retention and fixation of biomass which, when quantified as total volatile solids, was found to be 1301 mg g-1 of foam. The biofilm was made up of various microorganisms, including rod, curved rods, cocci, filaments and morphologies similar to Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp.Nas últimas décadas tem-se registrado, no Brasil, o uso de reatores anaeróbios de leito fixo para o tratamento de diversos tipos de efluentes. Uma vez que a capacidade de retenção de micro-organismos pelo meio suporte (leito fixo é fator de influência no desempenho desses reatores, buscou-se, com a realização do presente estudo, avaliar a influência do leito fixo na eficiência de três unidades tratando um efluente com elevado potencial poluidor: água residuária do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC, com concentração de matéria orgânica variando entre 812 e 5.320 mg L-1 na forma de DQO. Os tipos de suporte utilizados na imobilização da biomassa foram: escória de alto-forno, espuma de poliuretano e brita nº 2, com índice de vazios de 53, 95 e 48%, respectivamente. A

  9. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Kang, Aram; Baidoo, Edward; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Soon Lee, Taek

    2015-06-01

    Branched five carbon (C5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulation by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the phosphatase (Idi1~NudB) along with a reductase (NemA) to diversify production to 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Finally, we used an oleyl alcohol overlay to improve alcohol recovery, achieving final titers of 2.23 g/L of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (~70% of pathway-dependent theoretical yield), 150 mg/L of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 300 mg/L of 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  10. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. ► Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. ► Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study demonstrates that the coexistence of two types of methanogens, i

  11. Bromeliad catchments as habitats for methanogenesis in tropical rainforest canopies

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    Shana K. Goffredi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical epiphytic plants within the family Bromeliaceae are unusual in that they possess foliage capable of retaining water and impounded material. This creates an acidic (pH 3.5-6.5 and anaerobic (< 1 ppm O2 environment suspended in the canopy. Results from a Costa Rican rainforest show that most bromeliads (n = 75/86 greater than ~20 cm in plant height or ~4-5 cm tank depth, showed presence of methanogens within the lower anoxic horizon of the tank. Archaea were dominated by methanogens (77-90% of recovered ribotypes and community structure, although variable, was generally comprised of a single type, closely related to either hydrogenotrophic Methanoregula or Methanocella, a specific clade of aceticlastic Methanosaeta, or Methanosarcina. Juvenile bromeliads, or those species, such as Guzmania, with shallow tanks, generally did not possess methanogens, as assayed by PCR specific for methanogen 16S rRNA genes, nor did artificial catchments (~ 100 ml volume, in place 6-12 months prior to sample collection. Methanogens were not detected in soil (n = 20, except in one case, in which the dominant ribotype was different from nearby bromeliads. Recovery of methyl coenzyme M reductase genes supported the occurrence of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens within bromeliad tanks, as well as the trend, via QPCR analysis of mcrA, of increased methanogenic capacity with increased plant height. Methane production rates of up to 300 nmol CH4 ml tank water -1 day-1 were measured in microcosm experiments. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated archaeal communities may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in neotropical forests.

  12. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L−1 d−1, producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L−1 d−1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L−1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  13. Comparative genomic analyses of nickel, cobalt and vitamin B12 utilization

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    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. Results We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i transport systems, and (ii metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Conclusion Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three

  14. Microbial diversity in hummock and hollow soils of three wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau revealed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing.

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    Yongcui Deng

    Full Text Available The wetlands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are believed to play an important role in global nutrient cycling, but the composition and diversity of microorganisms in this ecosystem are poorly characterized. An understanding of the effects of geography and microtopography on microbial populations will provide clues to the underlying mechanisms that structure microbial communities. In this study, we used pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences to assess and compare the composition of soil microbial communities present in hummock and hollow soils from three wetlands (Dangxiong, Hongyuan and Maduo on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest plateau. A total of 36 bacterial phyla were detected. Proteobacteria (34.5% average relative abundance, Actinobacteria (17.3% and Bacteroidetes (11% had the highest relative abundances across all sites. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were also relatively abundant (1-10%. In addition, archaeal sequences belonging to Euryarchaea, Crenarchaea and Thaumarchaea were detected. Alphaproteobacteria sequences, especially of the order Rhodospirillales, were significantly more abundant in Maduo than Hongyuan and Dangxiong wetlands. Compared with Hongyuan soils, Dangxiong and Maduo had significantly higher relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria sequences (mainly order Xanthomonadales. Hongyuan wetland had a relatively high abundance of methanogens (mainly genera Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta and methanotrophs (mainly Methylocystis compared with the other two wetlands. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA indicated that the microbial community structure differed between locations and microtopographies and canonical correspondence analysis indicated an association between microbial community structure and soil properties or geography. These insights into the microbial community structure and the main controlling factors in wetlands of

  15. Activation of methanogenesis in arid biological soil crusts despite the presence of oxygen.

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    Roey Angel

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis is traditionally thought to occur only in highly reduced, anoxic environments. Wetland and rice field soils are well known sources for atmospheric methane, while aerated soils are considered sinks. Although methanogens have been detected in low numbers in some aerated, and even in desert soils, it remains unclear whether they are active under natural oxic conditions, such as in biological soil crusts (BSCs of arid regions. To answer this question we carried out a factorial experiment using microcosms under simulated natural conditions. The BSC on top of an arid soil was incubated under moist conditions in all possible combinations of flooding and drainage, light and dark, air and nitrogen headspace. In the light, oxygen was produced by photosynthesis. Methane production was detected in all microcosms, but rates were much lower when oxygen was present. In addition, the δ(13C of the methane differed between the oxic/oxygenic and anoxic microcosms. While under anoxic conditions methane was mainly produced from acetate, it was almost entirely produced from H(2/CO(2 under oxic/oxygenic conditions. Only two genera of methanogens were identified in the BSC-Methanosarcina and Methanocella; their abundance and activity in transcribing the mcrA gene (coding for methyl-CoM reductase was higher under anoxic than oxic/oxygenic conditions, respectively. Both methanogens also actively transcribed the oxygen detoxifying gene catalase. Since methanotrophs were not detectable in the BSC, all the methane produced was released into the atmosphere. Our findings point to a formerly unknown participation of desert soils in the global methane cycle.

  16. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

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    Pei-Ling eWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial

  17. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH4 and CO2) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L-1 and a concentration of CO2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (105-106 MPN mL-1). The acetogenic population was (105 MPN mL-1) and the sulphate-reducing population was (104-105 MPN mL-1). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH4 (70%) were higher than CO2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L-1. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (104-105 MPN mL-1) and methanogenic bacteria (105 MPN mL-1) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH4 g-1 VSS-1 day-1) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH4 g-1 VSS-1 day-1) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  18. The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy

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    Alawi Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

  19. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

  20. The Genome Sequence of the psychrophilic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii: the Role of Genome Evolution in Cold-adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Michelle A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Williams, Timothy J.; Burg, Dominic; Siddiqui, Khawar S.; De Francisci, David; Chong, Kevin W.Y.; Pilak, Oliver; Chew, Hwee H.; De Maere, Matthew Z.; Ting, Lily; Katrib, Marilyn; Ng, Charmaine; Sowers, Kevin R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Dalin, Eileen; Martinez, Michelle; Lapidus, Alla; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    Psychrophilic archaea are abundant and perform critical roles throughout the Earth's expansive cold biosphere. Here we report the first complete genome sequence for a psychrophilic methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii. The genome sequence was manually annotated including the use of a five tiered Evidence Rating system that ranked annotations from Evidence Rating (ER) 1 (gene product experimentally characterized from the parent organism) to ER5 (hypothetical gene product) to provide a rapid means of assessing the certainty of gene function predictions. The genome is characterized by a higher level of aberrant sequence composition (51%) than any other archaeon. In comparison to hyper/thermophilic archaea which are subject to selection of synonymous codon usage, M. burtonii has evolved cold adaptation through a genomic capacity to accommodate highly skewed amino acid content, while retaining codon usage in common with its mesophilic Methanosarcina cousins. Polysaccharide biosynthesis genes comprise at least 3.3% of protein coding genes in the genome, and Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis COG genes are over-represented. Likewise, signal transduction (COG category T) genes are over-represented and M. burtonii has a high 'IQ' (a measure of adaptive potential) compared to many methanogens. Numerous genes in these two over-represented COG categories appear to have been acquired from {var_epsilon}- and {delta}-proteobacteria, as do specific genes involved in central metabolism such as a novel B form of aconitase. Transposases also distinguish M. burtonii from other archaea, and their genomic characteristics indicate they play an important role in evolving the M. burtonii genome. Our study reveals a capacity for this model psychrophile to evolve through genome plasticity (including nucleotide skew, horizontal gene transfer and transposase activity) that enables adaptation to the cold, and to the biological and physical changes that have