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Sample records for arc-continent collision origin

  1. Arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range in Taiwan: Geochronological constraints from U-Pb ages of zircons

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    Geng, Wei; Zhang, Xun-Hua; Huang, Long

    2018-04-01

    The oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the southeastern margin of the Eurasian continent caused the uplift of Taiwan. The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan is the northern section of the Luzon arc in the collision zone and thus records important information about the arc-continent collision. In this paper, we determine and analyze the U-Pb ages of magmatic zircons from the volcanic arc and clastic zircons from the fore-arc basin in the Coastal Range. For the volcanic arc in the Coastal Range, the eruption ages range from 16.8-5 Ma. Given that the initial subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust (17 Ma) occurred before the Luzon arc formed, we conclude that the volcanic activity of the Coastal Range began at 16.8 ± 1.3 Ma; it was most active from 14 to 8 Ma and continued until approximately 5 Ma. The U-Pb chronology also indicates that the initial stage of arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range started at approximately 5 Ma, when the northern section of the Luzon arc moved away from the magmatic chamber because of the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate.

  2. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

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    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  3. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

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    Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.

    1997-06-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.

  4. Plate boundary reorganization in the active Banda Arc-continent collision: Insights from new GPS measurements

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    Nugroho, Hendro; Harris, Ron; Lestariya, Amin W.; Maruf, Bilal

    2009-12-01

    New GPS measurements reveal that large sections of the SE Asian Plate are progressively accreting to the edge of the Australian continent by distribution of strain away from the deformation front to forearc and backarc plate boundary segments. The study was designed to investigate relative motions across suspected plate boundary segments in the transition from subduction to collision. The oblique nature of the collision provides a way to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of strain from the deformation front to the back arc. The 12 sites we measured from Bali to Timor included some from an earlier study and 7 additional stations, which extended the epoch of observation to ten years at many sites. The resulting GPS velocity field delineates at least three Sunda Arc-forearc regions around 500 km in strike-length that shows different amounts of coupling to the Australian Plate. Movement of these regions relative to SE Asia increases from 21% to 41% to 63% eastward toward the most advanced stages of collision. The regions are bounded by the deformation front to the south, the Flores-Wetar backarc thrust system to the north, and poorly defined structures on the sides. The suture zone between the NW Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda Arcs is still evolving with more than 20 mm/yr of movement measured across the Timor Trough deformation front between Timor and Australia.

  5. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland

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    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  6. Geological Structures Appearances and Its Relation to Mechanism of Arc-Continent Collision Northen Alor-Wetar Islands

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    Subarsyah Subarsyah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study area is located in South Banda Basin near the triple junction between Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates. This area is part of back-arc thrusting zone that evolved to compensate convergence between Australia Continent and Banda Arc. Based on seismic section in this area, geological structure analysis is characterized into three distinctive zones. There are Thrust Zone (TZ, Proto Thrust Zone (PTZ and Normal Fault Zone (NFZ. TZ is defined by distribution of numerous of thrust fault, PTZ contains a blind zone or folds instead of thrust fault, and NFZ defined by distribution of numerous normal fault in the upper portion of seismic section. PTZ identified at several seismic section along the bending zone of oceanic crust. The appearances of bending zone will be easily understood by comprehend the driving mechanism of Australia Continent to the Northeast. The bending zone also related to geometry and tectonic stress of collision. Based on this mechanism it was clearly understood why the western end of study area was not identified the bending zone but it probably the initial process of bending. Contradictive to the western end, the eastern part was clearly shown the bending zone that assumed to have the biggest tectonic stress at this moment. Map of structural analysis also explain that PTZ getting narrow towards the west as the indicator of less of tectonic stress.

  7. Nurture Versus Nature: Accounting for the Differences Between the Taiwan and Timor active arc-continent collisions

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    Harris, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the

  8. Evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary in the northern Dinarides: From continent-continent collision to back-arc extension

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    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.; Schaltegger, Urs; Krenn, Erwin; Frank, Wolfgang; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2010-12-01

    The Sava Zone of the northern Dinarides is part of the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary. Here Late Cretaceous subduction of remnants of Meliata-Vardar oceanic lithosphere led to the formation of a suture, across which upper plate European-derived units of Tisza-Dacia were juxtaposed with Adria-derived units of the Dinarides. Late Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments, deposited on the Adriatic plate, were incorporated into an accretionary wedge that evolved during the initial stages of continent-continent collision. Structurally deeper parts of the exposed accretionary wedge underwent amphibolite-grade metamorphism. Grt-Pl-Ms-Bt thermobarometry and multiphase equilibria indicate temperatures between 550°C and 630°C and pressures between 5 and 7 kbar for this event. Peak metamorphic conditions were reached at around 65 Ma. Relatively slow cooling from peak metamorphic conditions throughout most of the Paleogene was possibly induced by hanging wall erosion in conjunction with southwest directed propagation of thrusting in the Dinarides. Accelerated cooling took place in Miocene times, when the Sava Zone underwent substantial extension that led to the exhumation of the metamorphosed units along a low-angle detachment. Footwall exhumation started under greenschist facies conditions and was associated with top-to-the-north tectonic transport, indicating exhumation from below European plate units. Extension postdates the emplacement of a 27 Ma old granitoid that underwent solid-state deformation under greenschist facies conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar sericite and zircon and apatite fission track ages from the footwall allow bracketing this extensional unroofing between 25 and 14 Ma. This extension is hence linked to Miocene rift-related subsidence in the Pannonian basin, which represents a back-arc basin formed due to subduction rollback in the Carpathians.

  9. A study on crustal shear wave splitting in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision

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    Syuhada, E-mail: hadda9@gmail.com [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics-ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Puspiptek Serpong 15314,Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D. [Research Centre for Geotechnology -LIPI, Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T.; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Puspiptek Serpong 15314,Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We analyzed shear wave splitting parameters from local shallow (< 30 km) earthquakes recorded at six seismic stations in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision. We determined fast polarization and delay time for 195 event-stations pairs calculated from good signal-to-noise ratio waveforms. We observed that there is evidence for shear wave splitting at all stations with dominant fast polarization directions oriented about NE-SW, which are parallel to the collision direction of the Australian plate. However, minor fast polarization directions are oriented around NW-SE being perpendicular to the strike of Timor through. Furthermore, the changes in fast azimuths with the earthquake-station back azimuth suggest that the crustal anisotropy in the study area is not uniform. Splitting delay times are within the range of 0.05 s to 0.8 s, with a mean value of 0.29±0.18 s. Major seismic stations exhibit a weak tendency increasing of delay times with increasing hypocentral distance suggesting the main anisotropy contribution of the shallow crust. In addition, these variations in fast azimuths and delay times indicate that the crustal anisotropy in this region might not only be caused by extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA), but also by heterogeneity shallow structure such as the presence of foliations in the rock fabric and the fracture zones associated with active faults.

  10. Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes

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    Draut, Amy; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc–continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc–continent collision geometry. ‘Forward-facing’ collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a ‘backward-facing’ collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry

  11. Monitoring interseismic activity on the Ilan Plain (NE Taiwan) using Small Baseline PS-InSAR, GPS and leveling measurements: partitioning from arc-continent collision and backarc extension

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    Su, Zhe; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Wang, Erchie; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Yinghui; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The Ilan Plain, located in Northeast Taiwan, represents a transition zone between oblique collision (between the Luzon Arc and the Eurasian Plate) and backarc extension (the Okinawa Trough). The mechanism for this abrupt transition from arc-continent collision to backarc extension remains uncertain. We used Global Positioning System (GPS), leveling and multi-interferogram Small Baseline Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (SBAS-PSI) data to monitor the interseismic activity in the basin. A common reference site was selected for the data sets. The horizontal component of GPS and the vertical measurements of the leveling data were converted to line-of-sight (LOS) data and compared with the SBAS-PSI data. The comparison shows that the entire Ilan Plain is undergoing rapid subsidence at a maximum rate of -11 ± 2 mm yr-1 in the LOS direction. We speculate that vertical deformation and anthropogenic activity may play important roles in this deformation. We also performed a joint inversion modeling that combined both the DInSAR and strong motion data to constrain the source model of the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The best-fitting model predicts that the Sansing fault caused the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The observed transtensional deformation is dominated by the normal faulting with a minor left-lateral strike-slip motion. We compared our SBAS-PSI results with the short-term (2005-2009) groundwater level changes. The results indicate that although pumping-induced surface subsidence cannot be excluded, tectonic deformation, including rapid southward movement of the Ryukyu arc and backarc extension of the Okinawa Trough, characterizes the opening of the Ilan Plain. Furthermore, a series of normal and left-lateral strike-slip transtensional faults, including the Choshui and Sansing faults, form a bookshelf-like structure that accommodates the extension of the plain. Although situated in a region of complex structural interactions, the Ilan Plain is primarily controlled by extension

  12. Transformation of juvenile Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc into mature continental crust: An example from the Neogene Izu collision zone granitoid plutons, Central Japan

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    Saito, Satoshi; Tani, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton formed by anatexis of 'hybrid lower crust' consisting of K-rich rear-arc crust of the IBM arc and metasedimentary rocks of the Honshu arc. These studies collectively suggest that the chemical diversity within the Izu Collision Zone granitoid plutons reflects the chemical variation of basaltic sources (i.e., across-arc chemical variation in the IBM arc) as well as variable contribution of the metasedimentary component in the source region. The petrogenetic models of the Izu Collision Zone granitoid plutons suggest that collision with another mature arc/continent, hybrid lower crust formation and subsequent hybrid source anatexis are required for juvenile oceanic arcs to produce granitoid magmas with enriched compositions. The Izu Collision Zone granitoid plutons provide an exceptional example of the collision-induced transformation from a juvenile oceanic arc to the mature continental crust.

  13. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerff, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb, Ra,

  14. Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc-continent collision zone, East Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogewerff, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a detailed trace element and isotope geochemistry study into the magma-genesis ofvolcanoes in the Adonara-Pantar Section (APS) ofthe East Sunda Arc in Indonesia, a setting where an oceanic island arc is colliding with a passive continental margin. Sr, Nd, Pb,

  15. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

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    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental margin. With continued subduction, a continental arc was born and a progressively more compressional environment developed as the age of subducting slab continued to young. Refinement into a felsic crust occurred after accretion, that is, during the continental arc stage, wherein a thickened crustal and lithospheric column permitted a longer differentiation column. New basaltic arc magmas underplate and intrude the accreted terrane, suture, and former continental margin. Interaction of these basaltic magmas with pre-existing crust and lithospheric mantle created garnet pyroxenitic mafic cumulates by fractional crystallization at depth as well as gabbroic and garnet pyroxenitic restites at shallower levels by melting of pre-existing lower crust. The complementary felsic plutons formed by these deep-seated differentiation processes rose into the upper crust, stitching together the accreted terrane, suture and former

  16. Teleseismic P-wave tomography of the Sunda-Banda Arc subduction zone

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    Harris, C. W.; Miller, M. S.; Widiyantoro, S.; Supendi, P.; O'Driscoll, L.; Roosmawati, N.; Porritt, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sunda-Banda Arc is the site of multiple ongoing tectonic deformation processes and is perhaps the best example of the transition from subduction of oceanic lithosphere to an active arc-continent collision. Investigating the mantle structure that has resulted from the collision of continental Australia, as well as the concurrent phenomena of continental subduction, slab-rollback, lithospheric tearing, and subduction polarity reversal is possible through seismic tomography. While both regional scale and global tomographic models have previously been constructed to study the tectonics this region, here we use 250 seismic stations that span the length of this convergent margin to invert for P-wave velocity perturbations in the upper mantle. We combine data from a temporary deployment of 30 broadband instruments as part of the NSF-funded Banda Arc Project, along with data from permanent broadband stations maintained by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (BMKG) to image mantle structure, in particular the subducted Indo-Australian plate. The BMKG dataset spans 2009-2017 and includes >200 broadband seismometers. The Banda Arc array (network YS) adds coverage and resolution to southeastern Indonesia and Timor-Leste, where few permanent seismometers are located but the Australian continent-Banda Arc collision is most advanced. The preliminary model was computed using 50,000 teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals and 3D finite frequency sensitivity kernels. Results from the inversion of the combined dataset are presented as well as resolution tests to assess the quality of the model. The velocity model shows an arcuate Sunda-Banda slab with morphological changes along strike that correlate with the tectonic collision. The model also features the double-sided Molucca Sea slab and regions of high velocity below the bottom of the transition zone. The resolution added by the targeted USC deployment is clear when comparing models that

  17. The Origin of Tholeiitic and Calc-Alkaline Trends in Arc Magmas

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    Luffi, P. I.; Lee, C.

    2012-12-01

    It has long been recognized that tholeiitic (TH, high-Fe/Mg) and calc-alkaline (CA, low-Fe/Mg) magmatic series define the two most important igneous differentiation trends shaping Earth's crust. While oceanic crust formation at mid-ocean ridges is typically confined to a TH trend, arc magmatism at convergent margins, considered to significantly contribute to continent formation, generates both TH and CA trends. Thus, the origin of these trends - a key issue to understanding how continental crust forms - is matter of ongoing debate. Prevalent factors thought to contribute to the TH-CA duality are: 1) redox conditions (oxygen fugacity, fO2) and H2O contents in magmas, which control the onset and abundance of high-Fe/Mg oxide mineral fractionation; 2) crystallization depths that regulate the fractionating solid assemblage and thereby the solid/liquid Kd(Fe-Mg). Relying on an extensive geochemical dataset of modern arc volcanics and thermodynamic phase equilibria modeling, here we examine the validity and relative importance of these factors in arc petrogenesis. First, to discriminate igneous rocks more efficiently, we formulate an improved CA/TH index solely based on FeO-MgO systematics. We then confirm on a quantitative basis that, on regional scales, arcs formed on thick crust tend to be more calk-alkaline than those emplaced on thinner crust are, and show that the effect of fO2 on the CA/TH index in arc magmas is more significant than that of H2O. Importantly, we demonstrate that CA trends typical for continental arcs only form when crystal fractionation is accompanied by the assimilation of oxidized crustal components; in the absence of buffering oxidized assimilants fractionating magmas follow a TH trend more common in island arcs, irrespective of their H2O content and initial fO2 level. We find that high-pressure fractionation of amphibole and garnet in arc magmas occurs too late to have a significant influence on the CA/TH index; in addition, garnet-melt and

  18. Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Tectonic History of the Mesozoic Ophiolite and Arc Terranes of Western Mexico

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    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Kimbrough, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The North American Cordillera has been shaped by a long history of accretion of arcs and other buoyant crustal fragments to the western margin of the North American Plate since the Early Mesozoic. Accretion of these terranes resulted from a complex tectonic history interpreted to include episodes of both intra-oceanic subduction within the Panthalassa/Pacific Ocean, as well as continental margin subduction along the western margin of North America. Western Mexico, at the southern end of the Cordillera, contains a Late Cretaceous-present day long-lived continental margin arc, as well as Mesozoic arc and SSZ ophiolite assemblages of which the origin is under debate. Interpretations of the origin of these subduction-related rock assemblages vary from far-travelled exotic intra-oceanic island arc character to autochthonous or parautochthonous extended continental margin origin. We present new paleomagnetic data from four localities: (1) the Norian SSZ Vizcaíno peninsula Ophiolite; (2) its Lower Jurassic sedimentary cover; and (3) Barremian and (4) Aptian sediments derived from the Guerrero arc. The data show that the Mexican ophiolite and arc terranes have a paleolatitudinal plate motion history that is equal to that of the North American continent. This suggests that these rock assemblages were part of the overriding plate and were perhaps only separated from the North American continent by temporal fore- or back-arc spreading. These spreading phases resulted in the temporal existence of tectonic plates between the North American and Farallon Plates, and upon closure of the basins, in the growth of the North American continent without addition of any far-travelled exotic terranes.

  19. Origin of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Fluctuations in arc plasma devices are extremely important for any technological application in thermal plasma. The origin of such fluctuations remains unexplained. This paper presents a theory for observed fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices. A qualitative explanation for observed behavior on atmospheric pressure arc plasma fluctuations, reported in the literature, can be obtained from the theory. The potential of the theory is demonstrated through comparison of theoretical predictions with reported experimental observations

  20. Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas

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    Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

    The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

  1. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments.

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    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the understanding of crustal deformation processes, since, for example, it impacts on calculations regarding the amount of convergence that needs to be accommodated by various mechanisms. In this research we use sediments originally deposited in the Tethyan ocean basin and now preserved in the Himalayan orogeny to constrain the timing of collision. In the NW Himalaya, a number of workers have proposed a ca 55-50 Ma age for collision along the Indus suture zone which separates India from the Kohistan-Ladakh Intraoceanic Island arc (KLA) to the north. This is based on a number of factors including the age of youngest marine sediments in the Indus suture (e.g. Green et al. 2008), age of eclogites indicative of onset of Indian continental subduction (e.g. de Sigoyer et al. 2000), and first evidence of detritus from north of the suture zone deposited on the Indian plate (e.g. Clift et al. 2002). Such evidence can be interpreted as documenting the age of India-Asia collision if one takes the KLA to have collided with the Asian plate prior to its collision with India (e.g. Petterson 2010 and refs therein). However, an increasing number of workers propose that the KLA collided with Asia subsequent to its earlier collision with India, dated variously at 85 Ma (Chatterjee et al. 2013), 61 Ma (Khan et al. 2009) and 50 Ma (Bouilhol et al. 2013). This, plus the questioning of earlier provenance work (Clift et al. 2002) regarding the validity of their data for constraining timing of earliest arrival of material north of the suture deposited on the Indian plate (Henderson et al. 2011) suggests that the time is right for a reappraisal of this topic. We use a provenance-based approach here, using combined U-Pb and Hf on detrital zircons from Tethyan ocean basin sediments, along with petrography and biostratigraphy, to identify first arrival of material from north of the Indian plate to arrive on the Indian continent, to constrain

  2. The Origin of Silicic Arc Crust - Insights from the Northern Pacific Volcanic Arcs through Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable compositional similarities of andesitic crust at modern convergent margins and the continental crust has long evoked the hypothesis of similar origins. Key to understanding either genesis is understanding the mode of silica enrichment. Silicic crust cannot be directly extracted from the upper mantle. Hence, in modern arcs, numerous studies - observant of the pervasive and irrefutable evidence of melt mixing - proposed that arc andesites formed by mixing of mantle-derived basaltic melts and fusible silicic material from the overlying crust. Mass balance requires the amount of silicic crust in such hybrid andesites to be on the order to tens of percent, implying that their composition to be perceptibly influenced by the various crustal basements. In order to test this hypothesis, major and trace element compositions of mafic and silicic arc magmas with arc-typical low Ce/PbMexico) were combined with Pb isotope ratios. Pb isotope ratios are considered highly sensitive to crustal contamination, and hence should reflect the variable composition of the oceanic and continental basement on which these arcs are constructed. In particular, in thick-crust continental arcs where the basement is isotopically different from the mantle and crustal assimilation thought to be most prevalent, silicic magmas must be expected to be distinct from those of the associated mafic melts. However, in a given arc, the Pb isotope ratios are constant with increasing melt silica regardless of the nature of the basement. This observation argues against a melt origin of silicic melts from the crustal basement and suggest them to be controlled by the same slab flux as their co-eval mafic counterparts. This inference is validated by the spatial and temporal pattern of arc Pb isotope ratios along the Northern Pacific margins and throughout the 50 million years of Cenozoic evolution of the Izu Bonin Mariana arc/trench system that are can be related to with systematic, `real

  3. The origin of continents and oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegener, Alfred 1880-1930; Biram, John

    1966-01-01

    .... Wegener proposed that in the remote past the earth's continents were not separate (as now), but formed one supercontinent which later split apart, the fragments gradually drifting away from one another...

  4. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England's football, America's national pastime, baseball, Japan's Judo, and Korea's Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world's most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation's cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from.

  5. Origin of transverse momentum in relativistic heavy-ion collisions: Microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaettel, B.; Koch, V.; Lang, A.; Weber, K.; Cassing, W.; Mosel, U.

    1991-01-01

    We study the origin of the transverse momentum distribution in heavy-ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach. To achieve a better understanding of the reaction dynamics, we decompose the total p t distribution into a mean-field, N-N collision, and Fermi-momentum part. We find that the origin of the transverse momentum strongly depends on the rapidity region. Our investigation of the impact-parameter and mass dependence suggests that peripheral collisions may be useful to investigate the momentum dependence of the mean-field in the nucleus-nucleus case, whereas the mass dependence could give hints about the N-N-collision part. Only after these two issues are settled it may be possible to extract information about the density dependence in central collisions, which may, however, necessitate reactions at even higher energies than the 800 MeV/nucleon considered in this work

  6. Isotopic evidence of boron in precipitation originating from coal burning in Asian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Natsumi, Masahiro; Tani, Yukinori

    2010-01-01

    The boron concentration and isotopic composition (δ 11 B) of precipitation collected from December 2002 to March 2006 at three sites on the Japan Sea coast were measured. Those sites have been considerably affected by the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent during winter and spring when the airflows from the Asian continent are predominant. The boron concentration in the precipitation increased primarily during winter whereas the δ 11 B decreased during winter or spring. It is assumed that this decrease in δ 11 B is not associated with a Rayleigh distillation process, because the previous δD values of the precipitation collected at a site on the Japan Sea coast did not decrease in the same manner. A weak correlation (r 2 =0.13-0.24, P 11 B and the nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO 4 2- )/B ratio at each site, suggesting that boron in the precipitation originate primarily from two sources. The first source, which is characterized by high δ 11 B and nss-SO 4 2- /B=0, is seawater. At the northern site, the enrichment factor for boron in the precipitation relative to seawater approached unity during winter. This implies that much of the boron in the precipitation is derived from unfractionated sea salts rather than gaseous boron evaporated from seawater. The second source is characterized by low δ 11 B and high nss-SO 4 2- /B ratio. Most of the nss-SO 4 2- in the precipitation originates from anthropogenic combustion activities in the Asian continent based on the previous model calculations. Coal accounts for a major portion of the total primary energy supply in China. Moreover, coal enriches boron and represents generally negative δ 11 B values. Hence, we propose that the emission of boron from coal burning is the most likely second source. Thus, boron isotopes may be useful as tracers of coal-burning plumes from the Asian continent. (author)

  7. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation’s cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  8. Report on workshop"Structure and evolution of Eurasia (super- continent"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on Structure and evolution of Eurasia (super- continent" was held on 23rd February 2004, at the National Institute of Polar Research with 29 participants. This provided an opportunity to review the history of amalgamation and breakup of past super-continents in the Earth's evolution, and speculate on the possibility of future super-continent formation. The largest continent on the present Earth, Eurasia, has been formed from an assembly of several sub-continental blocks including Asia, India and Europe, etc: it is also considered to be the nucleus of a future super-continent expected to form 250 m.y. after the present. In this workshop, several interesting topics were presented regarding the formation process, structure and dynamics of Eurasia, in particular in the deep crust and upper mantle. The first half of the workshop covered structural geology, shallow and deep seismic structure, and a simulation model of the Himalaya-Tibet region, known as a typical ongoing continent-continent collision zone. Inner crustal deformation of Eurasia was demonstrated by a newly developed Discrete Element method. In the latter half of the workshop, the possibility of formation of a future super-continent in the Western Pacific Triangular Zone was introduced with geological interpretation associated with an origin of the hot super-plumes. Seismic tomographic studies, particularly in China, which have revealed interesting features such as low velocity anomalies beneath the volcanic area, together with the presence of subducting Indian plates beneath the Tibet region were introduced. In the northwest Pacific region, remnant subducted slabs of the Kula plate have been found by local seismic tomography. Finally, a review of continental dynamics from gravity studies, and broadband seismic observations in the Baikal rift zones, were presented associated with the tectonics and evolution of central Eurasia. The formation mechanism of a hot super-plume in the

  9. Recent Aeromagnetic Anomaly views of the Antarctic continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.

    2012-04-01

    Antarctica is a keystone within the Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents. However, despite intense geological research along the coastal fringes of Antarctica, the interior of the continent remains one of the most poorly understood regions on Earth. Aeromagnetic investigations are a useful tool to help disclose the structure and the evolution of continents from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic and Antarctica is no exception. Here I review a variety of aeromagnetic studies in East and West Antarctica performed since the completion of the first generation ADMAP -Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project- in 2001. In western Dronning Maud, in East Antarctica, aeromagnetic data help delineate the extent of the Jurassic Jutulstraumen subglacial rift that is flanked by remnants of a Grenvillian-age (ca 1.1. Ga) igneous province and magmatic arc. Different magnetic signatures appear to characterize the Coats Land block but reconnaissance surveys are insufficient to fully delineate the extent and significance of the Coats Land block, a possible tectonic tracer of Laurentia within Rodinia (Loewy et al., 2011). Further in the interior of East Antarctica, a mosaic of distinct and hitherto largely unknown Precambrian provinces has recently been revealed by combining aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data with models of crustal thickness constrained by gravity modeling and seismology (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major collisional suture may lie between the Archean Ruker Province and an inferred Proterozoic Gamburtsev Province but the age of final assembly of central East Antarctica remains uncertain and controversial. I favour a Grenville-age collisional event (linked to Rodinia assembly) or possibly older Paleoproteroic collision, followed by intraplate reactivation, as opposed to Neoproterozoic or Early Cambrian collision linked to East-West Gondwana assembly (Boger, 2011). New aerogeophysical surveys over Prince Elizabeth and Queen Mary Land could test this

  10. Magmatic record of Late Devonian arc-continent collision in the northern Qiangtang, Tibet: Implications for the early evolution of East Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiu-Zheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Jun; Ou, Quan; Hao, Lu-Lu; Qi, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Recognizing the early-developed intra-oceanic arc is important in revealing the early evolution of East Paleo-Tethys Ocean. In this study, new SIMS zircon U-Pb dating, O-Hf isotopes, and whole-rock geochemical data are reported for the newly-discovered Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous arc in Qiangtang, central Tibet. New dating results reveal that the eastern Riwanchaka volcanic rocks were formed at 370-365 Ma and were intruded by the 360 Ma Gangma Co alkali feldspar granites. The volcanic rocks consist of basalts, andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites, whose geochemistry is similar to that typical of subduction-related volcanism. The basalts and andesites were generated by partial melting of the fluid and sediment-melt metasomatized mantle, respectively. The rhyodacites and dacites were probably derived from the fractional crystallization of andesites and from partial melting of the juvenile underplated mafic rocks, respectively. The Gangma Co alkali feldspar granites are A-type granites, and were possibly derived by partial melting of juvenile underplated mafic rocks in a post-collisional setting. The 370-365 Ma volcanic arc was characterized by basalts with oceanic arc-like Ce/Yb ratios and by rhyodacites with mantle-like or slightly higher zircon δ18O values, and it was associated with the contemporary ophiolites. Thus, we propose that it is the earliest intra-oceanic arc in the East Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and was accreted to the Northern Qiangtang Terrane during 365-360 Ma.

  11. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  12. Radiation Dose for Equipment in the LHC Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, K; Spickermann, T

    1998-01-01

    Collisions of protons with residual gas molecules or the beam screen installed in the vacuum chamber are the main sources for the radiation dose in the LHC arcs. The dose due to proton-gas collisions depends on gas pressure, energy and intensity of the circulating beam. The dose is about equally distributed along the arc and has been calculated in previous papers. Collisions of particles with the beam screen will take place where the beam size is largest - close to focusing quadrupole magnets. For this paper the radiation doses due to particles hitting the beam screen in a quadrupole were calculated with the shower codes GEANT3.21 and FLUKA96.

  13. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  14. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  15. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  16. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  17. Convergent plate margin dynamics : New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide.

  18. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how subduction zones initiate and continental crust forms in intraoceanic arcs requires knowledge of the inception and evolution of a representative intraoceanic arc, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system. This can be obtained by exploring regions adjacent to an arc, where unequivocal pre-arc crust overlain by undisturbed arc-derived materials exists. IODP Exp. 351 (June-July 2014) specifically targeted evidence for the earliest evolution of the IBM system following inception. Site U1438 (4711 m water depth) is located in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB), west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a paleo-IBM arc. Primary objectives of Exp. 351 were: 1) determine the nature of the crust and mantle pre-existing the IBM arc; 2) identify and model the process of subduction initiation and initial arc crust formation; 3) determine the compositional evolution of the IBM arc during the Paleogene; 4) establish geophysical properties of the ASB. Seismic reflection profiles indicate a ~1.3 km thick sediment layer overlying ~5.5 km thick igneous crust, presumed to be oceanic. This igneous crust seemed likely to be the basement of the IBM arc. Four holes were cored at Site U1438 spanning the entire sediment section and into basement. The cored interval comprises 5 units: uppermost Unit I is hemipelagic sediment with intercalated ash layers, presumably recording explosive volcanism mainly from the Ryukyu and Kyushu arcs; Units II and III host a series of volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits, likely recording the magmatic history of the IBM Arc from arc initiation until 25 Ma; Siliceous pelagic sediment (Unit IV) underlies these deposits with minimal coarse-grained sediment input and may pre-date arc initiation. Sediment-basement contact occurs at 1461 mbsf. A basaltic lava flow section dominantly composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare chilled margins continues to the bottom of the Site (1611 mbsf). The expedition successfully recovered pre-IBM Arc

  19. Complex Morphology of Subducted Lithosphere in the Mantle below the Molucca Collision Zone from Non-linear Seismic Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widiyantoro

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of seismic studies presented in previous publications depict two opposing subducted oceanic lithospheric slabs under the Molucca region. This unique structure is related to the arc-arc collision between the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs. Recently, we have revisited the complex subduction zone structure by employing a non-linear tomographic imaging technique in which 3-D ray tracing has been implemented. We have used P- as well as S-wave arrival times from carefully reprocessed global data set. The results provide some improvements in the positioning of wave-speed anomalies. Consistent with earlier results, the new P-wave model depicts the two opposing subducted slabs of the Molucca Sea plate. The intriguing new observation is that the westward dipping slab appears to penetrate into the lower mantle by taking the form of folded slab. We envisage that the folding behavior may have been caused by the shift of the whole subduction system in the Molucca region toward the Eurasian continent due to the westward thrust of the Pacific plate combined with the large left-lateral movement of the Sorong fault. The inversion of travel-time residuals of direct S phases strongly confirms the new observation.

  20. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  1. Characterising the continental crust factory: new insights into the roots of an island arc from Hf isotopes in rutile (Kohistan complex, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya; Müntener, Othmar; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Island arcs are one of the primary sites of generation of new continental crust. As such, a question of fundamental importance to models of continental growth is to what extent island arc magmas are strictly juvenile melts derived directly from the mantle, versus potentially incorporating a significant recycled continental component, for example from subducted sediment. The Kohistan complex (northeastern Pakistan) preserves a remarkably complete ˜50 km thick cross-section through an exhumed Jurassic-Cretaceous island arc. It affords a rare opportunity to study the evolution of island arc magmatism from subduction initiation, through intra-oceanic subduction, to arc-continent collision. In this study, we investigate the ultramafic-mafic Jijal Complex, which preserves part of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan complex formed over ˜20 Ma of intra-oceanic subduction. The Jijal Complex is volumetrically dominated by ultramafic rocks and garnet-bearing gabbros whose petrogenesis is controversial. Garnet formation has variously been attributed a prograde metamorphic origin1, a magmatic origin recording crystallisation at high pressures2,3, or a restitic origin following partial melting4. We have characterised the source of the Jijal Complex using in situ LA-MC-ICPMS determination of the Hf isotope composition of rutile from garnet gabbros, which are zircon-free. This work exploits the superior sensitivity of the Neptune Plus, coupled with an improved analytical protocol, to improve precision of this novel technique and permit in situ analysis of rutile with only ˜10-30 ppm Hf. Rutile occurs included in early-formed minerals such as clinopyroxene and garnet, indicating crystallisation at high pressures and temperatures. Rutile from all samples, collected across ˜3 km of former crustal depth, has indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions close to depleted mantle values. Integrating the new Hf isotope data for rutile with previously published whole rock Nd-Sr isotope

  2. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  3. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  4. Natural tracers for identifying the origin of the thermal fluids emerging along the Aegean Volcanic arc (Greece): Evidence of Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW) participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsika, E.; Poutoukis, D.; Michelot, J. L.; Raco, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Aegean volcanic arc is the result of a lithosphere subduction process during the Quaternary time. Starting from the Soussaki area, from west to east, the arc proceeds through the islands of Egina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, the Columbus Bank, Kos and Nisyros. Volcano-tectonic activities are still pronounced at Santorini and Nisyros in form of seismic activity, craters of hydrothermal explosions, hot fumaroles and thermal springs. A significant number of cold water springs emerge in the vicinity of hot waters on these islands. Chemical and isotopic analyses were applied on water and fumaroles samples collected in different areas of the volcanic arc in order to attempt the assessment of these fluids. Stable isotopes of water and carbon have been used to evaluate the origin of cold and thermal water and CO 2. Chemical solute concentrations and isotopic contents of waters show that the fluids emerging in Egina, Soussaki, Methana and Kos areas represent geothermal systems in their waning stage, while the fluids from Milos, Santorini and Nisyros proceed from active geothermal systems. The δ 2H-δ 18O-Cl - relationships suggest that the parent hydrothermal liquids of Nisyros and Milos are produced through mixing of seawater and Arc-Type Magmatic Water (ATMW), with negligible to nil contribution of local ground waters and with very high participation of the magmatic component, which is close to 70% in both sites. A very high magmatic contribution to the deep geothermal system could occur at Santorini as well, perhaps with a percentage similar to Nisyros and Milos, but it cannot be calculated because of steam condensation heavily affecting the fumarolic fluids of Nea Kameni before the surface discharge. The parent hydrothermal liquid at Methana originates through mixing of local groundwaters, seawater and ATMW, with a magmatic participation close to 19%. All in all, the contribution of ATMW is higher in the central-eastern part of the Aegean volcanic arc than in the

  5. The role of ring current O+ in the formation of stable auroral red arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyra, J.U.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.; Shelley, E.G.; Comfort, R.H.; Brace, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Coulomb collisions between ring current protons and thermal electrons were first proposed by Cole (1965) as the energy source for stable auroral red (SAR) arcs. Recent observations have shown that the ring current and magnetospheric plasma contain significant amounts of heavy ions (Johnson et al., 1977; Young et al., 1977; Geiss et al., 1978; and others). In fact, the ring current is often dominated by heavy ions at those energies (E ≤ 17 keV) important for Coulomb collisions on SAR arc field lines (Kozyra et al., 1986a). Observations (during four SAR arcs in 1981) of thermal and energetic ion populations by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the magnetospheric energy source region and nearly simultaneous Langmuir probe measurements of enhanced electron temperatures by Dynamics Explorer 2 within the SAR arc at F region heights have allowed the authors to examine the role of heavy ions in the formation of SAR arcs. They find that (1) sufficient energy is transferred to the electron gas at high altitudes via Coulomb collisions between the observed ring current ions and thermal electrons to support the enhanced (SAR arc) F region electron temperatures measured on these field lines, (2) the latitudinal variation in the electron heating rates calculated using observed ion populations is consistent with the observed variation in electron temperature across the SAR arc, and (3) in all cases, ring current O + is the major source of energy for the SAR arcs. This implies a relationship between the heavy ion content of the magnetospheric plasma and the occurrence frequency and intensity of SAR arcs

  6. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine sea plates and collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2015-04-01

    The Kanto basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on long-term vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire Kanto basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modelled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the arc-arc collision process has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following a change in plate motion. Observed changes in the subsidence/uplift pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (<1 My) deformation in the Kanto basin shows a lag in crustal response to the shift in plate motion. We also calculated recent stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  7. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The episode of the History of Science (HOS) on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS) and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum) and secondary level (year 10) for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continent...

  8. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England?s football, America?s national pastime, baseball, Japan?s Judo, and Korea?s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world?s most popular sports and has served its f...

  9. Collision-induced post-plateau volcanism: Evidence from a seamount on Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Takeshi; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Shimizu, Kenji; Ishizuka, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing; Senda, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hirahara, Yuka; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Goto, Kosuke T.; Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau. Despite the thick sediment cover, several volcanic cones with strong acoustic reflection were discovered on the submarine flank of the Nuugurigia Seamount. From such volcanic cones, basalts were successfully sampled by dredging. Radiometric dating of basalts and ferromanganese encrustation indicate eruption age of 20-25 Ma, significantly younger than the 122 Ma main OJP plateau and post-plateau basalts. The age range coincides with the collision of the OJP with the Solomon Arc. The Nuugurigia basalts geochemically differ from any other rocks sampled on the OJP so far. They are alkali basalts with elevated Sr, low Zr and Hf, and Enriched Mantle-I (EMI)-like isotopic composition. Parental magmas of these alkali basalts may have formed by small-degree melting of peridotitic mantle impregnated with recycled pyroxenite material having enriched geochemical composition in the OJP's mantle root. We conclude that small-volume alkali basalts from the enriched mantle root migrated through faults or fractures caused by the collision along the Stewart Arch to form the seamount. Our results suggest that the collision of the OJP with the Solomon arc played an important role in the origin of similar post-plateau seamounts along the Stewart Arch.

  10. Origin of the finite nuclear spin and its effect in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao

    2012-01-01

    The heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model is used to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin in intermediate energy heavy-ion collision (HIC). The spin of maximal projectile-like fragment is found to depend strongly on impact parameter of a reaction system,while it relates weakly to the collision violence. Some interesting multi-fragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown. We also found that the excitation energy in the de-excitation stage plays a robust role at the de-excitation stage in HIC. (authors)

  11. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  12. The Deep Electrical Structure of Southern Taiwan and Its Tectonic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan orogen has formed as a result of the arc-continent collision between the Eurasian continental margin and the Luzon volcanic arc over the last 5 million years and is the type example of an arc-continent collision. The tectonic processes at work beneath Taiwan are still debated; the available data have been interpreted with both thin-skinned and lithospheric collision models. In 2004, the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER project began a systematic investigation of the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Taiwan. TAIGER magnetotelluric (MT data from central Taiwan favor a thick-skinned model for that region. The Taiwan orogen becomes younger to the south, so the earlier stages of collision were investigated with a 100-km-long MT profile in southern Taiwan at latitude of 23.3¢XN. Data were recorded at 15 MT sites and tensor decomposition and two-dimensional inversion were applied to the MT data. The shallow electrical resistivity structure is in good agreement with surface geology. The deeper structure shows a major conductor in the mid-crust that can be explained by fluid content of 0.4 - 1.4%. A similar feature was observed in central Taiwan, but with a higher fluid content. The conductor in southern Taiwan extends to lower crustal depths and is likely caused by fluids generated by metamorphic reactions in a thickened crust. Together the central and southern Taiwan MT profiles show a crustal root beneath the Central Range.

  13. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima

    2000-01-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863± 97 Ma and e Nd (T) of +4.1 T D M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 ± 77 Ma and e Nd (T) of +2.9. T DM values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 ± 120 Ma and initial e Nd value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  14. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  15. Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangin, C.; Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Cotten, J.; Polve, M.; Priadi, B.; Soeria-Atmadja, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors)

  16. Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin; Basaltes de bassin arriere-arc de l`Eocene-Miocene et tholeiites d`arc insulaire associees du nord Sulawesi (Indonesie): implications pour l`evolution geodynamique du bassin des Celebes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangin, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Cotten, J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 29 - Brest (France); Polve, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France); Priadi, B.; Soeria-Atmadja, R. [Department of Geology, ITB, Bandung (Indonesia); Joron, J.L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1997-12-31

    Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors) 37 refs.

  17. Albari granodiorite - a typical calcalkaline diapir of volcanic arc stage from the Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radain, Abdulaziz A.

    Granodiorite rocks of the Arabian Shield are generally considered to be collision-related granitoids. However, there are some granodiorites that were formed during the volcanic arc stage. Major and trace elements studies are carried out on Albari diapiric granodiorite to reveal its tectonic environment. This intrusive rock type is common in the Taif arc province (Mahd adh Dhahab quadrangle) of the Asir microplate near the border of the southeast dipping subduction zone that ended up with arc-arc collision (Asir-Hijaz microplates) along the now known Bir Umq suture zone. The granodiorite exhibits a calcalkaline trend on ternary AFM and K 2ONa 2OCaO diagrams. Tectonic discrimination diagrams using multicationic parameters (R1 = 4Sill(Na+K)2(Fe+Ti); R2 = 6Ca+2Mg+Al), SiO 2-trace elements (Nb, Y, Rb), and Y versus Nb and Rb versus (Y+Nb) indicate a destructive active plate margin or volcanic arc stage tectonic environment. Albari calcalkaline granodiorite might have been derived directly from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust or overlying mantle contaminated with variable amounts of intermediate (quartz diorite, diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) early and late volcanic arc-related plutonic country rocks.

  18. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  19. Transition Metal Systematics of Opx-Enriched Harzburgites From the Cascades Arc With Implications for the Origin of Cratonic Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    A number of peridotite xenoliths collected from the Simcoe volcanic field region of the Cascades arc exhibit notable enrichment of modal orthopyroxene. The process driving this enrichment is most likely metasomatism of the mantle wedge by Si-rich fluids derived ultimately from the underlying slab. By investigating the resultant elemental systematics associated with subduction zone metasomatism of this type, we hope to shed light on the origin of other opx-rich peridotites, such as those seen in many cratonic xenolith suites. The xenoliths found in the Simcoe volcanic field provide a rare opportunity to examine the composition of sub arc mantle, as it is unusual to find mantle xenoliths in volcanic arc lavas. The samples were analyzed using laser ablation ICPMS and their bulk compositions were reconstructed from point-counted mineral modes. Two-pyroxene mineral thermometry of the samples yield temperatures of approximately 1000 degrees C, corresponding to a depth of origin at uppermost mantle pressures if typical arc geotherms are assumed. Most of the peridotites are harzburgites or olivine-orthopyroxenites (Mg#s 0.88-0.9; opx mode 0.15-0.9), with small amounts of clinopyroxene (rare earths, consistent with a metasomatic origin for these opx-rich harzburgites. Of note is the counterintuitive systematics of Zn. Whole-rock Zn decreases with opx, but Zn in olivine also decreases with opx mode while Zn in opx increases with opx mode, hence the decrease in whole- rock Zn is not simply due to mechanical segregation of harzburgite into opx- and ol-rich zones. In summary, the REE signatures suggest the subducting slab as the most likely candidate for the source of the fluids that caused the opx enrichment. The opx-enrichment itself and the unusual trends in Zn suggest a reaction between a silicic fluid and normal harzburgite. Moreover, the concomitant decrease in olivine and whole-rock Zn with opx mode suggests significant leaching of Zn from the peridotite during this

  20. Earth's first stable continents did not form by subduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tim E; Brown, Michael; Gardiner, Nicholas J; Kirkland, Christopher L; Smithies, R Hugh

    2017-03-09

    The geodynamic environment in which Earth's first continents formed and were stabilized remains controversial. Most exposed continental crust that can be dated back to the Archaean eon (4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) comprises tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite rocks (TTGs) that were formed through partial melting of hydrated low-magnesium basaltic rocks; notably, these TTGs have 'arc-like' signatures of trace elements and thus resemble the continental crust produced in modern subduction settings. In the East Pilbara Terrane, Western Australia, low-magnesium basalts of the Coucal Formation at the base of the Pilbara Supergroup have trace-element compositions that are consistent with these being source rocks for TTGs. These basalts may be the remnants of a thick (more than 35 kilometres thick), ancient (more than 3.5 billion years old) basaltic crust that is predicted to have existed if Archaean mantle temperatures were much hotter than today's. Here, using phase equilibria modelling of the Coucal basalts, we confirm their suitability as TTG 'parents', and suggest that TTGs were produced by around 20 per cent to 30 per cent melting of the Coucal basalts along high geothermal gradients (of more than 700 degrees Celsius per gigapascal). We also analyse the trace-element composition of the Coucal basalts, and propose that these rocks were themselves derived from an earlier generation of high-magnesium basaltic rocks, suggesting that the arc-like signature in Archaean TTGs was inherited from an ancestral source lineage. This protracted, multistage process for the production and stabilization of the first continents-coupled with the high geothermal gradients-is incompatible with modern-style plate tectonics, and favours instead the formation of TTGs near the base of thick, plateau-like basaltic crust. Thus subduction was not required to produce TTGs in the early Archaean eon.

  1. Pliocene granodioritic knoll with continental crust affinities discovered in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: Syntectonic granitic crust formation during back-arc rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenichiro; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Chang, Qing; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Shukuno, Hiroshi; Hirahara, Yuka; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arima, Makoto; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2015-08-01

    A widely held hypothesis is that modern continental crust of an intermediate (i.e. andesitic) bulk composition forms at intra-oceanic arcs through subduction zone magmatism. However, there is a critical paradox in this hypothesis: to date, the dominant granitic rocks discovered in these arcs are tonalite, rocks that are significantly depleted in incompatible (i.e. magma-preferred) elements and do not geochemically and petrographically represent those of the continents. Here we describe the discovery of a submarine knoll, the Daisan-West Sumisu Knoll, situated in the rear-arc region of the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Remotely-operated vehicle surveys reveal that this knoll is made up entirely of a 2.6 million year old porphyritic to equigranular granodiorite intrusion with a geochemical signature typical of continental crust. We present a model of granodiorite magma formation that involves partial remelting of enriched mafic rear-arc crust during the initial phase of back-arc rifting, which is supported by the preservation of relic cores inherited from initial rear-arc source rocks within magmatic zircon crystals. The strong extensional tectonic regime at the time of intrusion may have allowed the granodioritic magma to be emplaced at an extremely shallow level, with later erosion of sediment and volcanic covers exposing the internal plutonic body. These findings suggest that rear-arc regions could be the potential sites of continental crust formation in intra-oceanic convergent margins.

  2. Molecular beam sampling of a hollow cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuws, P.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description of the process of molecular beam sampling of a Hollow Cathode Arc. The aim of the study is twofold, i.e. investigation of the applicability of molecular beam sampling as a plasma diagnostic and the use of a Hollow Cathode Arc as a high intensity beam source for ground state atoms and metastable state atoms in the superthermal energy range. Suitable models are introduced, describing the process of molecular beam sampling of both ground state atoms and metastable state atoms. Fast ground state atoms produced by ion-atom collisions. The experimental facilities, i.e. the Hollow Cathode Arc, the time-of-flight machine and the dye laser system are described. And an alternative detection scheme for ground state atoms is presented and experimental results on the molecular beam sampling of a low density plasma (densities 10 19 -10 20 m -3 ) in the long arc configuration are reported. The results on the short arc configuration (densities 10 21 -10 22 m -3 ) are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. On the formation of auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiewicz, K.

    1984-04-01

    A new mechanism for auroral arc formation is presented. The characteristic linear shape of auroral arcs is determined by magnetically connected plasma clouds in the distant equatorial magnetosphere. These clouds originate as high speed plasma beams in the magnetotail and in the solar wind. It is found that the free energy for driving an auroral arc is provided by the difference of pressure between the cloud and the ambient plasma. (author)

  4. Rheology of the Indian and Tarim plates in the Karakoram continent-to-continent collision zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caporali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of Western Himalayas, Karakoram and Tien Shan show large negative values, but classical isostatic models are insufficient to account for the detailed pattern of the observed anomalies. In the past years the gravimetric surveys in the Karakoram done by Marussi, Caputo and others in 1954 have been extended and intensified. The full body of available gravimetric data, including the pendulum observations by De Filippi and Hedin at the beginning of this century, have been re-analyzed. Terrain corrections have been computed systematically for all available data using a unique algorithm and Digital Terrain Model. The isostatic anomalies along a profile from the Indo-Gangetic foredeep, across the Karakoram range and terminating in the Tarim basin show the oscillating values already noted by Marussi. It is here proposed that this oscillatory pattern can be explained by a model in which the convergent boundaries of the Indian and Tarim plates deform by elastic flexure, besides isostasy. The gravity data constrain the numerical values of the model parameters, particularly the flexural rigidity of the plates. For the Indian plate the best fitting value of the flexural rigidity is D = 5 1024 N m, a value very similar to those reported in Central Himalaya. The flexural rigidity of the Tarim plate turns out to be considerably larger D = 7 1025 N m, which makes the Tarim more rigid than the neighboring Central Tibet. Both plates are loaded by an estimated shear stress of 7 1012 N m-1 located in a region corresponding to the Nanga Parbat Haramosh syntaxis. It is concluded that the Indo-Asian continental collision in the Western Himalaya and Karakoram resulted in the development of flexural basins on both sides, unlike the Central Himalaya where the collision produced a flexural basin, the Ganga basin, to the south and, to the north, the indentation of an isostatically supported Tibetan block with possible rheological

  5. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2017-06-01

    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  6. Geocoding police collision report data from California: a comprehensive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision geocoding is the process of assigning geographic descriptors, usually latitude and longitude coordinates, to a traffic collision record. On California police reports, relative collision location is recorded using a highway postmile marker or a street intersection. The objective of this study was to create a geocoded database of all police-reported, fatal and severe injury collisions in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS for years 1997-2006 for use by public agencies. Results Geocoding was completed with a multi-step process. First, pre-processing was performed using a scripting language to clean and standardize street name information. A state highway network with postmile values was then created using a custom tool written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA in ArcGIS software. Custom VBA functionality was also used to incorporate the offset direction and distance. Intersection and address geocoding was performed using ArcGIS, StreetMap Pro 2003 digital street network, and Google Earth Pro. A total of 142,007 fatal and severe injury collisions were identified in SWITRS. The geocoding match rate was 99.8% for postmile-coded collisions and 86% for intersection-coded collisions. The overall match rate was 91%. Conclusions The availability of geocoded collision data will be beneficial to clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the fields of traffic safety and public health. Potential uses of the data include studies of collision clustering on the highway system, examinations of the associations between collision occurrence and a variety of variables on environmental and social characteristics, including housing and personal demographics, alcohol outlets, schools, and parks. The ability to build maps may be useful in research planning and conduct and in the delivery of information to both technical and non-technical audiences.

  7. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on arc root movements in a dc plasma torch: Diamagnetic effect of arc column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun Su

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the anodic arc root movement inside a dc plasma torch has been investigated. The arc voltage fluctuation, which represents the degree of the arc instability, was reduced to 28.6% of the original value and the high frequency components in the voltage signal also decreased in their magnitudes. The inherent arc instability in a dc thermal plasma torch seems to be suppressed by a diamagnetic effect of the arc column. Furthermore, the measured voltage wave forms indicated that the arc root attachment mode would be controllable by a transverse magnetic field

  8. Results from CAT/SCAN, the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Accretion-Collision Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Amato, A.; Guerra, I.; Armbruster, J.; Baccheschi, P.; Diluccio, F.; Gervasi, A.; Harabaglia, P.; Kim, W.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Margheriti, L.; Seeber, L.; Tolstoy, M.; Wilson, C. K.

    2005-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc region is the final remnant of a Western Mediterranean microplate driven by rollback. Calabria itself is an exotic block that rifted off Sardinia and opened the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin in its wake. The Calabrian Arc rapidly advanced to the southeast, with subduction ahead and extension behind, following subduction rollback of the Mesozoic seafloor. The subduction zone meanwhile collided progressively with the Apulia to form the Apennines in peninsular Italy and with the Africa to form the Maghrebides in Sicily. The Calabrian Arc is where the transition from subduction to continental collision is occurring. The collisions on either side of Calabria have restricted oceanic subduction to a narrow 200-km salient with well-defined edges and seismicity that extends to over 500 km depth. The collisions have also slowed, or possibly even halted, the rapid advance of the arc. Whether rollback of the oceanic lower plate of the Ionian Sea continues and whether the upper plate of Calabria continues to move as an independent plate are both uncertain. The Calabrian-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) is a passive experiment to study of the Calabrian Arc and the transition to the southern Apennines. The land deployment consisted of three phases. The initial phase included an array of 39 broadband seismometers onshore, deployed in the winter of 2003/4. In September 2004, the array was reduced to 28 broadband and 8 short-period instruments. In April 2005, the array was reduced once again to 20 broadband and 2 short-period instruments. The field deployment was completed in October 2005. Offshore, 12 broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the beginning of October 2004. Data from 4 OBSs have been recovered so far with deployment durations from a few weeks to almost one year. Fishing activity has been strongly implicated in the early recoveries, (with one instrument returned by fishermen), and is suspected

  9. Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Bottrill; J. van Hunen; M. B. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away...

  10. Episodic nature of continental arc activity since 750 Ma: A global compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Lee, Cin-Ty A.; Lackey, Jade Star

    2017-03-01

    Continental arcs have been recently hypothesized to outflux large amounts of CO2 compared to island arcs so that global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism might drive long-term greenhouse events. Quantitative testing of this hypothesis, however, has been limited by the lack of detailed studies on the spatial distribution of continental arcs through time. Here, we compile a worldwide database of geological maps and associated literature to delineate the surface exposure of granitoid plutons, allowing reconstruction of how the surface area addition rate of granitoids and the length of continental arcs have varied since 750 Ma. These results were integrated into an ArcGIS framework and plate reconstruction models. We find that the spatial extent of continental arcs is episodic with time and broadly matches the detrital zircon age record. Most vigorous arc magmatism occurred during the 670-480 Ma and the 250-50 Ma when major greenhouse events are recognized. Low continental arc activity characterized most of the Cryogenian, middle-late Paleozoic, and Cenozoic when climate was cold. Our results indicate that plate tectonics is not steady, with fluctuations in the nature of subduction zones possibly related in time to the assembly and dispersal of continents. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that variations in continental arc activity may play a first order role in driving long-term climate change. The dataset presented here provides a quantitative basis for upscaling continental arc processes to explore their effects on mountain building, climate, and crustal growth on a global scale.

  11. Investigation and control of dc arc jet instabilities to obtain a self-sustained pulsed laminar arc jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krowka, J; Rat, V; Coudert, J F

    2013-01-01

    The uncontrolled arc plasma instabilities in suspension plasma spraying or solution precursor plasma spraying cause non-homogeneous plasma treatments of material during their flight and also on coatings during their formation. This paper shows that the arc motion in dc plasma torches mainly originates in two main modes of oscillation (Helmholtz and restrike modes). The emphasis is put on the restrike mode in which the time component is extracted after building up and applying a numerical filter to raw arc voltage signals. The dependence of re-arcing events on experimental parameters is analysed in the frame of a phenomenological restrike model. It is shown that when the restrike frequency reaches the Helmholtz one, both modes are locked together and a pulsed arc jet is generated. (paper)

  12. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  13. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  14. Geodynamic evolution of the Sabzevar zone, northern central Iranian micro-continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hadi; Moazzen, Mohssen; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2018-02-01

    The Northern Central Iranian Micro-continent (CIM) represents Neotethys-related oceanic crust remnants, emplaced due to convergence between CIM and Eurasia plates during Eocene. Mafic and ultramafic units are exposed along the northern part of the CIM in the Sabzevar area. The geology and field relation of Sabzevar ophiolite indicate northward subduction of the Sabzevar basin. The average whole rock chemistry of mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic samples (lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite) is characterized by a range of MgO of 11.16-31.88, CaO 5.22-11.53 and Al2O3 2.77-14.57, respectively. Low LREE/HREE ratio of ultramafic samples is accompanied by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Pb and K. Mafic samples show two distinct groups with low and high LREE/HREE ratios. The spider diagram of mafic samples indicates enrichment in Sr, Pb and K and depletion in REE. Petrological and geochemical evidence and field relations show that the mafic rocks formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Petrological studies reveal the role of fractional crystallization and assimilation effect by released fluids during subduction related generation of the Sabzevar mafic rocks. We suggest that the studied mafic rocks likely represent the basement of an initial island arc, which was generated in a supra-subduction zone setting within the Neotethys branch of the Sabzevar Ocean at the north of CIM. Copper, gold and chromite mineralizations are studied in relation to island arc setting and supra-subduction environment. Similarities in lithology, ophiolite age and mineralization between Sabzevar ophiolite and Bardaskan-Torbat Heydariyeh ophiolites testify for their separation due to rotation (or faulting) of the Central Iranian Micro-continent.

  15. THE NON-THERMAL, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO EMISSION FROM Cyg OB2 no. 5: A WIND-COLLISION REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The radio emission from the well-studied massive stellar system Cyg OB2 no. 5 is known to fluctuate with a period of 6.7 years between a low-flux state, when the emission is entirely of free-free origin, and a high-flux state, when an additional non-thermal component (of hitherto unknown nature) appears. In this paper, we demonstrate that the radio flux of that non-thermal component is steady on timescales of hours and that its morphology is arc-like. This shows that the non-thermal emission results from the collision between the strong wind driven by the known contact binary in the system and that of an unseen companion on a somewhat eccentric orbit with a 6.7 year period and a 5-10 mas semimajor axis. Together with the previously reported wind-collision region located about 0.''8 to the northeast of the contact binary, so far Cyg OB2 no. 5 appears to be the only multiple system known to harbor two radio-imaged wind-collision regions.

  16. Calculation of the Arc Velocity Along the Polluted Surface of Short Glass Plates Considering the Air Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the microphysics mechanism and the factors that influence arc development along a polluted surface, the arc was considered as a plasma fluid. Based on the image method and the collision ionization theory, the electric field of the arc needed to maintain movement with different degrees of pollution was calculated. According to the force of the charged particle in an arc plasma stressed under an electric field, a calculation model of arc velocity, which is dependent on the electric field of the arc head that incorporated the effects of airflow around the electrode and air resistance is presented. An experiment was carried out to measure the arc velocity, which was then compared with the calculated value. The results of the experiment indicated that the lighter the pollution is, the larger the electric field of the arc head and arc velocity is; when the pollution is heavy, the effect of thermal buoyancy that hinders arc movement increases, which greatly reduces the arc velocity.

  17. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  18. Efficacy of robust optimization plan with partial-arc VMAT for photon volumetric-modulated arc therapy: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated position dependence in planning target volume (PTV)-based and robust optimization plans using full-arc and partial-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The gantry angles at the periphery, intermediate, and center CTV positions were 181°-180° (full-arc VMAT) and 181°-360° (partial-arc VMAT). A PTV-based optimization plan was defined by 5 mm margin expansion of the CTV to a PTV volume, on which the dose constraints were applied. The robust optimization plan consisted of a directly optimized dose to the CTV under a maximum-uncertainties setup of 5 mm. The prescription dose was normalized to the CTV D 99% (the minimum relative dose that covers 99% of the volume of the CTV) as an original plan. The isocenter was rigidly shifted at 1 mm intervals in the anterior-posterior (A-P), superior-inferior (S-I), and right-left (R-L) directions from the original position to the maximum-uncertainties setup of 5 mm in the original plan, yielding recalculated dose distributions. It was found that for the intermediate and center positions, the uncertainties in the D 99% doses to the CTV for all directions did not significantly differ when comparing the PTV-based and robust optimization plans (P > 0.05). For the periphery position, uncertainties in the D 99% doses to the CTV in the R-L direction for the robust optimization plan were found to be lower than those in the PTV-based optimization plan (P plan's efficacy using partial-arc VMAT depends on the periphery CTV position. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Seismic response to recent tectonic processes in the Banda Arc region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Matějková, Radka; Vaněk, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, 5 March (2013), s. 1-13 ISSN 1367-9120 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09011 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Banda Arc * subduction * Wadati-Benioff zone * collision * calc-alkaline volcanism Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.831, year: 2013

  20. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  1. A top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a candidate boosted top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. The red line shows the path of a muon with transverse momentum around 50 GeV through the detector. The dashed line shows the direction of the missing transverse momentum, which has a magnitude of about 470 GeV. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, from these deposits 4 small-radius (R=0.4) jets are identified with transverse momenta between 70 and 300 GeV. Three of these small-radius jets are re-clustered into the leading large-radius (R=1.0) jet (not shown explicitly) with a transverse momentum of about 600 GeV and a jet mass of about 180 GeV, near the top quark mass. One of these three jets in addition to the fourth jet above 70 GeV are identified as having originated from b-quarks. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in th...

  2. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  3. Evolving Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Warren

    Brian Windley succeeds very well indeed at the formidable task he sets for himself in this greatly revised second edition of a book that first appeared in 1977. He synthesizes primarily the tectonic and petrologic evolution of the continents and secondarily their economic geologic, stratigraphic, and biologic history. The book is organized in well-balanced time sequence and topical chapters, followed by a fine overview. The author describes examples, generalizes from them, and seeks understanding of variations with time and with depth of the process acting on continents within a plate tectonic framework.

  4. Excitation and charge transfer in He++H collisions. A study of the origin dependence of calculated cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1983-01-01

    A treatment of the He + -H collision is presented in an impact-parameter formalism for collision energies 0.5--30 keV. The origin dependence of the calculated total cross sections is studied in detail. It is shown that the branching ratio between reactions He + (1s)+H(1s)→He + (1s)+H(2n) and He + (1s)+H(1s)→He(1s2p)+H + oscillates as a function of the origin of electronic coordinates chosen in the calculation. This oscillation is strong enough so that at nuclear velocity 0.5 a.u., either both reactions are competitive or one of them can have a cross section for the reaction He(1s 2 )+H + →He + (1s)+H(1s) can either be negligble or comparable to those of the other reactions. We study the oscillatory behavior of the charge-exchange-transition probability as a function of 1/v. We show the similarity, for high velocity, between nonresonant and resonant change-exhange processes, the origin of the damping factor, and the influence of the rotatioal coupling on the transition probabilities as functions of 1/v. A connection between Lichten's and Denkov's models is established

  5. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2016-06-01

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (< 1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  6. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  7. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Milhano, José Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    The di-jet asymmetry --- the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system --- is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator \\jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy ion collisions two additional sources contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable.

  8. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Zapp, Korinna Christine [Universidade de Lisboa, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    The di-jet asymmetry - the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system - is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator Jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy-ion collisions two additional sources can contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable. (orig.)

  9. Could a Collision Between a Ghost Galaxy and the Milky Way be the Origin of the VPOS or DoS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez, O. A.; Casas, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    At present within the area of astrophysics there are a number of unresolved problems, including the origin of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Most of these galaxies are characterized as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The large majority of them is distributed in a disk-like structure which is arranged almost perpendicular to the plane of the Galaxy, this structure is known as disk of satellites (DoS) or Vast Polar structure of Satellite galaxies (VPoS). So far there is not a model that fully reproduces the amount and spatial distribution of these galaxies. However there have been several proposed for the solutions, one of which suggests that these originated in the collision of two disk galaxies billions of years ago. Using the Gadget2 software, we have performed N-bodies numerical simulations of the collision between two disk galaxies that could give rise to disk of Milky Way satellites.

  10. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  11. Tectonostratigraphic reconstruction Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary in the northwestern Andes: from extensional tectonics to arc accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Patino, A. M.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Leon, S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Valencia, V.; Parra, M.; Hincapie, S.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margins characterized by continuous convergence experienced overimposed tectonic configurations that allowed the formation of volcanic arcs, back arc basins, transtensional divergent tectonics or the accretion of exotic volcanic terranes. Such record, particularly the extensional phases, can be partially destroyed and obscure by multiple deformational events, the accretion of exotic terranes and strike slip fragmentation along the margin. The tectonic evolution of the northern Andes during the Mesozoic is the result of post Pangea extension followed by the installation of a long-lived Jurassic volcanic arc (209 - 136 ma) that apparently stops between 136 Ma and 110 Ma. The Quebradagrande Complex has been define as a single Lower Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary unit exposed in the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes that growth after the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic hiatus. The origin of this unit have been related either to an oceanic volcanic arc or a marginal basin environment. The existence of such contrasting models reflect the regional perspective followed in published studies and the paucity of detail analysis of the volcano-sedimentary sequences.We integrate multiple approaches including structural mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry, U-Pb provenance and geochronology to improve the understanding of this unit and track the earlier phases of accumulation that are mask on the overimposed tectonic history. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of different volcano-sedimentary units that accumulated between 100 Ma and 82 Ma.The older Lower Cretaceous sequences was deposited over Triassic metamorphic continental crust and include a upward basin deepening record characterized by thick fan delta conglomerates, followed by distal turbidites and a syn-sedimentary volcanic record at 100 ma. The other sequence include a 85 - 82 Ma fringing arc that was also formed close to the continental margin or

  12. Checking of seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal NPP of Chinese continent after Fukushima nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong; Zhou Bengang; Zhao Lianda

    2013-01-01

    A checking on seismic and tsunami hazard for coastal nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chinese continent has been made after Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident caused by earthquake tsunami.The results of the checking are introduced briefly in this paper,including the evaluations of seismic and tsunami hazard in NPP siting period,checking results on seismic and tsunami hazard.Because Chinese coastal area belongs to the continental shelf and far from the boundary of plate collision,the tsunami hazard is not significant for coastal area of Chinese continent.However,the effect from tsunami still can' t be excluded absolutely since calculated result of Manila trench tsunami source although the tsunami wave is lower than water level from storm surge.The research about earthquake tsunami will continue in future.The tsunami warning system and emergency program of NPP will be established based on principle of defense in depth in China.

  13. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/+H collisions. A study of the origin dependence of calculated cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1983-01-01

    A treatment of the He/sup +/-H collision is presented in an impact-parameter formalism for collision energies 0.5--30 keV. The origin dependence of the calculated total cross sections is studied in detail. It is shown that the branching ratio between reactions He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(2n) and He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He(1s2p)+H/sup +/ oscillates as a function of the origin of electronic coordinates chosen in the calculation. This oscillation is strong enough so that at nuclear velocity 0.5 a.u., either both reactions are competitive or one of them can have a cross section for the reaction He(1s/sup 2/)+H/sup +/..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s) can either be negligble or comparable to those of the other reactions. We study the oscillatory behavior of the charge-exchange-transition probability as a function of 1/v. We show the similarity, for high velocity, between nonresonant and resonant change-exhange processes, the origin of the damping factor, and the influence of the rotatioal coupling on the transition probabilities as functions of 1/v. A connection between Lichten's and Denkov's models is established.

  14. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.

    2017-12-01

    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  15. [Continent ileostomy--indication and possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnloser, P; Säuberli, H; Geroulanos, S; Schauwecker, H H; Kock, N G

    1975-06-21

    Proctocolectomy with conventional ileostomy cures patients with severe ulcerative colitis but ileostomy appliances must be worn for the rest of their lives. The continent ileostomy, as devised by Kock, provides the patient with an intraabdominal ileal reservoir and a valve constructed by invaginating the efferent ileal segment into the reservoir. The patient empties his reservoir 2-3 times a day by inserting a catheter through the valve. Our experience with 14 patients is reported. The continent ileostomy was in most cases constructed as a second procedure after proctocolectomy. Minor postoperative complications, such as abscess, fistula or partial luxation of the valve were easily corrected. One patient who underwent proctocolectomy and simultaneous construction of a continent ileostomy died in acute liver failure due to a severe preexisting cirrhosis. All the other patients are continent for feces and gas and do not need external appliances. The construction of a continent ileostomy as a secondary procedure can be recommended in patients with proctocolectomy. It offers patients a life situation with differs only insignificantly from that of normal persons.

  16. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  17. Shyok Suture Zone, N Pakistan: late Mesozoic Tertiary evolution of a critical suture separating the oceanic Ladakh Arc from the Asian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Collins, Alan S.

    2002-02-01

    -grade, mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the south-Asian continental margin. A structurally associated turbiditic slope/basinal succession records rifting of the Karakoram continent (part of Mega-Lhasa) from Gondwana. Red clastics of inferred fluvial origin ('molasse') unconformably overlie the Late Palaeozoic-Triassic succession and are also intersliced with other units in the suture zone. Reconnaissance further east (north of the Shyok River) indicates the presence of redeposited volcaniclastic sediments and thick acid tuffs, derived from nearby volcanic centres, presumed to lie within the Ladakh Arc. In addition, comparison with Lower Cretaceous clastic sediments (Maium Unit) within the Northern Suture Zone, west of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis (Hunza River) reveals notable differences, including the presence of terrigenous quartz-rich conglomerates, serpentinite debris-flow deposits and a contrasting structural history. The Shyok Suture Zone in the Skardu area is interpreted to preserve the remnants of a rifted oceanic back-arc basin and components of the Asian continental margin. In the west (Hunza River), a mixed volcanogenic and terrigenous succession (Maium Unit) is interpreted to record syn-deformational infilling of a remnant back-arc basin/foreland basin prior to suturing of the Kohistan Arc with Asia (75-90 Ma).

  18. The problem of early continence recovery after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kachmazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The highest rate of incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP is observed in the first 2–6 months after surgery. In order  to decrease the period of incontinence, virous surgical methods aimed at preservation and reconstruction of structures participating  in the mechanism of urine retention has been developed and improved.The study objective is to evaluate effectiveness of an original method of formation of an urethral anastomosis in the early continence recovery.Materials and methods. Data on 126 patients who underwent retropubic RP were analyzed. Depending on the method of urethral anastomosis formation, patients were divided into 2 groups: in the 1st group (n = 52 the patients underwent PR with urethra suspension m. levator ani, in the 2nd (n = 74 – standard RP. In the 1st group, 6 ligatures were applied to the anterior and posterior urethra walls: at the 12 and 6 hour projections through the mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle; at the 10, 2, 4, and 8 hour projections – more laterally with capture of the m. levator ani medial margins. Continence recovery was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14 after urinary catheter removal and then at days 30, 90, 180, and 365 after RP. The criteria of continence were absence of urine leakage at rest and during physical activity and a necessity of using a safety liner.Results. There weren’t any significant differences at day 1 after urinary catheter removal between the two groups (р > 0.05. In the 1st group, continence values at days 30, 90, and 180 after RP were significantly higher (57.7, 69.2, and 71.1 %, respectively compared to the 2nd group (35.1, 41.9, and 51.3 %, respectively (р <0.05.Conclusion. Results of this work show significant benefits of RP with urethra suspension m. levator ani compared to standard RP per continence recovery criteria at days 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 after the surgery. The technique of urethra suspension m. levator ani is easy to perform and ensures

  19. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  20. Continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy using self-reporting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Herbert; Kaci, Ledia; Xue, Xiaonan

    2004-03-01

    We performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence. Between October 2000 and February 2002 all men who underwent RRP were encouraged to complete the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Beginning October 2002 a single question capturing the patient global self-assessment of continence status was added to the postoperative continence assessment. The study design was cross-sectional since only continence surveys submitted between October 2002 through February 2003 were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa coefficient was determined for the relationship between the patient global assessment of continence vs the definition of continence based on pad requirement, problem due to incontinence and frequency of incontinence. Continence progressively improved 3 to 24 months following RRP for all continence outcomes. At 24 months following RRP 97.1% of men considered themselves continent, while 97.1%, 94.1% and 97.1% were considered continent using continence definitions, including the requirement of no or 1 pad in a 24-hour interval, no or slight bother due to incontinence and total control or occasional dribbling, respectively. Our 3 definitions of continence derived from responses to the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index had excellent agreement with patient global self-assessment of continence (kappa coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83). The majority of men achieve continence without invasive intervention following RRP. Final continence status should be ascertained at 24 months. The patient global assessment of continence provides face validity for other definitions of continence based on responses to validated self-administered questionnaires.

  1. Îles et continents

    OpenAIRE

    Resztak, Karolina; Sanson, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Ce numéro huit de la revue Continents manuscrits, à l’enseigne des « Iles et continents », se veut un numéro de varias, une fois n’est pas coutume. Iles et continents car : du Congo aux Antilles, en passant par l’Amérique du Nord, le numéro assume sa géographie plurielle, polycentrée. Le panorama d’auteurs représentés dans la revue est riche et varié : de Joseph Zobel à Sony Labou Tansi, d’Aimé Césaire à Nathanaël, ou René Maran, c’est bien des cartographies mises en relation que ce numéro té...

  2. Gastric Collision Tumors: An Insight into Their Origin and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantios Michalinos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision tumors are rare neoplasms displaying two distinct cell populations developing in juxtaposition to one another without areas of intermingling. They are rare entities with only 63 cases described in English literature. Tumors encountered are gastric adenocarcinomas colliding with lymphomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, squamous cell carcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. Their cell origin is obsolete by the time of diagnosis. Different tumorigenesis theories have been suggested to explain their behavior, yet none has managed to provide satisfactory explanation for all cases. Clinically they are indistinguishable from the dominant tumor. Lack of data does not allow detailed assessment of their behavior yet they seem aggressive neoplasms with dismal prognosis. The majority of cases have been diagnosed postoperatively during histologic examination of specimens. There are no guidelines or concrete evidence to support best way of adjuvant or other types of treatment. However, these rare neoplasms might help in unlocking secrets of cancer behavior including tumorigenesis, differentiation, and adhesion and thus clinicians should be aware of their existence.

  3. Bonanza from the frozen continent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Antarctica is a circumpolar continent surrounded by the Southern Ocean which is about 36 million sq kms and about 10% of the worlds oceans. Ice covers 98% of the continent and the rest is a non glacial terrain. Temperatures on Antarctica...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a form...

  5. Continent cecostomy. An account of 30 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, N G; Myrvold, H E; Philipson, B M; Svaninger, G; Ojerskog, B

    1985-10-01

    In this paper, an account is given of our experience with continent colostomy in man. In five patients, the end-sigmoidostomy was provided with an intussusception valve. Evacuation of the bowel by irrigation through a catheter was laborious and time-consuming and this method was abandoned. In another group of 30 patients, the cecum was isolated from the rest of the colon and its distal end was provided with an intussusception valve. Of the 30 patients, eight were later given continent ileostomies, two were converted to conventional sigmoidostomies, and one patient with fecal incontinence preferred to have intestinal continuity reestablished. Thus, 19 patients still have continent cecostomies and are satisfied with their function. When comparing the function of the continent cecostomy with that of the continent ileostomy, however, it is obvious that the ileostomy function is superior. The experience obtained with this group of patients has resulted in a widening of the indications for constructing a continent ileostomy, including selected patients with various anorectal disorders.

  6. Increase of plasma ion source efficiency utilizing collisions of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is experimentally found that the efficiency of a plasma ion source for use in an electromagnetic separator can be increased under appropriate operating conditions utilizing collisions of the second kind, of a proper gas is additionally introduced into the arc chamber containing atoms with metastable excited levels. (author)

  7. [The Kock continent urinary diversion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S D; Skinner, D G; Lieskovsky, G

    1989-07-01

    The continent ileal reservoir as conceived by Kock produces a low-pressure, high-capacity reservoir with continent and nonrefluxing valves constructed from ileum. From August 1982 through March 1988, 531 patients underwent continent urinary diversion via a Kock reservoir at our institution. Of these, 39 males had a Kock bladder substitution, while the rest underwent cutaneous Kock diversion. Early complications occurred in 16% of all patients, and there was an operative mortality rate of 1.9%. Surgical modifications of nipple fixation, which are discussed in detail in this paper, help to reduce late complications to less than 10%. Patient satisfaction with both procedures remains excellent.

  8. Results from an onshore/offshore seismic transect of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Wu, F. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Wang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The TAIGER project is a large research program focused on the processes and dynamics of arc-continent collision. As part of the project we recorded marine and onshore-offshore seismic data in summer 2009 using the R/V Langseth, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. OBS instrument pool and from National Taiwan Ocean University, and land instruments from PASSCAL and Taiwan. Because the region from north of Luzon to northern Taiwan encompasses a multiphase transition from oceanic subduction to arc-continent collision, the TAIGER data sets along with state of the art geodynamic modeling are starting to provide fundamental insights into this complex process. This presentation focuses on initial results of an onshore/offshore seismic transect across southern Taiwan. One of the keys to success in studying the arc-continent collision in Taiwan is to document the crustal structure in the developing collision zone of southern Taiwan. This is where we hope to be able to view the transition from what looks like subduction to the south, to the more complex collision zone to the north. In this area we acquired an ~east-west seismic transect using 4 OBSs west of Taiwan, 40 portable land seismometers crossing the island from near Kaohsiung (W) to near Taitung (E) , and 14 OBSs east of Taiwan. As expected, data quality is extremely variable due to local geology at each station and, for land instruments, the level of cultural noise near each station. In fact, some of the land stations show no usable signals from seismic source pulses either east or west of Taiwan. However, other more fortuitously located instrument show clear arrivals at offsets of up to 280 km. As expected, all the best stations are located in mountainous areas where there is a minimum of unconsolidated material and less cultural noise. The land station data include primarily Pg and Pn arrivals, while the OBS data include a full range of reflected and refracted arrivals. The marine wide-angle data will also

  9. Contrasting introduction scenarios among continents in the worldwide invasion of the banana fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S; Ravigne, V; Zapater, M-F; Abadie, C; Carlier, J

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing and characterizing introduction routes is a key step towards understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying successful invasions and disease emergence. Here, we aimed to decipher scenarios of introduction and stochastic demographic events associated with the global spread of an emerging disease of bananas caused by the destructive fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We analysed the worldwide population structure of this fungus using 21 microsatellites and 8 sequence-based markers on 735 individuals from 37 countries. Our analyses designated South-East Asia as the source of the global invasion and supported the location of the centre of origin of M. fijiensis within this area. We confirmed the occurrence of bottlenecks upon introduction into other continents followed by widespread founder events within continents. Furthermore, this study suggested contrasting introduction scenarios of the pathogen between the African and American continents. While potential signatures of admixture resulting from multiple introductions were detected in America, all the African samples examined seem to descend from a single successful founder event. In combination with historical information, our study reveals an original and unprecedented global scenario of invasion for this recently emerging disease caused by a wind-dispersed pathogen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Collision-induced destructive quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sun Zhenrong; Zhang Shi'an; Ding Liang'en; Wang Zugeng

    2005-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on the collision-induced destructive quantum interference of two-colour two-photon transitions in an open rhomb-type five-level system with a widely separated doublet by the density matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced decay rates, the ratio of the transition dipole moments and the energy separation of the doublet on the interference are analysed. It is shown that a narrow dip appears in the excitation spectrum due to the collision-induced destructive interference, and that the narrow interference dip still exists even when the collision broadening is comparable to the energy separation of the doublet. The physical origin of the collision-induced destructive quantum interference is analysed in the dressed-atom picture

  11. Linking Late Cretaceous to Eocene Tectonostratigraphy of the San Jacinto Fold Belt of NW Colombia With Caribbean Plateau Collision and Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. Alejandro; Oncken, Onno; Le Breton, Eline; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Faccenna, Claudio; Veloza, Gabriel; Vélez, Vickye; de Freitas, Mario; Mesa, Andrés.

    2017-11-01

    Collision with and subduction of an oceanic plateau is a rare and transient process that usually leaves an indirect imprint only. Through a tectonostratigraphic analysis of pre-Oligocene sequences in the San Jacinto fold belt of northern Colombia, we show the Late Cretaceous to Eocene tectonic evolution of northwestern South America upon collision and ongoing subduction with the Caribbean Plate. We linked the deposition of four fore-arc basin sequences to specific collision/subduction stages and related their bounding unconformities to major tectonic episodes. The Upper Cretaceous Cansona sequence was deposited in a marine fore-arc setting in which the Caribbean Plate was being subducted beneath northwestern South America, producing contemporaneous magmatism in the present-day Lower Magdalena Valley basin. Coeval strike-slip faulting by the Romeral wrench fault system accommodated right-lateral displacement due to oblique convergence. In latest Cretaceous times, the Caribbean Plateau collided with South America marking a change to more terrestrially influenced marine environments characteristic of the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene San Cayetano sequence, also deposited in a fore-arc setting with an active volcanic arc. A lower to middle Eocene angular unconformity at the top of the San Cayetano sequence, the termination of the activity of the Romeral Fault System, and the cessation of arc magmatism are interpreted to indicate the onset of low-angle subduction of the thick and buoyant Caribbean Plateau beneath South America, which occurred between 56 and 43 Ma. Flat subduction of the plateau has continued to the present and would be the main cause of amagmatic post-Eocene deposition.

  12. The palaeogeography of Sundaland and Wallacea since the Late Jurassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continental core of Southeast (SE Asia, Sundaland, was assembled from Gondwana fragments by the Early Mesozoic. Continental blocks rifted from Australia in the Jurassic [South West (SW Borneo, East Java-West Sulawesi-Sumba], and the Woyla intraoceanic arc of Sumatra, were added to Sundaland in the Cretaceous. These fragments probably included emergent areas and could have carried a terrestrial flora and fauna. Sarawak, the offshore Luconia-Dangerous Grounds areas, and Palawan include Asian continental material. These probably represent a wide accretionary zone at the Asia-Pacific boundary, which was an active continental margin until the mid Cretaceous. Subduction ceased around Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous, and from about 80 Ma most of Sundaland was emergent, physically connected to Asia, but separated by deep oceans from India and Australia. India moved rapidly north during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic but there is no evidence that it made contact with SE Asia prior to collision with Asia. One or more arc-India collisions during the Eocene may have preceded India-Asia collision. The arcs could have provided dispersal pathways from India into SE Asia before final suturing of the two continents. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic there was no significant subduction beneath Sumatra, Java and Borneo. At about 45 Ma Australia began to move north, subduction resumed and there was widespread rifting within Sundaland. During the Paleogene east and north Borneo were largely submerged, the Makassar Straits became a wide marine barrier within Sundaland, and West Sulawesi was separated from Sundaland but included land. By the Early Miocene the proto-South China Sea had been eliminated by subduction leading to emergence of land in central Borneo, Sabah and Palawan. Australia-SE Asia collision began, eliminating the former deep ocean separating the two continents, and forming the region now known as Wallacea. The microplate or

  13. 3-D Numerical Modelling of Oblique Continental Collisions with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    Among the fundamental types of tectonic plate boundaries, continent-continent collision is least well understood. Deformation of the upper and middle crustal layers can be inferred from surface structures and geophysical imaging, but the fate of lower crustal rocks and mantle lithosphere is not well resolved. Previous research suggests that shortening of mantle lithosphere generally may be occurring by either: 1) a distributed thickening with a formation of a Raleigh-Tailor (RT) type instability (possibly accompanied with lithospheric folding); or 2) plate-like subduction, which can be one- or two-sided, with or without delamination and slab break-off; a combination of both could be taking place too. 3-D features of the orogens such as along-trench material transfer, bounding subduction zones can influence the evolution of the collision zone significantly. The current study was inspired by South Island of New Zealand - a young collision system where a block of continental crust is being shortened by the relative Australian-Pacific plate motion. The collision segment of the plate boundary is relatively small ( 800 km), and is bounded by oppositely verging subduction zones to the North and South. Here, we present results of 3-D forward numerical modelling of continental collision to investigate some of these processes. To conduct the simulations, we used ASPECT - a highly parallel community-developed code based on the Finite Element method. Model setup for three different sets of models featured 2-D vertical across strike, 3-D with periodic front and back walls, and 3-D with open front and back walls, with velocities prescribed on the left and right faces. We explored the importance of values of convergent velocity, strike-slip velocity and their ratio, which defines the resulting velocity direction relative to the plate boundary (obliquity). We found that higher strike-slip motion promotes strain localization, weakens the lithosphere close to the plate boundary and

  14. Tracing Males From Different Continents by Genotyping JC Polyomavirus in DNA From Semen Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Candian, Tommaso; Selvatici, Rita; Mazzoni, Elisa; Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Greco, Pantaleo; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is an ubiquitous viral agent infecting approximately 60% of humans. Recently, JCPyV sequences have been detected in semen samples. The aim of this investigation was to test whether semen JCPyV genotyping can be employed to trace the origin continent of males. Semen DNA samples (n = 170) from males of different Continents were investigated by PCR for the polymorphic JCPyV viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) sequences, followed by DNA sequencing. JCPyV sequences were detected with an overall prevalence of 27.6% (47/170). DNA sequencing revealed that European males carried JCPyV types 1A (71.4%), 4 (11.4%), 2B (2.9%), 2D1 (2.9%), and 3A (2.9%). Asians JCPyV type 2D1 (66.7%) and Africans JCPyV types 3A (33.3%) and 1A (33.3%). In 10.6% of males, two different JCPyV genotypes were detected, suggesting that the second JCPyV genotype was acquired in the destination country. This study indicates that the majority of semen samples found to be JCPyV-positive, were infected with the JCPyV genotype found in the geographic area of male origin. Therefore, semen JCPyV genotyping could be employed to trace the origin continent of males. Our findings could be applied to forensic investigations, in case of for instance sexual crimes. Indeed, JCPyV genotyping should enable investigators to make additional detailed profiling of the offender. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 982-985, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  16. Gravity and magnetic anomalies of the Cyprus arc and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, M.; Okay, S.; Sari, C.; Oral, E. Z.

    2003-04-01

    In present day, eastern Mediterranean is controlled by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates and displacements of Arabian, Anatolian and Aegean micro-plates. The boundary between African and Eurasian plates is delineated by the Hellenic arc and Pliny-Strabo trench in the west and the Cyprus arc and a diffuse fault system of the Eastern Anatolian Fault zone in the east. The available gravity and magnetic data from the easternmost Mediterranean allow to subdivide this basin into three provinces: the northeastern Mediterranean north of the Cyprus Arc; the Levant Basin south of the Cyprus Arc and east of the line that roughly continues the Suez rift trend toward the Gulf of Antalya, between Cyprus and Anaximander Mountains; and the Mediterranean Ridge, Herodotus Basin west of this line. High anomalies observed in Cyprus and the sea region at the south is prominent in the gravity data. The Bouguer gravity anomaly reaches its maximum values over Cyprus, where it is most probably caused by high dense Troodos ophiolites. The uplifted oceanic crust causes high Bouguer anomaly also seen in the vicinity of Eratosthenes Seamount. Another result obtained from gravity data is that the crust under Herodotos and Rhodes basins is somehow oceanic and Anaximander, Eratosthenes and Cyprus are continental fragments. There are no linear magnetic anomalies in the Mediterranean. But there are magnetic anomalies over the Eratosthenes seamount and as well as from Cyprus to the Antalya basin due to the ophiolitic bodies. In Cyprus, the last compressional deformations were defined near the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. The extensional deformation associated with the Antalya basin appears to be separated by a zone of the Florence rise and Anaximander Mountains affected by differential tectonic movements. Eratosthenes Seamount is a positive crustal feature in the process of collision with Cyprus along an active margin; there is clearly a potential tectonic relationship to the onland

  17. The importance of continent tectonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of tectonic study in the continents are presented, including the use of methods that measure the isotope radioactive disintegration of some elements presents in rocks and the mineral distribution in African and South American continents. (author)

  18. High efficient vacuum arc plant for coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of progressive technical solutions are used in the 'Bulat-9' machine designed for vacuum arc coating deposition. The features of the machine are: a dome shaped working chamber that allows to 'wash' its inner surfaces with hot nitrogen or argon gas; a system of automatic loading/unloading of articles to be treated into the chamber through its bottom; shielding of the inner surfaces of the chamber by heated panels; improved vacuum arc plasma sources including filtered one; four ported power supply for the vacuum arc discharges; LC oscillatory circuits suppressing microarcs on the substrate; the system of automatic control of a working process. The said technical features cause the apparatus originality and novelty preserved up to-day

  19. Atomic cluster collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Andrey V.; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Atomic cluster collisions are a field of rapidly emerging research interest by both experimentalists and theorists. The international symposium on atomic cluster collisions (ISSAC) is the premier forum to present cutting-edge research in this field. It was established in 2003 and the most recent conference was held in Berlin, Germany in July of 2011. This Topical Issue presents original research results from some of the participants, who attended this conference. This issues specifically focuses on two research areas, namely Clusters and Fullerenes in External Fields and Nanoscale Insights in Radiation Biodamage.

  20. Metal halide arc discharge lamp having short arc length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeroll, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A metal halide arc discharge lamp includes a sealed light-transmissive outer jacket, a light-transmissive shroud located within the outer jacket and an arc tube assembly located within the shroud. The arc tube assembly includes an arc tube, electrodes mounted within the arc tube and a fill material for supporting an arc discharge. The electrodes have a spacing such that an electric field in a range of about 60 to 95 volts per centimeter is established between the electrodes. The diameter of the arc tube and the spacing of the electrodes are selected to provide an arc having an arc diameter to arc length ratio in a range of about 1.6 to 1.8. The fill material includes mercury, sodium iodide, scandium tri-iodide and a rare gas, and may include lithium iodide. The lamp exhibits a high color rendering index, high lumen output and high color temperature.

  1. BOREAS Elevation Contours over the NSA and SSA in ARC/INFO Generate Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was prepared by BORIS Staff by reformatting the original data into the ARC/INFO Generate format. The original data were received in SIF at a scale of 1:50,000. BORIS staff could not find a format document or commercial software for reading SIF; the BOREAS HYD-08 team pro-vided some C source code that could read some of the SIF files. The data cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. The data are available in ARC/INFO Generate format files.

  2. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  3. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  4. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  5. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  6. Vacuum arc localization in CLIC prototype radio frequency accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091976; Koivunen, Visa

    2016-04-04

    A future linear collider capable of reaching TeV collision energies should support accelerating gradients beyond 100 MV/m. At such high fields, the occurrence of vacuum arcs have to be mitigated through conditioning, during which an accelerating structure’s resilience against breakdowns is slowly increased through repeated radio frequency pulsing. Conditioning is very time and resource consuming, which is why developing more efficient procedures is desirable. At CERN, conditioning related research is conducted at the CLIC high-power X-band test stands. Breakdown localization is an important diagnostic tool of accelerating structure tests. Abnormal position distributions highlight issues in structure design, manufacturing or operation and may consequently help improve these processes. Additionally, positioning can provide insight into the physics of vacuum arcs. In this work, two established positioning methods based on the time-difference-ofarrival of radio frequency waves are extended. The first method i...

  7. Arc Shape Characteristics with Ultra-High-Frequency Pulsed Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc plasma possesses a constriction phenomenon with a pulsed current. The constriction is created by the Lorentz force, the radial electromagnetic force during arc welding, which determines the energy distribution of the arc plasma. Welding experiments were carried out with ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc welding (UHFP-AW. Ultra-high-speed camera observations were produced for arc surveillance. Hue-saturation-intensity (HSI image analysis was used to distinguish the regions of the arc plasma that represented the heat energy distribution. The measurement of arc regions indicated that, with an ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc, the constriction was not only within the decreased arc geometry, but also within the constricted arc core region. This can be checked by the ratio of the core region to the total area. The arc core region expanded significantly at 40 kHz at 60 A. A current level of 80 A caused a decrease in the total region of the arc. Meanwhile, the ratio of the core region to the total increased. It can be concluded that arc constriction depends on the increased area of the core region with the pulsed current (>20 kHz.

  8. Arcing at B4C-covered limiters exposed to a SOL-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, M.; Schneider, W.; Wienhold, P.; Juettner, B.; Huber, A.; Balden, M.; Linke, J.; Kostial, H.; Mayer, M.; Rubel, M.; Herrmann, A.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Jachmich, S.; Schweer, B.; Hildebrandt, D.; Bolt, H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma sprayed B 4 C-layers considered as wall coatings for the W7X stellarator have been studied during and after exposure to TEXTOR and after arcing experiments in vacuum. Arcing through the B 4 C layer occurred favoured by high power fluxes and not restricted to less stable phases. But this arcing implies an especially noisy scrape-off layer (SOL). Instead of moving retrograde in the external magnetic field, the arc spot on the B 4 C-layer sticks to the same location for its whole lifetime. Consequently, the arc erodes the entire B 4 C layer, finally burning down to the Cu substrate. In the neighbourhood of craters the surface contains Cu originating from those craters. This material, hauled to the surface by the arc, is subject to subsequent erosion, transport, and redeposition by the SOL-plasma. The behaviour of arcs on B 4 C is most probably caused by the peculiar temperature dependences of the electrical and heat conductivity of B 4 C

  9. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  10. Monitoring of internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin to deter abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Emily C; Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F

    2014-05-02

    changed following reformulation; the post-to-preintroduction change in the ERo indicated reformulated OxyContin was discouraged significantly more than the original formulation (ratio of ERos=0.43, PInternet discussion is a valuable tool for monitoring the impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

  11. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  12. Back-arc basin development: Constraints on geochronology and geochemistry of arc-like and OIB-like basalts in the Central Qilian block (Northwest China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Yang, He; Pan, Fa-Bin; Luo, Bi-Ji; Guo, Liang; Xu, Wang-Chun; Tao, Lu; Zhang, Li-Qi; Wu, Jing

    2018-06-01

    The Lajishan belt of the Central Qilian block was a back-arc basin during Early Paleozoic. The basaltic magmatism and temporal evolution in this basin provide an opportunity to study the development of back-arc basin in an active continental margin. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for the Early Paleozoic arc-like and OIB-like basalts. The Lajishan arc-like basalts are enriched in large ion lithophile element (LILE) and show negative Nb and Ta anomalies whereas the OIB-like basalts have high LILE abundances and show positive Nb and Ta anomalies. The arc-like basalts have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7050-0.7054 and εNd(t) values of +0.51-+2.63, and the OIB-like basalts have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.7049-0.7050 and εNd(t) values of +0.66-+1.57. The geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions suggest that the arc-like basalts are derived from partial melting of a depleted mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived components at shallow depth levels, and the OIB-like basalts also originated from a metasomatized mantle wedge source. U-Pb zircon dating yielded the ages of 494 ± 4 Ma for the arc-like basalts and 468 ± 6 Ma for the OIB-like basalts. We argue that the arc-like basalts are products of back-arc extension before the back-arc rifting initiated in earlier stage, resulting from the northward subduction of the Qaidam-West Qinling oceanic slab, while the OIB-like basalts represent products of further back-arc spreading in response to rollback of the Qaidam-West Qinling oceanic lithospheric slab. The association of arc-like and OIB-like basalts in the Lajishan belt records the development of back-arc basin from initial rifting to subsequent spreading, offering insight into how basaltic magmatism generates in the formation of back-arc basin in subduction zone setting.

  13. [Pseudo-continent perineal colostomy. Results and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, P; Dubé, P; Guillot, J M; Elias, D

    1997-09-01

    This prospective study was conducted to assess functional results obtained after pseudo-continent perineal colostomy using the Schmidt procedure. Functional outcome was assessed in 40 patients who had undergone amputation of the rectum for cancer and pseudo-continent perineal colostomy reconstruction between 1989 and 1995 in our institution. The cancer pathology, operative procedure and post-operative care were noted. Morbidity, functional outcome and degree of patient satisfaction were recorded. Mean follow-up was 45 months (18-87) in 100% of the patients. There were no operative deaths. Twenty patients had post-operative complications and 2 patients required early conversion to definitive abdominal colostomy due to severe perineal complications. Function outcome showed normal continence in 4 patients, air incontinence in 23, occasional minimal leakage in 9 and incontinence requiring iliac colostomy in 2. Eighty-six percent of the patients were highly satisfied or satisfied with their continence capacity. Pseudo-continent perineal colostomy is a reliable technique which can be proposed as an alternative to left iliac colostomy after amputation of the rectum for cancer if a rigorous procedure is applied: careful patient selection, informed consent, rigorous surgical procedure, daily life-long irrigation of the colon.

  14. The Middlesex Fells Volcanic Complex: A Revised Tectonic Model based on Geochronology, Geochemistry, and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Boston Bay area is composed of several terranes originating on the paleocontinent of Avalonia, an arc terrane that accreted onto the continent of Laurentia during the Devonian. Included in these terranes is the Middlesex Fells Volcanic Complex, a bimodal complex composed of both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Initial studies suggested that this volcanic complex formed during a rift event as the Avalonian continent separated from its parent continent 700-900 Ma. New geochemical and geochronological data and field relationships observed in this study establishes a new tectonic model. U-Pb laser ablation zircon data on four samples from different units within the complex reveal that the complex erupted 600 Ma. ICP-MS geochemical analysis of the metabasalt member of the complex yield a trace element signature enriched in Rb, Pb, and Sr and depleted in Th, indicating a subduction component to the melt and interpreted as an eruption into a back-arc basin. The felsic units similarly have an arc related signature when plotted on trace element spider diagrams and tectonic discrimination diagrams. Combined with the field relationships, including an erosional unconformity, stratigraphic and intrusional relationships and large faults from episodic extension events, this data suggests that the Middlesex Fells Volcanic Complex was erupted as part of the arc-sequence of Avalonia and as part of the formation of a back-arc basin well after Avalonia separated from its parent continent. This model presents a significantly younger eruption scenario for the Middlesex Fells Volcanics than previously hypothesized and may be used to study and compare to other volcanics from Avalon terranes in localities such as Newfoundland and the greater Boston area.

  15. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    combination of introversion and extroversion processes. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2D and 3D simulation models with rigid nondeformable continents is not confirmed. The small-scale thermal heterogeneity is dominated in deep mantle convection during the supercontinent cycle, although the large-scale, active upwelling plumes intermittently originate under drifting continents and/or the supercontinent. Results suggest that active subducting cold plates along continental margins generate thermal heterogeneity with short-wavelength structures, which is consistent with the thermal heterogeneity in the present-day mantle convection inferred from seismic tomography models. References: [1] Yoshida, M. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013, in press. [2] Yoshida, M. and M. Santosh, Mantle convection modeling of supercontinent cycle: Introversion, extroversion, or combination?, 2013, submitted.

  16. [The continent ileostomy--indication and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säuberli, H; Akovbiantz, A; Hahnloser, P

    1982-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with conventional ileostomy cures patients with severe ulcerative colitis, however ileostomy appliances had to be worn for the rest of their lives. The continent ileostomy as devised by Kock provides the patient with an intraabdominal ileal reservoir and a valve constructed by invaginating the efferent ileal segment into the reservoir. The patient empties his reservoir 2 to 3 times a day by inserting a catheter through the valve. Our experience with 45 patients is reported. In most cases the continent ileostomy was constructed as a second procedure after proctocolectomy. The construction of a continent ileostomy as a secondary procedure can be recommended in patients with proctocolectomy. It offers patients a life situation differing only insignificantly from that of normal persons.

  17. Geographic origin is not supported by the genetic variability found in a large living collection of Jatropha curcas with accessions from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Pabinger, Stephan; Till, Bradley J; Laimer, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Increasing economic interest in Jatropha curcas requires a major research focus on the genetic background and geographic origin of this non-edible biofuel crop. To determine the worldwide genetic structure of this species, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, inter simple sequence repeats, and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were employed for a large collection of 907 J. curcas accessions and related species (RS) from three continents, 15 countries and 53 regions. PCoA, phenogram, and cophenetic analyses separated RS from two J. curcas groups. Accessions from Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay, Kenya, and Ethiopia with unknown origins were found in both groups. In general, there was a considerable overlap between individuals from different regions and countries. The Bayesian approach using STRUCTURE demonstrated two groups with a low genetic variation. Analysis of molecular varience revealed significant variation among individuals within populations. SNPs found by in silico analyses of Δ12 fatty acid desaturase indicated possible changes in gene expression and thus in fatty acid profiles. SNP variation was higher in the curcin gene compared to genes involved in oil production. Novel SNPs allowed separating toxic, non-toxic, and Mexican accessions. The present study confirms that human activities had a major influence on the genetic diversity of J. curcas, not only because of domestication, but also because of biased selection. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (75-150 km), but provide a

  19. On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Stenbacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

  20. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, John A.

    Ocean. Contrary to those who positioned Sulawesi close to Kalimantan in Miocene time or who separated the eastern and western arms of Sulawesi and placed them around continental Australia during its drift northwards, I maintain the view that in Miocene time Sulawesi emerged as a double island arc east of Kalimantan. For the Halmahera arc-trench system a similar origin during a younger phase of crustal movement could be advocated. The shape of the two eastern arms of Sulawesi and Halmahera can be compared with an 'arrowhead' pointing westward, with two larger slightly arcuate western arms as a 'wave front' proceeding from it. Thus Sulawesi and Halmahera were once north-south trending island arcs convex towards the Pacific with westward-dipping subduction zones. After collision with the irian Jaya plate, a reversal of polarity occurred as demonstrated by the trenches which developed northwest of Sulawesi and west of Halmahera. This controversy cannot be solved without determining the absolute ages of the eastern Sulawesi subduction complex. Marine research should also focus on the Sorong transform fault system between Sulawesi and Irian Jaya to elucidate its role in the westward displacement of the Sula-Banggai - Buton continental fragments. The nature, structure and history of the ridges in the Central Banda Sea, and their relationship to the oceanic crust of the adjacent North and South Banda Basin, should be investigated in more detail. Seram, Buru and Ambon require detailed studies to determine whether the arc-trench system predominates or whether micro-continent tectonics played the more significant role in their evolution. In the geological future, eastern Indonesia will be squashed between Australia and Asia, and the region will resemble the complex terrains now observed in the Alps and the Hercynian regions, a conclusion already drawn by the Dutch pioneers several decades ago.

  1. Semiclassical description of soliton-antisoliton pair production in particle collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, S.V.; Levkov, D.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-10

    We develop a consistent semiclassical method to calculate the probability of topological soliton-antisoliton pair production in collisions of elementary particles. In our method one adds an auxiliary external field pulling the soliton and antisoliton in the opposite directions. This transforms the original scattering process into a Schwinger pair creation of the solitons induced by the particle collision. One describes the Schwinger process semiclassically and recovers the original scattering probability in the limit of vanishing external field. We illustrate the method in (1+1)-dimensional scalar field model where the suppression exponents of soliton-antisoliton production in the multiparticle and two-particle collisions are computed numerically.

  2. Translational Entanglement and Teleportation of Matter Wavepackets by Collisions and Half-Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, L.; Tal, A.; Kurizki, G.

    To date, the translationally-entangled state originally proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) in 1935 has not been experimentally realized for massive particles. Opatrný and Kurizki [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3180 (2000)] have suggested the creation of a position- and momentum-correlated, i.e., translationally-entangled, pair of particles approximating the EPR state by dissociation of cold diatomic molecules, and further manipulation of the EPR pair effecting matter-wave teleportation. Here we aim at setting the principles of and quantifying translational entanglement by collisions and half-collisions. In collisions, the resonance width s and the initial phase-space distributions are shown to determine the degree of post-collisional momentum entanglement. Half-collisions (dissociation) are shown to yield different types of approximate EPR states. We analyse a feasible realization of translational EPR entanglement and teleportation via cold-molecule Raman dissociation and subsequent collisions, resolving both practical and conceptual difficulties it has faced so far: How to avoid entanglement loss due to the wavepacket spreading of the dissociation fragments? How to measure both position and momentum correlations of the dissociation fragments with sufficient accuracy to verify their EPR correlations? How to reliably perform two-particle (Bell) position and momentum measurements on one of the fragments and the wavepacket to be teleported?

  3. Chirality in molecular collision dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.

  4. Discussion of the origin of secondary photon and secondary ion emission during energetic particle irradiation of solids. I. The collision cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.B.; Gruen, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary photon and secondary ion emission during energetic particle irradiation of solid surfaces is assumed to arise due to excitation and de-excitation of sputtered particles originating from a collision cascade induced by the incident projectile. The excitation is postulated to occur by two alternative mechanisms: path (a), where excitation occurs at or very near the surface of the solid due to atom--atom or atom--electron collisions; and path (b), where excitation occurs as the sputtered particle leaves the solid, but is still under its influence so that electron exchange processes are permitted. Once the excited and/or ionized sputtered particle is formed nonradiative de-excitation processes are then included in the discussion which allow the excited and/or ionized particle to be de-excited and/or neutralized. The result of these nonradiative de-excitation processes is shown to provide a possible channel for the formation of new excited ''daughters'' by the de-excitation of the initial excited ''parent''. Depending on the initial excitation probability of the parent the new excited daughters are shown to contribute to various energy regions of the excited and/or ionized secondary particle energy distribution. A mathematical formalism is developed based on the neutral sputtered atom energy and velocity distributions assuming a collision cascade origin for these sputtered particles. By including various models for the excitation probability, and the survival probability for excited particles once formed to not undergo nonradiative de-excitation the resulting energy and velocity distributions of the sputtered excited and/or ionized secondary particles are calculated. These distributions are found to be a function of the emission angle depending on the model assumed for the initial excitation. From this formalism the total excited secondary particle yield may be calculated

  5. Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system

  6. Continence care is every nurse's business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Joanne

    Maintaining continence lies at the heart of a sense of adulthood and is essential to preserving dignity, a core and universal nursing value. This article explores the reasons why poor continence care was found at Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust, the changes to the culture of the health service that led to it, and why it is so important for nurses to maintain patients' dignity. Recommendations for changing this culture in the future are discussed.

  7. Current deformation in the Tibetan Plateau: a stress gauge in the large-scale India-Asia collision tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantification of the exact tectonic forces budget on Earth has remained thus far elusive. Geodetic velocities provide relevant constraints on the current dynamics of the coupling between collision and continental tectonics, however in the Tibetan plateau these support contrasting, non-unique models. Here, we compare numerical models of coupled India-Asia plate convergence, collision and continent interiors tectonics to the geodetically-constrained motions in the Tibetan Plateau to provide a quantitative assessment of the driving forces of plate tectonics in the area. The models develop a range of long-term evolutions remarkably similar to the Asian tectonics in the Cenozoic, reproducing the current large-scale motions pattern under a range of conditions. Balancing the convergent margin forces, following subduction, and the far-field forcing along the trail of the subducting continent, the geodetic rates in the Tibetan Plateau can be matched. The comparisons support the discussion on the likely processes at work, allowing inferences on the drivers of plateau formation and its role on the plate margin-interiors tectonics. More in general, the outcomes highlight the unique role of the Tibetan Plateau as a pressure gauge for the tectonic forces on Earth.

  8. Development and Validation of the Role Profile of the Nurse Continence Specialist: A Project of the International Continence Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Janice; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Suyasa, I Gede Putu Darma; Skelly, Jennifer; Bellefeuille, Lesley

    Although nurses have specialized in the management of incontinence, bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor dysfunction for more than 30 years, there is a lack of awareness and underutilization of their role. This article describes a 6-year project to define, characterize, and validate a role profile of the Nurse Continence Specialist. Data collection used a 2-phase, mixed-methods design. Phase 1 of the project resulted in a draft Nurse Continence Specialist role profile and Phase 2 led to validation of the draft profile. The result was a broad consensus about what constitutes the specific skill set for Nurse Continence Specialist specialization within nursing.

  9. Electrical and spectroscopic diagnostic of an atmospheric double arc argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, X; Cheron, B G; Yan, J H; Cen, K F

    2007-01-01

    An atmospheric argon plasma jet generated by an original dc double anode plasma torch has been investigated through its electrical and spectroscopic diagnostics. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the argon plasma are analyzed using classical tools such as the statistical method, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and correlation function. The takeover mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the double arc argon plasma jet in our experiment. The FFT and correlation analysis of electrical signals exhibit the only characteristic frequency of 150 Hz, which originates from the torch power and is independent of any change in the operating parameters. No high frequency fluctuations (1-15 kHz) are observed. This indicates that the nature of fluctuations in an argon plasma jet is induced mainly by the undulation of the tri-phase rectified power supply. It is found that each arc root attachment is diffused rather than located at a fixed position on the anode wall. Moreover, the emission spectroscopic technique is performed to determine the electron temperature and number density of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber. Along the torch axis, the measured electron temperature and number density of the double arc argon plasma drop from 12 300 K and 7.6 x 10 22 m -3 at the divergent part of the first anode nozzle, to 10 500 K and 3.1 x 10 22 m -3 at the torch exit. In addition, the validity criteria of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc are examined. The results show that the measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the double arc argon plasma at atmospheric pressure is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions

  10. Ion kinetic energy distribution in a pulsed vacuum arc with a straight magnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, L; Grondona, D; Kelly, H; Minotti, F

    2008-01-01

    In vacuum arcs of interest for film deposition the ion kinetic energy is of importance because it influences the coating properties. In this kind of discharge, the ions come out from the cathode spots with a high kinetic energy (20-150 eV). In the present work, we present measurements of vacuum arc ion energy distributions in a pulsed vacuum arc with a straight magnetic filter. A retarding field analyser (RFA) was used to perform the measurements that were carried out with a variable magnetic field strength (of the order of 10 mT). Since the interpretation of the results obtained from the RFA lies in the knowledge of the plasma and floating potential values, we have employed also Langmuir probes for determining those quantities. The obtained results for the ion kinetic energy are similar to those reported by other authors, but they were also found to be independent of the magnetic field strength. The electron temperature was also found to be independent of the magnetic field strength and of the axial position along the filter, indicating the absence of collisions.

  11. Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

  12. One of the first heavy-ion collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the first heavy-ion collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as orange arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively.

  13. Sunda-Banda Arc Transition: Marine Wide-Angle Seismic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgin, A.; Planert, L.; Kopp, H.; Mueller, C.; Lueschen, E.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Sindbad Working Group, T

    2008-12-01

    The Sunda-Banda Arc transition is the region of active convergence and collision of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. The style of subduction changes from an oceanic-island arc subduction to a continental- island arc collision. The character of the incoming plate varies from the rough topography of the Roo Rise, to the smooth seafloor of the Abyssal Plain off Bali, Sumbawa. Forearc structures include well-developed forearc basins and an accretionary prism/outer forearc high of variable size and shape. To quantify the variability of structure of the lower plate and the effects on the upper plate a refraction seismic survey was carried during cruise SO190-2. A total of 245 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed along 1020 nm of wide-angle seismic profiles in four major north-south oriented corridors. To assess the velocity structure we used a tomographic method which jointly inverts for refracted and reflected phases. The sedimentary layers of the models, obtained by the analysis of high-resolution MCS data (see Lueschen et al), were incorporated into the starting model. The obtained models exhibit strong changes of the incoming oceanic crust for the different portions of the margin: The westernmost profile off eastern Java shows a crustal thickness of more than 15 km, most likely related to the presence of an oceanic plateau. Profiles off Lombok reveal an oceanic crust of 8-9 km average thickness in the Argo Abyssal Plain. Crustal and upper mantle velocities are slightly decreased within an area of about 50-60 km seaward of the trench, indicating fracturing and related serpentinization due to bending of the oceanic crust and associated normal faulting. The outer forearc high is characterized by velocities of 2.5-5.5 km/s. For the Lombok Basin, the profiles show a sedimentary infill of up to 3.5 km thick and typical sediment velocities of 1.75-3.0 km/s. A reflector at 16 km depth and velocity values of 7.4-7.8 km/s beneath it suggest the presence of a shallow

  14. Clustering of arc volcanoes caused by temperature perturbations in the back-arc mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyeol; Wada, Ikuko

    2017-06-29

    Clustering of arc volcanoes in subduction zones indicates along-arc variation in the physical condition of the underlying mantle where majority of arc magmas are generated. The sub-arc mantle is brought in from the back-arc largely by slab-driven mantle wedge flow. Dynamic processes in the back-arc, such as small-scale mantle convection, are likely to cause lateral variations in the back-arc mantle temperature. Here we use a simple three-dimensional numerical model to quantify the effects of back-arc temperature perturbations on the mantle wedge flow pattern and sub-arc mantle temperature. Our model calculations show that relatively small temperature perturbations in the back-arc result in vigorous inflow of hotter mantle and subdued inflow of colder mantle beneath the arc due to the temperature dependence of the mantle viscosity. This causes a three-dimensional mantle flow pattern that amplifies the along-arc variations in the sub-arc mantle temperature, providing a simple mechanism for volcano clustering.

  15. Formation of massive, dense cores by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Ken; Shima, Kazuhiro; Habe, Asao; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2018-05-01

    We performed sub-parsec (˜ 0.014 pc) scale simulations of cloud-cloud collisions of two idealized turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) with different masses in the range of (0.76-2.67) × 104 M_{⊙} and with collision speeds of 5-30 km s-1. Those parameters are larger than in Takahira, Tasker, and Habe (2014, ApJ, 792, 63), in which study the colliding system showed a partial gaseous arc morphology that supports the NANTEN observations of objects indicated to be colliding MCs using numerical simulations. Gas clumps with density greater than 10-20 g cm-3 were identified as pre-stellar cores and tracked through the simulation to investigate the effects of the mass of colliding clouds and the collision speeds on the resulting core population. Our results demonstrate that the smaller cloud property is more important for the results of cloud-cloud collisions. The mass function of formed cores can be approximated by a power-law relation with an index γ = -1.6 in slower cloud-cloud collisions (v ˜ 5 km s-1), and is in good agreement with observation of MCs. A faster relative speed increases the number of cores formed in the early stage of collisions and shortens the gas accretion phase of cores in the shocked region, leading to the suppression of core growth. The bending point appears in the high-mass part of the core mass function and the bending point mass decreases with increase in collision speed for the same combination of colliding clouds. The higher-mass part of the core mass function than the bending point mass can be approximated by a power law with γ = -2-3 that is similar to the power index of the massive part of the observed stellar initial mass function. We discuss implications of our results for the massive-star formation in our Galaxy.

  16. Origins of chemical diversity of back-arc basin basalts: a segment-scale study of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

    OpenAIRE

    Bézos, Antoine; Escrig, Stéphane; Langmuir, Charles H.; Michael, Peter J.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element data on basaltic glasses from the northernmost segment of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC1) in the Lau back-arc basin to further test and constrain models of back-arc volcanism. The zero-age samples come from 47 precisely collected stations from an 85 km length spreading center. The chemical data covary similarly to other back-arc systems but with tighter correlations and well-developed spatial systematics. We confirm a correlation between v...

  17. Origin of the ca. 50 Ma Linzizong shoshonitic volcanic rocks in the eastern Gangdese arc, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Lin; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wang, Rui; Dai, Jin-Gen; Zheng, Yuan-Chuan; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the Eocene shoshonitic rocks within the upper part of the extensive Linzizong volcanic succession (i.e., the Pana Formation) in the Gangdese arc, southern Tibet remains unclear, inhibiting the detailed investigations on the crust-mantle interaction and mantle dynamics that operate the generation of the coeval magmatic flare-up in the arc. We report mineral composition, zircon U-Pb age and zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Pana Formation volcanic rocks from Pangduo, eastern Gangdese arc in southern Tibet. The Pana volcanic rocks from Pangduo include basalts, basaltic andesites, and dacites. SIMS and LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Pangduo dacites were erupted at 50 ± 1 Ma, representing the volcanic equivalent of the coeval Gangdese Batholith that define a magmatic flare-up at 51 ± 1 Ma. The Pangduo volcanic rocks are exclusively shoshonitic, differing from typical subduction-related calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The basalts have positive whole-rock ƐNd(t) (+1.7) and ƐHf(t) (+3.8) with high Zr abundances (121-169 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (4.3-5.2), most likely derived from the partial melting of an enriched garnet-bearing lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subduction-related components with input from asthenosphere. Compared to the basalts, similar trace elemental patterns and decreased whole-rock ƐNd(t) (-3.5 to -3.3) and ƐHf(t) (-2.5 to -1.6) of the basaltic andesites can be attributed to the input of the ancient basement-derived material of the central Lhasa subterrane into the basaltic magmas. The coherent whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064-0.7069, ƐNd(t) = -6.0 to -5.2, ƐHf(t) = -5.6 to -5.0) and varying zircon ƐHf(t) (-6.0 to +4.1) of the dacites can be interpreted by the partial melting of a hybrid lower crust source (juvenile and ancient lower crust) with incorporation of basement-derived components. Calculations of zircon-Ti temperature and whole

  18. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Haoxi; Li Qingmin; Xing Jinyuan; Li Jinsong; Chen Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. (paper)

  19. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  20. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  1. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  2. Izu-Bonin arc and Philippine sea. Izuter dot Ogasawara ko to Philippine kai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, K. (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Nishimura, A. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Shizuoka Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education)

    1991-08-25

    The geoscience on the ocean floor has been remarkably developed for last 20 years, and the study of the Philippine sea floor also has extensively advanced especially by the deep sea drilling. In order to review the geoscientific studies on the Philippine sea and its surrounding regions under these circumstances, a simposium was held at the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo on May 29/30 in 1990. The purposes of this symposium were to introduce the deep sea drilling results done in the Izu-Bonin arc during about 60 days from April to June in 1989, and to collect the geoscientific data and problems of surrounding regions which have an important significance to interprete the drilling results. In this report, the content of the collected papers was outlined with frontispieces dividing into 5 issues, namely issues regarding to the Izu-Bonin arc, issues regarding to the influenced regions by the subducting Philippine sea and the collision-accretion of the Izu-Bonin arc, the geophysical issues of regions surrounding the Japanese Islands, issues of the Philippine sea, and issues of the tectonic development history. 13 refs.

  3. Auroral arc classification scheme based on the observed arc-associated electric field pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1983-06-01

    Radar and rocket electric field observations of auroral arcs have earlier been used to identify essentially four different arc types, namely anticorrelation and correlation arcs (with, respectively, decreased and increased arc-assocaited field) and asymmetric and reversal arcs. In this paper rocket double probe and supplementary observations from the literature, obtained under various geophysical conditions, are used to organize the different arc types on a physical rather than morphological basis. This classification is based on the relative influence on the arc electric field pattern from the two current continuity mechanisms, polarisation electric fields and Birkeland currents. In this context the tangential electric field plays an essential role and it is thus important that it can be obtained with both high accuracy and resolution. In situ observations by sounding rockets are shown to be better suited for this specific task than monostatic radar observations. Depending on the dominating mechanism, estimated quantitatively for a number of arc-crossings, the different arc types have been grouped into the following main categories: Polarisation arcs, Birkeland current arcs and combination arcs. Finally the high altitude potential distributions corresponding to some of the different arc types are presented. (author)

  4. Formation of self-organized anode patterns in arc discharge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic non-equilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant dc current between an axi-symmetric electrode configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational requirements for comprehensive arc discharge simulations. The obtained anode patterns qualitatively agree with experimental observations and confirm that the spots originate at the fringes of the arc–anode attachment. The results imply that heavy-species–electron energy equilibration, in addition to thermal instability, has a dominant role in the formation of anode spots in arc discharges. (paper)

  5. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  6. Across-arc versus along-arc Sr-Nd-Pb isotope variations in the Ecuadorian volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Samaniego, Pablo; Vlastélic, Ivan; Nauret, François; Gannoun, Adbelmouhcine; Hidalgo, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies of the Ecuadorian arc (1°N-2°S) have revealed across-arc geochemical trends that are consistent with a decrease in mantle melting and slab dehydration away from the trench. The aim of this work is to evaluate how these processes vary along the arc in response to small-scale changes in the age of the subducted plate, subduction angle, and continental crustal basement. We use an extensive database of 1437 samples containing 71 new analyses, of major and trace elements as well as Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from Ecuadorian and South Colombian volcanic centers. Large geochemical variations are found to occur along the Ecuadorian arc, in particular along the front arc, which encompasses 99% and 71% of the total variations in 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Quaternary Ecuadorian volcanics, respectively. The front arc volcanoes also show two major latitudinal trends: (1) the southward increase of 207Pb/204Pb and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd reflect more extensive crustal contamination of magma in the southern part (up to 14%); and (2) the increase of 206Pb/204Pb and decrease of Ba/Th away from ˜0.5°S result from the changing nature of metasomatism in the subarc mantle wedge with the aqueous fluid/siliceous slab melt ratio decreasing away from 0.5°S. Subduction of a younger and warmer oceanic crust in the Northern part of the arc might promote slab melting. Conversely, the subduction of a colder oceanic crust south of the Grijalva Fracture Zone and higher crustal assimilation lead to the reduction of slab contribution in southern part of the arc.

  7. Origin of ophiolite complexes related to intra-oceanic subduction initiation: implications of IODP Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin fore arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Carvallo, Claire; Christeson, Gail; Ferré, Eric; Kurz, Walter; Kutterolf, Steffen; Morgan, Sally; Pearce, Julian; Reagan, Mark; Sager, William; Shervais, John; Whattam, Scott; International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc), the Scientific Party of

    2015-04-01

    Ophiolites, representing oceanic crust exposed on land (by whatever means), are central to the interpretation of many orogenic belts (e.g. E Mediterranean). Based mostly on geochemical evidence, ophiolites are widely interpreted, in many but by no means all cases, as having formed within intra-oceanic settings above subduction zones (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). Following land geological, dredging and submersible studies, fore arcs of the SW Pacific region became recognised as likely settings of supra-subduction zone ophiolite genesis. This hypothesis was tested by recent drilling of the Izu-Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that three of the sites are located in fault-controlled sediment ponds that formed in response to dominantly down-to the-west extensional faulting (with hints of preceding top-to-the-east compressional thrusting). The sediments overlying the igneous basement, of maximum Late Eocene to Recent age, document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds. At the two more trenchward sites (U1440 and U1441), mostly tholeiitic basalts were drilled, including massive and pillowed lavas and hyaloclastite. Geochemically, these extrusives are of near mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition (fore arc basalts). Subtle chemical deviation from normal MORB can be explained by weakly fluid-influenced melting during decompression melting in the earliest stages of supra-subduction zone spreading (not as 'trapped' older MORB). The remaining two sites, c. 6 km to the west (U1439 and U1442), penetrated dominantly high-magnesian andesites, known as boninites, largely as fragmental material. Their formation implies the extraction of highly depleted magmas from previously depleted, refractory upper mantle in a supra-subduction zone setting. Following supra-subduction zone spreading, the active

  8. Effects of Cocos Ridge Collision on the Western Caribbean: Is there a Panama Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Chichaco, E.; Abrego M, A. A.; Fisher, D. M.; Camacho, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized that the subduction and collision of the Cocos Ridge, a 2 km high aseismic ridge standing on >20 km thick oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, drives upper plate deformation in southern Central America. Recent studies of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived horizontal velocities relative to the Caribbean Plate showed a radial pattern centered on the Cocos Ridge axis where Cocos-Caribbean convergence is orthogonal, and margin-parallel velocities to the northwest. Models of the full three-dimensional GPS velocity field and earthquake slip vectors demonstrate low mechanical coupling along the Middle America subduction zone in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and a broad zone of high coupling beneath the Osa Peninsula, where the Cocos Ridge intersects the margin. These results suggest that Cocos Ridge collision may be the main driver for trench-parallel motion of the fore arc to the northwest and for uplift and shortening of the outer fore arc in southern Central America, whereby thickened and hence buoyant Cocos Ridge crust acts as an indenter causing the tectonic escape of the fore arc. These studies, however, were not able to constrain well the pattern of surface deformation east-southeast of the ridge axis due to a lack of GPS stations, and Cocos Ridge collision may be responsible for the kinematics and deformation of the proposed Panama block. Recent reinforcement of the GPS network in southeastern Costa Rica and Panama has increased the spatial and temporal resolution of the network and made it possible to further investigate surface deformation of southern Central America and the Panama block. We present a new regional surface velocity field for Central America from geodetic GPS data collected at 11 recently-installed and 178 existing episodic, semi-continuous, and continuous GPS sites in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. We investigate the effects of Cocos Ridge collision on the Panama block through kinematic block modeling. Published

  9. Geochemical Variation of Subducting Pacific Crust Along the Izu-Bonin Arc System and its Implications on the Generation of Arc Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Castillo, P.; Abe, N.; Kaneko, R.; Straub, S. M.; Garcia, E. S. M.; Yan, Q.; Tamura, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zone magmatism primarily occurs due to flux melting of the mantle wedge that has been metasomatized by the slab component. The latter is enriched in volatiles and fluid-mobile elements and derived mainly from subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC). Subduction input has been linked to arc output in many studies, but this relationship is especially well documented in sedimented arc-trench systems. However, the Izu-Bonin system is sediment-poor, therefore the compositional and latitudinal variations (especially in Pb isotopes) of its arc magmas must be sourced from the subduction component originating primarily from the AOC. Pb is a very good tracer of recycled AOC that may contribute 50% or more of arc magma Pb. Izu-Bonin arc chemistry suggests a subduction influx of Indian-type crust, but the subducting crust sampled at ODP Site 1149 is Pacific-type. The discrepancy between subduction input and arc output calls into question the importance of the AOC as a source of the subduction component, and raises major concerns with our understanding of slab input. During the R/V Revelle 1412 cruise in late 2014, we successfully dredged vertical fault scarps at several sites from 27.5 N to 34.5 N, spanning a range of crustal ages that include a suggested compositional change at ~125 Ma. Major element data show an alkali enrichment towards the north of the study transect. Preliminary incompatible trace element data (e.g. Ba, Zr and Sr) data support this enrichment trend. Detailed mass balance calculations supported by Sr, Nd, Hf and especially Pb isotope analyses will be performed to evaluate whether the AOC controls the Pb isotope chemistry of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc.

  10. ATLAS One of the first Heavy ions collisions with stable beams- Event Display - November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    One of the first heavy ions collisions with stable beams recorded by ATLAS in November 2015. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as orange arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively. The beam pipe and the inner detectors are also shown.

  11. Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment ... Our Continent, Our Future presents the emerging African perspective on this complex issue. ... approach to structural adjustment, and it does so with the input and support ... Committee of the Association of African Universities, the International Board ...

  12. Influence of arc current and pressure on non-chemical equilibrium air arc behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, WU; Yufei, CUI; Jiawei, DUAN; Hao, SUN; Chunlin, WANG; Chunping, NIU

    2018-01-01

    The influence of arc current and pressure on the non-chemical equilibrium (non-CE) air arc behavior of a nozzle structure was investigated based on the self-consistent non-chemical equilibrium model. The arc behavior during both the arc burning and arc decay phases were discussed at different currents and different pressures. We also devised the concept of a non-equilibrium parameter for a better understanding of non-CE effects. During the arc burning phase, the increasing current leads to a decrease of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core, while the increasing pressure leads to an increase of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core. During the arc decay phase, the non-CE effect will decrease by increasing the arc burning current and the nozzle pressure. Three factors together—convection, diffusion and chemical reactions—influence non-CE behavior.

  13. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth\\'s ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields. Within this model framework the effect of the

  14. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON THE FORMING OF WELDING ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Vakulenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is a comparative analysis of chemical compounds influence on the process of forming arc welding and condition of its burning. Methodology. A wire with diameter 3 mm of low carbon steel with contain of carbon 0.15% was material for electrode. As chemical compounds, which determine the terms of arc welding forming the following compounds were used: kaolin; CaCO3 with admixtures of gypsum up to 60%; SiO2 and Fe − Si with the iron concentration up to 50%. Researches were conducted using the direct electric current and arc of reverse polarity. As a source of electric current a welding transformer of type PSO-500n was used. On the special stand initial gap between the electrode and metal plate was 1-1.5 mm. The inter electrode space was filled with the probed chemical compound and the electric arc was formed. At the moment of arc forming the values of electric current and arc voltage were determined. After the natural break of electric arc, the final gap value between electrodes was accepted as a maximal value of arc length. Findings. Experimentally the transfer of metal in interelectrode space corresponded to the tiny drop mechanism. According to external signs the relation between maximal arc length and the power of electric current has the form of exponential dependence. Specific power of electric arc at the moment of arc forming per unit of its length characterizes the environment in the interelectrode space. Originality. 1 Based on the analysis of influence of the studied chemical compounds on the formation processes of electric arc the inversely proportional relationship between the power of the electric current and the maximum arc length until the moment of its natural break is defined. 2 Ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric current, with the sufficiently high coefficient of correlation is submitted to the exponential dependence. Influence of the compounds under study on the process of

  15. Sources and timing of pyroxenite formation in the sub-arc mantle: Case study of the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilhac, Romain; Grégoire, Michel; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, William L.; Henry, Hadrien; Ceuleneer, Georges

    2017-09-01

    Pyroxenites exposed in ophiolites and orogenic peridotite massifs may record petrogenetic processes occurring in mantle domains generated and/or transferred in supra-subduction environments. However, the timing of their formation and the geochemical characteristics of their source region commonly are obscured by metamorphic and metasomatic overprints. This is especially critical in arc-related environments, where pyroxenites may be formed during the differentiation of primitive magmas. Our approach combines Sr- and Nd-isotope geochemistry and geochronology, and modelling of REE diffusion, to further constrain the origin of a well-characterized set of pyroxenites from the arc-related Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain. In the light of petrological constraints, Sr- and Nd-isotope systematics consistently indicate that cpx and amphibole have acquired disequilibrium during two main episodes: (1) a magmatic/metasomatic episode that led to the formation of the pyroxenites, coeval with that of Cabo Ortegal granulites and corresponding to the incipient stage of a potential Cadomian arc (459-762 Ma; isochron and second-stage Nd model ages); (2) an episode of metamorphic amphibolitization upon the percolation of relatively unradiogenic and LREE-enriched hydrous fluids, subsequent to the delamination of the pyroxenites from their arc-root settings during Devonian subduction. Calculations of diffusional timescale for the re-equilibration of REE are consistent with this scenario but provide only poor additional constraints due to the sensitivity of this method to grain size and sub-solidus temperature. We thus emphasize the necessity to combine isochron ages and Nd model ages corrected for radiogenic ingrowth to put time constraints on the formation of subduction- and/or collision-related pyroxenites, along with petrological and geochemical constraints. Homogeneous age-corrected 143Nd/144Nd of 0.5121-0.5125 (εNd between 0 and +7.5) and 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7037-0.7048 provide information

  16. Across and along arc geochemical variations in altered volcanic rocks: Evidence from mineral chemistry of Jurassic lavas in northern Chile, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, Pablo; Oliveros, Verónica; Ducea, Mihai N.; Hernandez, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Postmagmatic processes mask the original whole-rock chemistry of most Mesozoic igneous rocks from the Andean arc and back-arc units preserved in Chile. Mineral assemblages corresponding to subgreenschist metamorphic facies and/or propylitic hydrothermal alteration are ubiquitous in volcanic and plutonic rocks, suggesting element mobility at macroscopic and microscopic scale. However, fresh primary phenocrysts of clinopyroxene and plagioclase do occur in some of the altered rocks. We use major and trace element chemistry of such mineral phases to infer the geochemical variations of four Jurassic arc and four back-arc units from northern Chile. Clinopyroxene belonging to rocks of the main arc and two units of the bark-arc are augites with low contents of HFSE and REE; they originated from melting of an asthenospheric mantle source. Clinopyroxenes from a third back-arc unit show typical OIB affinities, with high Ti and trace element contents and low Si. Trace elemental variations in clinopyroxenes from these arc and back-arc units suggest that olivine and clinopyroxene were the main fractionating phases during early stages of magma evolution. The last back-arc unit shows a broad spectrum of clinopyroxene compositions that includes depleted arc-like augite, high Al and high Sr-Ca diopside (adakite-like signature). The origin of these lavas is the result of melting of a mixture of depleted mantle plus Sr-rich sediments and subsequent high pressure fractionation of garnet. Thermobarometric calculations suggest that the Jurassic arc and back-arc magmatism had at least one crustal stagnation level where crystallization and fractionation took place, located at ca. ~ 8-15 km. The depth of this stagnation level is consistent with lower-middle crust boundary in extensional settings. Crystallization conditions calculated for high Al diopsides suggest a deeper stagnation level that is not consistent with a thinned back-arc continental crust. Thus minor garnet fractionation

  17. Urethral pressure response patterns induced by squeeze in continent and incontinent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Pia M; Mattiasson, Anders

    2007-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the urethral pressure response pattern to pelvic floor muscle contractions in 20-27 years old, nulliparous continent women (n = 31) to that of continent (n = 28) and formerly untreated incontinent (n = 59) (53-63 years old) women. These women underwent urethral pressure measurements during rest and repeated pelvic muscle contractions. The response to the contractions was graded 0-4. The young continent women showed a mean urethral pressure response of 2.8, the middle-aged continent women 2.2 (NS vs young continent), and the incontinent women 1.5 (p continent, p continent). Urethral pressures during rest were significantly higher in the younger women than in both groups of middle-aged women. The decreased ability to increase urethral pressure on demand seen in middle-aged incontinent women compared to continent women of the same age as well as young women seems to be a consequence of a neuromuscular disorder rather than of age.

  18. The dual-electrode DC arc furnace-modelling brush arc conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Q.G.

    2012-01-01

    The dual-electrode DC arc furnace, an alternative design using an anode and cathode electrode instead of a hearth anode, was studied at small scale using computational modelling methods. Particular attention was paid to the effect of two key design variables, the arc length and the electrode separation, on the furnace behaviour. It was found that reducing the arc length to brush arc conditions was a valid means of overcoming several of the limitations of the dual-electrode design, namely high...

  19. Phylogeography of the Microcoleus vaginatus (Cyanobacteria from three continents--a spatial and temporal characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    Full Text Available It has long been assumed that cyanobacteria have, as with other free-living microorganisms, a ubiquitous occurrence. Neither the geographical dispersal barriers nor allopatric speciation has been taken into account. We endeavoured to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of global distribution within populations of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus, originated from three continents, and to evaluate the role of dispersal barriers in the evolution of free-living cyanobacteria. Complex phylogeographical approach was applied to assess the dispersal and evolutionary patterns in the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus (Oscillatoriales. We compared the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS sequences of strains which had originated from three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia. The spatial distribution was investigated using a phylogenetic tree, network, as well as principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. A temporal characterization was inferred using molecular clocks, calibrated from fossil DNA. Data analysis revealed broad genetic diversity within M. vaginatus. Based on the phylogenetic tree, network, and PCoA analysis, the strains isolated in Europe were spatially separated from those which originated from Asia and North America. A chronogram showed a temporal limitation of dispersal barriers on the continental scale. Dispersal barriers and allopatric speciation had an important role in the evolution of M. vaginatus. However, these dispersal barriers did not have a permanent character; therefore, the genetic flow among populations on a continental scale was only temporarily present. Furthermore, M. vaginatus is a recently evolved species, which has been going through substantial evolutionary changes.

  20. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-rays associated with deep inelastic collisions can give information about the magnitude and orientation of the angular momentum transferred in these events. In this review, special emphasis is placed on understanding the origin and nature of these γ-rays in order to avoid some of the ambiguities that can arise. The experimental information coming from these γ-ray studies is reviewed, and compared briefly with that obtained by other methods and also with the expectations from current models for deep inelastic collisions. 15 figures

  1. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON THE FORMING OF ELECTRIC ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is a comparative analysis of chemical compounds influence on the process of electric arc forming and condition of its burning. Methodology. Material for an electrode was a wire 3 mm in diameter of low carbon steel with contain of carbon 0.15%. As chemical compounds, which determine the terms of forming of arc welding were used kaolin; CaCO3 with the admixtures of gypsum to 60%; SiO2 and Fe – Si with the iron concentration to 50%. Researches were conducted at the use of direct electric current and the arc of reverse polarity. As a source of electric current the welding transformer of type PSO-500 was used. On the special stand an initial gap between the electrode and metal-plate was equal to 1–1.5 mm. The interelectrode interval was filled with the probed chemical compounds and it was formed an electric arc. In the moment of electric arc arise the values of electric current and the arc voltage were determined. After the natural break of electric arc, the final size of the gap between electrodes was accepted as the maximal value of the arc lengths. Findings. In the conditions of experiment the metal transfer in interelectrode interval corresponded to the drop mechanism. According to external characteristics the ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric discharge has the appearance of exponential dependence. Specific power of electric arc characterizes environment of interelectrode interval in the moment of arc forming per unit of its length. Originality. 1. On the basis of influence analysis of the studied chemical compounds on the formation processes of electric arc inversely proportional relationship between the power of the electric current and the maximum arc length to the moment of its natural break is defined. 2. The ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric current with sufficiently high correlation coefficient is subjected to the exponential dependence. Influence of

  2. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.

    2018-06-01

    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  3. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island...... basalt (La/Nb = 0·8–1·5, La/Ba = 0·05–0·08). The Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic to trachytic rocks range between 0·703813 and 0·703841 (87Sr/86Sr) and 0·512743 and 0·512834 (143Nd/144Nd). Mass-balance and Rayleigh fractionation models support the proposed origin of the trachytes...... that the basaltic lavas originated in the asthenospheric mantle, probably within the spinel stability field and beneath an attenuated continental lithosphere in the back-arc area. The lack of a slab-fluid signature in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field rocks, along with unpublished and published geophysical results...

  4. FT4 Data Analysis Summary (SSI-ARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Douglas R.; Gong, Chester; Reardon, Scott Edward; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Standards for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are currently being developed under the auspices of the RTCA Special Committee 228 (SC-228). To support the development of these standards, a series of flight tests has been conducted at NASAs Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA-AFRC). The fourth in this series of flight test activities (Flight Test 4, or simply FT4) was conducted during the Spring and Summer of 2016. FT4 supported the objectives of numerous organizations working toward UAS DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) and UAS DAA Radar MOPS. The summary provided herein is limited to the objectives, analysis and conclusions of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA-ARC) SSI team toward the refinement of UAS DAA MOPS. This document provides a high-level overview of FT4 and the SSI-ARC objectives, a summary of the data analysis methodology and recommendations for UAS DAA MOPS refinements based on the data analysis results. A total of 72 encounters were flown to support SSI-ARC objectives. Test results were generally consistent with acceptable UAS DAA system performance and will be considered in broader SC-228 requirements validation efforts. Observed alert lead times indicated acceptable UAS DAA alerting performance. Effective interoperability between the UAS DAA system and the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) was observed with one notable exception: TCAS Resolutions Advisories (RA) were observed in the absence of any DAA alert on two occasions, indicating the need for alert parameter refinement. Findings further indicated the need for continued work in the areas of DAA Well Clear Recovery logic and alert stability for Mode-C-only intruders. Finally, results demonstrated a high level of compliance with a set of evaluation criteria designed to provide anecdotal evidence of acceptable UAS DAA system performance.

  5. Analysis of Variscan dynamics; early bending of the Cantabria-Asturias Arc, northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, J. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Van der Voo, R.

    2000-08-01

    Calcite twinning analysis in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain provides a basis for evaluating conditions of Variscan stress and constrains the arc's structural evolution. Twinning typically occurs during earliest layer-parallel shortening, offering the ability to define early conditions of regional stress. Results from the Somiedo-Correcilla region are of two kinds: early maximum compressive stress oriented layer-parallel and at high angles to bedding strike (D1 σ1) and later twin producing compression oriented sub-parallel to strike (D2 σ1). When all D1 compressions are rotated into a uniform east-west reference orientation, a quite linear, north-south trending fold-thrust belt results showing a slight deflection of the southern zone to the south-southeast. North-south-directed D2 σ1 compression was recorded prior to bending of the belt. Calcite twinning data elucidate earliest structural conditions that could not be obtained by other means, whereas the kinematics of arc tightening during D2 is constrained by paleomagnetism. A large and perhaps protracted D2 σ1 is suggested by our results, as manifested by approximately 50% arc tightening prior to acquisition of paleomagnetic remagnetizations throughout the CAA. Early east-west compression (D1 σ1) likely resulted from the Ebro-Aquitaine massif docking to Laurussia whereas the north-directed collision of Africa (D2 σ1) produced clockwise bending in the northern zone, radial folding in the hinge, and rotation of thrusts in the southern zone.

  6. Origins of chemical diversity of back-arc basin basalts: A segment-scale study of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    BéZos, Antoine; Escrig, StéPhane; Langmuir, Charles H.; Michael, Peter J.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2009-06-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element data on basaltic glasses from the northernmost segment of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC1) in the Lau back-arc basin to further test and constrain models of back-arc volcanism. The zero-age samples come from 47 precisely collected stations from an 85 km length spreading center. The chemical data covary similarly to other back-arc systems but with tighter correlations and well-developed spatial systematics. We confirm a correlation between volatile content and apparent extent of melting of the mantle source but also show that the data cannot be reproduced by the model of isobaric addition of water that has been broadly applied to back-arc basins. The new data also confirm that there is no relationship between mantle temperature and the wet melting productivity. Two distinct magmatic provinces can be identified along the ELSC1 axis, a southern province influenced by a "wet component" with strong affinities to arc volcanism and a northern province influenced by a "damp component" intermediate between enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and arc basalts. High-field strength elements and rare earth elements are all mobilized to some extent by the wet component, and the detailed composition of this component is determined. It differs in significant ways from the Mariana component reported by E. Stolper and S. Newman (1994), particularly by having lower abundances of most elements relative to H2O. The differences can be explained if the slab temperature is higher for the Mariana and the source from which the fluid is derived is more enriched. The ELSC1 damp component is best explained by mixing between the wet component and an E-MORB-like component. We propose that mixing between water-rich fluids and low-degree silicate melts occurs at depth in the subduction zone to generate the chemical diversity of the ELSC1 subduction components. These modified sources then rise independently to the surface and melt, and these

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 39: Feasibility of Commissioning HybridArc with the Delta 4 two plane diode phantom: comparisons with Gafchromic Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojechko, C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary AB (Canada); Ploquin, N. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary AB (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary AB (Canada); Hudson, A. [University of Calgary, Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary AB (Canada); Sayous, Y. [Université Paul Sabotier Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-15

    HybridArc is a relatively novel radiation therapy technique which combines optimized dynamic conformai arcs (DCA) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HybridArc has possible dosimetry and efficiency advantages over stand alone DCA and IMRT treatments and can be readily implemented on any linac capable of DCA and IMRT, giving strong motivation to commission the modality. The Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) has been used for IMRT and VMAT clinical dosimetric verification making it a candidate for HybridArc commissioning. However the HybridArc modality makes use of several non co-planar arcs which creates setup issues due to the geometry of the Delta4, resulting in possible phantom gantry collisions for plans with non-zero couch angles. An analysis was done determining the feasibility of using the Delta4 fixed at 0° couch angle compared with results obtained using Gafchromic ETB2 film (Ashland, Covington Kentucky) in an anthropomorphic phantom at the planned couch angles. A gamma index analysis of the measured and planned dose distributions was done using Delta4 and DoseLab Pro (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston Texas) software. For both arc and IMRT sub-fields there is reasonable correlation between the gamma index found from the Delta4 and Gafchromic film. All results show the feasibility of using the Delta4 for HybridArc commissioning.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 39: Feasibility of Commissioning HybridArc with the Delta 4 two plane diode phantom: comparisons with Gafchromic Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojechko, C.; Ploquin, N.; Hudson, A.; Sayous, Y.

    2014-01-01

    HybridArc is a relatively novel radiation therapy technique which combines optimized dynamic conformai arcs (DCA) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). HybridArc has possible dosimetry and efficiency advantages over stand alone DCA and IMRT treatments and can be readily implemented on any linac capable of DCA and IMRT, giving strong motivation to commission the modality. The Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) has been used for IMRT and VMAT clinical dosimetric verification making it a candidate for HybridArc commissioning. However the HybridArc modality makes use of several non co-planar arcs which creates setup issues due to the geometry of the Delta4, resulting in possible phantom gantry collisions for plans with non-zero couch angles. An analysis was done determining the feasibility of using the Delta4 fixed at 0° couch angle compared with results obtained using Gafchromic ETB2 film (Ashland, Covington Kentucky) in an anthropomorphic phantom at the planned couch angles. A gamma index analysis of the measured and planned dose distributions was done using Delta4 and DoseLab Pro (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston Texas) software. For both arc and IMRT sub-fields there is reasonable correlation between the gamma index found from the Delta4 and Gafchromic film. All results show the feasibility of using the Delta4 for HybridArc commissioning

  9. Coulomb collisions of ring current particles: Indirect source of heat for the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K. D.

    1975-01-01

    The additional energy requirements of the topside ionosphere during a magnetic storm are less than one quarter of the ring current energy. This energy is supplied largely by Coulomb collisions of ring current protons of energy less than about 20 keV with background thermal electrons which conduct the heat to the ionosphere. Past criticisms are discussed of this mechanism for the supply of energy to the SAR-arc and neighboring regions of the ionosphere.

  10. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon

    2011-01-01

    We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z ∼> 1.4, indicating that the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z ∼> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.

  11. Experiment and modeling of an atmospheric pressure arc in an applied oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, Max; Roquemore, A. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    A set of experiments are carried out to measure and understand the response of a free-burning atmospheric pressure carbon arc to applied transverse dc and ac magnetic fields. The arc is found to deflect parabolically for the dc field and assumes a growing sinusoidal structure for the ac field. A simple analytic two-parameter fluid model of the arc dynamics is derived, in which the arc response is governed by the arc jet originating at the cathode, with the applied JxB force balanced by inertia. Time variation of the applied field allows evaluation of the parameters individually. A fit of the model to the experimental data gives a value for the average jet speed an order of magnitude below Maecker's estimate of the maximum jet speed [H. Maecker, Z. Phys. 141, 198 (1955)]. An example industrial application of the model is considered. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  13. Production of hyperthermal hydrogen atoms by an arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samano, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically confined thermal electric arc gas heater has been designed and built as a suitable source of heat for dissociating hydrogen molecules with energy in the range of a few eV. Specifically, the average beam kinetic energy is determined to be 1.5 eV, the dissociation rate is 0.5 atoms per molecule and the atom beam intensity in the forward direction is 1018 atoms/sr-sec. The working pressure in the arc discharge region is from 15 to 25 torr. This novel atom source has been successfully ignited and operated with pure hydrogen during several hours of continuous performance, maintaining its characteristics. The hyperthermal hydrogen atom beam, which is obtained from this source is analyzed and characterized in a high vacuum system, the characterization of the atom beam is accomplished by two different methods: calorimetry and surface ionization. Calorimetic sensor were used for detecting the atom beam by measuring the delivered power of the impinging atoms on the sensor surface. In the second approach an H-surface production backscattering experiment from a low work function surface was conducted. The validity of these two methods is discussed, and the results are compared. The different collision mechanisms to dissociate and ionize hydrogen molecules in the arch discharge are reviewed, as well as the physics of electric arcs. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation program is used to calculate the ionization probability of low energy atoms perpendicularly reflected from a surface converter, as a model for atom surface ionization

  14. TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR EARLY CONTINENCE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technical characteristics of radical prostatectomy (RPE for early continence recovery in patients with prostate cancer. Restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis after RPE has been found to promote early urinary continence recovery. A method for total restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis (an operation after A. Tewari and a procedure for performing posterior suspension of urethrocystic neoanastomosis in Denonvilliers’ fascia length deficit are considered, which show the similar results in the time of continence recovery.

  15. Metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Eremin, Roman A.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Monger, James W.H.; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Sidorov, Anatoly A.

    2005-01-01

    The Proterozoic and Phanerozoic metallogenic and tectonic evolution of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera is recorded in the cratons, craton margins, and orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern North Asian and western North American Cratons. The collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes and contained metallogenic belts, which are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons. The terranes are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages and contained metallogenic belts. The metallogenic and geologic history of terranes, overlap assemblages, cratons, and craton margins has been complicated by postaccretion dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins. Seven processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of metallogenic and geologic complexities of the region (1) In the Early and Middle Proterozoic, marine sedimentary basins developed on major cratons and were the loci for ironstone (Superior Fe) deposits and sediment-hosted Cu deposits that occur along both the North Asia Craton and North American Craton Margin. (2) In the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along the ancestral margins of present-day Northeast Asia and northwestern North America. The rifting resulted in fragmentation of each continent, and formation of cratonal and passive continental-margin terranes that eventually migrated and accreted to other sites along the evolving margins of the original or adjacent continents. The rifting also resulted in formation of various massive-sulfide metallogenic belts. (3) From about the late Paleozoic through the mid-Cretaceous, a succession of island arcs and contained igneous-arc-related metallogenic belts and tectonically paired

  16. Characteristics of a stable arc based on FAST and MIRACLE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A stable evening sector arc is studied using observations from the FAST satellite at 1250 km altitude and the MIRACLE ground-based network, which contains all-sky cameras, coherent radars (STARE, and magnetometers. Both FAST and STARE observe a northward electric field region of about 200 km width and a field magnitude of about 50 mV/m southward of the arc, which is a typical signature for an evening-sector arc. The field-aligned current determined from FAST electron and magnetometer data are in rather good agreement within the arcs. Outside the arcs, the electron data misses the current carriers of the downward FAC probably because it is mainly carried by electrons of smaller energy than the instrument threshold. Studying the westward propagation speed of small undulations associated with the arc using the all-sky cameras gives a velocity of about 2 km/s. This speed is higher than the background ionospheric plasma speed (about 1 km/s, but it agrees rather well with the idea originally proposed by Davis that the undulations reflect an E × B motion in the acceleration region. The ground magnetograms indicate that the main current flows slightly south of the arc. Computing the ionospheric conductivity from FAST electron data and using the ground magnetograms to estimate the current yields an ionospheric electric field pattern, in rather good agreement with FAST results.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions - Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  17. Production of strange clusters in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Baltz, A.J.; Pang, Yang; Schlagel, T.J.; Kahana, S.H.

    1993-02-01

    We address a number of issues related to the production of strangeness in high energy heavy ion collisions, including the possibility that stable states of multi-strange hyperonic or quark matter might exist, and the prospects that such objects may be created and detected in the laboratory. We make use of events generated by the cascade code ARC to estimate the rapidity distribution dN/dy of strange clusters produced in Si+Au and Au+Au collisions at AGS energies. These calculations are performed in a simple coalescence model, which yields a consistent description of the strange cluster (d, 3 HE, 3 H, 4 He) production at these energies. If a doubly strange, weakly bound ΛΛ dibaryon exists, we find that it is produced rather copiously in Au+Au collisions, with dN/dy ∼0.1 at raid-rapidity. If one adds another non-strange or strange baryon to a cluster, the production rate decreases by roughly one or two orders of magnitude, respectively. For instance, we predict that the hypernucleus ΛΛ 6 He should have dN/dy ∼5 x 10 -6 for Au+Au central collisions. It should be possible to measure the successive Λ → pπ- weak decays of this object. We comment on the possibility that conventional multi-strange hypernuclei may serve as ''doorway states'' for the production of stable configurations of strange quark matter, if such states exist

  18. Plan quality comparison between 4-arc and 6-arc noncoplanar volumetric modulated arc stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshio, Kotaro; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Wakita, Akihisa; Kitayama, Takahiro; Hisazumi, Kento; Inoue, Daisaku; Shiode, Tsuyoki; Akaki, Shiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-01-04

    To compare the plans of 4-arc and 6-arc noncoplanar volumetric modulated arc stereotactic radiotherapy (VMA-SRT) for multiple brain metastases and to investigate the cutoff value for the tumor number and volume for 6-arc rather than 4-arc VMA-SRT. We identified 24 consecutive multiple-target cases (3 to 19 targets in each case) with 189 total targets. We constructed plans using both 4- and 6-arc noncoplanar VMA-SRT. The prescribed dose was 36 Gy/6 fr, and it was delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were evaluated for the dose conformity using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Paddick conformity indices (RCI and PCI), fall-off (Paddick gradient index [PGI]), and the normal brain dose. The median (range) RCI, PCI, and PGI was 0.94 (0.92 to 0.99), 0.89 (0.77 to 0.94), and 3.75 (2.24 to 6.54) for the 4-arc plan and 0.94 (0.91 to 0.98), 0.89 (0.76 to 0.94), and 3.65 (2.24 to 6.5) for the 6-arc plan, respectively. The median (range) of the normal brain dose was 910.3 cGy (381.4 to 1268.9) for the 4-arc plan and 898.8 cGy (377 to 1252.9) for the 6-arc plan. The PGI of the 6-arc plan was significantly superior to that of the 4-arc plan (p = 0.0076), and the optimal cutoff values for the tumor number and volume indicative of 6-arc (and not 4-arc) VMA-SRT were cases with ≥ 5 metastases and a PTV of ≥ 12.9 mL, respectively. The PCI values, however, showed no significant difference between the 2 plans. We believe these results will help in considering the use of 6-arc VMA-SRT for multiple brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arc dynamics of a pulsed DC nitrogen rotating gliding arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengsen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Angjian; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Tu, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel pulsed direct current (DC) rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor co-driven by an external magnetic field and a tangential gas flow has been developed. The dynamic characteristics of the rotating gliding arc have been investigated by means of numerical simulation and experiment. The simulation results show that a highly turbulent vortex flow can be generated at the bottom of the RGA reactor to accelerate the arc rotation after arc ignition, whereas the magnitude of gas velocity declined significantly along the axial direction of the RGA reactor. The calculated arc rotation frequency (14.4 Hz) is reasonably close to the experimental result (18.5 Hz) at a gas flow rate of 10 l min-1. In the presence of an external magnet, the arc rotation frequency is around five times higher than that of the RGA reactor without using a magnet, which suggests that the external magnetic field plays a dominant role in the maintenance of the arc rotation in the upper zone of the RGA reactor. In addition, when the magnet is placed outside the reactor reversely to form a reverse external magnetic field, the arc can be stabilized at a fixed position in the inner wall of the outer electrode at a critical gas flow rate of 16 l min-1.

  20. The Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen: An overview and main debatable issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Safonova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews previous and recently obtained geological, stratigraphic and geochronological data on the Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen, which is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, between the Kazakhstan and Siberian continental blocks. The Russian-Kazakh Altai is a typical Pacific-type orogen, which represents a collage of oceanic, accretionary, fore-arc, island-arc and continental margin terranes of different ages separated by strike-slip faults and thrusts. Evidence for this comes from key indicative rock associations, such as boninite- and turbidite (graywacke-bearing volcanogenic-sedimentary units, accreted pelagic chert, oceanic islands and plateaus, MORB-OIB-protolith blueschists. The three major tectonic domains of the Russian-Kazakh Altai are: (1 Altai-Mongolian terrane (AMT; (2 subduction-accretionary (Rudny Altai, Gorny Altai and collisional (Kalba-Narym terranes; (3 Kurai, Charysh-Terekta, North-East, Irtysh and Char suture-shear zones (SSZ. The evolution of this orogen proceeded in five major stages: (i late Neoproterozoic–early Paleozoic subduction-accretion in the Paleo-Asian Ocean; (ii Ordovician–Silurian passive margin; (iii Devonian–Carboniferous active margin and collision of AMT with the Siberian continent; (iv late Paleozoic closure of the PAO and coeval collisional magmatism; (v Mesozoic post-collisional deformation and anarogenic magmatism, which created the modern structural collage of the Russian-Kazakh Altai orogen. The major still unsolved problem of Altai geology is origin of the Altai-Mongolian terrane (continental versus active margin, age of Altai basement, proportion of juvenile and recycled crust and origin of the middle Paleozoic units of the Gorny Altai and Rudny Altai terranes.

  1. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  2. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipcic, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  3. The Coupling of Back-arc Extension, Extrusion and Subduction Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2017-04-01

    Extension in the Aegean Sea and lateral Anatolian extrusion are contrasting and seemingly unrelated examples of continental tectonics In the Eastern Mediterranean. It is acknowledged that these must reconcile with the dynamics of Tethys closure and following continental collision along the convergent margin, however the underlying mechanisms have been difficult to pinpoint, thus far. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of the dynamics of subduction and coupling with the mantle and upper plates allows probing the evolution of similar areas, supporting inferences on the ultimate causes for the continental tectonics. I will present models that reproduce the force balance of subducting slabs' buoyancy, mantle flow and upper plate interiors, and emphasise the role of perturbations in the force balance that may have followed slab breakoff, collision and trench land-locking reconstructed during the oceanic closure in the Eastern Mediterranean. These perturbations lead to a range of different margin motions and strain regimes in the upper plate, from rollback and back-arc spreading, to indentation and extrusion along the collisional margin. Different spatial and temporal fingerprints are illustrated for these processes, and while the trench rollback and back-arc spreading are rather stable features, extrusion is transient. When these regimes overlap, rapid and complex rearrangements of the tectonics in the upper plate are the result. The remarkable similarity between the models' and the Eastern Mediterranean tectonic regimes and geophysical observable allows proposing viable driving mechanisms and support inferences on the Miocene-to-Pliocene evolution of this puzzling area.

  4. SU-E-T-106: Development of a Collision Prediction Algorithm for Determining Problematic Geometry for SBRT Treatments Using a Stereotactic Body Frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagar, M; Friesen, S; Mannarino, E [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Hacker, F [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Collision between the gantry and the couch or patient during Radiotherapy is not a common concern for conventional RT (static fields or arc). With the increase in the application of stereotactic planning techniques to the body, collisions have become a greater concern. Non-coplanar beam geometry is desirable in stereotatic treatments in order to achieve sharp gradients and a high conformality. Non-coplanar geometry is less intuitive in the body and often requires an iterative process of planning and dry runs to guarantee deliverability. Methods: Purpose written software was developed in order to predict the likelihood of collision between the head of the gantry and the couch, patient or stereotatic body frame. Using the DICOM plan and structures set, exported by the treatment planning system, this software is able to predict the possibility of a collision. Given the plan's isocenter, treatment geometry and exterior contours, the software is able to determine if a particular beam/arc is clinically deliverable or if collision is imminent. Results: The software was tested on real world treatment plans with untreatable beam geometry. Both static non-coplanar and VMAT plans were tested. Of these, the collision prediction software could identify all as having potentially problematic geometry. Re-plans of the same cases were also tested and validated as deliverable. Conclusion: This software is capable of giving good initial indication of deliverability for treatment plans that utilize complex geometry (SBRT) or have lateral isocenters. This software is not intended to replace the standard pre-treatment QA dry run. The effectiveness is limited to those portions of the patient and immobilization devices that have been included in the simulation CT and contoured in the planning system. It will however aid the planner in reducing the iterations required to create complex treatment geometries necessary to achieve ideal conformality and organ sparing.

  5. Some aspects of the role of rift inheritance on Alpine-type orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy; Chevrot, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    Processes commonly recognized as fundamental for the formation of collisional orogens include oceanic subduction, arc-continent and continent-continent collision. As collisional belts result from the closure of oceanic basins and subsequent inversion of former rifted margins, their formation and evolution may also in theory be closely interlinked with the initial architecture of the former rifted margins. This assumption is indeed more likely to be applicable in the case of Alpine-type orogens, mainly controlled by mechanical processes and mostly devoid of arc-related magmatism. More and more studies from present-day magma-poor rifted margins illustrate the complex evolution of hyperextended domains (i.e. severely thinned continental crust (images across the Pyrenees (PYROPE) and the Alps (CIFALPS) reveal a surprisingly comparable present-day overall crustal and lithospheric structure. Based on the comparison between the two orogens we discuss: (1) the nature and depth of decoupling levels inherited from hyperextension; (2) the implications for restorations and interpretations of orogenic roots (former hyperextended domains vs. lower crust only); and (3) the nature and major role of buttresses in controlling the final stage of collisional processes. Eventually, we discuss the variability of the role of rift-inheritance in building Alpine-type orogens. The Pyrenees seem to represent one extreme, where rift-inheritance is important at different stages of collisional processes. In contrast, in the Alps the role of rift-inheritance is subtler, likely because of its more complex and polyphase compressional deformation history.

  6. Factors predicting early return of continence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Eastham, James A

    2010-05-01

    Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and factors that can be controlled during surgery or surgical planning. In addition, various postoperative maneuvers can help hasten urinary continence. This article examines the effect of known factors related to early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  7. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  8. Physically based arc-circuit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong-Lie, L.

    1984-01-01

    An integral arc model is extended to study the interaction of the gas blast arc with the test circuit in this paper. The deformation in the waveshapes of arc current and voltage around the current zero has been formulated to first approximation by using a simple model of arc voltage based on the arc core energy conservation. By supplementing with the time scale for the radiation, the time rates of arc processes were amended. Both the contributions of various arc processes and the influence of circuit parameters to the arc-circuit interaction have been estimated by this theory. Analysis generated a new method of calculating test circuit parameters which improves the accurate simulation of arc-circuit interaction. The new method agrees with the published experimental results

  9. Diode-rectified multiphase AC arc for the improvement of electrode erosion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Hashizume, Taro; Saga, Koki; Matsuura, Tsugio; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2017-11-01

    An innovative multiphase AC arc (MPA) system was developed on the basis of a diode-rectification technique to improve electrode erosion characteristics. Conventionally, electrode erosion in AC arc is severer than that in DC arc. This originated from the fact that the required properties for the cathode and anode are different, although an AC electrode works as the cathode and the anode periodically. To solve this problem, a separation of AC electrodes into pairs of thoriated tungsten cathode and copper anode by diode-rectification was attempted. A diode-rectified multiphase AC arc (DRMPA) system was then successfully established, resulting in a drastic improvement of the erosion characteristics. The electrode erosion rate in the DRMPA was less than one-third of that in the conventional MPA without the diode rectification. In order to clarify its erosion mechanism, electrode phenomena during discharge were visualized by a high-speed camera system with appropriate band-pass filters. Fluctuation characteristics of the electrode temperature in the DRMPA were revealed.

  10. History and Nature of Science enriched Problem-Based Learning on the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The episode of the History of Science (HOS on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum and secondary level (year 10 for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continents and oceans (mobilism.  The goal of providing detailed implementation practices is to adress the lack of how to in Problem-based learning (PBL implementation in classrooms for 12 to 16 year old students and is the first practical example of implementation using this episode of HOS for teaching geological mobilism integrated with evolution. Therefore, in this study, we provide specific suggestions for supporting teachers’ classroom efforts in implementing PBL, such as scaffolding. The ill-problem presented to students, without a single correct answer, was based on the phylogeny of extant and extinct ratite birds, described by Charles Darwin and the present geographical distribution. The evaluation of the students was focused on the chain of reasoning employed, and we performed a comparisation analysis of the problem’s solution presented by the students of both classes regarding the explanation of the phylogeny of ratites based on geological mobilism. We observed an overall improvement (25-77% of the percentages of students pre- and post-instruction adequate answers; therefore our PBL strategy was efficient.

  11. Globalization in Urology: A Bibliographical Analysis of Cross-Continent Publication between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Juengel, Eva; Bartsch, Georg; Filmann, Natalie; Ackermann, Hanns; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Engl, Tobias; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    Asian scientists have now increasingly begun to contribute to globalization; yet it is not clear whether publishing in the field of urology is paralleled by elevated cross-continental scientific publishing. An exemplary bibliometric analysis of urologic journals from 3 different continents was conducted between 2002 and 2012. Based on the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports, 2 urologic journals with similar impact factors (IFs) in 2013 were selected from Europe ('British Journal of Urology International', 'World Journal of Urology'), Asia ('International Journal of Urology', 'Asian Journal of Andrology') and North America ('Urologic Oncology-Seminars and Original Investigations', 'Urology'). The home continent of the journal, the workplace continental affiliation of the last author, article type (clinical, experimental or review) as well as the IF were documented. Most authors published their manuscripts in journals from the same continent in which they worked. However, a significant increase in cross-continental publishing was apparent from 2002 to 2012. Asians publishing in North America increased from 17% in 2002 to 35% in 2012. Europeans also increased the number of articles they published in North American journals, while publications from North American authors were shifted towards both European and Asian journals. Experimental and clinical articles showed significant increases in cross-continental publishing, while review publishing showed no significant change. The average IF for authors from all 3 continents increased from 2002 to 2012 (p < 0.001). The largest increase in the IF was found for Asian authors (0.11 per year). Cross-continental publication significantly increased during the period from 2002 to 2012. The impact that the Asian authors have experienced was found to be gradually impacting the North American and European colleagues. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. PC-based arc ignition and arc length control system for gas tungsten arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Springfield, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a PC-based digital control system for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. This system controls the arc ignition process, the arc length, and the process of welding termination. A DT2818 made by Data Translation is used for interface and A/D and D/A conversions. The digital I/O ports of the DT2818 are used for control of wirefeed, shield gas, cooling water, welding power supply, etc. The DT2818 is housed in a PC. The welding signals and status are displayed on the screen for in-process monitoring. A user can control the welding process by the keyboard

  13. Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

    1984-01-01

    Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

  14. Sheath and arc-column voltages in high-pressure arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benilov, M S; Benilova, L G; Li Heping; Wu Guiqing

    2012-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of a 1 cm-long free-burning atmospheric-pressure argon arc are calculated by means of a model taking into account the existence of a near-cathode space-charge sheath and the discrepancy between the electron and heavy-particle temperatures in the arc column. The computed arc voltage exhibits a variation with the arc current I similar to the one revealed by the experiment and exceeds experimental values by no more than approximately 2 V in the current range 20-175 A. The sheath contributes about two-thirds or more of the arc voltage. The LTE model predicts a different variation of the arc voltage with I and underestimates the experimental values appreciably for low currents but by no more than approximately 2 V for I ≳ 120 A. However, the latter can hardly be considered as a proof of unimportance of the space-charge sheath at high currents: the LTE model overestimates both the resistance of the bulk of the arc column and the resistance of the part of the column that is adjacent to the cathode, and this overestimation to a certain extent compensates for the neglect of the voltage drop in the sheath. Furthermore, if the latter resistance were evaluated in the framework of the LTE model in an accurate way, then the overestimation would be still much stronger and the obtained voltage would significantly exceed those observed in the experiment.

  15. MANTLE-CRUST INTERACTION AT THE LATE STAGE OF EVOLUTION OF HERCYNIAN ALTAI COLLISION SYSTEM, WESTERN PART OF CAOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khromykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Altai collision system of Hercynides was formed in Late Paleozoic as a result of oblique collision of Siberian continent and Kazakhstan composed terrane [Vladimirov et al., 2003; 2008; Xiao et al., 2010]. At the late stages of its evolution (time interval from 310–300 to 280–270 Ma the huge different mafic and felsic magmatism occurred at the territory (Fig. 1 [Vladimirov et al., 2008; Khromykh et al., 2011, 2013, 2014, 2016; Kotler et al., 2015; Sokolova et al., 2016]. It is evident about increased thermal gradient in lithosphere and about significant role of mantle and active manifestation of mantle-crust interactions. Some magmatic complexes may be considered as indicators of mantle-crust interaction processes.

  16. Mechanisms of the electron density depletion in the SAR arc region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available This study compares the measurements of electron density and temperature and the integral airglow intensity at 630 nm in the SAR arc region and slightly south of this (obtained by the Isis 2 spacecraft during the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm, with the model results obtained using the time dependent one-dimensional mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. The explicit expression in the third Enskog approximation for the electron thermal conductivity coefficient in the multicomponent mixture of ionized gases and a simplified calculation method for this coefficient presents an opportunity to calculate more exactly the electron temperature and density and 630 nm emission within SAR arc region are used in the model. Collisions between N2 and hot thermal electrons in the SAR arc region produce vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules. It appears that the loss rate of O+(4S due to reactions with the vibrationally excited nitrogen is enough to explain electron density depression by a factor of two at F-region heights and the topside ionosphere density variations within the SAR arc if the erosion of plasma within geomagnetic field tubes, during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm and subsequent filling of geomagnetic tubes during the recovery phase, are considered. To explain the disagreement by a factor 1.5 between the observed and modeled SAR arc electron densities an additional plasma drift velocity ~–30 m s–1 in the ion continuity equations is needed during the recovery phase. This additional plasma drift velocity is likely caused by the transition from convecting to corotating flux tubes on the equatorward wall of the trough. The electron densities and temperatures and 630 nm integral intensity at the SAR arc and slightly south of this region as measured for the 18 December 1971 magnetic storm were correctly described by the model without perpendicular electric fields

  17. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  18. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings

  19. Representations of OxyContin in North American Newspapers and Medical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Whelan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the approval of OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada for medical use, the media began to report the use of OxyContin as a street drug, representing the phenomenon as a social problem. Meanwhile, the pain medicine community has criticized the inaccurate and one-sided media coverage of the OxyContin problem. The authors of this study aimed to contribute to an understanding of both sides of this controversy by analyzing the coverage of OxyContin in newspapers and medical journals. The analyses revealed inconsistent messages about the drug from physicians in the news media and in medical journals, which has likely contributed to the drug’s perception as a social problem. The authors suggest ways to address the lack of medical consensus surrounding OxyContin. The results of this study may help resolve the concerns and conflicts surrounding this drug and other opioids.

  20. Collision Risk and Damage after Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a new and complete procedure for calculation of ship-ship collision rates on specific routes and the hull damage caused by such collisions.The procedure is applied to analysis of collision risks for Ro-Ro pasenger vessels. Given a collision the spatial probability distribution ...

  1. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The utilization and valuation of the program CONTIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Weizhong; Sun Yizhan

    2000-01-01

    The updated analysis program CONTIN(PALS2) based on the Laplace inversion of positron annihilation spectra has been studied comprehensively. The principle and utilization of the program have been explained exhaustively. Three auxiliary programs have been made to help the transportation of data and adjustment of the data's pattern. Four experiments have been made, the results computed by program CONTIN(PALS2) have been analyzed, and compared with those by POSIREONFIT program

  3. Evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy for cranial radiosurgery using multiple noncoplanar arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, Chantal; Poffenbarger, Brett A.; Chang, Pauling; Jackson, Paul S.; Lundahl, Robert E.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Ray, Gordon R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a commercial volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), using multiple noncoplanar arcs, for linac-based cranial radiosurgery, as well as evaluate the combined accuracy of the VMAT dose calculations and delivery. Methods: Twelve patients with cranial lesions of variable size (0.1-29 cc) and two multiple metastases patients were planned (Eclipse RapidArc AAA algorithm, v8.6.15) using VMAT (1-6 noncoplanar arcs), dynamic conformal arc (DCA, ∼4 arcs), and IMRT (nine static fields). All plans were evaluated according to a conformity index (CI), healthy brain tissue doses and volumes, and the dose to organs at risk. A 2D dose distribution was measured (Varian Novalis Tx, HD120 MLC, 1000 MU/min, 6 MV beam) for the ∼4 arc VMAT treatment plans using calibrated film dosimetry. Results: The CI (0-1 best) average for all plans was best for ∼4 noncoplanar arc VMAT at 0.86 compared with ∼0.78 for IMRT and a single arc VMAT and 0.68 for DCA. The volumes of healthy brain receiving 50% of the prescribed target coverage dose or more (V 50% ) were lowest for the four arc VMAT [RA(4)] and DCA plans. The average ratio of the V 50% for the other plans to the RA(4) V 50% were 1.9 for a single noncoplanar arc VMAT [RA(1nc)], 1.4 for single full coplanar arc VMAT [RA(1f)] and 1.3 for IMRT. The V 50% improved significantly for single isocenter multiple metastases plan when two noncoplanar VMAT arcs were added to a full single coplanar one. The maximum dose to 5 cc of the outer 1 cm rim of healthy brain which one may want to keep below nonconsequential doses of 300-400 cGy, was 2-3 times greater for IMRT, RA(1nc) and RA(1f) plans compared with the multiple noncoplanar arc DCA and RA(4) techniques. Organs at risk near (0-4 mm) to targets were best spared by (i) single noncoplanar arcs when the targets are lateral to the organ at risk and (ii) by skewed nonvertical planes of IMRT fields when the targets are not lateral to the organ at risk. The highest dose gradient

  4. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  5. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    Full Text Available To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 189 insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America, and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites and Q. robur (346 variant sites. Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.

  6. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. On the rates of type Ia supernovae originating from white dwarf collisions in quadruple star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the evolution of stellar hierarchical quadruple systems in the 2+2 (two binaries orbiting each other's barycentre) and 3+1 (triple orbited by a fourth star) configurations. In our simulations, we take into account the effects of secular dynamical evolution, stellar evolution, tidal evolution and encounters with passing stars. We focus on type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) driven by collisions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). Such collisions can arise from several channels: (1) collisions due to extremely high eccentricities induced by secular evolution, (2) collisions following a dynamical instability of the system, and (3) collisions driven by semisecular evolution. The systems considered here have initially wide inner orbits, with initial semilatus recti larger than 12 {au}, implying no interaction if the orbits were isolated. However, taking into account dynamical evolution, we find that ≈0.4 (≈0.6) of 2+2 (3+1) systems interact. In particular, Roche Lobe overflow can be triggered possibly in highly eccentric orbits, dynamical instability can ensue due to mass-loss-driven orbital expansion or secular evolution, or a semisecular regime can be entered. We compute the delay-time distributions (DTDs) of collision-induced SNe Ia, and find that they are flatter compared to the observed DTD. Moreover, our combined SNe Ia rates are (3.7± 0.7) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} and (1.3± 0.2) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} for 2+2 and 3+1 systems, respectively, three orders of magnitude lower compared to the observed rate, of order 10^{-3} M_⊙^{-1}. The low rates can be ascribed to interactions before the stars evolve to CO WDs. However, our results are lower limits given that we considered a subset of quadruple systems.

  8. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  9. Electric Arc Furnace Modeling with Artificial Neural Networks and Arc Length with Variable Voltage Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Garcia-Segura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnaces (EAFs contribute to almost one third of the global steel production. Arc furnaces use a large amount of electrical energy to process scrap or reduced iron and are relevant to study because small improvements in their efficiency account for significant energy savings. Optimal controllers need to be designed and proposed to enhance both process performance and energy consumption. Due to the random and chaotic nature of the electric arcs, neural networks and other soft computing techniques have been used for modeling EAFs. This study proposes a methodology for modeling EAFs that considers the time varying arc length as a relevant input parameter to the arc furnace model. Based on actual voltages and current measurements taken from an arc furnace, it was possible to estimate an arc length suitable for modeling the arc furnace using neural networks. The obtained results show that the model reproduces not only the stable arc conditions but also the unstable arc conditions, which are difficult to identify in a real heat process. The presented model can be applied for the development and testing of control systems to improve furnace energy efficiency and productivity.

  10. Representations of OxyContin in North American newspapers and medical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark; Haydt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are public concerns regarding OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada) and charges within the pain medicine community that media coverage of the drug has been biased. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare representations of OxyContin in medical journals and North American newspapers in an attempt to shed light on how each contributes to the ‘social problem’ associated with OxyContin. METHODS: Using searches of newspaper and medical literature databases, two samples were drawn: 924 stories published between 1995 and 2005 in 27 North American newspapers, and 197 articles published between 1995 and 2007 in 33 medical journals in the fields of addiction/substance abuse, pain/anesthesiology and general/internal medicine. The foci, themes, perspectives represented and evaluations of OxyContin presented in these texts were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Newspaper coverage of OxyContin emphasized negative evaluations of the drug, focusing on abuse, addiction, crime and death rather than the use of OxyContin for the legitimate treatment of pain. Newspaper stories most often conveyed the perspectives of law enforcement and courts, and much less often represented the perspectives of physicians. However, analysis of physician perspectives represented in newspaper stories and in medical journals revealed a high degree of inconsistency, especially across the fields of pain medicine and addiction medicine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of negative representations of OxyContin is often blamed on biased media coverage and an ignorant public. However, the proliferation of inconsistent messages regarding the drug from physicians plays a role in the drug’s persistent status as a social problem. PMID:22059195

  11. Method to reduce arc blow during DC arc welding of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H.; Rueda-Morales, G.L.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perz-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Tabasco, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Steel pipelines are huge ferromagnetic structures and can be easily subjected to arc blow during the DC arc welding process. The development of methods to avoid arc blow during pipeline DC arc welding is a major objective in the pipeline industry. This study developed a simple procedure to compensate the residual magnetic field in the groove during DC arc welding. A Gaussmeter was used to perform magnetic flux density measurements in pipelines in southern Mexico. These data were used to perform magnetic finite element simulations using FEMM. Different variables were studied such as the residual magnetic field in the groove or the position of the coil with respect to the groove. An empirical predictive equation was developed from these trials to compensate for the residual magnetic field. A new method of compensating for the residual magnetic field in the groove by selecting the number of coil turns and the position of the coil with respect to the groove was established.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the decay of an SF6 gas-blast arc using a two-temperature hydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weizong; Rong Mingzhe; Yan, Joseph D; Spencer, Joseph W; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of a decaying SF 6 arc, which is representative of the approach to the final current-zero state of switching arcs in a high-voltage circuit breaker, is theoretically investigated by a two-temperature hydrodynamic model, taking into account the possible departure of the plasma state from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The model couples the plasma flow with electromagnetic fields in a self-consistent manner. The electrons and heavy species are assumed to have different temperatures. The species composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of the plasma under non-LTE conditions are calculated from fundamental theory. The model is then applied to a two-dimensional axisymmetric SF 6 arc burning in a supersonic nozzle under well-controlled conditions; for this configuration, experimental results are available for comparison. The effect of turbulence is considered using the Prandtl mixing-length model. The edge absorption of the radiation emitted by the arc core is taken into account by a modified net emission coefficient approach. The complete set of conservation equations is discretized and solved using the finite volume method. The evolution of electron and heavy-particle temperatures and the total arc resistance, along with other physical quantities, is carefully analysed and compared with those of the LTE case. It is demonstrated that the electron and heavy-particle temperature diverge at all times in the plasma-cold-flow interaction region, in which strong gas flow exists, and further in the transient current-zero period, in which case the collision energy exchange is ineffective. This study quantitatively analyses the energy exchange mechanisms between electrons and heavy particles in the high-pressure supersonic SF 6 arcs and provides the foundation for further theoretical investigation of transient SF 6 arc behaviour as the current ramps down to zero in gas-blast circuit breakers.

  13. Devonian alkaline magmatic belt along the northern margin of the North China Block: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    Some Devonian magmatic rocks have been identified from the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB) in recent years. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic setting are still highly controversial. Here we present new geochronological, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and whole-rock chemical data on several newly identified and previously reported Devonian alkaline complexes, including mafic-ultramafic rocks (pyroxenites and gabbros), alkaline rocks (syenites, monzonites) and alkaline granites in the northern NCB. We firstly identified some mafic-ultramafic rocks coeval with monzonite and quartz monzonite in the Sandaogou and Wulanhada alkaline intrusions. New zircon U-Pb dating of 16 samples from the Baicaigou, Gaojiacun, Sandaogou, Wulanhada and Chifeng alkaline intrusions combined with previous geochronological results indicate that the Devonian alkaline rocks emplaced during the early-middle Devonian at around 400-380 Ma and constitute an E-W-trending alkaline magmatic belt that extend ca. 900 km long along the northern margin of the NCB. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the Devonian alkaline rocks were mainly originated from partial melting of a variably enriched lithospheric mantle with different involvement of ancient lower crustal component and fractional crystallization. The Devonian alkaline magmatic belt rocks in the northern NCB are characterized by very weak or no deformations and were most likely related to post-collision extension after arc-continent collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of North China Craton during the latest Silurian. Partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to produce the Devonian alkaline magmatic rocks suggests that the northern North China Craton has an inhomogeneous, variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and was characterized by significant vertical crustal growth during the Devonian period.

  14. Using arc voltage to locate the anode attachment in plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhouse, D J; Heberlein, J V R; Lindsay, J W

    2013-01-01

    Plasma arc cutting is a widely used industrial process in which an electric arc in the form of a high velocity plasma jet is used to melt and blow away metal. The arc attaches inside the resulting cut slot, or kerf, where it both provides a large heat flux and determines the flow dynamics of the plasma. Knowledge of the position of the arc attachment is essential for understanding the phenomena present at the work piece. This work presents a new method of measuring the location of the arc attachment in which the arc voltage is measured during the cutting of a range of work piece thicknesses. The attachment location is then interpreted from the voltages. To support the validity of this method, the kerf shape, dross particle size and dross adhesion to the work piece are also observed. While these do not conclusively give an attachment location, they show patterns which are consistent with the attachment location found from the voltage measurements. The method is demonstrated on the cutting of mild steel, where the arc attachment is found to be stationary in the upper portion of the cut slot and in reasonable agreement with existing published findings. For a process optimized for the cutting of 12.7 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 1.5–3.4 mm. For a slower process optimized for the cutting of 25.4 mm mild steel, the attachment is found at a depth of 3.4–4.8 mm, which enhances heat transfer further down in the kerf, allowing cutting of the thicker work piece. The use of arc voltage to locate the position of the arc attachment is unique when compared with existing methods because it is entirely independent of the heat distribution and visualization techniques. (paper)

  15. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore-arc

  16. One- and two-body dissipation in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, J.; Feldmeier, H.

    1980-01-01

    For peripheral collisions of heavy ions we solve the man-body Schroedinger equation in second order time-dependent perturbation theory. The two nuclei interact via a two-body interaction of finite range. With controllable approximations we get to a sensible comparison between 1p-1h excitations caused by the coherent Hartree part and direct 2p-2h excitations both created by the same two-body interaction. The results of the calculation show that for peripheral collisions almost all excitation energy originates from one-body dissipation. Furthermore we encounter large virtual excitations during the collision indicating a non Markovian process. (orig.)

  17. TH-CD-209-10: Scanning Proton Arc Therapy (SPArc) - The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Li, X; Zhang, J; Kabolizadeh, P; Stevens, C; Yan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique with robust plan quality. Methods: We developed a Scanning Proton Arc(SPArc) optimization algorithm integrated with (1)Control point re-sampling by splitting control point into adjacent sub-control points; (2)Energy layer re-distribution by assigning the original energy layers to the new sub-control points; (3)Energy layer filtration by deleting low MU weighting energy layers; (4)Energy layer re-sampling by sampling additional layers to ensure the optimal solution. A bilateral head and neck oropharynx case and a non-mobile lung target case were tested. Plan quality and total estimated delivery time were compared to original robust optimized multi-field step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arcmulti-field) and standard robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy(IMPT) plans. Dose-Volume-Histograms (DVH) of target and Organ-at-Risks (OARs) were analyzed along with all worst case scenarios. Total delivery time was calculated based on the assumption of a 360 degree gantry room with 1 RPM rotation speed, 2ms spot switching time, beam current 1nA, minimum spot weighting 0.01 MU, energy-layer-switching-time (ELST) from 0.5 to 4s. Results: Compared to IMPT, SPArc delivered less integral dose(−14% lung and −8% oropharynx). For lung case, SPArc reduced 60% of skin max dose, 35% of rib max dose and 15% of lung mean dose. Conformity Index is improved from 7.6(IMPT) to 4.0(SPArc). Compared to Arcmulti-field, SPArc reduced number of energy layers by 61%(276 layers in lung) and 80%(1008 layers in oropharynx) while kept the same robust plan quality. With ELST from 0.5s to 4s, it reduced 55%–60% of Arcmulti-field delivery time for the lung case and 56%–67% for the oropharynx case. Conclusion: SPArc is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique which could be implemented in routine clinic. For modern proton machine with ELST close

  18. Seismic velocity variation along the Izu-Bonin arc estaimated from traveltime tomography using OBS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Tamura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Kodaira, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc is an intra-oceanic island arc along the convergent plate boundary between the subducting Pacific and overriding Philippine Sea plates. Recent active seismic studies in the Izu-Bonin arc reveal significant along-arc variations in crustal structure [Kodaira et al., 2007]. The thickness of the arc crust shows a remarkable change between thicker Izu (~30 km) and thinner Bonin (~10 km) arcs. In addition to this, several geological and geophysical contrasts, such as seafloor topography and chemical composition of volcanic rocks, between Izu and Bonin arc have been reported [e.g., Yuasa 1992]. We have conducted earthquake observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) to reveal seismic velocity structure of the crust and mantle wedge in the Izu-Bonin arc and to investigate origin of the along-arc structure variations. We deployed 40 short-period OBSs in Izu and Bonin area in 2006 and 2009, respectively. The OBS data were processed with seismic data recorded at routine seismic stations on Hachijo-jima, Aoga-shima, and Chichi-jima operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). More than 5000 earthquakes were observed during about three-months observation period in each experiment. We conducted three-dimensional seismic tomography using manually picked P- and S-wave arrival time data. The obtained image shows a different seismic velocity structures in the mantle beneath the volcanic front between Izu and Bonin arcs. Low P-wave velocity anomalies in the mantle beneath the volcanic front in the Izu arc are limited at depths deeper than those in the Bonin arc. On the other hand, P-wave velocity in the low velocity anomalies beneath volcanic front in the Bonin arc is slower than that in the Izu arc. These large-scale along-arc structure variations in the mantle could relate to the geological and geophysical contrasts between Izu and Bonin arcs.

  19. Diffuse and spot mode of cathode arc attachments in an atmospheric magnetically rotating argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tang; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Meng-Ran; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    A model including the cathode, near-cathode region, and arc column was constructed. Specifically, a thermal perturbation layer at the arc fringe was calculated in order to couple sheath/presheath modelling with typical arc column modelling. Comparative investigation of two modes of attachment of a dc (100, 150, 200 A) atmospheric-pressure arc in argon to a thermionic cathode made of pure tungsten was conducted. Computational data revealed that there exists two modes of arc discharge: the spot mode, which has an obvious cathode surface temperature peak in the arc attachment centre; and the diffuse mode, which has a flat cathode surface temperature distribution and a larger arc attachment area. The modelling results of the arc attachment agree with previous experimental observations for the diffuse mode. A further 3D simulation is obviously needed to investigate the non-axisymmetrical features, especially for the spot mode. (paper)

  20. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  1. "Dignity": A central construct in nursing home staff understandings of quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Tomlinson, Emily; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2018-02-03

    To explore nursing home staff members' beliefs and expectations about what constitutes "quality continence care" for people living in nursing homes. Most nursing home residents require assistance to maintain continence or manage incontinence. Best practice guidelines promote active investigation of incontinence, treatment of underlying potentially reversible causes, and initial conservative interventions to prevent, minimise and/or treat incontinence. Despite research showing the positive benefits of implementing active interventions, translating the findings of research into practice in nursing homes has been modest. Understanding the perspectives of individuals who provide continence care may help bridge the gap between evidence and practice. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 nursing home staff: eight registered nurses, four enrolled nurses and seven personal care workers working in a nursing home in Australia between 2014-2015. Data were analysed inductively to identify themes and subthemes that described and explained staff beliefs about quality continence care in nursing homes. Participants' understanding and expectations about quality continence care were linked to beliefs about incontinence being an intractable and undignified condition in nursing homes. The key theme to emerge was "protecting residents' dignity" which was supported by the following six subthemes: (i) using pads, ii) providing privacy, (iii) knowing how to "manage" incontinence, (iv) providing timely continence care, (v) considering residents' continence care preferences and (vi) communicating sensitively. The findings provide new insight into the basis for continence care practices in nursing homes. Education about continence care should challenge beliefs that limit continence care practice to cleaning, containing and concealing incontinence. There is a need for a multidimensional framework that is informed by social, psychological

  2. Arc-to-arc mini-sling 1999: a critical analysis of concept and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Palma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to critically review the Arc-to-Arc mini-sling (Palma's technique a less invasive mid-urethral sling using bovine pericardium as the sling material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Arc-to-Arc mini-sling, using bovine pericardium, was the first published report of a mini-sling, in 1999. The technique was identical to the "tension-free tape" operation, midline incision and dissection of the urethra. The ATFP (white line was identified by blunt dissection, and the mini-sling was sutured to the tendinous arc on both sides with 2 polypropylene 00 sutures. RESULTS: The initial results were encouraging, with 9/10 patients cured at the 6 weeks post-operative visit. However, infection and extrusion of the mini-sling resulted in sling extrusion and removal, with 5 patients remaining cured at 12 months. CONCLUSION: The Arc-to-Arc mini-sling was a good concept, but failed because of the poor technology available at that time. Further research using new materials and better technology has led to new and safer alternatives for the management of stress urinary incontinence.

  3. Multiple sclerosis and continence issues: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Judy; Bennie, Mary; Leech, Christine; Windsor, Carol; Spencer, Nancy

    The study described in this article aimed to identify issues relating to incontinence and assess the impact of referral to a continence adviser on the lives of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study design used an in-depth, two-phase anonymous mail survey within a general community as nominated by the participants. Fifty-six people participated in phase 1 and eleven people completed phase 2. The results indicated that incontinence is a problem for the vast majority of participants--people with MS. One-third of the eligible participants took up the option of a consultation, assessment and treatment from a continence nurse. Reasons for not taking up the visit from the continence nurse included 'managing OK', 'didn't think it would help', 'embarrassed' and 'too busy'. Increasing awareness of urinary incontinence in the community is important and education needs to focus on at-risk groups in presenting the range of options available to assist people experiencing incontinence.

  4. A unified model of avian species richness on islands and continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Attila; Currie, David J

    2007-05-01

    How many species in a given taxon should be found in a delimited area in a specified place in the world? Some recent literature suggests that the answer to this question depends strongly on the geographical, evolutionary, and ecological context. For example, current theory suggests that species accumulate as a function of area differently on continents and islands. Species richness-climate relationships have been examined separately on continents and on islands. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the functional relationship between richness and climate is the same on continents and islands; (2) the species-area slope depends on distance-based isolation; (3) species-area relationships differ among land bridge islands, oceanic islands, and continents; (4) richness differs among biogeographic regions independently of climate and isolation. We related bird species numbers in a worldwide sample of 240 continental parcels and 346 islands to several environmental variables. We found that breeding bird richness varies similarly on islands and on continents as a function of mean annual temperature, an area x precipitation interaction, and the distance separating insular samples from the nearest continent (R2 = 0.86). Most studies to date have postulated that the slope of the species-area relationship depends upon isolation. In contrast, we found no such interaction. A richness-environment relationship derived using Old World sites accurately predicts patterns of richness in the New World and vice versa (R2 = 0.85). Our results suggest that most of the global variation in richness is not strongly context-specific; rather, it reflects a small number of general environmental constraints operating on both continents and islands.

  5. Anisotropic tomography of the Indian continent and the geodynamic role of its keel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, J. P.; Maurya, S.; Sibrant, A.; Davaille, A.; Stutzmann, E.; Kumar, R.; Jean, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian moved at an exceptional high rate (18-20cm/year) after the birth of La Réunion hotspot, ≈65Ma ago and the Deccan volcanic province before the collision with the Asian continent. Other older plumes Marion, Kerguelen located in the Indian ocean are also associated with very fast plate motion. We present a high-resolution 3D anisotropic model of the Indian plate region down to 300 km depth, obtained by inverting a new massive database of surface-wave observations. The Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion measurements along 14,000 paths are made in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our estimates of the depth to the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) derived from seismic velocity Vsv variations at depth reveal large variations (120-250 km) beneath the different cratonic blocks. A low velocity layer associated with the Mid-lithospheric discontinuity is present when the root of the lithosphere is deep. This extensive anisotropic tomographic investigation of the Indian continent displays an almost north-south keel, 600km long and 300km wide, down to 250km depth. The keel is characterized by fast velocities, smaller than average radial and azimuthal anisotropies. The distribution of azimuthal anisotropy defines the flow lines around the keel, and, at the LAB, coincides with the APM direction of the Indian plate. The fast axis azimuths at 250 km depth are also in accordance with the results from SK(K)S splitting. Such a keel could probably perturb plume-induced flow in the asthenosphere. To determine the influence of such a keel on the interaction of India with several mantle plumes (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen, La Réunion), we used laboratory experiments. Some preliminary results will be presented on the comparison between the laboratory flowlines and the direction of seismic anisotropy.

  6. Effect of arc behaviour on the temperature fluctuation of carbon electrode in DC arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, F; Tanaka, M; Choi, S; Watanabe, T

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse and multiple arc-anode attachment modes were observed in a DC arc discharge with a carbon electrode. During the arc discharge, the surface temperature of the electrode was successfully measured by two-colour pyrometry combined with a high-speed camera which employs appropriate band-pass filters. The relationship between the arc-anode attachment mode and the temperature fluctuation of electrode surface was investigated. The diffuse arc-anode attachment mode leads to relatively large temperature fluctuation on anode surface due to the rotation of the arc spot. In the case of diffuse mode, the purity of synthesized multi-wall carbon nanotube was deteriorated with temperature fluctuation

  7. Continous Infusion of Remifentanil Plus Ketamine Compared with Continous Remifentanil for Pain Relief in Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anooshe Khajehdehi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Pain relief during labour is an important determinant of a women’s birth experience. There are numerous pain relief techniques which can be used either with or without pain medication. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of remifentanil alone and its effect in pain relief while using with ketamine during labour. Methods: After obtaining informed consent and approval of hospital ethics committee, 40 women with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks gestation in early labour were recruited for this study. They were randomly allocated into two groups: group RK (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continuous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil plus 0.5 mg/kg/h ketamine for 4 hours via pump and group R (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil. Results: The baseline of pain scores were similar in both groups (5.75 ± 2.51 vs 7 ± 2.45, p= 0.12 but after 30 minutes to 120 minutes the VAS scores were significantly higher in R group (p< 0.001. The rate of patients who were satisfied (excellent and very good in RK was 80% but in R group was 45% (p = 0.03. Nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in R group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The remifentanil plus ketamine produced better pain relief during labour with continous monitoring than continous remifentanil with no adverse effects for mothers and infants.

  8. Optimisation and critical evaluation of a collision cell technology ICP-MS system for the determination of arsenic in foodstuffs of animal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent [Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, AFSSA-LERQAP 23, Avenue du G. de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Guerin, Thierry [Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, AFSSA-LERQAP 23, Avenue du G. de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)], E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr

    2008-03-24

    The determination of arsenic ({sup 75}As) was studied using an ICP-MS equipped with collision cell technology (CCT). Different mixtures of gases (He and H{sub 2}) were tested using HCl conditions and a He flow rate of 4 mL min{sup -1} was found to be suitable for the removal of the poly-atomic spectral interference [{sup 40}Ar{sup 35}Cl]{sup +}. Trueness of the optimised method has been evaluated in both standard and CCT modes on six certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on three external proficiency testing schemes (FAPAS). The results obtained generally coincided with the certified values, except for CCT mode in some categories of samples (meat, mussels and milk powder), for which a positive bias on results was observed due to the formation of poly-atomic interferences within the collision cell. The main interferences were studied and their contributions estimated. [{sup 58}Fe{sup 16}O{sup 1}H]{sup +} and [{sup 74}Ge{sup 1}H]{sup +} were the most significant interferences formed in the cell. Finally, different parameters (e.g. hexapole and quadrupole bias voltage, nebuliser gas flow) were optimised to try to attenuate these interferences.

  9. Electron collision cross sections of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Kuzuma, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new collision cross section set for mercury which revises the original set summarized by Hayashi in 1989. Hanne reported three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) determined from an electron beam experiment in 1988. As a matter for regret, no attentive consideration was given to combining these three excitation cross sections with the cross section set of Hayashi. Therefore we propose a new set where these three excitation cross sections are included. In this study, other two excitation cross sections (6 1 P 1 , 6 3 D 3 ) except for the three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) are taken from the original set of Hayashi. The momentum transfer cross section and the ionization collision cross section are also taken from Hayashi. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is applied for evaluating our new cross section set. The present results of the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient are compared to experimental values. Agreement is secured in relation to the electron drift velocity for 1.5 Td 2 ) is the reduced electric field, E (V/cm) is the electric field, N (1/cm 3 ) is the number density of mercury atoms at 0degC, 1 Torr, E/N is also equal to 2.828 x 10 -17 E/p 0 from the relation of the ideal gas equation, p 0 (Torr) is gas pressure at 0degC, 1 Torr=1.33322 x 10 -2 N/cm -2 and 10 -17 V/cm 2 is called 1 Td. Thus it is ensured that our new cross section set is reasonable enough to be used up to 100 eV when considering with the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient. (author)

  10. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-01-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  11. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  12. Tokamak ARC damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  13. The Malone antegrade continence enema for neurogenic and structural fecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, M A; Kaji, D M; Duque, M; Wild, J; Galansky, S H

    1995-08-01

    Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor and tap water appears to be a safe solution for the antegrade continence enema. A nonrefluxing, imbricated appendicocecostomy is preferable to prevent cutaneous fecal or gas leaks.

  14. ALICE-ARC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderlik, C; Gregersen, A R; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites

  15. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  16. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision with South America forming the observed Canal extensional zone.

  17. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  18. SPECTROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF BERYLLIUM IN OILFIELD WATERS USING A PLASMA ARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A. G.; Pearson, C. A.

    1963-10-15

    Geochemical studies of the distribution of the trace, minor, and major constituents of oilfield waters aid in the exploration for petroleum and other minerals, determination of the origin and distribution of oilfield waters and petroleum, and location of casing leaks and of water pollution sources. The determination of the beryllium and related data should be useful in these studies. An emission spectrographic method utilizing a plasma arc assembly for determining beryllium in oilfield waters, with a sensitivity permitting detection of less than 1 ppb, was developed. Beryllium was extracted from synthetic and natural oilfield waters with chloroform and acetylacetone. The extracts were aspirated directly into the plasma arc, and the beryllium emission intensity was recorded on photographic plates. (auth)

  19. Failed pelvic pouch substituted by continent ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, H H; Tranø, G; Wibe, A; Endreseth, B H; Rydning, A; Myrvold, H E

    2010-07-01

    The long-term failure rate of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is 10-15%. When salvage surgery is unsuccessful, most surgeons prefer pouch excision with conventional ileostomy, thus sacrificing 40-50 cm of ileum. Conversion of a pelvic pouch to a continent ileostomy (CI, Kock pouch) is an alternative that preserves both the ileal surface and pouch properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical outcome after the construction of a CI following a failed IPAA. During 1984-2007, 317 patients were operated with IPAA at St Olavs Hospital and evaluated for failure, treatment and outcome. Seven patients with IPAA failure had CI. Four patients with IPAA failure referred from other hospitals underwent conversion to CI and are included in the final analysis. Seven patients had a CI constructed from the transposing pelvic pouch and four had the pelvic pouch removed and a new continent pouch constructed from the distal ileum. Median follow up after conversion to CI was 7 years (0-17 years). Two CI had to be removed due to fistulae. One patient needed a revision of the nipple valve due to pouch loosening. At the end of follow-up, 8 of the 11 patients were fully continent. One patient with Crohn's disease had minor leakage. In patients with pelvic pouch failure, the possibility of conversion to CI should be presented to the patient as an alternative to pouch excision and permanent ileostomy. The advantage is the continence and possibly a better body image. Construction of a CI on a new ileal segment may be considered, but the consequences of additional small bowel loss and risk of malnutrition if the Kock pouch fails should be appraised.

  20. Topological regularizations of the triple collision singularity in the 3-vortex problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yasuaki

    2008-01-01

    The triple collision singularity in the 3-vortex problem is studied in this paper. Under the necessary condition k 1 -1 +k 2 -1 +k 3 -1 =0 for vorticities to have the triple collision, the main results are summarized as follows: (i) For k 1 = k 2 , the triple collision singularity is topologically regularizable. (ii) For 0 1 − k 2 | < ε with a sufficiently small ε, the triple collision singularity is not topologically regularizable. First of all, in order to prove these statements, all singularities in the 3-vortex problem are classified. Then, we introduce a dynamical system by blowing up the triple collision singularity with an appropriate time scaling. Roughly speaking, it corresponds to pasting an invariant manifold at the triple collision singularity on the original phase space. This technique is well known as McGehee's collision manifold (1974 Inventions Math. 27 191–227) in the N-body problem of celestial mechanics. Finally, by adopting the viewpoint of Easton (1971 J. Diff. Eqns 10 92–9), topological regularizations of the triple collision singularity are studied in detail

  1. The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

  2. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu

    2017-01-01

    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  3. Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for crustal growth and terrane assembly in erstwhile Gondwana fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Takamura, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu

    2018-05-01

    The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms a part of the latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian high-grade metamorphic segment of the East African-Antarctic Orogen. Here we present new petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological data on meta-igneous rocks from four localities (Austhovde, Telen, Skallevikshalsen, and Skallen) in the LHC, and evaluate the regional Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in this terrane for the first time. The geochemical features reveal a volcanic-arc affinity for most of the meta-igneous rocks from Austhovde and Telen, suggesting that the protoliths of these rocks were derived from felsic to mafic arc magmatic rocks. The protoliths of two mafic granulites from Austhovde are inferred as non-volcanic-arc basalt such as E-MORB, suggesting the accretion of remnant oceanic lithosphere together with the volcanic-arc components during the subduction-collision events. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the dominant population of magmatic zircons in felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde and Telen show 1819 ± 19 Ma and 1830 ± 10 Ma, respectively, corresponding to Paleoproterozoic magmatic event. The magmatic zircons in orthogneisses from other two localities yield upper intercept ages of 1837 ± 54 Ma (Skallevikshalsen), and 1856 ± 37 Ma and 1854 ± 45 Ma (Skallen), which also support Paleoproterozoic magmatism. The earlier thermal events during Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic are also traced by 206Pb/238U ages of xenocrystic zircons in the felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde (2517 ± 17 Ma and 2495 ± 15 Ma) and Telen (2126 ± 16 Ma), suggesting partial reworking of the basement of a 2.5 Ga microcontinent during ca. 1.8 Ga continental-arc magmatism. The timing of peak metamorphism is inferred to be in the range of 645.6 ± 10.4 to 521.4 ± 12.0 Ma based on 206Pb/238U weighted mean ages of metamorphic zircon grains. The results of this study, together with the available magmatic ages as well as geophysical and

  4. Seismotectonics of the central segment of the Indonesian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Merlanti, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a revision of seismicity affecting the central segment of the Indonesian island arc ranging between 110° and 126° E is presented. Using the areal and in-depth distribution of seismic activity, strain release maps and focal mechanisms, lateral changes in the Wadati-Benioff zone have been analyzed to determine possible boundaries between portions of lithosphere with different subduction geometries. The seismicity pattern indicates that the Sumbawa-Flores-Wetar sector shows different forms of behaviour with respect to the adjacent sectors. These include driving mechanism, inclination and continuity of the subducting slab and subduction features. This area therefore seems to be isolated from the Sunda and Banda arcs by two principal boundaries, these having a nearly N-S trend in the Bali region and with a nearly E-W trend in the region ranging between Wetar-Northern Timor and Tanibar. The first boundary, characterized by an absolute minimum of seismic activity at all ranges of depth, has been interpreted in terms of subduction of the Roo Rise aseismic bathymetric ridge. For the second boundary, dividing a northwardly steeply-dipping slab from an E-W subducting slab dipping with an angle of 30 ° -40 °, a tear in the upper part (depth less than 300 km) and a hinge fault system in the deepest part of the lithosphere, have been proposed. From the analysis of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes, it was inferred that the central part of the Indonesian Arc is subject to a vortex-shaped stress field centred on the Savu Basin. In this model, the compressive axes appear to rotate counterclockwise (from SW to NNE) in the Sumba-Sumbawa-Western Flores region and clockwise (from W to NNW) in the Timor-Eastern Flores zone. To interpret these features, on the basis of seismological evidence, a lateral discontinuity in the arc-trench system close to Sumba, a collision between Sumba and Sumbawa and a rotation towards the north-northeast of Sumba have been

  5. High-energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    While high energy collision experiments yield a wealth of complicated patterns, there are a few general and very striking features that stand out. Because of the universality of these features, and because of the dominating influence they have on high energy phenomena, it is the authors opinion that a physical picture of high energy collisions must address itself first of all to these features before going into specific details. In this short talk these general and striking features are stated and a physical picture developed in the last few years to specifically accommodate these features is described. The picture was originally discussed for elastic scattering. But it leads naturally, indeed inevitably as they shall discuss, to conclusions about inelastic processes, resulting in an idea called the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

  6. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  7. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  8. Structure of the mantle lithosphere in continental collision zones of Europe, North America and China from S-receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, R.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic tomography and receiver functions are the most common methods to study the structure of the mantle lithosphere. We use S-receiver functions to study continent-continent collision zones in Europe, North America and China. In order to avoid possible numerical problems caused by filtering effects (side lobes) we process the data practically without filtering (also excluding deconvolution). Side lobes are still a fundamental question to check the reality of the Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity (MLD). We use openly available data of mostly permanent seismic broadband stations from the European portal EIDA, from IRIS and from the Chinese Seismic Network. We obtained several ten thousands of useful records in each region by visual and fully automatic processing. We observed the MLD in all cratonic regions near 100 km depth and the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) partly in cratonic regions near 200 km depth. The observation of the cratonic LAB with converted waves requires a relatively sharp discontinuity which excludes temperature as only cause of the LAB. In younger tectonic active regions we observed the LAB near 100 km depth. TheLAB and MLD are in collision zones significantly structured. In central Europe we observed the deep cratonic LAB reaching far to the west of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone below Phanerozoic cover. Below the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif seems to be a tear in the LAB leading to a jump in its depth of about 100 km. In North America we see north of Yellowstone a smooth deepening of the western LAB from about 100 km depth to 200 km depth at the Mid-Continental Rift System. Similarly to the LAB jump below the Bohemian Massif in Europe, we see below the Sevier Thrust Belt also a jump of about 100 km in the LAB depth. In China we see the cratonic LAB deepening to the south-west far below eastern Tibet. Below the craton in north-east China is only the shallow LAB/MLD visible. These observations in three continents show that the

  9. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  

  10. Rapidity distributions in unequal nuclei collision at high energies and hydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Pengfei; Wang Zhengqing; Liu Liansou

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of high-energy A'-A collisions (A>A', A'sup(1/3)>>1) and the space-time evolution of the fluid formed in the collision are analysed. The corresponding 1+1 dimensional hydrodynamic equations are set up. The average rapidity distributions are estimated and compared with cosmic ray data. The origin of the unsymmetry of rapidity distributions is explained. (orig.)

  11. Rapidity distributions in unequal nuclei collision at high energies and hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Pengfei; Wang Zhengqing

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of high-energy A'-A collision (A > A', A' 1/3 >> 1) and the space-time evolution of the fluid formed in the collision are analysed. The corresponding 1 + 1 dimensional hydrodynamical equations are established. The average rapidity distributions are estimated and compared with some cosmic ray events. The origin of the nonsymmetry of rapidity distribution is explained

  12. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  13. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  14. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido

    2017-11-13

    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  15. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasypin, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  16. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic direction obtained from a Miocene dike swarm in central Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, H.; Sugisaki, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Central Honshu of Japan is an ideal field for the study of crustal deformation related to arc-arc collision. In this study we obtained rock magnetic and paleomagnetic results from early Miocene igneous rocks in central Honshu in order to examine rotational deformation caused by the collision of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc with central Honshu. In Takane of the Hida region, gabbro intrusions and older sedimentary rocks are intruded by numerous andesitic dikes that comprise a parallel dike swarm. The dikes formed under two different normal-faulting paleostress conditions, which were suggested using a method of clustering dike orientations. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the two paleostress conditions existed during the same period. More than 240 oriented cores were taken at 38 sites in two localities for magnetic study. The andesites and gabbros generally have magnetite, and some andesites also contain pyrrhotite. The magnetite records easterly deflected remanent magnetization directions of dual polarities that pass the reversals test. Positive baked contact tests at two sites demonstrate that the easterly deflected direction is a thermoremanent magnetization acquired at the time of intrusion. The overall in situ (i.e., in geographic coordinates) mean direction for andesitic dikes is judged to be highly reliable, although there are two possible scenarios for explaining the easterly deflection: (1) clockwise rotation and (2) tilting to the northwest. We prefer the former scenario and conclude that 45° clockwise rotation occurred in Takane with respect to the North China Block of the Asian continent. This rotation must represent the clockwise rotation of entire Southwest Japan during the opening period of the Japan Sea. Very little difference is observed between the amount of the easterly deflection in Takane and those in the Tokai and Hokuriku regions, indicating no significant relative rotation. Thus, the crust beneath Takane has not suffered rotation

  17. Anorectal function in patients with complete rectal prolapse. Differences between continent and incontinent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, J V; Buch, E; Alós, R; Solana, A; Fernández, C; Villoslada, C; García-Armengol, J; Hinojosa, J

    1998-11-01

    A study is made of the alterations in anorectal physiology among rectal prolapse patients, evaluating the differences between fecal continent and incontinent individuals. Eighteen patients with complete rectal prolapse were divided into two groups: Group A (8 continent individuals) and Group B (10 incontinent women), while 22 healthy women were used as controls (Group C). Clinical exploration and perineal level measurements were performed, along with anorectal manometry, electrophysiology, and anorectal sensitivity to electrical stimuli. The main antecedents of the continent subjects were excess straining efforts, while the incontinent women presented excess straining and complex deliveries. Pathological perineal descent was a frequent finding in both groups, with a hypotonic anal canal at rest (p rest than the continent women (p rest, regardless of whether they are continent to feces or not. Continent patients have less pudendal neuropathy and therefore less pressure alterations at voluntary sphincter squeeze than incontinent individuals.

  18. Mesozoic monazite in Neoproterozoic metasediments. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism of Sinian sediments during Triassic continental collision, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusheng; Song Tianrui; Liu Dunyi; Yang Tiannan; Yin Xiaoyan; Zhang Qiaoda; Chen Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Sericite phyllite from the Sinian Shisanlitai Formation, Dalian area, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China, contains an assemblage of newly-formed lower-greenschist facies minerals (sericite, chlorite, Fe minerals and Ti minerals) plus aggregates of fine-grained monazite. The texture of the monazite, its mineral inclusions, and its close association with Fe oxide minerals show that it is not detrital or diagenetic, but a product of the low-grade metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite at 217±15 Ma shows that the metamorphism, and associated regional deformation and fluid flow, occurred in the Late Triassic, coeval with the waning stages of the Dabie-Sulu orogeny. The Dabie-Sulu tectonothermal event has produced both deformation and metamorphism in rocks of the eastern North China Block at least up to ∼200 km north of the main continent-continent collision zone. (author)

  19. Codon usage and expression level of human mitochondrial 13 protein coding genes across six continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Supriyo; Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Paul, Prosenjit; Halder, Binata; Deka, Himangshu; Mazumder, Gulshana Akthar; Barbhuiya, Riazul Ahmed; Barbhuiya, Masuk Ahmed; Devi, Warepam Jesmi

    2017-12-02

    The study of codon usage coupled with phylogenetic analysis is an important tool to understand the genetic and evolutionary relationship of a gene. The 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria are involved in electron transport chain for the generation of energy currency (ATP). However, no work has yet been reported on the codon usage of the mitochondrial protein coding genes across six continents. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes across six different continents, we used bioinformatic analyses to analyze the protein coding genes. The codon usage bias was low as revealed from high ENC value. Correlation between codon usage and GC3 suggested that all the codons ending with G/C were positively correlated with GC3 but vice versa for A/T ending codons with the exception of ND4L and ND5 genes. Neutrality plot revealed that for the genes ATP6, COI, COIII, CYB, ND4 and ND4L, natural selection might have played a major role while mutation pressure might have played a dominant role in the codon usage bias of ATP8, COII, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that evolutionary relationships in each of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria were different across six continents and further suggested that geographical distance was an important factor for the origin and evolution of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-25

    Wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nursing was recognized as a nursing specialty by the American Nurses Association in February 2010, and the Society published the original scope and standards of WOC nursing practice in May 2010. The Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition is the definitive resource promoting excellence in professional practice, quality care, and improved patient outcomes in WOC specialty practice. It can be used to articulate the value of WOC nurses to administrators, legislators, payers, patients, and others. The second edition also provides an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice including a description of the specialty, the history and evolution of WOC nursing, characteristics of WOC nursing practice, and description of the trispecialty. The document describes various WOC nurse roles, populations served, practice settings, care coordination, and collaboration. Educational preparation, levels of practice within WOC specialty nursing, certification, mandate for continuous professional development, ethics, current trends, future considerations and challenges, and standards of WOC nursing practice and professional performance with competencies for each standard are provided. The purpose of this Executive Summary is to describe the process for developing the scope and standards document, provide an overview of the scope of WOC nursing practice, and list the standards of practice and professional performance along with the competencies for each level of WOC nurse provider. The original document is available from the WOCN Society's online book store (www.wocn.org).

  1. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  2. Equilibrium motion of quict auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyatskij, V.B.; Leont'ev, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma convection across auroral arc is investigated. It is shown that the existence of plasma area of increased concentration adjoining arc results not only from the arc but also is a factor supporting its existence. Under stable conditions the arc and plasma zone connected to it will move at a velocity different from a velocity of plasma convection. Arc velocity will be higher or lower as compared with convection velocity depending on arc orientation relative to an external electric field. At that the plasma zone is located either in front of or behind aurora polaris [ru

  3. Bifurcation theory of ac electric arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas; Peinke, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    The performance of alternating current (ac) electric arcing devices is related to arc extinction or its re-ignition at zero crossings of the current (so-called ‘current zero’, CZ). Theoretical investigations thus usually focus on the transient behaviour of arcs near CZ, e.g. by solving the modelling differential equations in the vicinity of CZ. This paper proposes as an alternative approach to investigate global mathematical properties of the underlying periodically driven dynamic system describing the electric circuit containing the arcing device. For instance, the uniqueness of the trivial solution associated with the insulating state indicates the extinction of any arc. The existence of non-trivial attractors (typically a time-periodic state) points to a re-ignition of certain arcs. The performance regions of arcing devices, such as circuit breakers and arc torches, can thus be identified with the regions of absence and existence, respectively, of non-trivial attractors. Most important for applications, the boundary of a performance region in the model parameter space is then associated with the bifurcation of the non-trivial attractors. The concept is illustrated for simple black-box arc models, such as the Mayr and the Cassie model, by calculating for various cases the performance boundaries associated with the bifurcation of ac arcs. (paper)

  4. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  5. Electron-positron pair creation in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors review the status of experiments to study the electron positron pair creation in heavy ion atom collisions at bombarding energies close to the Coulomb barrier. The disentanglement and characterization of various sources of positrons observed in such collisions are described with a focus on the monoenergetic electron positron pairs observed. They seem to originate from the two-body decay of a family of neutral particles with masses of about 3m and lifetimes in the range of 6 x 10 - 14 s, produced by high Coulomb fields. First attempts were made to create these particles by resonant Bhabha scattering

  6. MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T Sammour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

  7. Arcing and surface damage in DITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.; McCracken, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation into the arcing damage on surfaces exposed to plasmas in the DITE tokamak is described. It has been found that arcing occurs on the fixed limiters, on probes inserted into the plasma and on parts of the torus structure. For surfaces parallel to the toroidal field most of the arcs run across the surface orthogonal to the field direction. Observations in the scanning electron microscope show that the arc tracks are formed by a series of melted craters characteristic of cathode arc spots. The amount of metal removed from the surface is consistent with the concentration of metal observed in the plasma. In plasmas with hydrogen gas puffing during the discharge or with injection of low Z impurities, the arc tracks are observed to be much shallower than in normal low density discharges. Several types of surface damage other than arc tracks have also been observed on probes. These phenomena occur less frequently than arcing and appear to be associated with abnormal discharge conditions. (author)

  8. Electron-positron pair creation in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, P.

    1987-08-01

    We review here the status of experiments to study the electron positron pair creation in heavy ion atom collisions at bombarding energies close to the Coulomb barrier. The disentanglement and characterisation of various sources of positrons observed in such collisions are described with a focus on the monoenergetic electron positron pairs observed. They seem to originate from the two-body decay of a family of neutral particles with masses of about 3 m e and life times in the range of 6x10 -14 s -10 s, produced by high Coulomb fields. First attempts were made to create these particles by resonant Bhabha scattering. First we present some experimental methods for high efficiency positron spectroscopy in heavy ion collisions. Then we describe the discovery of positron creation induced by strong time changing Coulomb fields. (orig./HSI)

  9. Operator Bias in the Estimation of Arc Efficiency in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sikström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operator bias in the measurement process of arc efficiency in stationary direct current electrode negative gas tungsten arc welding is discussed. An experimental study involving 15 operators (enough to reach statistical significance has been carried out with the purpose to estimate the arc efficiency from a specific procedure for calorimetric experiments. The measurement procedure consists of three manual operations which introduces operator bias in the measurement process. An additional relevant experiment highlights the consequences of estimating the arc voltage by measuring the potential between the terminals of the welding power source instead of measuring the potential between the electrode contact tube and the workpiece. The result of the study is a statistical evaluation of the operator bias influence on the estimate, showing that operator bias is negligible in the estimate considered here. On the contrary the consequences of neglecting welding leads voltage drop results in a significant under estimation of the arc efficiency.

  10. Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and

  11. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    the ancestral margins of present-day Northeast Asia and northwestern North America. The rifting resulted in the fragmentation of each continent and the formation of cratonal and passive continental-margin terranes that eventually migrated and accreted to other sites along the evolving margins of the original or adjacent continents. (2) From about the Late Triassic through the mid-Cretaceous, a succession of island arcs and tectonically paired subduction zones formed near the continental margins. (3) From about mainly the mid-Cretaceous through the present, a succession of igneous arcs and tectonically paired subduction zones formed along the continental margins. (4) From about the Jurassic to the present, oblique convergence and rotations caused orogenparallel sinistral and then dextral displacements within the upper-plate margins of cratons that have become Northeast Asia and North America. The oblique convergences and rotations resulted in the fragmentation, displacement, and duplication of formerly more nearly continuous arcs, subduction zones, and passive continental margins. These fragments were subsequently accreted along the expanding continental margins. (5) From the Early Jurassic through Tertiary, movement of the upper continental plates toward subduction zones resulted in strong plate coupling and accretion of the former island arcs and subduction zones to the continental margins. Accretions were accompanied and followed by crustal thickening, anatexis, metamorphism, and uplift. The accretions resulted in substantial growth of the North Asian and North American Continents. (6) During the middle and late Cenozoic, oblique to orthogonal convergence of the Pacifi c plate with present-day Alaska and Northeast Asia resulted in formation of the modern-day ring of volcanoes around the Circum-North Pacific. Oblique convergence between the Pacific plate and Alaska also resulted in major dextral-slip faulting in interior and southern Alaska and along the western p

  12. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included

  13. Multiphysics Simulation of Welding-Arc and Nozzle-Arc System: Mathematical-Model, Solution-Methodology and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sumedh; Sharma, Atul

    2018-01-01

    This work presents mathematical model and solution methodology for a multiphysics engineering problem on arc formation during welding and inside a nozzle. A general-purpose commercial CFD solver ANSYS FLUENT 13.0.0 is used in this work. Arc formation involves strongly coupled gas dynamics and electro-dynamics, simulated by solution of coupled Navier-Stoke equations, Maxwell's equations and radiation heat-transfer equation. Validation of the present numerical methodology is demonstrated with an excellent agreement with the published results. The developed mathematical model and the user defined functions (UDFs) are independent of the geometry and are applicable to any system that involves arc-formation, in 2D axisymmetric coordinates system. The high-pressure flow of SF6 gas in the nozzle-arc system resembles arc chamber of SF6 gas circuit breaker; thus, this methodology can be extended to simulate arcing phenomenon during current interruption.

  14. An Improved Path-Generating Regulator for Two-Wheeled Robots to Track the Circle/Arc Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improved path-generating regulator (PGR is proposed to path track the circle/arc passage for two-wheeled robots. The PGR, which is a control method for robots so as to orient its heading toward the tangential direction of one of the curves belonging to the family of path functions, is applied to navigation problem originally. Driving environments for robots are usually roads, streets, paths, passages, and ridges. These tracks can be seen as they consist of straight lines and arcs. In the case of small interval, arc can be regarded as straight line approximately; therefore we extended the PGR to drive the robot move along circle/arc passage based on the theory that PGR to track the straight passage. In addition, the adjustable look-ahead method is proposed to improve the robot trajectory convergence property to the target circle/arc. The effectiveness is proved through MATLAB simulations on both the comparisons with the PGR and the improved PGR with adjustable look-ahead method. The results of numerical simulations show that the adjustable look-ahead method has better convergence property and stronger capacity of resisting disturbance.

  15. Modified Le Bag Pouch after Radical Cystectomy: Continence, Uro dynamic Results and Morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, O.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    To revaluate ileocolonic pouch for ortho-topic neobladder reconstruction, a cohort of patients with bladder cancer was selected to undergo radical cystectomy and modified Le Bag pouch. Evaluation concentrates on continence and associated morbidity observed on close follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 37 patients including 16 females with T2 3 bladder cancer (19 transitional, 15 : squamous and 3 adenocarcinoma) were treated by radical cystectomy and totally detubularized ileocolic neobladder. Post operative morbidity, continence and urodynamic studies were evaluated. Mean time to have full daytime continence was tested against age, gender, postoperative complications, technique of pouch creation either stapler or hand suture and adjuvant irradiation. Results: Cystometry 12 months post surgery showed 493 ml median capacity with basal and maximum reservoir median pressures of 16 and 38 cm H 2 O respectively. Uro-flowmetry had maximum voiding volume of 370ml, voiding time 45s and maximum flow rate of 11.6ml/s. Within the first 2 months post operative 44% were continent by day, 33% by night and 67% had stress incontinence. By 12 months post surgery 89% were continent by day, 73% by night and 27% had stress incontinence. Two years post surgery 94% were continent by day and 81 % had complete day and night control of uri-ne. Urinary leakage was the most frequent early complication (10.8%). Late complications were urinary tract infection (13.5%), metabolic acidosis (13.5%) and reflux (10.8%). Pouch over distension (5.4%) was consistent with bladder neck obstruction. Patient's gender and postoperative morbidity were statistically significant factors to increase the mean time to continence; whereas, age, use of stapler and adjuvant radiotherapy had no significant effect. Conclusion: Modified Le Bag pouch is a simple technique with adequate pouch capacity that offers excellent slowly progressing continence rates with minor morbidity rate. Post operative morbidity and

  16. The peopling of the African continent and the diaspora into the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Africa is the birthplace of anatomically modern humans, and is the geographic origin of human migration across the globe within the last 100,000 years. The history of African populations has consisted of a number of demographic events that have influenced patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation across the continent. With the increasing amount of genomic data and corresponding developments in computational methods, researchers are able to explore long-standing evolutionary questions, expanding our understanding of human history within and outside of Africa. This review will summarize some of the recent findings regarding African demographic history, including the African Diaspora, and will briefly explore their implications for disease susceptibility in populations of African descent.

  17. Colon pouch (Mainz III) for continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Sakelaropoulos, George; Rödder, Kilian; Hohenfellner, Rudolph; Fisch, Margit

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the use of a continent cutaneous pouch made exclusively of colon (Mainz pouch III), as excellent results with the Mainz pouch III in irradiated patients suggested that the indication for this type of urinary diversion could be extended. The outcome of 24 patients with continent cutaneous urinary diversions using colon segments (Mainz pouch III) was investigated retrospectively. Overall, 22 of the patients had a malignant disease and two a benign disease; 16 had a hysterectomy and pelvic exenteration for gynaecological tumours; two men with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate had a radical cystoprostatectomy; one woman had pelvic exenteration for bladder cancer; one man had a simultaneous rectum resection due to infiltrating rectal cancer, and another a left nephrectomy with cystectomy for concomitant kidney and bladder tumour. Benign indications were hyper-reflexive bladder after polytrauma and two cases of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Eighteen patients had radiotherapy (32-48 Gy) before the urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 35 (12-65) months. The mean pouch capacity was 293.8 mL. Three patients died during the follow-up (two from disease progression and one suicide); 20 patients were fully continent, four with reduced pouch capacity (<300 mL) had slight incontinence and are wearing a protective pad (band-aid at the umbilicus). All patients use intermittent self-catheterization (mean catheterization frequency 6.8/day, range 6-12). Complications related to the pouch were one outlet stenosis that required revision. Postoperative pouchograms showed asymptomatic reflux in four patients. None of the patients developed metabolic acidosis or diarrhoea. The Mainz pouch III is an alternative to other types of continent urinary diversion.

  18. Numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancinelli, B. R.; Minotti, F. O.; Kelly, H.; Prevosto, L.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the double-arcing phenomenon in a cutting arc torch is reported. The dynamics of the double-arcing were simulated by using a two-dimensional model of the gas breakdown development in the space-charge layer contiguous to the nozzle of a cutting arc torch operated with oxygen. The kinetic scheme includes ionization of heavy particles by electron impact, electron attachment, electron detachment, electron–ion recombination, and ion–ion recombination. Complementary measurements during double-arcing phenomena were also conducted. A marked rise of the nozzle voltage was found. The numerical results showed that the dynamics of a cathode spot at the exit of the nozzle inner surface play a key role in the raising of the nozzle voltage, which in turn allows more electrons to return to the wall at the nozzle inlet. The return flow of electrons thus closes the current loop of the double-arcing. The increase in the (floating) nozzle voltage is due to the fact that the increased electron emission at the spot is mainly compensated by the displacement current (the ions do not play a relevant role due to its low-mobility) until that the stationary state is achieved and the electron return flow fully-compensates the electron emission at the spot. A fairly good agreement was found between the model and the experiment for a spot emission current growth rate of the order of 7 × 10 4  A/s.

  19. Reconstructing in space and time the closure of the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2018-01-01

    When and how the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean closed is a highly controversial subject. In this paper, we present a detailed study and review of the Cretaceous ophiolites, ocean islands, and flysch deposits in the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), and the Cretaceous volcanic rocks, late Mesozoic sediments, and unconformities within the BNSZ and surrounding areas. Our aim was to reconstruct the spatial-temporal patterns of the closing of the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. Our conclusion is that the closure of the ocean started during the Late Jurassic and was mainly complete by the end of the Early Cretaceous. The closure of the ocean involved both "longitudinal diachronous closure" from north to south and "transverse diachronous closure" from east to west. The spatial-temporal patterns of the closure process can be summarized as follows: the development of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and its subduction started before the Late Jurassic; after the Late Jurassic, the ocean began to close because of the compressional regime surrounding the BNSZ; along the northern margin of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean, collisions involving the arcs, back-arc basins, and marginal basins of a multi-arc basin system first took place during the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous, resulting in regional uplift and the regional unconformity along the northern margin of the ocean and in the Southern Qiangtang Terrane on the northern side of the ocean. However, the closure of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean cannot be attributed to these arc-arc and arc-continent collisions, because subduction and the development of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere continued until the late Early Cretaceous. The gradual closure of the middle and western segments of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean was diachronous from east to west, starting in the east in the middle Early Cretaceous, and being mainly

  20. Analyses of the long-range transport of nitrogeneous species through the atmosphere from the Asian continent using observational data at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, and CMAQ postanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanaga, Y.; Bandow, H.; Uno, I.; Sera, T.; Yuba, A.; Takenaka, N.; Takami, A.; Kurokawa, J.; Hatakeyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    The long-term monitoring of air quality has been continuing at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan in terms of assessing the environmental impact and biogeochemical effect to the marine-surface activities by the economic growth of Asian continent. Among the monitoring data, total odd nitrogen oxides (NOy), HNO3, particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)), NH3, NH4+ and SO42- were analyzed for the period from 16 March to 13 April 2008 as well as the postanalyses of those species by the Community Muti-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) of those species. NOy and total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-(p)) concentrations from China (CH) air mass origin were high during the observational period in both observed and model-calculated result. The long-range transport of odd nitrogen species from the Asian continent is supported with respect to both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations. HNO3 and NO3-(p) concentrations from CH air mass origin were also high during the observational period. However, the HNO3 diurnal variation with daytime peak and nighttime lows suggests that HNO3 around the CHAAMS forms photochemically in situ or in areas relatively close to the CHAAMS. The maximum and minimum concentrations of NH3 were observed at Pacific Ocean (PO) and Middle China air mass origins, respectively, and the observed NH3 concentrations from PO air mass origin were highest. NH3 concentration calculated by the CMAQ failed to reproduce observed variation, this is because the horizontal resolution of CMAQ (-20km) is not sufficient to allocate the land surface/vegetation base NH3 emission. NH4+ and SO42- concentrations from CH air mass origin were high during the observational period for both the observation and the CMAQ calculation. As well as the case of NOy and TN, the long-range transport of ammonium and sulfur compounds from the Asian continent is also supported in terms of both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations.

  1. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry; Brown, Jeff; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Steve; Brubaker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnsons arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  2. X-ray Arcs Tell The Tale Of Giant Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    outburst is consistent with other optical and infrared observations that indicate that the rate of star formation in the galaxy increased dramatically at about that time. Centaurus A Arcs Centaurus A X-ray Image Other authors have suggested that the merger of a small spiral galaxy with Centaurus A about a hundred million years ago triggered the high-energy jets and the ongoing violent activity in the nucleus of the galaxy. The tremendous energy released when a galaxy is "turned on" by a collision can have a profound influence on the subsequent evolution of the galaxy and its neighbors. The mass of the central black hole can increase, the gas reservoir for the next generation of stars can be expelled, and the space between the galaxies can be enriched with heavier elements. "Active galaxies could have played a significant role in the evolution of galaxies in the early universe when collisions between galaxies were much more frequent," said Giuseppina Fabbiano, a coauthor on the paper. "Centaurus A, at a distance of only 11 million light years, gives us a rare opportunity to study such an active galaxy in action." Chandra observed Centaurus A with its High Resolution Camera instrument on September 10, 1999, for approximately 4.7 hours. Other members of CfA research team include Martin Elvis, Ralph Kraft, Stephen Murray, and Fabrizio Nicastro The HRC was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA.

  3. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent; Guerin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The determination of chromium ( 52 Cr), iron ( 56 Fe) and selenium ( 80 Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ( 40 Ar 12 C), 56 ( 40 Ar 16 O) and 80 ( 40 Ar 40 Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min -1 H 2 and 0.5 ml min -1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg -1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO 3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  4. Teaching with ArcGIS Pro

    OpenAIRE

    Theller, Larry

    2016-01-01

    For Fall semester 2016 the ABE department moved the course ASM 540 Basic GIS from ArcGIS Desktop 10.2 to ArcGIS Pro 1.3. This software from ESRI has a completely new look and feel, (ribbon-based rather than cascading menus) and is a true 64 bit application, capable of multi-threading, and built on Python 3. After ArcGIS Desktop 10.5 is released, desktop ends and the future release will be ArcGIS Pro; so it makes sense to switch sooner rather than later. This talk will discuss some issues and...

  5. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  6. Intensity-modulated arc therapy simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Eugene; Chen, Jeff Z.; Greenland, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We present a treatment planning strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using gantry arcs with dynamic multileaf collimator, previously termed intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods and Materials: The planning strategy is an extension of the photon bar arc and asymmetric arc techniques and is classified into three levels of complexity, with increasing number of gantry arcs. This principle allows us to generalize the analysis of the number of arcs required for intensity modulation for a given treatment site. Using a phantom, we illustrate how the current technique is more flexible than the photon bar arc technique. We then compare plans from our strategy with conventional three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for three sites: prostate (prostate plus seminal vesicles), posterior pharyngeal wall, and chest wall. Results: Our strategy generates superior IMAT treatment plans compared to conventional three-dimensional conformal plans. The IMAT plans spare critical organs well, and the trade-off for simplicity is that the dose uniformity in the target volume may not rival that of true inverse treatment plans. Conclusions: The analyses presented in this paper give a better understanding of IMAT plans. Our strategy is easier to understand and more efficient in generating plans than inverse planning systems; our plans are also simpler to modify, and quality assurance is more intuitive

  7. Preoperative predictive model of recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Kent, Matthew T.; Vickers, Andrew J.; von Bodman, Christian; Bernstein, Melanie; Touijer, Karim A.; Coleman, Jonathan; Laudone, Vincent; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Akin, Oguz; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective ● To build a predictive model of urinary continence recovery following radical prostatectomy that incorporates magnetic resonance imaging parameters and clinical data. Patients and Methods ● We conducted a retrospective review of data from 2,849 patients who underwent pelvic staging magnetic resonance imaging prior to radical prostatectomy from November 2001 to June 2010. ● We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between each MRI variable and continence at 6 or 12 months, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and then used multivariable logistic regression to create our model. ● A nomogram was constructed using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results ● In total, 68% (n=1,742/2,559) and 82% (n=2,205/2,689) regained function at 6 and 12 months, respectively. ● In the base model, age, BMI, and ASA score were significant predictors of continence at 6 or 12 months on univariate analysis (p <0.005). ● Among the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging measurements, membranous urethral length, which showed great significance, was incorporated into the base model to create the full model. ● For continence recovery at 6 months, the addition of membranous urethral length increased the AUC to 0.664 for the validation set, an increase of 0.064 over the base model. For continence recovery at 12 months, the AUC was 0.674, an increase of 0.085 over the base model. Conclusions ● Using our model, the likelihood of continence recovery increases with membranous urethral length and decreases with age, body mass index, and ASA score. ● This model could be used for patient counseling and for the identification of patients at high risk for urinary incontinence in whom to study changes in operative technique that improve urinary function after radical prostatectomy. PMID:25682782

  8. Hot origin of the Little Bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkelin, S.V. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions produce a quark-gluon matter which lies in the future light cone originating from given points on the t = z = 0 plane of the Minkowski spacetime manifold. We show that in a weak coupling regime the Minkowski vacuum of massless fields presents itself in the ''Little Bang'' region as a thermal state of low p{sub T} particles, in close analogy to the Unruh effect for uniformly accelerated observers which are causally restricted to a Rindler wedge. It can shed some light on the mechanisms of early time thermalization in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. (orig.)

  9. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  10. Effects of lorentz force on flow fields of free burning arc and wall stabilized non-transferred arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yi; Huang Heji; Pan Wenxia

    2013-01-01

    The flow fields of two typical DC plasma arcs, namely the transferred free burning arc and the non-transferred arc were simulated by solving hydrodynamic equations and electromagnetic equations. The effects of the Lorentz force on the characteristics of the flow fields of these two typical DC plasma arcs were estimated. Results show that in the case of the free burning arc, the Lorentz force due to the current self-induced magnetic field has significant impact on the flow fields, as the self-induced magnetic compression is the main arc constraint mechanism. However, in the case of the non-transferred arc generated in a torch with long and narrow inter-electrode inserts and an abruptly expanded anode, the Lorentz force has limited impact on the flow fields of the plasma especially at the downstream of the inter-electrode inserts, compared with the strong wall constraints and relatively high aerodynamic force. This is because the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the aerodynamic force is only about 0.01 in this region. When the main consideration is outlet parameters of the wall stabilized non-transferred DC arc plasma generator, in order to improve the efficiency of the numerical simulation program, the Lorentz force could be neglected in the non-transferred arc in some cases. (authors)

  11. Impact of posterior rhabdosphincter reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: retrospective analysis of time to continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jason R; Shikanov, Sergey; Zorn, Kevin C; Shalhav, Arieh L; Zagaja, Gregory P

    2009-12-01

    Posterior rhabdosphincter (PR) reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) was introduced in an attempt to improve postoperative continence. In the present study, we evaluate time to achieve continence in patients who are undergoing RARP with and without PR reconstruction. A prospective RARP database was searched for most recent cases that were accomplished with PR reconstruction (group 1, n = 69) or with standard technique (group 2, n = 63). We performed the analysis applying two definitions of continence: 0 pads per day or 0-1 security pad per day. Patients were evaluated by telephone interview. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. With PR reconstruction, continence was improved when defined as 0-1 security pad per day (median time of 90 vs 150 days; P = 0.01). This difference did not achieve statistical significance when continence was defined as 0 pads per day (P = 0.12). A statistically significant improvement in continence rate and time to achieve continence is seen in patients who are undergoing PR reconstruction during RARP, with continence defined as 0-1 security/safety pad per day. A larger, prospective and randomized study is needed to better understand the impact of this technique on postoperative continence.

  12. Self-reported urinary continence outcomes for repeat midurethral synthetic sling placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Eandi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with tension-free transvaginal tape (TVT placement for the management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI in women who had previously undergone a failed midurethral synthetic sling (MUS procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten women underwent retropubic TVT insertion for continued or recurrent SUI following a prior MUS procedure. No attempt was made to remove the previously placed sling at the time of surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed to obtain perioperative and follow-up patient information. Post-operatively, each patient completed a mailed incontinence questionnaire to assess self-reported urinary continence outcomes. RESULTS: All 10 women were available for follow-up at a mean period of 16 months (range 6 to 33. Four of the 10 patients achieved complete continence, and another three patients reported significantly improved continence and quality of life. Three women stated that their continence did not improve. CONCLUSIONS: TVT placement may be a viable option for the management of women with persistent or recurrent SUI following an initial MUS procedure.

  13. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomotherapy, RapidArc, and a novel IMRT and Arc technique for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Spencer; Chen, Jeff Z.; Rashid Dar, A.; Yartsev, Slav

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiotherapy treatment plans for mid- and distal-esophageal cancer with primary involvement of the gastroesophageal (GE) junction using a novel IMRT and Arc technique (IMRT and Arc), helical tomotherapy (HT), and RapidArc (RA1 and RA2). Methods and materials: Eight patients treated on HT for locally advanced esophageal cancer with radical intent were re-planned for RA and IMRT and Arc. RA plans employed single and double arcs (RA1 and RA2, respectively), while IMRT and Arc plans had four fixed-gantry IMRT fields and a conformal arc. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose uniformity, and dose homogeneity were analyzed to compare treatment plans. Results: RA2 plans showed significant improvement over RA1 plans in terms of OAR dose and PTV dose uniformity and homogeneity. HT plan provided best dose uniformity (p = 0.001) and dose homogeneity (p = 0.002) to planning target volume (PTV), while IMRT and Arc and RA2 plans gave lowest dose to lungs among four radiotherapy techniques with acceptable PTV dose coverage. Mean V 10 of the lungs was significantly reduced by the RA2 plans compared to IMRT and Arc (40.3%, p = 0.001) and HT (66.2%, p 15 of the lungs for the RA2 plans also showed significant improvement over the IMRT and Arc (25.2%, p = 0.042) and HT (34.8%, p = 0.027) techniques. These improvements came at the cost of higher doses to the heart volume compared to HT and IMRT and Arc techniques. Mean lung dose (MLD) for the IMRT and Arc technique (21.2 ± 5.0% of prescription dose) was significantly reduced compared to HT (26.3%, p = 0.004), RA1 (23.3%, p = 0.028), and RA2 (23.2%, p = 0.017) techniques. Conclusion: The IMRT and Arc technique is a good option for treating esophageal cancer with thoracic involvement. It achieved optimal low dose to the lungs and heart with acceptable PTV coverage. HT is a good option for treating esophageal cancer with little thoracic involvement as it achieves superior dose conformality and uniformity. The RA2

  14. Future climate change enhances rainfall seasonality in a regional model of western Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suchul; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, future changes in rainfall due to global climate change are investigated over the western Maritime Continent based on dynamically downscaled climate projections using the MIT Regional Climate Model (MRCM) with 12 km horizontal resolution. A total of nine 30-year regional climate projections driven by multi-GCMs projections (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-MR and ACCESS1.0) under multi-scenarios of greenhouse gases emissions (Historical: 1976-2005, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5: 2071-2100) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) are analyzed. Focusing on dynamically downscaled rainfall fields, the associated systematic biases originating from GCM and MRCM are removed based on observations using Parametric Quantile Mapping method in order to enhance the reliability of future projections. The MRCM simulations with bias correction capture the spatial patterns of seasonal rainfall as well as the frequency distribution of daily rainfall. Based on projected rainfall changes under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the ensemble of MRCM simulations project a significant decrease in rainfall over the western Maritime Continent during the inter-monsoon periods while the change in rainfall is not relevant during wet season. The main mechanism behind the simulated decrease in rainfall is rooted in asymmetries of the projected changes in seasonal dynamics of the meridional circulation along different latitudes. The sinking motion, which is marginally positioned in the reference simulation, is enhanced and expanded under global climate change, particularly in RCP8.5 scenario during boreal fall season. The projected enhancement of rainfall seasonality over the western Maritime Continent suggests increased risk of water stress for natural ecosystems as well as man-made water resources reservoirs.

  15. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    a linear system to be controlled by linear state feedback control. The advantage of using a nonlinear approach as feedback linearization is the ability of this method to cope with nonlinearities and different operating points. However, the model describing the GMAW process is not exact, and therefore......In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only......, the cancellation of nonlinear terms might give rise to problems with respect to robustness. Robustness of the closed loop system is therefore nvestigated by simulation....

  16. Constraints on the evolution of the Naga Hills: from disparate origins to tectonic amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, J. C.; Clarke, G. L.; Ireland, T. R.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Kapesa, L.; Roeder, T.; Stojanovic, D.; Kachovich, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent field expeditions supported by the Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF07021) have allowed a collaborative team of Australian and Indian geologists to examine, in detail, regions along the border between Nagaland and Manipur in India and Myanmar. This area has previously been little explored and we present new field and laboratory observations. The Myanmar microplate has been dextrally translated over 480 km northwards along Sagaing Fault system during the Miocene. Clearly it did not originate where it presently lies but how far it has travelled remains uncertain. The Indo-Myanmar ranges include the Naga Hills that are dominated by Cenozoic sediments, which have been thrust westwards (in present-day coordinates). They structurally overlie an Indian passive-margin sequence that includes the Gondwana break-up rift-drift counterpart to parts of the NW Shelf of Australia. Near the Indo-Myanmar border this giant imbricate thrust stack also contains sheets of ophiolitic mélange. The ophiolite is heavily disrupted and subsequent to this dismemberment it has been overlain by a succession of Eocene shallow marine shelf sediments; the Phokphur Formation. Further east a succession of high-grade metamorphic units is also thrust westwards over the ophiolite. Well-preserved radiolarian microfossils and U/PB SHRIMP data provide important new age constraints. While superficially it appears that rocks in this area can be correlated with units known from the Himalaya in fact this is problematic. As oceans to the north and west of Australia have opened, grown and been recycled through subduction various continental fragments that originated as part of Gondwana have departed and, with time, transferred to Asia. They have not necessarily all followed the same tectonic pathways. The area lies to the east of the Namche Barwa syntaxis and tectonic reconstructions indicate it has not directly participated in continent-continent collision. Indeed, stratigraphic and

  17. What can we learn from p perpendicular spectra in heavy-ion collisions at the AGS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusive and semi-inclusive cross-sections for production of pions, kaons, and protons in Si+Al, Si+Cu, and Si+Au collisions, measured at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass rapidity are presented. The functional forms of the spectra are discussed. The centrality dependence of the inverse m perpendicular slopes is shown. Deviations in the spectra from pure exponential-m perpendicular distributions are discussed. The effects of resonance decays on the shape of the pion spectra are studied using previously measured p-p data, Si+Al data from E802, and the ARC model

  18. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  19. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H

    2011-01-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  20. Pre-Cenozoic basement rocks of the Proto-Philippine Sea Plate: Constraints for the birthplace of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Horie, K.; Barth, A. P.; Harigane, Y.; Ueda, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc is widely regarded to be a typical intra-oceanic arc, with the oceanic Pacific Plate subducting beneath the Philippine Sea Plate, an evolving complex of active and inactive arcs and back-arc basins. However, little is known about the origin of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, which existed along with the Pacific Plate at the time of subduction initiation in the Eocene. To investigate the crustal structures of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, we conducted manned-submersible and dredge surveys in the Daito Ridges and the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The Daito Ridges comprise the northwestern Philippine Sea Plate along with what are regarded as remnants of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate. Submersible observations and rock sampling revealed that the Daito Ridges expose deep crustal sections of gabbroic, granitic, metamorphic, and ultra-mafic rocks, along with volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to andesite. Mesozoic magmatic zircon U-Pb ages have been obtained from the plutonic rocks, and whole-rock geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicates arc origins. Furthermore, mafic schist collected from the Daito Ridge has experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism, with phase assemblages suggesting that the crust was thicker than 20 km at the time. Similar amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks with Proterozoic zircons have been recovered in the southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, indicating that such distinctively older basement rocks exist as isolated tectonic blocks within the present Philippine Sea Plate. These finds show that the parts of the Daito Ridges and Kyushu-Palau Ridge represent developed crustal sections of the Pre-Cenozoic arc that comprises part of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, and, together with the tectonic reconstruction of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate (Deschamps and Lallemand 2002, JGR), they suggest that subduction of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc initiated at the continental margin of the Southeast Asia.

  1. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  2. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  3. Quality audit--a review of the literature concerning delivery of continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield, J

    1995-09-01

    This paper outlines the role of quality audit within the framework of quality assurance, presenting the concurrent and retrospective approaches available. The literature survey provides a review of the limited audit tools available and their application to continence services and care delivery, as well as attempts to produce tools from national and local standard setting. Audit is part of a process; it can involve staff, patients and their relatives and the team of professionals providing care, as well as focusing on organizational and management levels. In an era of market delivery of services there is a need to justify why audit is important to continence advisors and managers. Effectiveness, efficiency and economics may drive the National Health Service, but quality assurance, which includes standards and audit tools, offers the means to ensure the quality of continence services and care to patients and auditing is also required in the purchaser/provider contracts for patient services. An overview and progress to date of published and other a projects in auditing continence care and service is presented. By outlining and highlighting the audit of continence service delivery and care as a basis on which to build quality assurance programmes, it is hoped that this knowledge will be shared through the setting up of a central auditing clearing project.

  4. Smart wireless continence management system for persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Fook, Victor Foo Siang; Jayachandran, Maniyeri; Biswas, Jit; Nugent, Chris; Mulvenna, Maurice; Lee, Jer-En; Kiat, Philp Yap Lian

    2008-10-01

    Incontinence is highly prevalent in the elderly population, especially in nursing home residents with dementia. It is a distressing and costly health problem that affects not only the patients but also the caregivers. Effective continence management is required to provide quality care, and to eliminate high labor costs and annoyances to the caregivers resulting from episodes of incontinence. This paper presents the design, development, and preliminary deployment of a smart wireless continence management system for dementia-impaired elderly or patients in institutional care settings such as nursing homes and hospitals. Specifically, the mote wireless platform was used to support the deployment of potentially large quantities of wetness sensors with wider coverage and with dramatically less complexity and cost. It consists of an intelligent signal relay mechanism so that the residents are free to move about in the nursing home or hospital and allows personalized continence management service. Preliminary results from a trial in a local nursing home are promising and can significantly improve the quality of care for patients.

  5. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - First stable beam, 3 June 2015 - run: 266904

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 3 June 2015, with the first LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The yellow rectangles along with the red and green bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters. Tracks originate from several vertices, indicating multiple proton-proton interactions (also known as pile-up ) recorded in one event.

  6. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  7. Impact of metabolic syndrome on early recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Toshifumi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The present study included a total of 302 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. In this study, postoperative urinary continence was defined as no leak or the use of a security pad. The continence status was assessed by interviews before and 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Metabolic syndrome was defined as follows: body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and two or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The effect of the presence of metabolic syndrome on the continence status of these patients was retrospectively examined. A total of 116 (38.4%) and 203 (67.2%) of the 302 patients were continent at 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. A total of 31 (10.3%) patients were judged to have metabolic syndrome. Despite the operative time being longer in patients with metabolic syndrome, no significant differences were observed in the remaining preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative variables between patients with or without metabolic syndrome. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome and the duration of hospitalization were significantly correlated with the 1-month continence status. Similarly, metabolic syndrome and estimated blood loss during surgery were independent predictors of continence rates at 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome could have a significant impact on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Some Interesting Events from Lead-Lead Collisions in ATLAS at the LHC (individual captions in abstract)

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS Experiment, ATLAS, First collisions, Splash events

    2010-01-01

    Image Captions CERN-EX-1011310 01 -- Event display of a highly asymmetric dijet event, with one jet with ET > 100 GeV and no evident recoiling jet, recorded by ATLAS in LHC lead-lead collisions. CERN-EX-1011310 02 -- Event display of a highly asymmetric dijet event, with one jet with ET > 100 GeV and no evident recoiling jet, recorded by ATLAS in LHC lead-lead collisions. CERN-EX-1011310 03 -- Event display of a highly asymmetric dijet event, with one jet with ET > 100 GeV and no evident recoiling jet, recorded by ATLAS in LHC lead-lead collisions. CERN-EX-1011310 04 -- LHC lead-lead collisions recorded by ATLAS with a candidate Z to μ+μ- decay. The two muons shown in purple are the candidates to originate from the Z decay. The transverse momenta of these two muons are 44 and 45 GeV, and the invariant mass of the dimuon system is 93 GeV. CERN-EX-1011310 05 -- LHC lead-lead collisions recorded by ATLAS with a candidate Z to μ+μ- decay. The two muons shown in red are the candidates to originate from the...

  9. Welding procedure specification for arc welding of St 52-3N steel plates with covered electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, S.; Slavkov, D.; Magdeski, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results of approval welding technology for arc welding of plates made of St 52-3N steel are presented. Metal arc welding with covered electrode is used welding process. Test specimens are butt welded in different welding positions P A , P F , P C and P D . Before start welding preliminary welding procedure was prepared. After welding of test specimens non destructive and destructive testing was performed. Obtained results were compared with standard DIN 17100 which concerns to chemical composition and mechanical properties of base material. It was confirmed that in all cases mechanical properties of welded joint are higher than those of base material, so preliminary welding procedure (pWTS) can be accepted as welding procedure specification WPS for metal arc welding of St52-3N steel. (Original)

  10. Feshbach resonances in cold collisions of potassium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambini, A.; Geltman, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic steps that allow the calculation of the scattering length in the collision of two alkali-metal atoms in a well defined magnetic polarization state, and in the presence of a static magnetic field. Calculations are actually done for the low-field seeking state F=1, μ F =-1 of bosonic potassium atoms. The electrostatic potentials obtained through Rydberg-Klein-Rees data are connected to a dispersive, long range tail in which the dominant dipole-dipole C 6 term may take different values within a specified range. We show the occurrence of Feshbach resonances in the ultra cold collision of two identical atoms, belonging either to the bosonic species 39 K or 41 K. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of C 6 values for which the collision of two 39 K atoms displays a single resonance, while for other values of C 6 no resonance occurs. On the other hand, Feshbach resonances are present in the collision of two 41 K atoms for almost all values of the dispersion coefficient C 6 in that range. We also show the origin of the different types of Feshbach resonances that occur in the cold collision of two 41 K atoms. The detection of such resonances can help establish the actual value of the dispersive coefficient

  11. Study on sediments from Almirantado Bay in the Antarctica continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Marcelo da Silva; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Weber, Rolf Roland

    1999-01-01

    The Antarctic Continent is relatively free from human activities but it already comes presenting low levels of environmental contamination for anthropogenic sources. The anthropogenic contamination can be taken mainly to the continent through different manners for the marine and atmospheric currents. This work has as objective to analyze samples of sediments from Antarctic Continent in the area of Almirantado Bay, where the Brazilian Station of Resource Comandante Ferraz is located. The concentrations of ten metallic elements (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, U, Al, Fe and Li) were analyzed in twelve collection sites along the whole Bay. AAS and HR-ICPMS accomplished the analyses of those metallic elements. It was verified in the obtained results that a variation does not exist in the concentrations obtained among the collection sites, indicating a homogeneity in the area and there is no evidence of polluting source, at least at those obtained concentration levels. (author)

  12. The Armenian and NW Anatolian ophiolites: new insights for the closure of the Tethys domain and obduction onto the South Armenian Block and Anatolian-Tauride Platform before collision through dynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Sosson, Marc; Hassani, Riad; Topuz, Gultekin; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Gerbault, Muriel; Galoyan, Ghazar; Müller, Carla; Sahakyan, Lilit; Avagyan, Ara

    2013-04-01

    In the Lesser Caucasus three main domains are distinguished from SW to NE: (1) the South Armenian Block (SAB), a Gondwanian-derived continental terrane; (2) scattered outcrops of ophiolites coming up against the Sevan-Akera suture zone; and (3) the Eurasian plate. The Armenian ophiolites represent remnants of an oceanic domain which disappeared during Eurasia-Arabia convergence. Previous works using geochemical whole-rock analyses, 40Ar/39Ar and paleontological dating have shown that the ophiolite outcrops throughout this area were emplaced during the Late Cretaceous as one non-metamorphic preserved ophiolitic nappe of back-arc origin that formed during Middle to Late Jurassic. From these works, tectonic reconstructions include two clearly identified subductions, one related to the Neotethys subduction beneath the Eurasian margin and another to intra-oceanic subduction responsible for the opening of the back-arc basin corresponding to the ophiolites of the Lesser Caucasus. The analysis of the two stages of metamorphism of the garnet amphibolites of the ophiolite obduction sole at Amasia (M1: HT-LP peak of P = 6-7 kbar and T > 630°C; M2; MP-MT peak at P = 8-10 kbar and T = 600°C) has allowed us to deduce the onset of subduction of the SAB at 90 Ma for this locality, which age coincides with other paleontological ages at the obduction front. A preliminary paleomagnetic survey has also brought quantification to the amount of oceanic domain which disappeared by subduction between the SAB and Eurasia before collision. We propose a dynamic finite element model using ADELI to test the incidence of parameters such as the density of the different domains (or the interval between the densities), closing speed (or speeds if sporadic), the importance and interactions of mantle discontinuities with the subducting lithosphere and set a lithospheric model. Our field observations and analyses are used to validate combinations of factors. The aim is to better qualify the

  13. Analogue modeling of arc and backarc deformation in the New Hebrides arc and North Fiji Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Lister, G. S.; Jessell, M. W.

    In most backarc basins, extension is perpendicular to the arc. Thus individual spreading ridges extend approximately parallel to the arc. In the North Fiji Basin, however, several ancient and active spreading ridges strike 70°-90° to the New Hebrides arc. These high-angle spreading ridges relocated

  14. Physical characteristics of welding arc ignition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linan; Song, Yonglun; Xiao, Tianjiao; Ran, Guowei

    2012-07-01

    The existing research of welding arc mainly focuses on the stable combustion state and the research on the mechanism of welding arc ignition process is quite lack. The tungsten inert gas(TIG) touch arc ignition process is observed via a high speed camera and the high time resolution spectral diagnosis system. The changing phenomenon of main ionized element provided the electrons in the arc ignition is found. The metallic element is the main contributor to provide the electrons at the beginning of the discharging, and then the excitated shielding gas element replaces the function of the metallic element. The electron density during the period of the arc ignition is calculated by the Stark-broadened lines of Hα. Through the discussion with the repeatability in relaxation phenomenon, the statistical regularity in the arc ignition process is analyzed. The similar rules as above are observed through the comparison with the laser-assisted arc ignition experiments and the metal inert gas(MIG) arc ignition experiments. This research is helpful to further understanding on the generation mechanism of welding arc ignition and also has a certain academic and practical significance on enriching the welding physical theoretical foundation and improving the precise monitoring on automatic arc welding process.

  15. A Mesozoic orogenic cycle from post-collision to subduction in the southwestern Korean Peninsula: New structural, geochemical, and chronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Ik; Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Hong, Paul S.; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Early to Middle Mesozoic basins, distributed sporadically over the Korean Peninsula, preserve important records of the tectonic history of some of the major orogenic belts in East Asia. Here we present a comprehensive study of the structural, geochemical, geochronological, and paleontological features of a volcano-sedimentary package, belonging to the Oseosan Volcanic Complex of the Early to Middle Mesozoic Chungnam Basin, within the Mesozoic subduction-collision orogen in the southwestern Korean Peninsula. The zircon U-Pb data from rhyolitic volcanic rocks of the complex suggest Early to Middle Jurassic emplacement age of ca. 178-172 Ma, harmonious with plant fossil taxa found from the overlying tuffaceous sedimentary rock. The geochemical data for the rhyolitic volcanic rocks are indicative of volcanic arc setting, implying that the Chungnam Basin has experienced an intra-arc subsidence during the basin-expanding stage by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific (Izanagi) Plate. The Jurassic arc-related Oseosan Volcanic Complex was structurally stacked by the older Late Triassic to Early Jurassic post-collisional basin-fill of the Nampo Group by the Jangsan fault during basin inversion. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous K-feldspar and illite K-Ar ages marked the timing of inversion tectonics, contemporaneous with the magmatic quiescence in the southern Korean Peninsula, likely due to flat-lying or low-angle subduction. The basin evolution history preserved in the Mesozoic Chungnam Basin reflects a Mesozoic orogenic cycle from post-collision to subduction in the southwestern Korean Peninsula. This, in turn, provides a better understanding of the spatial and temporal changes in Mesozoic tectonic environments along the East Asian continental margin.

  16. A fast conservative spectral solver for the nonlinear Boltzmann collision operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba, Irene M.; Haack, Jeffrey R.; Hu, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    We present a conservative spectral method for the fully nonlinear Boltzmann collision operator based on the weighted convolution structure in Fourier space developed by Gamba and Tharkabhushnanam. This method can simulate a broad class of collisions, including both elastic and inelastic collisions as well as angularly dependent cross sections in which grazing collisions play a major role. The extension presented in this paper consists of factorizing the convolution weight on quadrature points by exploiting the symmetric nature of the particle interaction law, which reduces the computational cost and memory requirements of the method to O(M 2 N 4 logN) from the O(N 6 ) complexity of the original spectral method, where N is the number of velocity grid points in each velocity dimension and M is the number of quadrature points in the factorization, which can be taken to be much smaller than N. We present preliminary numerical results

  17. Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A; Yu, Cedric X

    2009-01-01

    Single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) has gained worldwide interest in both research and clinical implementation due to its superior plan quality and delivery efficiency. Single-arc IMAT techniques such as the Varian RapidArc(TM) deliver conformal dose distributions to the target in one single gantry rotation, resulting in a delivery time in the order of 2 min. The segments in these techniques are evenly distributed within an arc and are allowed to have different monitor unit (MU) weightings. Therefore, a variable dose-rate (VDR) is required for delivery. Because the VDR requirement complicates the control hardware and software of the linear accelerators (linacs) and prevents most existing linacs from delivering IMAT, we propose an alternative planning approach for IMAT using constant dose-rate (CDR) delivery with variable angular spacing. We prove the equivalence by converting VDR-optimized RapidArc plans to CDR plans, where the evenly spaced beams in the VDR plan are redistributed to uneven spacing such that the segments with larger MU weighting occupy a greater angular interval. To minimize perturbation in the optimized dose distribution, the angular deviation of the segments was restricted to ≤± 5 deg. This restriction requires the treatment arc to be broken into multiple sectors such that the local MU fluctuation within each sector is reduced, thereby lowering the angular deviation of the segments during redistribution. The converted CDR plans were delivered with a single gantry sweep as in the VDR plans but each sector was delivered with a different value of CDR. For four patient cases, including two head-and-neck, one brain and one prostate, all CDR plans developed with the variable spacing scheme produced similar dose distributions to the original VDR plans. For plans with complex angular MU distributions, the number of sectors increased up to four in the CDR plans in order to maintain the original plan quality. Since each sector was

  18. Busbar arcs at large fusion magnets: Conductor to feeder tube arcing model experiments with the LONGARC device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry.klimenko@kit.edu; Pasler, Volker

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The LONGARC device was successfully implemented for busbar to feeder tubes arcing model experiments. •Arcing at an ITER busbar inside its feeder tube was simulated in scaled model experiments. •The narrower half tubes imply a slight increase of the arc propagation speed in compare to full tube experiments. •All simulated half tubes experiments show severe damage indicating that the ITER inner feeder tube will not withstand a busbar arc. -- Abstract: Electric arcs moving along the power cables (the so-called busbars) of the toroidal field (TF) coils of ITER may reach and penetrate the cryostat wall. Model experiments with the new LONGARC device continue the VACARC (VACuum ARC) experiments that were initiated to investigate the propagation and destruction mechanisms of busbar arcs in small scale [1]. The experiments are intended to support the development and validation of a numerical model. LONGARC overcomes the space limitations inside VACARC and allows also for advanced 1:3 (vs. ITER full scale) model setups. The LONGARC device and first results are presented below.

  19. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  20. Momentum equation for arc-driven rail guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteh, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In several models of arc-driven rail guns, the rails are assumed to be infinitely high to simplify the calculation of the electromagnetic fields which appear in the momentum equation for the arc. This assumption leads to overestimates of the arc pressures and accelerations by approximately a factor of 2 for typical rail-gun geometries. In this paper, we develop a simple method for modifying the momentum equation to account for the effect of finite-height rails on the performance of the rail gun and the properties of the arc. The modification is based on an integration of the Lorentz force across the arc cross section at each axial location in the arc. Application of this technique suggests that, for typical rail-gun geometries and moderately long arcs, the momentum equation appropriate for infinite-height rails can be retained provided that the magnetic pressure term in the equation is scaled by a factor which depends on the effective inductance of the gun. The analysis also indicates that the magnetic pressure gradient actually changes sign near the arc/projectile boundary because of the magnetic fields associated with the arc current

  1. Improving and ensuring best practice continence management in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberg, Gayle

    2008-06-01

    Background  Continence Management within residential aged care is an every day component of care that requires assessment, implementation of strategies, resource allocation and evaluation. At times the management of incontinence of aged residents can be challenging and unsuccessful. The project chosen through the Clinical Fellowship program was Continence Management with the aim of raising awareness of best practice to assist in improving and providing person-centred resident care. Aims/objectives •  Review the literature on best practice management of incontinence •  Evaluate current practice in continence management for elderly residents within residential aged care services •  Improve adherence to best practice strategies of care for incontinence •  Raise awareness within the nursing home of the best practice management of incontinence •  Promote appropriate and effective use of resources for continence management •  Deliver individualised person-centred care to residents. •  Ensure best practice in continence management Methods  The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System clinical audit tool was utilised to measure current practice against best practice. The results identify gaps that require improvement. The Getting Research into Practice process then allowed analysis of the level of compliance with each of the audit criteria, which would identify any barriers in implementing a selected course of action and aim to improve compliance. The project team was consulted with additional stakeholder consultation to form an action plan and implement strategies to improve practice. Results  Although 100% compliance with all audit criteria in audit 1 and 2 was not achieved, there was improvement in the criteria concerning the documented fluid intake for residents. Further strategies have been identified and implemented and this continues to be a 'work in progress'. Staff now have an acute awareness

  2. Mountain building long after plate collision. Possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergei; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that mountain building occurs synchronously to plate collision. However, it was well known long ago that in most cases mountain building began 10-100 Ma later. For example, in the Middle and Southern Urals collision occurred from the Late Devonian and until the Early Permian. The shortened regions remained covered by a shallow sea. High mountains began to form rapidly 10 Ma after the termination of collision. The Verkhoyansk Range in Northeastern Asia was strongly shortened at mid-Cretaceous time. It remained at a low altitude for 100 Ma and rose by 2 km in the Pleistocene. Compressive stresses most probably were acting in the Urals during all the epoch of collision. Strong shortening however occurred only as several impulses 1-2 Ma long. This can be explained by temporary weakening of the lithosphere due to a change in the mechanism of creep under infiltration of fluids from the mantle. To sustain a thickened crust at a low altitude, a density increase in the lithosphere was necessary. A possible cause could be metamorphism in crustal rocks, both mafic and felsic, under a pressure increase during collision. Rapid uplift of the shortened crust long after collision and establishment of a new temperature distribution indicates a density decrease in the lithosphere. Thus, on the Precambrian cratons which cover about 70% of continental areas collision terminated ≥ 500 Ma ago. However, during the last several Ma most of them underwent the uplift ranging from 100-200 m to 1000-1500 m. This occurred on the African continent, in central and eastern Australia, East Siberia, East Antarctica and in many other regions. Preservation of thick mantle roots precluded delamination of the lowermost lithosphere as a mechanism for the uplift. Due to a strong denudation of cratons deeply metamorphosed rocks of the lower crust emerged to a shallow depth. Under dry conditions for a long time they remained metastable. Recent inflow of fluid from the mantle

  3. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufailly, Vincent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Noel, Laurent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Guerin, Thierry [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)]. E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr

    2006-04-21

    The determination of chromium ({sup 52}Cr), iron ({sup 56}Fe) and selenium ({sup 80}Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C), 56 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 16}O) and 80 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 40}Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min{sup -1} H{sub 2} and 0.5 ml min{sup -1} He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg{sup -1} for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO{sub 3} were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode.

  4. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn may...

  5. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  6. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  7. Carboniferous rifted arcs leading to an archipelago of multiple arcs in the Beishan-Tianshan orogenic collages (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Ji'en; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Dongfang

    2017-10-01

    The Beishan and East Tianshan Orogenic Collages in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) record the final stages of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These collages and their constituent arcs have an important significance for resolving current controversies regarding their tectonic setting and age, consequent accretionary history of the southern CAOB, and the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In this paper, we present our work on the southern Mazongshan arc and the northern Hongyanjing Basin in the Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC), and our comparison with the Bogda arc and associated basins in the East Tianshan Orogenic Collage. Field relationships indicate that the Pochengshan fault defines the boundary between the arc and basin in the BOC. Volcanic rocks including basalts and rhyolites in the Mazongshan arc have bimodal calc-alkaline characteristics, an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba, and Pb and depletion in high field-strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta), which were probably developed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. We suggest that these bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in rifted arcs instead of post-orogenic rifts with mantle plume inputs. By making detailed geochemical comparisons between the Mazongshan arc and the Bogda arc to the west, we further propose that they are similar and both formed in arc rifts, and helped generate a Carboniferous archipelago of multiple arcs in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. These data and ideas enable us to postulate a new model for the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB.

  8. Investigations Of A Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, T. W. H.; Pigott, J.; Denniss, P.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2003-06-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs are well established as a method for producing thin films for coatings and as a source of metal ions. Research into DC vacuum arcs has been going on for over ten years in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Recently a project was undertaken in the school to design and build a pulsed CVA for use in the investigation of plasma sheaths and plasma immersion ion implantation. Pulsed cathodic vacuum arcs generally have a higher current and plasma density and also provide a more stable and reproducible plasma density than their DC counterparts. Additionally it has been shown that if a high repetition frequency can be established the deposition rate of pulsed arcs is equal to or greater than that of DC arcs with a concomitant reduction in the rate of macro-particle formation. We present here results of our investigations into the building of a center-triggered pulsed cathodic vacuum arc. The design of the power supply and trigger mechanism and the geometry of the anode and cathode are examined. Observations of type I and II arc spots using a CCD camera, and cathode spot velocity dependence on arc current will be presented. The role of retrograde motion in a high current pulsed arc is discussed.

  9. Investigations Of A Pulsed Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Pigott, J.; Denniss, P.; Mckenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs are well established as a method for producing thin films for coatings and as a source of metal ions. Research into DC vacuum arcs has been going on for over ten years in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Recently a project was undertaken in the school to design and build a pulsed CVA for use in the investigation of plasma sheaths and plasma immersion ion implantation. Pulsed cathodic vacuum arcs generally have a higher current and plasma density and also provide a more stable and reproducible plasma density than their DC counterparts. Additionally it has been shown that if a high repetition frequency can be established the deposition rate of pulsed arcs is equal to or greater than that of DC arcs with a concomitant reduction in the rate of macro-particle formation. We present here results of our investigations into the building of a center-triggered pulsed cathodic vacuum arc. The design of the power supply and trigger mechanism and the geometry of the anode and cathode are examined. Observations of type I and II arc spots using a CCD camera, and cathode spot velocity dependence on arc current will be presented. The role of retrograde motion in a high current pulsed arc is discussed

  10. TECTONIC POSITION OF MARBLE MELANGES IN THE EARLY PALEOZOIC ACCRETION-COLLISIONAL SYSTEM OF THE WESTERN PRIBAIKALIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Fedorovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Paleozoic collisional system located in the Olkhon region at the western shores of Lake Baikal resulted from collision of the Siberian paleocontinent and a complex aggregate composed by fragments of a microcontinent, island arcs, back-arc structures and accretionary prisms. The main events were associated with complete manifestation of shear tectogenesis initiated by oblique collision. The current structure includes tectonically displaced components of ancient geodynamic systems that used to have been located dozens and hundreds of kilometres apart. Horizontal amplitudes of tectonic displacement seem to have been quite high; however, numerical data are still lacking to support this conclusion. Information about the structure of the upper crust in the Paleozoic is also lacking as only deep metamorphic rocks (varying from epidote-amphibolite to granulite facies are currently outcropped. Formations comprising the collisional collage are significantly different in composition and protoliths, and combinations of numerous shifted beds give evidence of a 'bulldozer' effect caused by the collisional shock followed by movements of crushed components of the ocean-continent zone along the margin of the Siberian paleocontinent. As evidenced by the recent cross-section, deep horizons of the Early Paleozoic crust comprise the collisional system between the Siberian craton and the Olkhon composite terrain. A permanent inclusion in the collisional combinations of rocks are unusual synmetamorphic injected bodies of carbonate rocks. Such rocks comprise two groups, marble melanges and crustal carbonate melted rocks. Obviously, carbonate rocks (that composed the original layers and horizons of stratified beds can become less viscous to a certain degree at some locations during the process of oblique collision and acquire unusual properties and can thus intrude into the surrounding rocks of silicate composition. Such carbonate rocks behave as protrusions

  11. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupl, Jan Michael; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang Yang, Fan; Levit, Creon

    2013-01-01

    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Two useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept for collision avoidance. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can prevent a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 20 minute window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser-based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  12. Seismic evidence for arc segmentation, active magmatic intrusions and syn-rift fault system in the northern Ryukyu volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    Tectonic and volcanic structures of the northern Ryukyu arc are investigated on the basis of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data. The study area forms an active volcanic front in parallel to the non-volcanic island chain in the eastern margin of the Eurasian plate and has been undergoing regional extension on its back-arc side. We carried out a MCS reflection experiment along two across-arc lines, and one of the profiles was laid out across the Tokara Channel, a linear bathymetric depression which demarcates the northern and central Ryukyu arcs. The reflection image reveals that beneath this topographic valley there exists a 3-km-deep sedimentary basin atop the arc crust, suggesting that the arc segment boundary was formed by rapid and focused subsidence of the arc crust driven by the arc-parallel extension. Around the volcanic front, magmatic conduits represented by tubular transparent bodies in the reflection images are well developed within the shallow sediments and some of them are accompanied by small fragments of dipping seismic reflectors indicating intruded sills at their bottoms. The spatial distribution of the conduits may suggest that the arc volcanism has multiple active outlets on the seafloor which bifurcate at crustal depths and/or that the location of the volcanic front has been migrating trenchward over time. Further distant from the volcanic front toward the back-arc (> 30 km away), these volcanic features vanish, and alternatively wide rift basins become predominant where rapid transitions from normal-fault-dominant regions to strike-slip-fault-dominant regions occur. This spatial variation in faulting patterns indicates complex stress regimes associated with arc/back-arc rifting in the northern Okinawa Trough.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Dynamic effect of collision failure of phase in gas of cold dark atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'ichev, L.V.

    2005-01-01

    In a gas of slow atoms exhibiting the effect of coherent population trapping (CPT) on the sublevels of the ground state in a spatially nonuniform light field, rare collisions destroying the CPT state initiate the irreversible exchange of momentum between radiation and atoms. This exchange is manifested as an additional force that acts on the particles. The force is of geometric origin, being determined only by the structure of the field of local CPT states. When this force is not masked by the standard collision change in atomic momentum, the observation of the kinetics of the particles may provide information on the physics of the collisions [ru

  14. An analysis of the ArcCHECK-MR diode array's performance for ViewRay quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Steven T; Culberson, Wesley S; Bednarz, Bryan P; DeWerd, Larry A; Bayouth, John E

    2017-07-01

    The ArcCHECK-MR diode array utilizes a correction system with a virtual inclinometer to correct the angular response dependencies of the diodes. However, this correction system cannot be applied to measurements on the ViewRay MR-IGRT system due to the virtual inclinometer's incompatibility with the ViewRay's multiple simultaneous beams. Additionally, the ArcCHECK's current correction factors were determined without magnetic field effects taken into account. In the course of performing ViewRay IMRT quality assurance with the ArcCHECK, measurements were observed to be consistently higher than the ViewRay TPS predictions. The goals of this study were to quantify the observed discrepancies and test whether applying the current factors improves the ArcCHECK's accuracy for measurements on the ViewRay. Gamma and frequency analysis were performed on 19 ViewRay patient plans. Ion chamber measurements were performed at a subset of diode locations using a PMMA phantom with the same dimensions as the ArcCHECK. A new method for applying directionally dependent factors utilizing beam information from the ViewRay TPS was developed in order to analyze the current ArcCHECK correction factors. To test the current factors, nine ViewRay plans were altered to be delivered with only a single simultaneous beam and were measured with the ArcCHECK. The current correction factors were applied using both the new and current methods. The new method was also used to apply corrections to the original 19 ViewRay plans. It was found the ArcCHECK systematically reports doses higher than those actually delivered by the ViewRay. Application of the current correction factors by either method did not consistently improve measurement accuracy. As dose deposition and diode response have both been shown to change under the influence of a magnetic field, it can be concluded the current ArcCHECK correction factors are invalid and/or inadequate to correct measurements on the ViewRay system. © 2017 The

  15. Evaluating optical hazards from plasma arc cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Burr, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated a steel building materials manufacturer. The employer requested the evaluation because of concerns about optical radiation hazards from a plasma arc cutting system and the need to clarify eye protection requirements for plasma operators, other employees, and visitors. The strength of the ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation (light), and infrared radiation generated by the plasma arc cutter was measured at various distances from the source and at different operating amperages. Investigators also observed employees performing the plasma arc cutting. Optical radiation above safe levels for the unprotected eyes in the ultraviolet-C, ultraviolet-B, and visible light ranges were found during plasma arc cutting. In contrast, infrared and ultraviolet-A radiation levels during plasma arc cutting were similar to background levels. The highest non-ionizing radiation exposures occurred when no welding curtains were used. A plasma arc welding curtain in place did not eliminate optical radiation hazards to the plasma arc operator or to nearby employees. In most instances, the measured intensities for visible light, UV-C, and UV-B resulted in welding shade lens numbers that were lower than those stipulated in the OSHA Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy table in 29 CFR 1910.133(a)(5). [1] Investigators recommended using a welding curtain that enclosed the plasma arc, posting optical radiation warning signs in the plasma arc cutter area, installing audible or visual warning cues when the plasma arc cutter was operating, and using welding shades that covered the plasma arc cutter operator's face to protect skin from ultraviolet radiation hazards.

  16. Poster - 42: TB - ARC: A Total Body photon ARC technique using a commercially available linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Michael D. C.; Ruo, Russell; Patrocinio, Horacio J.; Poon, Emily; Freeman, Carolyn; Hijal, Tarek; Parker, William [McGill University Health Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a total body photon irradiation technique using multiple overlapping open field arcs (TB-ARC). This simple technique uses predetermined arc-weights, with MUs calculated as a function of prescription depth only. Patients lie on a stretcher, in the prone/supine treatment position with AP/PA arcs. This treatment position has many advantages including ease of delivery (especially for tall, pediatric or compromised patients), dose uniformity, simplicity for organ shielding, and imaging capabilities. Using a Varian TrueBeam linac, 14 arcs using 40×40 cm{sup 2} 6 MV open photon beams, sweeping across 10 degrees each, complete a 140 degree arc. The nominal SSD at zero degrees is 200 cm. Arcs at the sweep limits (+/− 70 degrees) are differentially weighted and deliver a dose within 10% of the prescription on central axis, at a depth of 10 cm over a superior-inferior length of 275 cm. CT planning using Varian Eclipse enables dose evaluation. A custom made beam spoiler, consisting of a 2.5 m sheet of polycarbonate (6 mm thick) increases the surface dose from 45% to 90%. This beam spoiler also serves as a support in the event that differential attenuation is required for organs such as lung, heart, liver, kidneys. The geometry of the sweeping beam technique limits organ dose (using varying thicknesses of melting alloy) to about 20% and 40% of prescription at dmax and midplane respectively. Digital imaging with a portable DR cassette enables proper attenuator location prior to treatment.

  17. Cecal rupture after continent ileocecal urinary diversion during total pelvic exenteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, E.

    1991-01-01

    Continent ureteral diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration avoids an external appliance and allows patients to retain bladder reservoir function. The technical difficulty of this procedure requires meticulous attention to operative and perioperative care, particularly after pelvic irradiation. A patient with recurrent stage IIIB carcinoma of the cervix underwent total pelvic exenteration with reconstructive procedures including low rectal anastomosis, neovagina formation, and ileocecal (Indiana) continent diversion. Early catheterization of the reservoir began 2 weeks postoperatively. One week later cecal rupture occurred, not related to suture line (technical) failure. Because of the high wall tension and reduced compliance in the irradiated cecum, the authors do not recommend catheterization of the urinary reservoir before 4-6 weeks. In order for continent diversion to become the standard diversion in exenteration patients, the major complication rate must remain comparable to that of noncontinent diversion

  18. Rapid arc - clinical rationale and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, Lucca

    2008-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the background of Intensity modulation volumetric arc therapy Rapid Arc from Varian Medical Systems aiming to highlight the technical and clinical rational also from an historical perspective to the founding pillars of fast delivery with a minimum number of arcs and a minimum number of monitor units

  19. Prototype arc saw design and cutting trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    A program was initiated to develop the arc saw as a tool capable of removing the end fittings from spent nuclear fuel bundles. A special arc saw for this purpose was designed, installed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and satisfactorily operated to remove end fittings from simulated, nonradioactive fuel bundles. The design of the arc saw included consideration of the cutting environment, power supply size, control equipment, and work piece size. Several simulated fuel bundles were cut to demonstrate that the arc saw met design specifications. Although the arc saw development program was curtailed before significant performance data could be collected, tests indicate that the arc saw is a good means of cropping spent fuel bundles and is well suited to remote operation and maintenance

  20. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  1. Arc modeling for welding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional model of the welding arc that considers heat generation by the Joule effect and heat losses by radiation and conduction has been used to study the effects of various gases and gas mixtures currently employed for welding applications. Minor additions of low ionization potential impurities to these gases are shown to significantly perturb the electrical properties of the parent gas causing gross changes in the radial temperature distribution of the arc discharge. Such changes are reflected in the current density distribution and ultimately in the input energy distribution to the weldment. The result is observed as a variation in weld penetration. Recently published experiments and analyses of welding arcs are also evaluated and shown to contain erroneous data and results. Contrary to previous beliefs, the inclusion of a radiation loss term in the basic energy balance equation is important and cannot be considered as negligible in an argon arc at temperatures as low as 10,000 0 K. The one-dimensional analysis of the welding arc as well as the evaluation of these earlier published reports helps to explain the effects of various gases used for welding, improves our understanding of the physics of the welding arc, and provides a stepping stone for a more elaborate model which can be applied to help optimize welding parameters

  2. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  3. View of an intact oceanic arc, from surficial to mesozonal levels: Cretaceous Alisitos arc, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Cathy; Fackler Adams, Benjamin; Mattinson, James; Deoreo, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Alisitos arc is an approximately 300 × 30 km oceanic arc terrane that lies in the western wall of the Peninsular Ranges batholith south of the modern Agua Blanca fault zone in Baja California. We have completed detailed mapping and dating of a 50 × 30 km segment of this terrane in the El Rosario to Mission San Fernando areas, as well as reconnaissance mapping and dating in the next 50 × 30 km segment to the north, in the San Quintin area. We recognize two evolutionary phases in this part of the arc terrane: (I) extensional oceanic arc, characterized by intermediate to silicic explosive and effusive volcanism, culminating in caldera-forming silicic ignimbrite eruptions at the onset of arc rifting, and (II) rifted oceanic arc, characterized by mafic effusive and hydroclastic rocks and abundant dike swarms. Two types of units are widespread enough to permit tentative stratigraphic correlation across much of this 100-km-long segment of the arc: a welded dacite ignimbrite (tuff of Aguajito), and a deepwater debris-avalanche deposit. New U-Pb zircon data from the volcanic and plutonic rocks of both phases indicate that the entire 4000-m-thick section accumulated in about 1.5 MY, at 111-110 MY. Southwestern North American sources for two zircon grains with Proterozoic 206Pb / 207Pb ages support the interpretation that the oceanic arc fringed North America rather than representing an exotic terrane. The excellent preservation and exposure of the Alistos arc terrane makes it ideal for three-dimensional study of the structural, stratigraphic and intrusive history of an oceanic arc terrane. The segment mapped and dated in detail has a central major subaerial edifice, flanked by a down-faulted deepwater marine basin to the north, and a volcano-bounded shallow-water marine basin to the south. The rugged down-faulted flank of the edifice produced mass wasting, plumbed large-volume eruptions to the surface, and caused pyroclastic flows to disintegrate into turbulent

  4. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  5. Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Mishra, Tribeni; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Martin; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yalcin, Serpil; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2017-01-01

    At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the quark–gluon plasma (QGP). Such an exotic state of strongly interacting quantum chromodynamics matter is produced in the laboratory in heavy nuclei high-energy collisions, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions, is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton–proton (pp) collisions, but the enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles, relative to pions, increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The me...

  6. Distribution of auroral arcs during quiet geomagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, K.; Danielsen, C.

    1989-01-01

    Auroral arcs observed from the Greenland all-sky camera network during quiet intervals (AE 500 eV) and a poleward, low-energy part. Previous studies have shown that the arc pattern is composed of two subpatterns, too, the polar cap are pattern and the oval arc pattern. It is demonstrated that the polar cap arc pattern is situated in the poleward, low-energy part of the precipitation belt, connected to the low-latitude boundary layer, whereas the oval arc pattern is in the equatorial higher energy belt, connected to the plasma sheet. The dividing line between the two arc patterns is associated with the boundary of trapped ≥ 40-keV electrons. The designation polar cap arc pattern is shown to be ambiguous, wherefore it is proposed to replace it by the term high-latitude arc pattern

  7. Study of gliding arc discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chi; Lin Lie; Wu Bin

    2006-01-01

    The electric parameters change during discharge is studied and the relationship between non-equilibrium degree and parameters is discussed for gliding arc discharges. Using two-channel model, the rules of arc moving due to effect of the airflow is simulated. The numerical simulation results can help analyzing the generation mechanism of gliding arc non-equilibrium plasma. (authors)

  8. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Heng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen.

  9. SU-E-T-465: Implementation of An Automated Collision Detection Program Using Open Source Software for the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, S; Bogue, J; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Potential collisions between the gantry head and the patient or table assembly are difficult to detect in most treatment planning systems. We have developed and implemented a novel software package for the representation of potential gantry collisions with the couch assembly at the time of treatment planning. Methods: Physical dimensions of the Varian Edge linear accelerator treatment head were measured and reproduced using the Visual Python display package. A script was developed for the Pinnacle treatment planning system to generate a file with the relevant couch, gantry, and isocenter positions for each beam in a planning trial. A python program was developed to parse the information from the TPS and produce a representative model of the couch/gantry system. Using the model and the Visual Python libraries, a rendering window is generated for each beam that allows the planner to evaluate the possibility of a collision. Results: Comparison against heuristic methods and direct verification on the machine validated the collision model generated by the software. Encounters of <1 cm between the gantry treatment head and table were visualized as collisions in our virtual model. Visual windows were created depicting the angle of collision for each beam, including the anticipated table coordinates. Visual rendering of a 6 arc trial with multiple couch positions was completed in under 1 minute, with network bandwidth being the primary bottleneck. Conclusion: The developed software allows for quick examination of possible collisions during the treatment planning process and helps to prevent major collisions prior to plan approval. The software can easily be implemented on future planning systems due to the versatility and platform independence of the Python programming language. Further integration of the software with the treatment planning system will allow the possibility of patient-gantry collision detection for a range of treatment machines.

  10. SU-E-T-465: Implementation of An Automated Collision Detection Program Using Open Source Software for the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanny, S; Bogue, J; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Potential collisions between the gantry head and the patient or table assembly are difficult to detect in most treatment planning systems. We have developed and implemented a novel software package for the representation of potential gantry collisions with the couch assembly at the time of treatment planning. Methods: Physical dimensions of the Varian Edge linear accelerator treatment head were measured and reproduced using the Visual Python display package. A script was developed for the Pinnacle treatment planning system to generate a file with the relevant couch, gantry, and isocenter positions for each beam in a planning trial. A python program was developed to parse the information from the TPS and produce a representative model of the couch/gantry system. Using the model and the Visual Python libraries, a rendering window is generated for each beam that allows the planner to evaluate the possibility of a collision. Results: Comparison against heuristic methods and direct verification on the machine validated the collision model generated by the software. Encounters of <1 cm between the gantry treatment head and table were visualized as collisions in our virtual model. Visual windows were created depicting the angle of collision for each beam, including the anticipated table coordinates. Visual rendering of a 6 arc trial with multiple couch positions was completed in under 1 minute, with network bandwidth being the primary bottleneck. Conclusion: The developed software allows for quick examination of possible collisions during the treatment planning process and helps to prevent major collisions prior to plan approval. The software can easily be implemented on future planning systems due to the versatility and platform independence of the Python programming language. Further integration of the software with the treatment planning system will allow the possibility of patient-gantry collision detection for a range of treatment machines

  11. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Poole, J.E.; Fan, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al 2 O 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect density, and the intensity of the optical emission from the arcing plasma indicates that the critical aluminum oxide inclusion area for arcing is 0.22±0.1 mm2 when the sputtering plasma sheath dark-space λ d , is 0.51 mm. Inclusions with areas greater than this critical value readily induce arcing and macroparticle ejection during sputtering. Inclusions below this critical size do not cause arcing or macroparticle ejection. When the inclusion major axis is longer than 2λ d and lies perpendicular to the sputter erosion track tangent, the arcing activity increases significantly over the case where the inclusion major axis lies parallel to the erosion track tangent

  12. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  13. Comparison study of intensity modulated arc therapy using single or multiple arcs to intensity modulated radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashamalla, Hani; Tejwani, Ajay; Parameritis, Loannis; Swamy, Uma; Luo, Pei Ching; Guirguis, Adel; Lavaf, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a form of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that delivers dose in single or multiple arcs. We compared IMRT plans versus single-arc field (1ARC) and multi-arc fields (3ARC) IMAT plans in high-risk prostate cancer. Sixteen patients were studied. Prostate (PTV P ), right pelvic (PTV RtLN ) and left pelvic lymph nodes (PTV LtLN ), and organs at risk were contoured. PTVP, PTV RtLN , and PTV LtLN received 50.40 Gy followed by a boost to PTV B of 28.80 Gy. Three plans were per patient generated: IMRT, 1ARC, and 3ARC. We recorded the dose to the PTV, the mean dose (D MEAN ) to the organs at risk, and volume covered by the 50% isodose. Efficiency was evaluated by monitor units (MU) and beam on time (BOT). Conformity index (CI), Paddick gradient index, and homogeneity index (HI) were also calculated. Average Radiation Therapy Oncology Group CI was 1.17, 1.20, and 1.15 for IMRT, 1ARC, and 3ARC, respectively. The plans' HI were within 1% of each other. The D MEAN of bladder was within 2% of each other. The rectum D MEAN in IMRT plans was 10% lower dose than the arc plans (p < 0.0001). The GI of the 3ARC was superior to IMRT by 27.4% (p = 0.006). The average MU was highest in the IMRT plans (1686) versus 1ARC (575) versus 3ARC (1079). The average BOT was 6 minutes for IMRT compared to 1.3 and 2.9 for 1ARC and 3ARC IMAT (p < 0.05). For high-risk prostate cancer, IMAT may offer a favorable dose gradient profile, conformity, MU and BOT compared to IMRT.

  14. Fission track dating evidence on tectonic activities of northern Himalaya block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wanming; Wang Shicheng; Wang Lanfen

    2002-01-01

    Fission track ages (FTA) of 4 apatite samples collected from Langkazi to Yarlung Zangbo thrust zone range between 13.6 and 17.2 Ma, reflecting the time of continent-continent collision and differing from previous data. The negative correlation between the FTA and sample elevations shows there was rapid uplifting during the continent-continent collision with uplifting rate of 176 m/Ma. Denudation degree, denudation rate and cooling rate were ∼2.9 km, 213 m/Ma and 7 degree C/Ma respectively since 13.6 Ma. FTA of 3 zircon samples are different significantly and have x 2 test value of < 0.1%, confirming the orogeny within continent went under low temperature

  15. Geology and metallogeny of the Ar Rayn terrane, eastern Arabian shield: Evolution of a Neoproterozoic continental-margin arc during assembly of Gondwana within the East African orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, J.L.; Al-Jehani, A. M.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Hayes, T.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Johnson, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    characteristics of the Ar Rayn terrane are analogous to the Andean continental margin of Chile, with opposite subduction polarity. The Ar Rayn terrane represents a continental margin arc that lay above a west-dipping subduction zone along a continental block represented by the Afif composite terrane. The concentration of epithermal, porphyry Cu and IOCG mineral systems, of central arc affiliation, along the AAF suggests that the AAF is not an ophiolitic suture zone, but originated as a major intra-arc fault that localized magmatism and mineralization. West-directed oblique subduction and ultimate collision with a land mass from the east (East Gondwana?) resulted in major transcurrent displacement along the AAF, bringing the eastern part of the arc terrane to its present exposed position, juxtaposed across the AAF against a back-arc basin assemblage represented by the Abt schist of the Ad Dawadimi terrane. Our findings indicate that arc formation and accretionary processes in the Arabian shield were still ongoing into the latest Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran), to about 620-600 Ma, and lead us to conclude that evolution of the Ar Rayn terrane (arc formation, accretion, syn- to postorogenic plutonism) defines a final stage of assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent along the northeastern margin of the East African orogen. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility is an arc heated facility which simulates the true enthalpy of flight over the Mach number range of about 4.7 to 8 for free-jet...

  17. Collision group and renormalization of the Boltzmann collision integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, V. L.; Nanbu, K.

    2002-05-01

    On the basis of a recently discovered collision group [V. L. Saveliev, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics: 22nd International Symposium, edited by T. J. Bartel and M. Gallis, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 585 (AIP, Melville, NY, 2001), p. 101], the Boltzmann collision integral is exactly rewritten in two parts. The first part describes the scattering of particles with small angles. In this part the infinity due to the infinite cross sections is extracted from the Boltzmann collision integral. Moreover, the Boltzmann collision integral is represented as a divergence of the flow in velocity space. Owing to this, the role of collisions in the kinetic equation can be interpreted in terms of the nonlocal friction force that depends on the distribution function.

  18. Various Characteristics of Electromagnetic Contactor when Arc Discharge are Generated only Make Arc(Researches and Overseas Activities)--(Reports of Overseas Activities)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi, Yoshida

    2017-01-01

    Experiments are carried out to clarify the influence on the current and voltage for various characteristics.A small electromagnetic contactor that has two contacts is used.The arc discharge with only a make arc is generated and various characteristics are measured.Source voltage is set to 100V DC, closed contacts currents are changed from 10A 20A and 30A.From the waveforms, the arc duration time and the bounce time are read out.Arc energy is calculated from the arc voltage and arc current.The...

  19. 2D arc-PIC code description: methods and documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Timko, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum discharges are one of the main limiting factors for future linear collider designs such as that of the Compact LInear Collider. To optimize machine efficiency, maintaining the highest feasible accelerating gradient below a certain breakdown rate is desirable; understanding breakdowns can therefore help us to achieve this goal. As a part of ongoing theoretical research on vacuum discharges at the Helsinki Institute of Physics, the build-up of plasma can be investigated through the particle-in-cell method. For this purpose, we have developed the 2D Arc-PIC code introduced here. We present an exhaustive description of the 2D Arc-PIC code in two parts. In the first part, we introduce the particle-in-cell method in general and detail the techniques used in the code. In the second part, we provide a documentation and derivation of the key equations occurring in the code. The code is original work of the author, written in 2010, and is therefore under the copyright of the author. The development of the code h...

  20. Origin of the Squantum 'Tillite', Massachusetts, USA: Modern Analogs and Implications for Neoproterozoic Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carto, S. L.; Eyles, N.

    2009-05-01

    A central challenge to the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis is whether the sedimentary rocks deposited during the Neoproterozoic (c. 750-570 Ma) are glacial tillites that accumulated under global ice sheets during this era. This uncertainty stems from the fact that diamictites are not uniquely glacial in origin, as the slumping and mixing of sediment downslope can also produce diamictites. A key deposit in this debate is the Squantum 'tillite' (ca. 595-570 Ma) preserved in the Boston Basin in Massachusetts, USA, which originated as an arc- related basin within the Avalon island arc terrane during the Neoproterozoic. Detailed field examinations of the Squantum by the author suggest that it owes its origin to the downslope transport of large volumes of unstable volcanic and sedimentary debris from steep basin margin slopes. No evidence of a glacial environment was identified. Thin-section analysis of this deposit has revealed a significant volcanic influence on sedimentation in the form of hitherto unrecognized volcanic lapilli tuff horizons and turbidites consisting of reworked ash in strata associated with Squantum diamictite. These results point to deposition related to tectonic activity and basin development rather than severe global glacial conditions. In light of these results, the Squantum diamictite was compared to the volcaniclastic mass flows deposits exposed along the active Lesser Antilles Arc in the Caribbean. Many of these flows are transported into the adjacent Grenada back-arc Basin by debris flows and turbidity currents resulting in the deposition of volcaniclastic conglomerates, diamictites and thin ash turbidites. Gross stratigraphic and sedimentological similarities of the mass flow facies in the Caribbean can be identified with the Squantum deposits, suggesting that appropriate depositional analogs for the Squantum can be found along the Lesser Antilles Arc. The significance of these results is that they emphasize the importance of detailed field

  1. Effect of Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy on Urinary Continence in Patients With Preoperative Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction. Methods: A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors. Results: Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5% within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months. Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022. All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026 and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012 were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence. Conclusions: nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes.

  2. Observation of correlated azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in pp and pPb collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-09-26

    The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) in 8.16 TeV pPb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, $v_n$ correlations are measured for the first time in pp and pPb collisions. The $v_2$ and $v_4$ coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high multiplicity pPb collisions an anticorrelation of $v_2$ and $v_3$ is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in pPb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

  3. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-12-13

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  4. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E lab =35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s NN ) 1/2 =62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  5. Studies of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the AGS (Experiment 814)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    During the past year, the Pittsburgh group has continued to work with the E814 collaboration in carrying out AGS Experiment 814. We present here a brief history of the experiment, followed by a detailed report of the analysis work being pursued at the University of Pittsburgh. As originally proposed, Experiment 814 is a study of both extreme peripheral collisions and the transition from peripheral to central collisions in relativistic heavy ion-nucleus interactions. We are studying relativistic heavy ion interactions with nuclei in two types of collisions: (a) extreme peripheral collisions of large impact parameter, and (b) central collisions with high transverse energy in the final state. The experiment emphasizes the measurement of overall event characteristics, in particular energy flow measurements and a precise measurement of the particle charge, momentum, and energy in the forward direction. This permits measurements of cross sections and rapidity densities as a function of the transverse energy for leading baryons emitted into regions of larger rapidity. Combining the energy flow measurements as a function of rapidity with the spectra of leading baryons provides information on the impact parameter dependence of the nuclear stopping of the projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In 1988, the scope of Experiment 814 was enlarged to include a search for strange matter in central collisions, the first results of which have been published, and analysis on a longer run taken in 1990 is still under way

  6. Optimal partial-arcs in VMAT treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Salari, Ehsan; Chen Wei; Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for improving the delivery efficiency of VMAT by extending the recently published VMAT treatment planning algorithm vmerge to automatically generate optimal partial-arc plans. A high-quality initial plan is created by solving a convex multicriteria optimization problem using 180 equi-spaced beams. This initial plan is used to form a set of dose constraints, and a set of partial-arc plans is created by searching the space of all possible partial-arc plans that satisfy these constraints. For each partial-arc, an iterative fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm (vmerge) is used to improve the delivery efficiency. Merging continues as long as the dose quality is maintained above a user-defined threshold. The final plan is selected as the partial-arc with the lowest treatment time. The complete algorithm is called pmerge. Partial-arc plans are created using pmerge for a lung, liver and prostate case, with final treatment times of 127, 245 and 147 s. Treatment times using full arcs with vmerge are 211, 357 and 178 s. The mean doses to the critical structures for the vmerge and pmerge plans are kept within 5% of those in the initial plan, and the target volume covered by the prescription isodose is maintained above 98% for the pmerge and vmerge plans. Additionally, we find that the angular distribution of fluence in the initial plans is predictive of the start and end angles of the optimal partial-arc. We conclude that VMAT delivery efficiency can be improved by employing partial-arcs without compromising dose quality, and that partial-arcs are most applicable to cases with non-centralized targets. (paper)

  7. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  8. Letter to the Editor on 'Single-Arc IMRT?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Karl

    2009-04-21

    In the note 'Single Arc IMRT?' (Bortfeld and Webb 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 N9-20), Bortfeld and Webb present a theoretical investigation of static gantry IMRT (S-IMRT), single-arc IMRT and tomotherapy. Based on their assumptions they conclude that single-arc IMRT is inherently limited in treating complex cases without compromising delivery efficiency. Here we present an expansion of their work based on the capabilities of the Varian RapidArc single-arc IMRT system. Using the same theoretical framework we derive clinically deliverable single-arc IMRT plans based on these specific capabilities. In particular, we consider the range of leaf motion, the ability to rapidly and continuously vary the dose rate and the choice of collimator angle used for delivery. In contrast to the results of Bortfeld and Webb, our results show that single-arc IMRT plans can be generated that closely match the theoretical optimum. The disparity in the results of each investigation emphasizes that the capabilities of the delivery system, along with the ability of the optimization algorithm to exploit those capabilities, are of particular importance in single-arc IMRT. We conclude that, given the capabilities available with the RapidArc system, single-arc IMRT can produce complex treatment plans that are delivered efficiently (in approximately 2 min).

  9. Left behind and left out: The impact of the school environment on young people with continence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Cramer, Helen; Joinson, Carol

    2018-05-01

    To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We generated five main themes: (1) Boundaries of disclosure: friends and teachers; (2) Social consequences of avoidance and deceit; (3) Strict and oblivious gatekeepers; (4) Intimate actions in public spaces; and (5) Interrupted learning. Disclosure of continence problems at school to both friends and teachers was rare, due to the perceived stigma and fears of bullying and social isolation. The lack of disclosure to teachers and other school staff, such as pastoral care staff, creates challenges in how best to support these young people. Young people with continence problems require unrestricted access to private and adequate toilet facilities during the school day. There is a need for inclusive toilet access policies and improved toilet standards in schools. Addressing the challenges faced by young people with continence problems at school could help to remove the barriers to successful self-management of their symptoms. It is particularly concerning that young people with continence problems are at higher risk of academic underachievement. Increased support at school is needed to enable young people with continence problems to achieve their academic potential. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Continence problems are among the most common paediatric health problems Self-management of continence problems requires a structured schedule of fluid intake and bladder emptying Inadequate toilet facilities and restricted access make it difficult for young people to manage their incontinence What does this study add

  10. Development of molecular markers for determining continental origin of wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke Schroeder; Richard Cronn; Yulai Yanbaev; Tara Jennings; Malte Mader; Bernd Degen; Birgit Kersten; Dusan Gomory

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica...

  11. Electron-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, I.; Takayanagi, K.

    1984-01-01

    The study of collision processes plays an important research role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made by means of collision experiments. Based on theoretical, experimental, and computational studies, this volume presents an overview detailing the basic processes of electron-molecule collisions. The editors have collected papers-written by a group of international experts-that consider a diverse range of phenomena occurring in electronmolecule collisions. The volume discusses first the basic formulation for scattering problems and then gives an outline of the physics of electron-molecule collisions. The main topics covered are rotational transitions, vibrational transitions, dissociation of molecules in slow collisions, the electron-molecule collision as a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular electronic structures, and experimental and computational techniques for determining the cross sections. These well-referenced chapters are self-contained and can be read independently or consecutively. Authoritative and up-to-date, Electron-Molecule Collisions is a useful addition to the libraries of students and researchers in the fields of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics, and physical chemistry

  12. Shear wave anisotropy in the Eastern Himalaya, Burmese arc and adjoining regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalampally, R. K.; Saikia, D.; Singh, A.; Roy, S.; Panuganti, S. R.; Lyngdoh, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents new results of 231 shear wave splitting and 395 "Null" measurements at 58 broadband seismic stations installed in the hitherto less investigated eastern Himalaya, Burmese arc and adjoining regions. The analysis reveals complex patterns of anisotropy, with significant variations in delay times. The fast polarisation directions (FPD) at stations within the Himalaya, Burmese Arc and the foredeep are coherent, parallel to the strike of the orogens. Measurements within the eastern and central Arunachal Himalaya are predominantly "Null''. However, in the western and central parts, these are relatively small, centered at 0.7s. The FPDs follow the trends of major tectonic features like the Main Boundary Thrust and the Main Central Thrust in the central segment of Arunachal Himalaya. In the Burmese arc region, the delay times show a large variability (0.4-2.1s). The Assam foredeep exhibits splitting delays in the range 0.5 to 1.2 s, with the FPDs trending nearly EW to NE. The FPDs parallel to the strike of the mountain belts can be best explained in terms of a coherently deformed lithospheric mantle under the compressional effects ensuing from the collision between India and Asia. Null measurements in regions like the Siang window may be due to a complex anisotropic pattern due to Indian plate interaction with Eurasia and Burma plates, causing different layers of anisotropic fabric with completely different orientations. Another possibility is the coincidence of source polarisation direction with the fast axis, since most of the waveforms analysed are from a narrow back azimuthal range of 100-125°. E-W oriented FPDs may coincide with the backazimuth of the source, resulting in smaller delays. Null measurements in eastern Himalaya may reflect cancellation of anisotropy caused by APM related flow (NE) and compressional effects of the Himalaya (EW). In the Bengal Basin, the Nulls could be due to two different mechanisms, namely, frozen anisotropic fabric

  13. The characteristic of twin-electrode TIG coupling arc pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Xuesong; Zhang Guangjun; Wu Lin

    2006-01-01

    The coupling arc of twin-electrode TIG (T-TIG) is a particular kind of arc, which is achieved through the coupling of two arcs generated from two insulated electrodes in the same welding torch. It is therefore different from the single arc of conventional TIG in its physical characteristics. This paper studies the distribution of T-TIG coupling arc pressure, and analyses the influences of welding current, arc length, the distance between electrode tips and electrode shape upon arc pressure on the basis of experiment. It is expected that the T-TIG welding method can be applied in high efficiency welding according to its low arc pressure

  14. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: human origins: out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-09-22

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200-150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was "discovered" via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent.

  15. Age revision of the Neotethyan arc migration into the southeast Urumieh-Dokhtar belt of Iran: Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Alirezaei, Saeed; Sun, Weidong; Li, Cong-Ying

    2017-07-01

    , respectively, consistent with earlier works on similar rocks elsewhere in KMB. The new data allow a revision of the chronostratigraphy/tectonic history of KMB. In Late Cretaceous, a back arc rift developed extending from Nain to Baft (NB back arc) to the northeast of the Sanandaj-Sirjan magmatic arc. Along with shrinking of the Neotethys Ocean, the dip angle of the subducting slab decreased during the Late Cretaceous, and arc magmatism moved from the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone landward. Meanwhile, Bahr Aseman volcanic-plutonic complex formed as an island-arc in NB back arc rift. Later with arc shift, due to shallowing of subducted slab, magmatism moved toward continent leading to extensive volcanism in Kerman magmatic arc during Eocene and Oligocene, represented by volcanic-sedimentary Razak and Hezar Complexes, respectively.

  16. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wickersham, C E J; Fan, J S

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al sub 2 O sub 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect...

  17. Klystron Gun Arcing and Modulator Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, S

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 500 kV and 265 amperes peak to power an X-Band klystron brings up protection issues for klystron faults and the energy dumped into the arc from the modulator. This situation is made worse when more than one klystron will be driven from a single modulator, such as the existing schemes for running two and eight klystrons. High power pulsed klystrons have traditionally be powered by line type modulators which match the driving impedance with the load impedance and therefore current limit at twice the operating current. Multiple klystrons have the added problems of a lower modulator source impedance and added stray capacitance, which converts into appreciable energy at high voltages like 500kV. SLAC has measured the energy dumped into klystron arcs in a single and dual klystron configuration at the 400 to 450 kV level and found interesting characteristics in the arc formation. The author will present measured data from klystron arcs powered from line-type modulators in several configurations. The questions arise as to how the newly designed solid-state modulators, running multiple tubes, will react to a klystron arc and how much energy will be dumped into the arc

  18. The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Mark J; Collins, Dawn R; Chery, Samantha L; Allen, Zachary D; Pastuzyn, Elissa D; George, Arlene J; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Moy, Sheryl S; Philpot, Benjamin D; Shepherd, Jason D; Müller, Jürgen; Ehlers, Michael D; Mabb, Angela M; Corrêa, Sonia A L

    2018-05-24

    Neuronal activity regulates the transcription and translation of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1, a key mediator of synaptic plasticity. Proteasome-dependent degradation of Arc tightly limits its temporal expression, yet the significance of this regulation remains unknown. We disrupted the temporal control of Arc degradation by creating an Arc knockin mouse (ArcKR) where the predominant Arc ubiquitination sites were mutated. ArcKR mice had intact spatial learning but showed specific deficits in selecting an optimal strategy during reversal learning. This cognitive inflexibility was coupled to changes in Arc mRNA and protein expression resulting in a reduced threshold to induce mGluR-LTD and enhanced mGluR-LTD amplitude. These findings show that the abnormal persistence of Arc protein limits the dynamic range of Arc signaling pathways specifically during reversal learning. Our work illuminates how the precise temporal control of activity-dependent molecules, such as Arc, regulates synaptic plasticity and is crucial for cognition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Collision models in quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarello, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Quantum collision models (CMs) provide advantageous case studies for investigating major issues in open quantum systems theory, and especially quantum non-Markovianity. After reviewing their general definition and distinctive features, we illustrate the emergence of a CM in a familiar quantum optics scenario. This task is carried out by highlighting the close connection between the well-known input-output formalism and CMs. Within this quantum optics framework, usual assumptions in the CMs' literature - such as considering a bath of noninteracting yet initially correlated ancillas - have a clear physical origin.

  20. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank

    2014-01-01

    on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows......A gliding arc is a quenched plasma that can be operated as a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and that is thus suitable for large-scale plasma surface treatment. For its practical industrial use the discharge should be extended stably in ambient air. A simple analytical calculation based...... that the critical length can be increased by increasing the AC frequency, decreasing the serial resistance and lowering the gas flow rate. The predicted dependence of gas flow rate on the arc length is experimentally demonstrated. The gap width is varied to study an optimal electrode design, since the extended non...

  1. Out-of-equilibrium phenomena in high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Serreau, J

    2001-01-01

    In the first part we study the possibility that a Disoriented Chiral Condensate (DCC) forms when hot hadronic matter is quenched, using the linear sigma model. We formulate an original sampling strategy for the initial field configuration in order to get an estimate of the probability that a potentially observable coherent pion field appears in a heavy-ion collision. We obtain a probability of the order of 1/1000 at CERN SPS energies. Next, we study the correlation between isospin orientations of the distinct modes of the pion field emerging after a quench. We show that this correlation is absent: the distinct modes behave as distinct DCCs. This contradicts the common belief that the state produced in the simplest form of the quench scenario - with a fully thermalized initial state - is identical to the originally proposed DCC. In the second part, we investigate the role of elastic scatterings in the process of kinetic equilibration of gluons produced in the very early times of the collision. We compare the t...

  2. The next-generation ARC middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, O.; Cameron, D.; Cernak, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) is a light-weight, non-intrusive, simple yet powerful Grid middleware capable of connecting highly heterogeneous computing and storage resources. ARC aims at providing general purpose, flexible, collaborative computing environments suitable for a range of use...

  3. ARC Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    coordination on a regular basis. The overall ARC organizational structure is shown below. Organizational Structure Dynamics and Control of Vehicles Human Centered Modeling and Simulation High Performance

  4. Approximate entropy—a new statistic to quantify arc and welding process stability in short-circuiting gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Biao; Xiang Yuanpeng; Lü Xiaoqing; Zeng Min; Huang Shisheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the phase state reconstruction of welding current in short-circuiting gas metal arc welding using carbon dioxide as shielding gas, the approximate entropy of welding current as well as its standard deviation has been calculated and analysed to investigate their relation with the stability of electric arc and welding process. The extensive experimental and calculated results show that the approximate entropy of welding current is significantly and positively correlated with arc and welding process stability, whereas its standard deviation is correlated with them negatively. A larger approximate entropy and a smaller standard deviation imply a more stable arc and welding process, and vice versa. As a result, the approximate entropy of welding current promises well in assessing and quantifying the stability of electric arc and welding process in short-circuiting gas metal arc welding

  5. Electric fuses operation, a review: 2. Arcing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussière, W

    2012-01-01

    In the electric fuse operation the arcing period follows immediately the pre-arcing period depicted in Part 1 (Part 1. Pre-arcing period). The transition between these two operation steps is not fully understood at this time. To simplify the beginning of the arcing period can be identified with the electric arc ignition i.e. with the electrodes voltage drop. The consecutive plasma is of metallic type at the beginning of the arcing period and of metallic plus silica type with varying mixture up to the end of the arcing period. The energy brought by the fault current is withdrawn by means of the interaction between the electric arc and the arc quenching material (usually silica sand) whose morphometric properties influence the properties of the plasma column: composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of the plasma column depend on the porosity (and other morphometric properties) of the filler. The fuse element erosion also known as burn-back is responsible for the lengthening of the plasma column and the variations of the electric field. The whole of these processes is depicted by means of experimental results or modellings when possible.

  6. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  7. METHOD OF CONJUGATED CIRCULAR ARCS TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ageyev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric properties of conjugated circular arcs connecting two points on the plane with set directions of tan- gent vectors are studied in the work. It is shown that pairs of conjugated circular arcs with the same conditions in frontier points create one-parameter set of smooth curves tightly filling all the plane. One of the basic properties of this set is the fact that all coupling points of circular arcs are on the circular curve going through the initially given points. The circle radius depends on the direction of tangent vectors. Any point of the circle curve, named auxiliary in this work, determines a pair of conjugated arcs with given boundary conditions. One more condition of the auxiliary circle curve is that it divides the plane into two parts. The arcs going from the initial point are out of the circle limited by this circle curve and the arcs coming to the final point are inside it. These properties are the basis for the method of conjugated circular arcs tracing pro- posed in this article. The algorithm is rather simple and allows to fulfill all the needed plottings using only the divider and ruler. Two concrete examples are considered. The first one is related to the problem of tracing of a pair of conjugated arcs with the minimal curve jump when going through the coupling point. The second one demonstrates the possibility of trac- ing of the smooth curve going through any three points on the plane under condition that in the initial and final points the directions of tangent vectors are given. The proposed methods of conjugated circular arcs tracing can be applied in solving of a wide variety of problems connected with the tracing of cam contours, for example pattern curves in textile industry or in computer-aided-design systems when programming of looms with numeric control.

  8. Hard photons a probe of the heavy ion collision dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions have proven to be a unique tool to study the nucleus in extreme states, with values of energy, spin and isospin far away from those encountered in the nucleus in its ground state. Heavy-ion collisions provide also the only mean to form and study in the laboratory nuclear matter under conditions of density and temperature which could otherwise only be found in stellar objects like neutron stars and super-novae. the goal of such studies is to establish the equation of state of nuclear matter and the method consist in searching the collective behaviour in which heavy-ion collisions differ from a superposition of many nucleon-nucleon collisions. Among the various probes of collective effects, like flow, multifragmentation, or subthreshold particles, we have selected hard photons because they provide, together with dileptons, the only unperturbed probe of a phase of the collision well localized in space and time. The origin of hard photons, defined as the photons building up the spectrum beyond the energy of the giant dipole resonance (E γ > 30∼MeV), is attributed predominantly to the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted incoherently in individual neutron-proton collisions. Their energy reflects the combination of the beam momentum and the momenta induced by the Fermi motion of the nucleons within the collision zone. Therefore, at intermediate energies, hard photons probe the dynamical phase space distribution of participant nucleons and they convey information on the densities reached in heavy-ion collisions, the size and life time of the dense photon source and the compressibility of nuclear matter. The techniques we have developed include intensity interferometry and exclusive measurements scanning with high resolution the whole range of impact parameters. The interpretation of our data is guided by dynamical phase space calculations of the BUU type

  9. [Functional anatomy of the male continence mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, T; Neuhaus, J; Dartsch, M; Weissenfels, P; Löffler, S; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-04-01

    The basic structures and organs contributing to continence in men are far less well investigated than in women. This concerns anatomical and functional aspects as well. Especially the cooperation of single components and the dynamic anchoring in the pelvic floor require further investigation. An improved anatomical-functional interpretation is needed to generate therapeutic concepts orientated at the physiology of the bladder neck.Therefore, the focus of anatomical investigations should be on the external sphincter which is the main muscle responsible for urethral closure as well as on the connective tissue, smooth muscular and neuronal structures in the pelvis. The smooth muscular structures involved are the internal sphincter, the inner parts of the external sphincter, the urethral longitudinal musculature, and parts of the centrum perinei and of the ventral suspension apparatus which fixes the position of the bladder neck and seems to be vital for continence and initiation of micturition. These new findings imply an integral concept for men as was developed for women. A first step in this regard would be a consistent and updated anatomical nomenclature.

  10. Free-volume distributions of polymers by positron annihilation spectroscopy: further experiences in using CONTIN for continuous lifetime distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, G.H.; Jean, Y.C.

    1995-01-01

    Thorough examinations of the CONTIN program were carried out by using the simulated positron lifetime spectra, to reveal the capability of CONTIN in the reconstruction of the positron lifetime distributions. It is shown that: 1. very high statistics is strongly desired by CONTIN to reproduce reliable lifetime distributions; 2. improving the time resolution of the measurement system, to the level of 0.030 ns full width at half maximum, does not significantly improve the resolving power of CONTIN; and 3. reducing the time width per channel is a practical way of improving the reconstruction of the lifetime probability density functions by CONTIN. (orig.)

  11. Electrons with continuous energy distribution from energetic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenyi, D.

    1984-01-01

    The properties and origin of continuous electron spectrum emitted in high energy heavy ion collisions are reviewed. The basic processes causing the characteristic regions of the continuous spectrum are described. The contribution of electrons ejected from the target and from the projectile are investigated in detail in the cases of light and heavy projectiles. The recently recognized mechanisms, electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) and electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC), leading to a cusp in forward direction, and their theoretical interpretations are discussed. The importance of data from ion-atom collisions in the field of atomic physics and in applications are briefly summarized. (D.Gy)

  12. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  13. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  14. Mantle amphibole control on arc and within-plate chemical signatures: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, M.; Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Emami, M. H.; McLeod, C.

    2012-04-01

    New analyses of Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province in west Iran shed light on the nature of collision zone magmatism. The rocks are from the Turkish-Iranian plateau within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Compositions are typically basanite, hawaiite and alkali basalt. Sr-Nd isotope values are close to BSE, which is similar to Quaternary alkali basalts of NW Iran, but distinct from a depleted source melting under Mount Ararat. The chemical signatures suggests variable melting of two distinct sources. One inferred source produced melts with La/Nb from~3.5 to~1.2, which we model as the result of depletion of amphibole during ≤1% melting in the garnet stability field. We infer phlogopite in the source of potassic lavas from Takab. Lithosphere delamination or slab break-off mechanisms for triggering melting are problematic, as the lithosphere is~150-200km thick. It is possible that the negative dT/dP section of the amphibole peridotite solidus was crossed as a result of lithospheric thickening in the collision zone. This explanation is conditional upon the mantle source being weakly hydrated and so only containing a small proportion of amphibole, which can be exhausted during small degrees of partial melting. Our model maybe viable for other magmatic areas within orogenic plateaux, e.g. northern Tibet. Depletion of mantle amphibole may also help explain larger scale transitions from arc to within-plate chemistry in orogens, such as the Palaeogene Arabia-Eurasia system.

  15. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  16. Metal transfer during vacuum consumable arc remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanner, F.J.

    1977-11-01

    A description of the vacuum consumable arc remelt process as related to solidification and a review of vacuum arc literature is presented. Metal transfer at arc lengths less than or equal to 3 cm was found to occur when liquid metal spikes hanging from the cathode form a low resistance bridge (drop short) by touching the anode and subsequently rupturing. During the bridge lifetime (0.0003 to 0.020 s) the arc is extinguished and all of the electrical power is directed through the molten bridge. The formation and rupture of these molten metal bridges are confirmed with electrical resistance measurements. At long arc lengths (greater than 10 cm) the spikes separate before touching the anode

  17. The Arabidopsis arc5 and arc6 mutations differentially affect plastid morphology in pavement and guard cells in the leaf epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Yasuzawa, Mana; Kojo, Kei H; Niwa, Yasuo; Abe, Tomoko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Nakano, Takeshi; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2018-01-01

    Chloroplasts, or photosynthetic plastids, multiply by binary fission, forming a homogeneous population in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the division apparatus (or division ring) of mesophyll chloroplasts includes an inner envelope transmembrane protein ARC6, a cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein ARC5 (DRP5B), and members of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families of proteins, which co-assemble in the stromal mid-plastid division ring (FtsZ ring). FtsZ ring placement is controlled by several proteins, including a stromal factor MinE (AtMinE1). During leaf mesophyll development, ARC6 and AtMinE1 are necessary for FtsZ ring formation and thus plastid division initiation, while ARC5 is essential for a later stage of plastid division. Here, we examined plastid morphology in leaf epidermal pavement cells (PCs) and stomatal guard cells (GCs) in the arc5 and arc6 mutants using stroma-targeted fluorescent proteins. The arc5 PC plastids were generally a bit larger than those of the wild type, but most had normal shapes and were division-competent, unlike mutant mesophyll chloroplasts. The arc6 PC plastids were heterogeneous in size and shape, including the formation of giant and mini-plastids, plastids with highly developed stromules, and grape-like plastid clusters, which varied on a cell-by-cell basis. Moreover, unique plastid phenotypes for stomatal GCs were observed in both mutants. The arc5 GCs rarely lacked chlorophyll-bearing plastids (chloroplasts), while they accumulated minute chlorophyll-less plastids, whereas most GCs developed wild type-like chloroplasts. The arc6 GCs produced large chloroplasts and/or chlorophyll-less plastids, as previously observed, but unexpectedly, their chloroplasts/plastids exhibited marked morphological variations. We quantitatively analyzed plastid morphology and partitioning in paired GCs from wild-type, arc5, arc6, and atminE1 plants. Collectively, our results support the notion that ARC5 is dispensable in the process of equal division

  18. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  19. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G I; Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Chenawi, K El; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Roeper, M; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Soderstrem, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S; Vrlakova, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  20. Nucleus-nucleus collision as superposition of nucleon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus. (orig.)

  1. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  2. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  3. The Sunda-Banda Arc Transition: New Insights From Marine Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, L.; Shulgin, A.; Kopp, H.; Mueller, C.; Flueh, E.; Lueschen, E.; Engels, M.; Dayuf Jusuf, M.

    2007-12-01

    End of 2006, RV SONNE cruise SO190 SINDBAD (Seismic and Geoacoustic Investigations along the Sunda- Banda Arc Transition) went south of the Indonesian archipelago to acquire various geophysical datasets between 112 °E and 122 °E. The main goal of the project is to investigate the modifications of the lower plate (variability in the plate roughness, transition from oceanic to continental lower plate) and their effects on the tectonics of the upper plate (development of an outer high and forearc basin, accretionary and erosive processes). The tectonic style changes in neighboring margin segments from an oceanic plate-island arc subduction along the eastern Sunda margin to a continental plate-island arc collision along the Banda margin. Moreover, the character of the incoming oceanic plate varies from the rough topography in the area where the Roo Rise is subducting off eastern Java, to the smooth oceanic seafloor of the Argo- Abyssal Plain subducting off Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa. In order to cover the entire variations of the lower plate, seven seismic refraction profiles were conducted along four major north-south oriented corridors of the margin, at 113 °E, 116 °E, 119 °E, and 121 °E, as well as three profiles running perpendicular to the major corridors. A total of 239 ocean bottom hydrophone and seismometer deployments were successfully recovered. Shooting was conducted along 1020 nm of seismic profiles using a G-gun cluster of 64 l. Here, we present velocity models obtained by applying a tomographic approach which jointly inverts for refracted and reflected phases. Additional geometry and velocity information for the uppermost layers, obtained by prestack depth migration of multichannel seismic reflection data (see poster of Mueller et al. in this session), is incorporated into our models and held fixed during the iterations. geomar.de/index.php?id=sindbad

  4. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of urethral anatomy in continent nulliparous pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preyer, Oliver; Brugger, Peter C.; Laml, Thomas; Hanzal, Engelbert; Prayer, Daniela; Umek, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To quantify the distribution of morphologic appearances of urethral anatomy and measure variables of urethral sphincter anatomy in continent, nulliparous, pregnant women by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We studied fifteen women during their first pregnancy. We defined and quantified bladder neck and urethral morphology on axial and sagittal MR images from healthy, continent women. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) total transverse urethral diameter, anterior–posterior diameter, unilateral striated sphincter muscle thickness, and striated sphincter length were 15 ± 2 mm (range: 12–19 mm), 15 ± 2 mm (range: 11–20 mm), 2 ± 1 mm (range: 1–4 mm), and 13 ± 3 mm (range: 9–18 mm) respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) total urethral length on sagittal scans was 22 ± 3 mm (range: 17.6–26.4 mm). Discussion: Advances in MR technique combined with anatomical and histological findings will provide an insight to understand how changes in urethral anatomy might affect the continence mechanisms in pregnant and non-pregnant, continent or incontinent individuals.

  5. Nomenclature of SLC Arc beamline components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.; Weng, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This note defines I and C formal names for beamline components in the Arc as specified in the TRANSPORT decks ARCN FINAL and ARCS FINAL of June 5, 1985. The formal name consists of three fields: the primary name, the zone and the unit number. The general principles and guidelines are explained in Reference 1. The rationale and the final resolutions of the naming conventions for the Arc are explained

  6. The Concept of Collision-Free Motion Planning Using a Dynamic Collision Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Bae Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address a new method for the collision-free motion planning of a mobile robot in dynamic environments. The motion planner is based on the concept of a conventional collision map (CCM, represented on the L(travel length-T(time plane. We extend the CCM with dynamic information about obstacles, such as linear acceleration and angular velocity, providing useful information for estimating variation in the collision map. We first analyse the effect of the dynamic motion of an obstacle in the collision region. We then define the measure of collision dispersion (MOCD. The dynamic collision map (DCM is generated by drawing the MOCD on the CCM. To evaluate a collision-free motion planner using the DCM, we extend the DCM with MOCD, then draw the unreachable region and deadlocked regions. Finally, we construct a collision-free motion planner using the information from the extended DCM.

  7. A model of fast radio bursts: collisions between episodic magnetic blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Geng, Jin-Jun; Li, Bing

    2018-06-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright radio pulses from the sky with millisecond durations and Jansky-level flux densities. Their origins are still largely uncertain. Here we suggest a new model for FRBs. We argue that the collision of a white dwarf with a black hole can generate a transient accretion disk, from which powerful episodicmagnetic blobs will be launched. The collision between two consecutive magnetic blobs can result in a catastrophic magnetic reconnection, which releases a large amount of free magnetic energy and forms a forward shock. The shock propagates through the cold magnetized plasma within the blob in the collision region, radiating through the synchrotron maser mechanism, which is responsible for a non-repeating FRB signal. Our calculations show that the theoretical energetics, radiation frequency, duration timescale and event rate can be very consistent with the observational characteristics of FRBs.

  8. Observation of Correlated Azimuthal Anisotropy Fourier Harmonics in pp and p+Pb Collisions at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Ambrogi, F; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Grossmann, J; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krammer, N; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Madlener, T; Mikulec, I; Pree, E; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Spanring, M; Spitzbart, D; Waltenberger, W; Wittmann, J; Wulz, C-E; Zarucki, M; Chekhovsky, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; De Wolf, E A; Di Croce, D; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; De Bruyn, I; De Clercq, J; Deroover, K; Flouris, G; Lontkovskyi, D; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Roskas, C; Salva, S; Tytgat, M; Verbeke, W; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caputo, C; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Melo De Almeida, M; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; 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Tavolaro, V R; Theofilatos, K; Vesterbacka Olsson, M L; Wallny, R; Zhu, D H; Aarrestad, T K; Amsler, C; Canelli, M F; De Cosa, A; Del Burgo, R; Donato, S; Galloni, C; Hreus, T; Kilminster, B; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Robmann, P; Salerno, D; Seitz, C; Takahashi, Y; Zucchetta, A; Candelise, V; Doan, T H; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Kuo, C M; Lin, W; Pozdnyakov, A; Yu, S S; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Chen, P H; Fiori, F; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y; Liu, Y F; Lu, R-S; Paganis, E; Psallidas, A; Steen, A; Tsai, J F; Asavapibhop, B; Kovitanggoon, K; Singh, G; Srimanobhas, N; Boran, F; Cerci, S; Damarseckin, S; Demiroglu, Z S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Guler, Y; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kara, O; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kiminsu, U; Oglakci, M; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Sunar Cerci, D; Tali, B; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Zorbilmez, C; Bilin, B; Karapinar, G; Ocalan, K; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Tekten, S; Yetkin, E A; Agaras, M N; Atay, S; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Aggleton, R; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Davignon, O; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Auzinger, G; Bainbridge, R; Breeze, S; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Elwood, A; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Matsushita, T; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Palladino, V; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Shtipliyski, A; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wardle, N; Winterbottom, D; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Smith, C; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Yu, D; Band, R; Brainerd, C; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; Smith, J; Stolp, D; Tos, K; Tripathi, M; Wang, Z; Bachtis, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Regnard, S; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Valuev, V; Bouvier, E; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wang, L; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Hashemi, B; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Kole, G; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Masciovecchio, M; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Lawhorn, J M; Newman, H B; Nguyen, T; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhang, Z; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Mudholkar, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Apyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Canepa, A; Cerati, G B; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cremonesi, M; Duarte, J; Elvira, V D; Freeman, J; Gecse, Z; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Schneider, B; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Joshi, Y R; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Martinez, G; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Saha, A; Santra, A; Sharma, V; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Tonjes, M B; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Royon, C; Sanders, S; Schmitz, E; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Loukas, N; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Higginbotham, S; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Malik, S; Norberg, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Das, S; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Peng, C C; Schulte, J F; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Cheng, T; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Ciesielski, R; Goulianos, K; Mesropian, C; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Padeken, K; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Joyce, M; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Zaleski, S; Brodski, M; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2018-03-02

    The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients (v_{n}) in 8.16 TeV p+Pb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of the event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, v_{n} correlations are measured for the first time in pp and p+Pb collisions. The v_{2} and v_{4} coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high-multiplicity p+Pb collisions, an anticorrelation of v_{2} and v_{3} is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in p+Pb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

  9. The modelling of an SF6 arc in a supersonic nozzle: II. Current zero behaviour of the nozzle arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q; Liu, J; Yan, J D; Fang, M T C

    2016-01-01

    The present work (part II) forms the second part of an investigation into the behaviour of SF 6 nozzle arc. It is concerned with the aerodynamic and electrical behaviour of a transient nozzle arc under a current ramp specified by a rate of current decay (d i /d t ) before current zero and a voltage ramp (d V /d t ) after current zero. The five flow models used in part I [1] for cold gas flow and DC nozzle arcs have been applied to study the transient arc at three stagnation pressures ( P 0 ) and two values of d i /d t for the current ramp, representing a wide range of arcing conditions. An analysis of the physical mechanisms encompassed in each flow model is given with an emphasis on the adequacy of a particular model in describing the rapidly varying arc around current zero. The critical rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) is found computationally and compared with test results of Benenson et al [2]. For transient nozzle arcs, the RRRV is proportional to the square of P 0 , rather than to the square root of P 0 for DC nozzle arcs. The physical mechanisms responsible for the strong dependence of RRRV on P 0 have been investigated. The relative merits of the flow models employed are discussed. (paper)

  10. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  11. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc–arc (continent collision occurred during the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a flourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and nonmarine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  12. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90 "c"i"r"c"l"e. Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017. (orig.)

  13. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Ji, Chueng-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-08-15

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90 {sup circle}. Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017. (orig.)

  14. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources... President and General Counsel, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent, LLC, 110 W. 7th Street, Suite 2300, Tulsa, OK...

  15. Measurements of Multiparticle Correlations in d +Au Collisions at 200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV and p +Au Collisions at 200 GeV and Implications for Collective Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, C.; Akiba, Y.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Ayuso, C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bagoly, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butler, C.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dion, A.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dumancic, M.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Elder, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukuda, Y.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hodges, A.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ito, Y.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapukchyan, D.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M. H.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kotov, D.; Kudo, S.; Kurita, K.; Kwon, Y.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lallow, E. O.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lökös, S.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malaev, M.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Mendoza, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I. M.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Novotny, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Radzevich, P. V.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Runchey, J.; Safonov, A. S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skoby, M. J.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, K. L.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Syed, S.; Sziklai, J.; Takeda, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnai, G.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Recently, multiparticle-correlation measurements of relativistic p /d /He 3 +Au , p +Pb , and even p +p collisions show surprising collective signatures. Here, we present beam-energy-scan measurements of two-, four-, and six-particle angular correlations in d +Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 , 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV. We also present measurements of two- and four-particle angular correlations in p +Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV . We find the four-particle cumulant to be real valued for d +Au collisions at all four energies. We also find that the four-particle cumulant in p +Au has the opposite sign as that in d +Au . Further, we find that the six-particle cumulant agrees with the four-particle cumulant in d +Au collisions at 200 GeV, indicating that nonflow effects are subdominant. These observations provide strong evidence that the correlations originate from the initial geometric configuration, which is then translated into the momentum distribution for all particles, commonly referred to as collectivity.

  16. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  17. Tectonic collision and uplift of Wallacea triggered the global songbird radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Robert G.; Oliveros, Carl H.; Andersen, Michael J.; Hosner, Peter A.; Benz, Brett W.; Manthey, Joseph D.; Travers, Scott L.; Brown, Rafe M.; Faircloth, Brant C.

    2016-08-01

    Songbirds (oscine passerines) are the most species-rich and cosmopolitan bird group, comprising almost half of global avian diversity. Songbirds originated in Australia, but the evolutionary trajectory from a single species in an isolated continent to worldwide proliferation is poorly understood. Here, we combine the first comprehensive genome-scale DNA sequence data set for songbirds, fossil-based time calibrations, and geologically informed biogeographic reconstructions to provide a well-supported evolutionary hypothesis for the group. We show that songbird diversification began in the Oligocene, but accelerated in the early Miocene, at approximately half the age of most previous estimates. This burst of diversification occurred coincident with extensive island formation in Wallacea, which provided the first dispersal corridor out of Australia, and resulted in independent waves of songbird expansion through Asia to the rest of the globe. Our results reconcile songbird evolution with Earth history and link a major radiation of terrestrial biodiversity to early diversification within an isolated Australian continent.

  18. PREFACE: 1st International Symposium on Electrical Arc and Thermal Plasmas in Africa (ISAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Pascal; Koalaga, Zacharie

    2012-02-01

    Logos of the University of Ouagadougou, ISAPA and Universite Blaise Pascal Africa (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) is a continent where electrification is at a low level. However, the development of the electrical power sector is a prerequisite for the growth of other industrial activities, that is to say for the social and economic development of African countries. Consequently, a large number of electrification projects (rural electrification, interconnection of different country's grids) takes place in many countries. These projects need expertise and make Africa a continent of opportunity for companies in different domains for business and research: energy; energetic production, transmission, distribution and protection of electricity; the supply of cable; the construction, engineering and expertise in the field of solar and wind power. The first International Symposium on electrical Arc and thermal Plasma in Africa (ISAPA) was held for the first time in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso to progress and develop the research of new physical developments, technical breakthroughs, and ideas in the fields of electrical production and electrical applications. The ISAPA aims to encourage the advancement of the science and applications of electrical power transformation in Africa by bringing together specialists from many areas in Africa and the rest of the world. Such considerations have led us to define a Scientific Committee including representatives from many countries. This first meeting was an innovative opportunity for researchers and engineers from academic and industrial sectors to exchange views and knowledge. Both fundamental aspects such as thermal plasma, electrical arc, diagnostics and applied aspects as circuit breakers, ICP analyses, photovoltaic energy conversion and alternative energies, as well as space applications were covered. The Laboratory of Material and Environment (LAME) from Ouagadougou University and the Laboratory of Electric Arc and Thermal

  19. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 1: association with alkalic magmatism in a continent-island-arc collision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.P.; Chappell, B.W.; McCulloch, M.T.; McDougall, I.

    1991-01-01

    The meso thermal to epithermal Porgera gold deposit is spatially and temporally associated with shallow level (≤ 2 km emplacement depth) stocks and dykes of the Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC). Gold mineralization immediately followed emplacement of the PIC, and is dated between 5 and 6 Ma ago. The Porgera intrusive suite is comprised of fine- to medium-grained, porphyritic to euhedral granular, volatile-rich, sodic alkali basalts/gabbros, hawaiites, and mugearites (TAS chemical classification scheme). The rocks display chemical and isotopic characteristics similar to those of intra plate alkalic basalts, but their unusually high volatile contents result in stabilization of hornblende as a phenocryst and intergranular phase in more evolved rock types. The observed order of cotectic crystallization is olivine - clinopyroxene - hornblende -plagioclase, with ubiquitous spinel (chromite/magnetite) and fluor-apatite. (author)

  20. Fluctuation characteristics of arc voltage and jet flow in a non-transferred dc plasma generated at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W X; Guo, Z Y; Meng, X; Huang, H J; Wu, C K

    2009-01-01

    A torch with a set of inter-electrode inserts between the cathode and the anode/nozzle with a wide nozzle exit was designed to generate plasma jets at chamber pressures of 500-10 000 Pa. The variation of the arc voltage was examined with the change in working parameters such as gas flow rate and chamber pressure. The fluctuation in the arc voltage was recorded with an oscilloscope, and the plasma jet fluctuation near the torch exit was observed with a high-speed video camera and detected with a double-electrostatic probe. Results show that the 300 Hz wave originated from the tri-phase rectified power supply was always detected under all generating conditions. Helmholtz oscillations over 3000 Hz was detected superposed on the 300 Hz wave at gas flow rates higher than 8.8 slm with a peak to valley amplitude lower than 5% of the average voltage value. No appreciable voltage fluctuation caused by the irregular arc root movement is detected, and mechanisms for the arc voltage and jet flow fluctuations are discussed.

  1. Universal correlators for multi-arc complex matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The correlation functions of the multi-arc complex matrix model are shown to be universal for any finite number of arcs. The universality classes are characterized by the support of the eigenvalue density and are conjectured to fall into the same classes as the ones recently found for the Hermitian model. This is explicitly shown to be true for the case of two arcs, apart from the known result for one arc. The basic tool is the iterative solution of the loop equation for the complex matrix model with multiple arcs, which provides all multi-loop correlators up to an arbitrary genus. Explicit results for genus one are given for any number of arcs. The two-arc solution is investigated in detail, including the double-scaling limit. In addition universal expressions for the string susceptibility are given for both the complex and Hermitian model. (orig.)

  2. Continental lithospheric evolution: Constraints from the geochemistry of felsic volcanic rocks in the Dharwar Craton, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikyamba, C.; Ganguly, Sohini; Saha, Abhishek; Santosh, M.; Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Subba Rao, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    low and fractionated HREE patterns and minor negative Eu anomalies are in conformity with Type 1 rhyolites and suggest that they were erupted in an intraoceanic island arc system. The overall geochemical systematics of the rhyolites from both the sectors of Dharwar Craton suggest a change in the geodynamic conditions from intraoceanic island arc of eastern Dharwar Craton and an active continental margin of western Dharwar marked by ocean-ocean subduction and migration of oceanic arc towards a continent followed by arc-continent collision that contributed for the evolution of continental lithosphere in the Dharwar Craton.

  3. Electric arc behaviour in dynamic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put'ko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric arc in different time-dependent (dynamic) magnetic fields was investigated. New possibilities were found for spatial and energy stabilisation of a discharge, for intensifying heat exchange, extending the electric arc and distributed control of electric arc plasma. Rotating, alternating and travelling magnetic fields were studied. It was found that under the effect of a relatively low frequency of variations of dynamic magnetic fields (f 1000 Hz) the arc stabilised at the axis of the discharge chamber, the pulsation level decreased and discharge stability increased. The borders between these two arc existence modes were formed by a certain critical field variation frequency the period of which was determined by the heat relaxation time of the discharge. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation of global formation of auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, A.; Sato, T.

    1980-01-01

    Global simulation of auroral arcs is performed, based on the feedback theory of auroral arcs (Sato, 1978), for a three-dimensionally coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system which includes two pairs of large-scale Birkeland currents, large-scale polar cap electric fields, and a day-night asymmetry of the electron density distribution. Simulation results have shown that auroral arcs are formed in the dark sector of the auroral oval, more preferentially in the evening sector. They usually appear in multiples with a shape elongating in the east-west direction, each arc being a couple of thousand kilometers in length and 10 to 40 km in width. A pair of small-scale, upward and downward, Birkeland currents is associated with each arc, the density of which becomes 10 to 200 μA/m 2 at 110-km height, and the intensity of the associated electrojet reaches 5 to 20 kA. Each arc is strongly polarized in the direction of the large-scale northsouth current so that the electric field inside the arc is reduced considerably from its ambient value. What controls the formation of auroral arcs (growing speed, locations, arc width, etc.) is examined in detail. For example, the arc width becomes sharper, as the bounce time of the Alfven wave decreases. The overall structure of auroras is largely dependent upon the large-scale Birkeland current, the electric field, and the electron density distribution in the auroral oval

  5. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)

  6. Evaluation of a new data staging framework for the ARC middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D; Karpenko, D; Konstantinov, A; Filipčič, A

    2012-01-01

    Staging data to and from remote storage services on the Grid for users’ jobs is a vital component of the ARC computing element. A new data staging framework for the computing element has recently been developed to address issues with the present framework, which has essentially remained unchanged since its original implementation 10 years ago. This new framework consists of an intelligent data transfer scheduler which handles priorities and fair-share, a rapid caching system, and the ability to delegate data transfer over multiple nodes to increase network throughput. This paper uses data from real user jobs running on production ARC sites to present an evaluation of the new framework. It is shown to make more efficient use of the available resources, reduce the overall time to run jobs, and avoid the problems seen with the previous simplistic scheduling system. In addition, its simple design coupled with intelligent logic provides greatly increased flexibility for site administrators, end users and future development.

  7. Investigation of the Microstructure of Laser-Arc Hybrid Welded Boron Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seungwoo; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, Dong-Won; Cho, Kuk-Rae; Shin, Seung Man; Lee, Youngseog; Kang, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Zonghoon

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure of boron steel for automotive driving shaft manufacturing after laser-arc hybrid welding was investigated. Laser-arc hybrid welding technology was applied to 3-mm-thick plates of boron steel, ST35MnB. The temperature distribution of the welding pool was analyzed using the finite element method, and the microstructure of the welded boron steel was characterized using optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The microstructure of the weld joint was classified into the fusion zone, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the base material. At the fusion zone, the bainite grains exist in the martensite matrix and show directionality because of heat input from the welding. The HAZ is composed of smaller grains, and the hardness of the HAZ is greater than that of the fusion zone. We discuss that the measured grain size and the hardness of the HAZ originate from undissolved precipitates that retard the grain growth of austenite.

  8. Intermittency in e+e- and lepton-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency data in e + e - and lepton-hadron collisions are reviewed. The power-law behavior of the moments has been established by various e + e - experiments and a μp experiment. The intermittency in the two-dimensional space of rapidity and azimuthal angle is much stronger than in the rapidity space only. The neutrino-nucleus data indicate significant effects from nuclear reinteractions. The LUND parton shower model fits the data better than the matrix element model without special retuning. The relations among the moments of different orders are in good agreement with the predictions by the negative binomial and pure birth distributions. The origin of the intermittency in e + e - and μp collisions is consistent with th