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Sample records for araucaria araucana molina

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

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    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention. PMID:20589337

  2. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos

  3. Toward the characteristics of the development of the seedlings and immature plants of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch (Araucariaceae in its natural habitats (Neuquén Province, Argentina

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    N.L. Kazakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria forests were studied and their types were distinguished. Descriptive characteristics of defined forest types were established. Araucaria araucana regrowth rate and seed survival expressed as thousands per hectare were estimated in the natural habitats of araucaria. The anatomical features of needles of immature and generative plants were compared. A. araucana life cycle from the seedling to the immature developmental stage was described. Growth power classes of immature plants were defined according to the environmental conditions of A. araucana growth.

  4. An ecophysiographic approach for Araucaria araucana regeneration management

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    Drake Aranda, Fernando; Molina, Juan Ramón; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Chilean temperate forests are dominated by Nothofagus and Araucaria araucana species. Despite A. araucana not being at imminent risk of extinction, its cultural value and the associated environmental services and landscape goods have an important role for the conservation of this native forest. In some areas, the future conservation of A. araucana is a cause of great concern given its management prohibition and regeneration limitation due to slow growth, canopy tree competit...

  5. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la

  6. Two cationic peroxidases from cell walls of Araucaria araucana seeds.

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    Riquelme, A; Cardemil, L

    1995-05-01

    We have previously reported the purification and partial characterization of two cationic peroxidases from the cell walls of seeds and seedlings of the South American conifer, Araucaria araucana. In this work, we have studied the amino acid composition and NH2-terminal sequences of both enzymes. We also compare the data obtained from these analyses with those reported for other plant peroxidases. The two peroxidases are similar in their amino acid compositions. Both are particularly rich in glycine, which comprises more than 30% of the amino acid residues. The content of serine is also high, ca 17%. The two enzymes are different in their content of arginine, alanine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine. Both peroxidases have identical NH2-terminal sequences, indicating that the two proteins are genetically related and probably are isoforms of the same kind of peroxidase. The amino acid composition and NH2-terminal sequence analyses showed marked differences from the cationic peroxidases from turnip and horseradish. PMID:7786490

  7. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  8. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

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    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined. PMID:25041507

  9. Cross transferability of SSRs to five species of Araucariaceae: a useful tool for population genetic studies in Araucaria araucana

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    Moreno, A. C.; Marchelli, P.; Vendramin, G. G.; Gallo, L. A.

    2011-07-01

    Cross-species amplification of micro satellites is a common procedure to obtain suitable markers to be used in population genetic studies. Primers designed for one (source) species are used to amplify homologous loci in related (target) species. It is expected that phylogenetically close species will share a higher proportion of markers, and genetic distance could be a useful parameter to predict successful transferability between different taxonomic groups. We analyzed twenty-two primer pairs developed for Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze in five target species of the Araucariaceae family. The results were summarized in vectors of presence and absence of bands and compared through the Jaccard similarity index. Using the sequences of eight published genes, genetic distances between pairs of species were estimated and related to transferability rate using Pearson correlations. Successful transfer rate ranged from 31.8 to 77.3%, being these among the highest reported for plants. The highest transfer rate was observed between the South American species. The transferability was confirmed sequencing seven fragments amplified in A. araucana (Molina) K. Koch, and using the best five to estimate genetic diversity parameters in a natural population of this Andean coniferous. (Author) 58 refs.

  10. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

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    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-01

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (Paraucana resin by the Mapuche culture. PMID:15985351

  11. Short communication: Development of a new polymorphic genetic marker in Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch

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    Drake, F.; Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, A.; Molina, J. R.; Alvarez, J. B.; Herrera, M. A.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Seed storage proteins have been used as genetic marker in forest species to evaluate genetic variability, demonstrating its effectiveness both in conifers and broad-leaved. In conifers, megagametophyte storage proteins are particularly useful because of their haploid nature. The aim of this study was to determine whether these proteins could be used as a new marker of genetic diversity in Araucaria araucana, one of the oldest conifers of South America and a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity. For this, megagametophytes from two A. araucana populations were assessed to identify polymorphic bands and to obtain a preliminary estimation of the genetic diversity. The results revealed that globulin is the best fraction for measuring the variability in the species, due to their high level of variation (20 identified bands, 11 of them polymorphic). Both populations showed high genetic diversity, with more than 92% of the variation within populations. The study highlighted that these proteins can be used to measure the genetic diversity in A. araucana, providing good information to ensure the preservation of the species genetic resources. (Author) 29 refs.

  12. Fragmentation of Araucaria araucana forests in Chile: quantification and correlation with structural variables

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    Molina JR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fragmentation is one of the main threats to South American temperate forests due to population growth, conversion of native forests to plantations of exotic species and non-sustainable timber harvesting. The lack of forest connectivity can interfere with pollination, seed dispersal, biodiversity and landscape quality. Species with relatively limited seed dispersal are potentially more sensitive to the landscape fragmentation. Araucaria araucana (Mol. K. Koch is a long-lived, slow-growing, relict conifer in South America’s temperate forests with large seeds possessing a limited dispersal range. The objective of the study was to identify priority areas for Araucaria conservation based on fragmentation quantification and correlation with structural variables and regeneration conditions. Results from the FRAGSTATS® and CONEFOR® software indicated that Araucaria connectivity has increased in sites located in the central Andean Range in comparison to other sites, because of reduced human and livestock pressure as well as the relative absence of commercial plantations. The proximity index ranged from 6.01 m to 34834.2 m, and the probability of connectivity has significantly increased (175663 ha in the central Andean Range. Significant relationships were found between the Simpson’s index (or the probability of connectivity and basal area, and between the mean largest patch index and crown diameter. The largest patch index (r = 0.6; p < 0.05 and the area-weighted mean proximity index (r = 0.767; p < 0.05 were the most important landscape metrics influencing Araucaria regeneration. Furthermore, the integration of spatial pattern analysis obtained from satellite images and aerial photographs with forest and regeneration characterization from field sampling allowed to identify the most vulnerable areas. The methodology presented here can assist in the identification of target areas for spatial conservation, including management needs under

  13. Starch Degradation Metabolism towards Sucrose Synthesis in Germinating Araucaria araucana Seeds.

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    Cardemil, L; Varner, J E

    1984-12-01

    As starch is the main seed reserve material in both species of Araucaria of South America, A. araucana and A. angustifolia, it is important to understand starch breakdown in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues of Araucaria seeds. Sugar analysis by thin layer chromatography indicates that sucrose is the main sugar produced in both tissues. Enzyme reactions coupled to benzidine oxidation indicate that sucrose is the main sugar moved from the megagametophyte to the growing regions of the embryo via the cotyledons.Phosphorylase was detected in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues by the formation of [(32)P]glucose-1-P and by formation of [(14)C] amylopectin from [(14)C]glucose-1-P. The enzyme activity increases 5-fold in both embryo and gametophyte to a peak 18 hours after the start of imbibition. Debranching enzyme, alpha-glucosidase, and hexokinase are also present in both embryonic and megagametophytic tissues.Branched glucan oligosaccharides accumulate during this time, reaching a maximum 40 hours after imbibition starts, and decline after germination occurs.The pattern of activity of the enzymes studied in this work suggests that starch degradation is initiated by alpha-amylase and phosphorylase in the embryo and by phosphorylase mainly in the megagametophyte. Sucrose-P synthase seems to be the enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis in both tissues. PMID:16663947

  14. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of natural and semisynthetic labdane diterpenes from Araucaria araucana resin.

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    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Palenzuela, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The resin of the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) is used by the Mapuche Amerindians in southern Chile and Argentina to treat ulcers and has been shown to display a gastroprotective effect in animal models. A study was undertaken to isolate, identify and assess the gastroprotective effect of the resin constituents and its semisynthetic derivatives as well as to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the products in cell cultures. Eleven diterpenes (ten labdane and a pimarane) were isolated from a resin sample collected in Chile. The labdane derivatives 15-acetoxylabd-8(17)-en-19-ol as well as 15,19-diacetoxylabd-8(17)-en are reported for the first time as natural products. Six diterpenes previously described from other plant sources are reported for the first time for the A. araucana resin. The structure of all compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic means. Some 24 diterpenes isolated/prepared in amounts over 10 mg were evaluated for gastroprotective effects in the ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in mice at 100 mg/kg. The highest gastroprotective activities were provided by 15-hydroxyimbricatolal, 15-acetoxyimbricatolal, 15-acetoxylabd-8(17)-en-19-oic acid methyl ester and 15-acetoxy-19-labdanoic acid, all of them being as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity of 30 diterpenes as well as lansoprazole was assessed towards human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and 26 compounds were evaluated on the human gastric epithelial cell line AGS by means of the neutral red uptake assay. A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 27 up to > 1000 microM. The relationship between the cytotoxicity data and lipophilicity of the products is also discussed. PMID:16163822

  15. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

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    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  16. Incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana y consideraciones ecológicas al madereo de aprovechamiento en áreas recientemente quemadas Wildfire in Araucaria araucana forests and ecological considerations about salvage logging in areas recently burned

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    MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El fuego es el tipo de disturbio más importante en conformar el paisaje forestal de Araucaria araucana en la zona centro-sur de Chile y Argentina. En la Región de la Araucanía el clima y el ser humano han influenciado el régimen de fuego durante al menos los últimos mil años. Los incendios catastróficos ocurridos recientemente (año 2002 que afectaron los bosques de Araucaria atrajeron la atención pública, política y científica generando una importante necesidad de entender las causas y efectos de tales eventos en los ecosistemas forestales. Estos grandes incendios produjeron una abundante cantidad de material muerto en pie y en el suelo, promoviendo el desarrollo de otros atributos estructurales conocidos como legados biológicos que tienen un rol crítico en la recuperación de los ecosistemas luego de este tipo de eventos. El madereo de aprovechamiento ("salvage logging" es considerado un factor negativo en la recuperación de áreas afectadas significando tanto una pérdida o menoscabo de la capacidad de regeneración como un deterioro en otros procesos ecológicos clave. Incendios catastróficos de alta severidad, ya sea antrópicos o naturales, crean presiones tanto para reemplazar el bosque nativo por plantaciones de especies de crecimiento rápido o llevar a cabo operación de madereo de aprovechamiento. Las decisiones de manejo deben estar basadas en un mejor entendimiento de la ocurrencia pasada de incendios y su rol en modelar los presentes ecosistemas de Araucaria. Particularmente, en el contexto del excepcional valor ecológico y cultural de estos ecosistemas, las agencias y profesionales del manejo forestal deberían considerar políticas que efectivamente aseguren y sean consistentes con la restauración de procesos ecológicos y atributos clave en los ecosistemas de AraucariaFire is the most important kind of disturbance shaping the Araucaria araucana forest landscapes of south-central Chile and Argentina. In the

  17. Networking sampling of Araucaria araucana (Mol. K. Koch in Chile and the bordering zone of Argentina: implications for the genetic resources and the sustainable management

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    Martín LM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana, a southern South American tree species, is considered a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity due to its endemicity and longevity. An expedition to Chile and its border zone with Argentina was carried out with the aim of determining the current state of this species and to establish a tree network to study its genetic variability. Eight locations were selected across the range of distribution of the species and several experimental plots were established based on the heterogeneity within each location. Field trips revealed a high fragmentation in Araucaria forests showing low or non-existent regeneration in most of its distribution area. Experimental plots allowed the identification of severely altered areas. Moreover, 371 trees were catalogued, 193 males and 178 females. The tree network established will be very useful in future evaluations of both the ecological status of the species and its genetic resources, allowing the development of conservation strategies.

  18. The Multiple Forms of alpha-Amylase Enzyme of the Araucaria Species of South America: A. araucana (Mol.) Koch and A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kutz : A Comparative Study.

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    Salas, E; Cardemil, L

    1986-08-01

    alpha-Amylase is one of the major enzymes present in the seeds of both Araucaria species of South America and it initiates starch hydrolysis during germination and early seedling growth. The pattern of the multiple forms of alpha-amylase of the two Araucaria species was investigated by electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing of the native enzyme in polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme forms were compared in the embryo and megagametophyte of quiescent seeds and of seeds imbibed for 18, 48, and 90 hours. Specific alpha-amylase enzyme forms appear and disappear during these imbibition periods showing both similarities and differences between tissues and species. Before imbibition, there are five alpha-amylase forms identical in both tissues, but different between species. After 18 hours of imbibition, there are two enzyme forms in both tissues of Araucaria araucana seeds, only one form in the embryo of Araucaria angustifolia but two forms in the megagametophyte of this specie. After 48 hours of seed imbibition, most of the enzyme forms present in quiescent seeds reappear. At 90 hours of imbibition different enzyme forms are detected in the embryo with respect to the gametophyte. The changes in form patterns of alpha-amylase are discussed according to a possible regulation of gene expression by endogenous gibberellins. PMID:16664944

  19. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  20. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  1. First records of three species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae in Argentina and use of a predictive model to compare their potential distribution with the range of their host-plant, Araucaria araucana Primera cita de las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae en Argentina y uso de un modelo predictivo para comparar su distribución potencial con el rango de su planta huésped, la Araucaria araucana

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    M.S. FERRER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the three known species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae in Argentina are reported, and added to their known distribution in Chile. These weevils are of interest because of their association with the pehuén or monkey puzzle tree, Araucaria araucana, a species of conservation concern. Their distribution data are of value for the protection of biodiversity in natural areas of Patagonia. The potential distribution of Oxycraspedus, as predicted by a model using bioclimatic variables, is coincident as expected, with the geographic range of the araucaria host-plantSe reportan por primera vez en Argentina las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae y se añaden a su distribución en Chile. Estos gorgojos son de interés debido a su asociación con el pehuén Araucaria araucana, una especie de gran interés en temas de conservación. Los datos sobre su distribución son valiosos para proteger la biodiversidad en áreas de la Patagonia. La distribución potencial de Oxycraspedus predicha por un modelo a partir de variables bioclimáticas, es coincidente, como se esperaba, con el rango geográfico de su planta huésped, la araucaria

  2. The role of two isoenzymes of alpha-amylase of Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) on the digestion of starch granules during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Juana J; del Pozo, Talía; Acevedo, Elba A; Cardemil, Liliana A

    2003-03-01

    Starch is the principal reserve of Araucaria araucana seeds, and it is hydrolysed during germination mainly by alpha-amylase. There are several alpha-amylase isoenzymes whose patterns change in the embryo and in the megagametophyte from the one observed in quiescent seeds (T(0)) to a different one observed 90 h after imbibition (T(90)). The objective of this research was to study the roles of two purified alpha-amylase isoenzymes by in vitro digestion of starch granules extracted from the tissues at two times of imbibition: one is abundant in quiescent seeds and the other is abundant after 90 h of imbibition. The isoenzymes digested the starch granules of their own stage of germination better, since the isoenzyme T(0) digested starch granules mainly from quiescent seeds, while the isoenzyme T(90) digested starch mainly at 90 h of imbibition. The sizes of the starch granule and the tissue from which these granules originated make a difference to digestion by the isoenzymes. Embryonic isoenzyme T(0) digested large embryonic starch granules better than small and medium-sized granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. Similarly isoenzyme T(90) digested small embryonic starch granules better than medium-sized and large granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. However, a mixture of partially purified megagametophytic isoenzymes T(0) and T(90) digested the megagametophytic granules better than those isolated from embryos. Studies of in vitro sequential digestion of starch granules with these isoenzymes corroborated their specificity. The isoenzyme T(90) digested starch granules previously digested by the isoenzyme T(0). This suggests that in vivo these two isoenzymes may act sequentially in starch granule digestion. PMID:12598561

  3. Araucaria araucana and the Austral parakeet: pre-dispersal seed predation on a masting species El pehuén y la cachaña: depredación predispersión de una especie "masting"

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by Austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, on pehuén, Araucaria araucana, was studied to assess the relationship between predation and seed production. We collected falling seeds in four araucaria forests of southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina during four years that included both mast and intermast years. Predation rates were negatively correlated with seed production. When seed production was high, predation rates ranged from 0.6 to 3.3 %; when it was low, predation rates ranged from 13.0 to 20.6 %. Years differed in the pattern of monthly seed fall with peak seed fall in March 2002 and April 2003. Predation rates were lower and more uniform in the year of higher seed production, but did not differ between sites. In an intermast year, predation rates increased during the season, reaching their highest rates after peak seed fall. Parakeets handled seeds differently in mast and intermast years, dropping fewer slightly-damaged seeds when production was low. We discuss these results in the context of the predator satiation hypothesis.Se estudió la depredación predispersión de semillas del Pehuén, Araucaria araucana, por la cachaña, Enicognathus ferrugineus, para evaluar la relación entre depredación y producción de semillas. Durante cuatro años, incluyendo años de alta ("semillazón" y baja producción de semillas, se colectaron semillas caídas de los árboles en bosques del sudoeste de la Provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. Se detectó una correlación negativa entre depredación y producción de semillas. En los años de alta y baja producción de semillas, las tasas de depredación variaron entre 0,6 y 3,3 % y entre 13,0 y 20,6 %, respectivamente. Entre años existe una variación en el patrón temporal de caída de semillas, con picos de caída en marzo y abril para 2002 y 2003, respectivamente. La tasa de depredación de semillas fue más baja y uniforme en el año de alta producción de conos

  4. Efectos de la producción de semillas y la heterogeneidad vegetal sobre la supervivencia de semillas y el patrón espacio-temporal de establecimiento de plántulas en Araucaria araucana Araucaria araucana temporal and spatial seedling establishment patterns: masting, seed predation and understory vegetation effects

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    JAVIER SANGUINETTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de plántulas puede estar limitado por la producción de semillas y asociada a la producción intermitente y sincronizada de semillas (masting y/o por granivoría, o por falta de micrositios aptos para la germinación y crecimiento de las plantas. La dispersión y supervivencia de semillas desde el árbol madre pueden determinar el patrón espacial del establecimiento y la literatura propone varios modelos de distancia madre-plántula. En este trabajo se estudiaron los efectos del masting, de la depredación de semillas y de la vegetación sobre el establecimiento en A. araucana. A partir de datos sobre producción de conos, sobre supervivencia de semillas y mediante el registro de plántulas a escala del árbol en distintos micrositios se evaluó el patrón temporal y espacial del establecimiento. A. araucana presentaría un establecimiento en forma de pulsos, sincronizados entre árboles, y asociado al masting debido a un significativo aumento en la supervivencia de semillas. En micrositios densos, especialmente de bambúes, la regeneración se encuentra fuertemente inhibida por la excesiva depredación de semillas y no debido a competencia con los bambúes. El patrón distancia madre-plántula observado parecería ajustarse al modelo Janzen-Connell considerando el aumento de supervivencia de semillas con la distancia y el pico de establecimiento alejado del árbol madre. Sin embargo, se detectó una significativa diferencia en el patrón distancia madre-planta entre la regeneración joven y avanzada por lo cual habría luego del establecimiento otro patrón de mortalidad edad y distancia dependientes. Los resultados sugieren que la ocurrencia de regeneración en A. araucana se encontraría controlada por la producción de semillas mientras que la granivoría, y su interacción con la vegetación, modularían la intensidad del establecimiento.Seedling establishment may be limited by a poor seed production and/or granivory

  5. Landscapes with Araucaria in South America: evidence for a cultural dimension

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    Maurício Sedrez dos. Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South American Araucaria species include Araucaria araucana (Mol. C. Koch (Argentina and Chile and Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazil and Argentina. Both species produce nut-like seeds (piñones, pinhões that have, since pre-Columbian times, formed part of the traditional diet of local societies: Kaingang (A. angustifolia and Mapuche-Pehuenche (A. araucana. In this work, we compared and analyzed converging and diverging characteristics of these species founded on ecological and ethnobotanical evidence. We also studied the role of human groups in the construction of Araucaria forests. The methodology used was based on a bibliographical analysis that included a wide range of sources, from ecological to social sciences. Our results show that both species hold strong cultural and symbolic significance for associated human groups. The ecological characteristics of both species have favored their rapid territorial expansion since the Holocene; however, palynological, archaeological, and ethnobotanical evidence reinforces the hypothesis that the human groups involved played a key role in this process. For both societies, there are records of past and present practices related to the transport, storage, and processing of the seeds. The landscapes where A. araucana and A. angustifolia are present also reflect use patterns that hold a level of significance that goes beyond merely utilitarian purposes. For the Kaingang and the Mapuche-Pehuenche, the Araucaria forests are associated with the concept of territoriality and play a key role in determining their identity. Our approach to cultural landscapes, which considers the importance of societies in the modelling of natural landscapes, can offer new perspectives for conservation policies and action in both forests.

  6. Morphology and structure of the pollen cone and pollen grain of the Araucaria species from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fueyo, Georgina M; Caccavari, Marta A; Dome, Elizabeth A

    2008-04-01

    The pollen cone and the pollen grain of the two Argentinean species of Araucaria are described with LM, SEM and TEM. Primordia of pollen cones are formed in April and May and reach maturity by mid-October in A. angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze and by mid-November in A. araucana. (Mol.) K. Koch. Characters of the mature pollen cones and microsporophylls between both taxa are clearly differentiated. Pollen grains are spheroidal-subspheroidal, inaperturate, and asaccate with granulate exine and a subequatorial annular area that corresponds to the sexine thickness. Sculpturing consists of irregularly dispersed granules that are sometimes fused to each other (A. angustifolia) or forming microrugulae (A. araucana). Microgranules and microspinules are also present. The pollen wall ultrastructure is formed by a granular ectexine and lamellated endexine. Granular elements in A. angustifolia are more loosely disposed, form more interstices, and are gradually smaller towards the endexine than in A. araucana. To asses the probable relationships within the family, we compared the pollen grains of the two Araucaria species with those of other extant genera (Agathis, Wollemia) and also with fossil pollen (Araucariacites, Balmeiopsis, Cyclusphaera, Dilwynites) attributed to Araucariaceae. PMID:18669323

  7. Redescription of an early-derivative mite, Pentasetacus araucariae (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae), and new hypotheses on the eriophyoid reproductive anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Beliavskaia, Alexandra Y; Rautian, Maria S; Sukhareva, Sogdiana I

    2014-06-01

    A unique set of plesiomorphic characters, and its association with an ancient gymnosperm, Araucaria araucana, have made Pentasetacus araucariae a putative relict of a lineage of gymnosperm-associated mites, itself possibly basal to all extant eriophyoids. However, the suboptimal description of this species is impeding morphological comparisons with other species, which are fundamental to eriophyoid systematics. Herein, we designate a female lectotype from syntype specimens and use additional non-type material to redescribe P. araucariae based on external and internal anatomy using different microscopic and 3D reconstruction techniques. Contrarily to statements in the literature, P. araucariae has undivided empodia in all instars, short spermathecal tubes, and large, globose spermathecae in females, as well as rudimentary genital fovea in immatures. In addition, males of P. araucariae were shown to have genitalic attributes similar to a species of Trisetacus studied in parallel, including two reservoir-like structures, which may represent parts of the genital chamber and of the ductus ejaculatorius, respectively, as well as paired testes and ducti deferentes. This is contrary to previous, limited knowledge on eriophyoids indicating that they possess a single testis. Although their short spermathecal tubes weaken the cladistic relationship between P. araucariae (Pentasetacinae) and conifer-associated Nalepellinae (e.g. Trisetacus) having long tubes, the structural similarities in male genitalia may reinforce it. PMID:24522338

  8. Ugni Molinae, Ugni

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Ugni molinae (Myrtaceae) is native primarily to southern Chile with some populations in Bolivia. The aromatic, somewhat seedy, dark red fruit are primarily harvested from the w...

  9. The Araucaria Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrzynski, G.; Gieren, W.

    2005-01-01

    {Results from a long-term observational project called the Araucaria Project are presented. Based on Wide Field optical monitoring of 8 nearby galaxies, covering a large range of metallicities, more than 500 Cepheids and a few hundred Blue Supergiant candidates were identified. From the analysis of Cepheid P-L relations of outstanding quality derived from our data we conclude that the slope of these relations in the I band and Wesenheit index are not dependent on metallicity. Comparing the I-...

  10. Exencephaly in araucana chickens and silkie bantams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G L; Softly, A

    1985-01-01

    Exencephaly and hydranencephaly were diagnosed in two 6-week-old araucana chickens (Gallus domesticus) and one adult silkie bantam (Gallus domesticus). The chickens were presented with large, subcutaneous, cranial soft-tissue masses and exhibited neurological signs. There was partial aplasia of the frontal bones, resulting in herniation of the cerebral hemispheres. PMID:4026741

  11. Composition of and cholesterol in Araucana and commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D W; Lilyblade, A; Clifford, C K; Ernst, R; Clifford, A J; Dunn, P

    1978-01-01

    Araucana eggs from six sources and commercial-type white eggs of two major supermarket brands and from the University of California flock were collected and analyzed for cholesterol content of the yolk. The yolks of Araucana eggs were significantly higher in cholesterol than those of commercial white eggs. PMID:563887

  12. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  13. SOBRE LA (NO CLAUSURA DE LA ARAUCANA On the (non closure de La Araucana

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    Eduardo Barraza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La reapertura del mundo textual de La araucana no se reduce a que sirva de modelo para la escritura de otros textos que refieren la guerra de Arauco sino a que inaugura una serie textual que incluye, también, el "juego al trocado" relativo a empresas españolas fracasadas -no dignas de canto o de memoria- así como el triunfo de los indígenas sobre los españoles. Se trata de una serie que promueve una reescritura y discusión del canon épico y de sus formantes irresueltos, que se prolonga intermitentemente en la literatura chilena. Tal situación puede ser examinada ventajosamente con una categoría analítica como es "el discurso de la conquista".The reaperture of the textual world of La araucana is not reduced to its service as a model to other texts which refer to the Arauco war but to the innauguration of a textual series that includes, also, the "juego de trocado" relative to the unsuccessful Spanish initiatives --not worthy of song or memory-- but also the triumph of the indigenous people over the Spaniards. This series promotes a rewriting and discussion of the epic canon and of its unresolved formants, which is prolonged, intermittently, in Chilena literatura. Said situation can be examined advantageously with an analytic category such as "the conquest discourse".

  14. Selecting areas for legal reserves in araucaria forest

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Ferreira Alves de Brito; Maurício Savi; João de Deus Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Mixed Forest (araucaria forest), a typical forest of southern Brazil, possesses species of very high commercial value such as Araucaria angustifolia and Ocotea porosa. This forest originally covered about 200,000 – 250,000 km². Unfortunately, the native araucaria forests are disappearing, largely due to the conversion of forest lands to agriculture, logging and pasture. Remaining forest cover represents less than 1% of the pre-settlement forest area. Many species, which live on t...

  15. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia Ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas em Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela de Fátima Neroni; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirm...

  16. The identity of Rana lutea Molina, 1782 (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daiana P; Lavilla, Esteban O

    2013-01-01

    Rana lutea is one of the two anuran species described in 1782 by the Chilean born priest and naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, and its nomenclatural history is confusing. After a detailed revision of the pertinent literature, we demonstrate that Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, is a junior objective synonym of Rana lutea Molina, 1782, but based on the usage of both nomina, we revert the precedence and consider Rana lutea Molina, 1782 as a nomen oblitum whereas Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799 is a nomen protectum. Thus, the authorship of the species currently known as Pleurodema thaul (Lesson, 1826) changes to Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799). PMID:24614468

  17. Ear tuftedness: a lethal condition in the Araucana fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Pabilonia, M S

    1981-01-01

    The lethal effects of the ear-tuft trait of the Araucana chicken are reported and the genetic basis of its inheritance is verified. The ear-tuft (Et) gene acts as an autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance in heterozygotes. This study gave two estimates of reduced penetrance, 4 and 14 percent. Homozygotes die during 17-19 days of incubation, although a few may hatch. Most of these die within a week, but occasionally an "escaper" will live to maturity; one such Et/Et individual was verified. Heterozygotes also experience increased embryonic mortality at about 20 or 21 days of incubation. In this study the average embryonic mortality among heterozygotes was 41.6 percent. Posthatch mortality also was significantly greater among tufted chicks than among nontufted chicks. PMID:7276512

  18. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

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    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  19. Selecting areas for legal reserves in araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira Alves de Brito

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Mixed Forest (araucaria forest, a typical forest of southern Brazil, possesses species of very high commercial value such as Araucaria angustifolia and Ocotea porosa. This forest originally covered about 200,000 – 250,000 km². Unfortunately, the native araucaria forests are disappearing, largely due to the conversion of forest lands to agriculture, logging and pasture. Remaining forest cover represents less than 1% of the pre-settlement forest area. Many species, which live on the araucaria forest, are threatened with extinction. In 2002, Brazilian administrative decrees MMA no 507 and 508 established the areas for conservation (legally protected areas in araucaria forests. These decrees were modified by the additional publication of administrative decrees no 176 and 178, starting off the work in this areas. With the help of techniques from institutions such as MMA, IBAMA, FATMA/SC, IAP/PR, UFSC, and environmental groups, the “Araucaria Task-Force” was created. The methodology adopted included the effective participation of local bodies, municipalities and landowners. The work was aimed at the establishment of the biological conservation bases in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Four forest fragments were identified and analyzed, and the most significant areas for conservation were indicated.

  20. Volumetric comparison of auditory brain nuclei in ear-tufted Araucanas with those in other chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    1998-01-01

    Domestic chickens of the breed Araucana have ear-tufts, which affect the structure of the ear canal. Volumes of auditory brainstem nuclei were measured in three chicken breeds in order to evaluate whether the characteristics described for ear-tufted individuals of the Araucana chicken breed (alterations in the outer and middle ear anatomy) are associated with changes in the size of the relevant auditory nuclei. Allometric comparison reveals no size reductions of the angular, laminar and superior olivary nuclei in Araucanas, compared to Japanese Bantams and Brown Leghorns, but a slight increase in the size of the magnocellular nucleus. PMID:9672109

  1. Mapeamento da Araucaria angustifolia utilizando receptores GPS

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    Diego Luis Venancio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study makes use of GPS technology in differential mode (relative positioning and absolute mode in a MixedOmbrophilous Forest in order to map the Araucaria angustifolia trees that occur in the area of study (Campus of Irati - UNICENTROin Paraná State, Brazil. The fieldwork pointed out the presence of 264 Araucárias in the area of study, the relative positioning waspossible in 141 cases with precision ranging from 6 to 84 cm; absolute positioning was possible in all cases with precision rangingfrom 5 to 14 m. The relative positioning was possible in 30% of the Araucárias where slope was > 30% and in 57% of cases in whichthe basal area was > 16 m2/ha. It can be concluded that the relative positioning accuracy is sufficient for the location of the Araucárias,while the absolute position can cause confusion due to the low degree of planimetric accuracy position. The results of the relativepositioning were influenced by slope and basal area, especially in conditions of high slope and high basal area.

  2. Earthworm populations sampled using collection methods in atlantic forests with Araucaria angustifolia Populações de minhocas amostradas usando métodos de coleta em floresta atlântica com Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmar Baretta; George Gardner Brown; Samuel Wooster James; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia, also known as the Paraná Pine is an endangered tree species in Brazil and little is known of the diversity of soil invertebrates inhabiting these forests. Therefore, the present study was set up to evaluate the biomass and diversity of earthworms in natural and reforested Araucaria plots, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient earthworm collection method. Four study areas included: native forest with Araucaria (NF); Araucaria reforestation (R); Ara...

  3. Highlights on eclipsing binary variables from Araucaria Project

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    Karczmarek Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Project, which main goal is to provide precise determination of the cosmic distance scale, has recently made a set of discoveries involving variable stars in binary systems. Among these discoveries we highlight three: 1% precise measurement of a Cepheid's dynamical mass and its projection factor, accurate determination of both stellar and orbital parameters of eclipsing binary consisting of two Cepheid variables, and discovery of new class of variable stars, mimicking RR Lyrae pulsators.

  4. LA GUERRA DE ARAUCO EN CLAVE ALEGÓRICA: EL AUTO SACRAMENTAL DE LA ARAUCANA The war of Arauco in allegorical code: The auto sacramental La Araucana

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    Carlos Mata Induráin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza cómo en el auto sacramental de La Araucana, atribuido a Lope de Vega, se aborda en clave alegórica la materia de la guerra de Arauco. En esta obra, el caudillo araucano Caupolicán aparece como figura o tipo de Cristo, al tiempo que la lucha de los araucanos por su libertad es trasunto de la redención de todo el género humano. Este auto ha generado cierta atención entre la crítica, en parte por la relación que guarda con la comedia de Arauco domado de Lope; pero, sobre todo, por el carácter novedoso que supone la visión del indígena americano (el otro como ser capaz de simbolizar en figura alegórica al propio Hijo de Dios hecho hombre.This article analyzes how in the sacramental play La Araucana by Lope de Vega, the matter of Arauco is approached in the allegorical structure. In this drama, Caupolicán, the araucanian leader, appears as a figure or type of Christ, while the Araucanian struggle for freedom is an image of the redemption of the human genre. This auto has generated some attention in the critics, because of the relation that this play has with the Arauco domado by Lope, and particularly because of its novel character, that supposes the vision of the american native (the other as a being that can symbolize Christ-Man in an allegorical figure.

  5. Gross morphological head and throat abnormalities of the tufted Araucana embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1981-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the head and throat of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormalities involved the opening to the external auditory meatus and such bones as the mandible, quadrate, columella auris, squamosal, and hyoid apparatus. Structural irregularities are believed to be due to the presence of the Et gene and its influence on the early embryonic closure of the hyomandibular cleft. The diversity of phenotypic expression probably is due to the varied closure of the cleft. PMID:7322992

  6. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

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    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  7. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

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    Marcia A. Avello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  8. The embryonic development of ear-tufts and associated structural head and neck abnormalities of the Araucana fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1983-08-01

    Developing embryonic structural abnormalities of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormal structures are peduncle, cleft, ear opening, tympanic membrane, and columella auris. The structural abnormalities are believed to be due to the early incomplete fusion of the hyoid and mandibular arches from the distal part of the ear opening to the neck area. PMID:6634592

  9. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Renato Lammel; Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Carlos Tadeu Santos Dias; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State P...

  10. Biology and life table of Dirphia araucariae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: A herbivore of potentially high impact on Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio M. Zenker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-history and biology of Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908, including its life fertility table, are here described. Moths were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions on their host plant, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze - Araucariaceae. We describe several life-history traits of the species, namely: developmental period, survival rate, growth rate, fertility, fecundity, sex ratio, cephalic capsule width, and pupal weight. Mean duration of life stages were: egg = 26.78 days; larva = 61.78 days; prepupa = 6.85 days; pupa = 62.46 days; adult = 8.37 days. We found statistically significant differences between sexes for adult, larval and pupal stage duration; larval stage was longer in females while pupal stage was longer in males. The survival rate of each life stage was: egg = 96.18%; larva = 95.38%; prepupa = 83.87%; pupa = 100%. The larvae developed through six instars and the mean growth rate was 1.418. The width of male and female cephalic capsules were different in last three instars, even though the total mean width between sexes was not different. Pupal mean weight ranged from 2.40 g to 4.79 g, with females being heavier than males. Fertility ranged from 66.78% to 100%, and the total fecundity was 358.45 eggs/female, including both laid eggs and eggs held in the abdomen. The sex ratio was 0.50 ± 0.05. The estimated biotic potential was 48731.08 specimens/female/year. We found the following values for the fertility life table: (Ro = 117.21 females; (T = 162.75 days; (r m = 0.21; (l = 1.23. Considering the biological parameters evaluated in this study, we conclude that D. araucariae is not able to cause primary damage in A. angustifolia forests, although further studies are needed to understand the reasons for occasional population outbreaks.

  11. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  12. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF ARAUCARIA CUNNINGHAMII AITON EX D. DON LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Gautam; Saroj Arora; Dhriti Kapoor; Renu Bhardwaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several diseases are caused in the body due to oxidative stress of free radicals. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don (Araucariaceae) leaf extract. The dried leaves of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don (Araucariaceae) were extracted with 80% methanol. The antioxidant activity of the extract was predicted through in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), reducing ...

  13. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Valente Caçola; Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante; Frederico Dimas Fleig; Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH) for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA), modified atm...

  15. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma; Milton de Souza Mendonça Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), galling 43 host...

  16. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  17. Detección del Polimorfismo en el Gen del Receptor de Melatonina (MT1 en la Oveja Criolla Araucana Detection of MT1 Melatonin Receptor Gene Polymorphism (MT1 in the Araucana Creole Sheep

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    J Quiñones

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La melatonina es una hormona que regula los ciclos circadianos y muchos de los aspectos reproductivos de los mamíferos y es secretada por la glándula pineal en las horas de ausencia de luz. Esta hormona posee receptores de alta afinidad acoplados a proteínas de tipo G, denominados MT1. Un polimorfismo de la secuencia que codifica para estos receptores estaría involucrado en el control de la reproducción estacional de los ovinos. El propósito de este estudio busca determinar la presencia del polimorfismo del receptor MT1 en la oveja criolla Araucana, un ovino local en el que se ha registrado un corto anestro reproductivo. Para poder realizar este trabajo se utilizó la técnica denominada reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para polimorfismo en el tamaño de los fragmentos de restricción PCR-RFLP, para lo cual, se obtuvieron muestras de ADN genómico de 50 ovejas Araucanas, las cuales fueron digeridas con la endonucleasa de restricción Mnl1. Se logró identificar la presencia del polimorfismo del receptor MT1 en la oveja Araucana. Los genotipos se hallaron en una frecuencia de 68% para el genotipo +/+, 28% para el genotipo +/- y4% para el genotipo -/-. Este alto porcentaje de animales con genotipo +/+ podría explicar el corto anestro reproductivo que presenta esta raza.Melatonin is a hormone that regulates circadian rhythms and many of the reproductive aspects of mammals and is secreted by the pineal gland during the hours of absence of light. This hormone has high affinity receptors coupled to G-like proteins, termed MT1. A polymorphism of the sequence coding for these receptors was involved in the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MT1 receptor polymorphism in Araucana creole sheep, a local breed with a short reproductive anestrus. To carry out this work, we used a technique called polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lengh polymorphism PCR-RFLP, for which

  18. Surgical correction of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in a puma (Puma concolor araucana) Corrección quirúrgica de estenosis lumbosacral degenerativa en un puma (Puma concolor araucana)

    OpenAIRE

    Verdugo, C.; Gómez, M.; M Alvarado-Rybak; H Bustamante; Cardona, L.; M Mieres

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old adult, intact male puma (Puma concolor araucana) was evaluated because of abnormal hind limb gait and paresis. Neurological examination revealed a progressive paraparesis, bilateral pelvic limb proprioceptive deficit and tail paralysis. Survey radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were taken at the lumbosacral region in order to determine possible causes. CT study confirmed a stenotic vertebral canal at the L7/S1 level. A dorsal laminectomy was performed in order to decompres...

  19. NOVOS PARASITÓIDES EM OVOS DE Dirphia Araucariae (LEPIDOPTERA, ATTACIDAE NEW PARASITOIDS IN EGGS OF Dirphia araucariae (LEP.; ATTACIDAE

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram observados novos parasitóides nos ovos de Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae. A porcentagem do parasitismo em ovos do hospedeiro, coletados na Fazenda Marabá, Município de Congonhinhas (PR foi de 20,71%, e as espécies de parasitóides identificadas e suas freqüências do: Anastatus sp (0,45%; A. charitos De Santis, 1982 (1,08%; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952 (1,97%; Ooencyrtus sp (17,86%; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988 (43,65%; e O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988 (34,99%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Anastatus spp; Araucaria angustifolia; controle biológico; lagarta-da-araucária; Ooencyrtus spp; pinheiro-do-Paraná.

    The parasitism in Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae was studied and the parasitoids observed on its eggs collected in 'Fazenda Marabá’, Municipality of Congonhinhas, State of Paraná, Brazil, were the following: Anastatus sp.; A. charitos De Santis, 1982; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952; Ooencyrtus sp.; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988, and O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988, with a frequency of 0.45%, 1.08%, 1.97%, 17.86%, 43.65% and 34.99%, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Biological control; Paraná-pine.

  20. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia Ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas em Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela de Fátima Neroni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirmed using the acetylene reduction assay. According to their 16S rRNA sequences, most of these isolates belong to the genus Burkholderia.Araucaria angustifolia é uma espécie arbórea ameaçada de extinção e toda a comunidade viva das Florestas de Araucária deve ser estudada com a finalidade de sua preservação. Bactérias diazotróficas apresentam grande importância para a manutenção de ecossistemas, mas sua ocorrência nunca foi pesquisada em araucária. Neste estudo foi demonstrada a associação de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio com A. angustifolia. Amostras de solo e raízes de araucária apresentaram a ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas, quando inoculadas em meios semi-sólidos semi-específícos. O caráter diazotrófico de alguns isolados recuperados foi confirmado através da análise de redução do acetileno. De acordo com a análise das seqüências do 16S rRNA, estes isolados são na sua maioria pertencentes ao gênero Burkholderia.

  1. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia A. Avello; Edgar R. Pastene; Evelyn D. Bustos; Magalis L. Bittner; José A. Becerra

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted) prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC), tannins (TTC) and flavonoids (TFC) for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts) from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the c...

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Betancur R; Gonzalo Silva A; J. Concepción Rodríguez M; Susana Fischer G; Nelson Zapata S.M

    2010-01-01

    In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100%) was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea may...

  3. Araucaria forest management by the liocourt method, Painel municipality, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the diameter distribution and calculate the value of the Liocourt quotient 'q' for the species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze in natural forest, as well as evaluating competition indexes in a fragment with an area of 74.2 ha. Fixed area sample plots of 400 m2 were used in this study, totaling one hectare sampling area. Trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured in all plots and later distributed in diameter classes for the calculation of the density probability function and competition index. The forest showed a density of 228 trees per hectare and basal area of 19.49 m2·ha-1. The value of the "q" quotient for the forest was 1.1, indicating that the recruitment and mortality rates are in equilibrium. The calculated competition indices showed that the forest is in a competition stage, with Glover and Holl index of 0.9798 and 0.7069 m2 for the BALmod.

  4. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Vidal J; Marcia Avello L; Cristina Loyola C; Jorge Campos P; Pedro Aqueveque M; Stephanie R. Dungan; Maria Galotto L; Abel Guarda M

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencaps...

  5. Antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Avello, Marcia

    2014-08-01

    Ugni molinae is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Chile-Argentina. Total phenol concentration from its fruit extract was 10.64 ± 0.04 mM gallic acid equivalents. Analysis by means of HPLC/MS indicated the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin and peonidin, and the flavonol quercitin, all in glycosylated forms. Its antioxidant properties were assessed in human erythrocytes in vitro exposed to HClO oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HClO induced an alteration in erythrocytes from a normal shape to echinocytes; however, this change was highly attenuated in samples containing U. molinae extracts. It also had a tendency in order to reduce the hemolytic effect of HClO. In addition, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers, classes of lipids preferentially located in the outer and inner monolayers, respectively, of the human erythrocyte membrane. It was observed that U. molinae only interacted with DMPC. Results by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes also showed that it interacted with the erythrocyte membrane and DMPC. It is possible that the location of U. molinae components into the membrane outer monolayer might hinder the diffusion of HClO and of free radicals into cell membranes and the consequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:24928227

  6. Recasting Madrid and Its Characters in Munoz Molina's "Los misterios de Madrid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sheri Spaine

    2009-01-01

    "Los misterios de Madrid" (1992) provides a burlesque novelistic portrayal of the changing capital city and its inhabitants in the early 1990s. Spanish writer Antonio Munoz Molina creates vignettes of Madrid's people and places while showing the capital as a destination for both foreign-born immigrants and provincial Spaniards alike. In…

  7. Free radical scavenging potential of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl fruits extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan; Selvi Veluswamy; Priya Kannappan; Noorlidah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract Lagenaria siceraria (L. siceraria) (Molina) fruit. Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the L. siceraria (Molina) fruit extract was assayed by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,20-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS), FRAP, reducing power, chelating ability and β-carotene bleaching assay. Results: The IC50 values of DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 1.95 mg/mL and 19 mg/mL, respectively. In ferrous chelation assay, the percentage of inhibition was found to be 89.21%. The reducing power of ethanolic extract of L. siceraria (Molina) fruit was 0.068 at 1 mg/mL and increased to 0.192 at 5 mg/mL. Theβ-carotene linoleate bleaching assay was 46.7% at 5 mg/mL and antioxidant activity using FRAP at 0.305 for 1 mg/mL to 0.969 for 5 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicate that L. siceraria (Molina) fruit could be an important sources of natural radical scavengers.

  8. TOWARD A HISTORY OF CHILEAN WRITTEN CULTURE. HAPPENINGS OF THE ALONSO DE ERCILLA’S BOOK, LA ARAUCANA.

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    Ariadna Biotti Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the first questioning about a history of the circulation of the book La Araucana, printed for the first time in 1569 and subsequently reprinted in various opportunities. Its central question implies a definition: What kind of historiography we can build considering the continuance, the force and the authority of a work that is still respected as a founding inheritance, and backbone of Chilean society? The paradigmatic center of this investigation resides in realizing the questions that emerge from the first chilean edition of the text published in Santiago in the year 1888.

  9. «Héctor Molina Riaño»

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    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en los campos pertenecientes a la Empresa Azucarera «Héctor Molina Riaño», con el objetivo de desarrollar una metodología que permita realizar una evaluación energética y económica durante la recogida y transportación de los residuos agrícolas cañeros (RAC hasta la industria, partiendo de la determinación de los volúmenes de RAC, en campos cosechados con máquinas CAMECO y en el centro de limpieza. Para esto se utilizaron utensilios e instrumentos reglamentados por las normas de medición y control de la calidad. El valor de los RAC quedados en el campo ascendió a 3,87 t/ha, que pueden ser recogidos y transportados para producir energía y el índice de RAC para estas condiciones fue de 0,11. El volumen total de RAC a transportar desde el campo alcanzó 26 524,74 t y desde el centro de limpieza alcanzó 28 051,70 t. Según criterios planteados por diversos autores se realizó la evaluación energética de la recogida y transportación de los RAC hasta la industria, obteniéndose una energía requerida total de 680 478,34 Mcal y la energía que se puede producir con los RAC recogidos y transportado s es de 256 509 268 Mcal. También se realizó la evaluación económica, obteniéndose un gasto económico total de 411 256,27 pesos, costo de la energía producida de 909 607 pesos, con un costo unitario de 7,53 peso/t de RAC recogido y transportado y 16,66 peso/t de RAC utilizados en la generación de energía. Con estos resultados se evidencia que es factible el uso de los RAC como combustible alternativo en el sector azucarero.

  10. MODELING THE OCCURRENCE OF COHORTS IN THE DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Ângelo Augusto Ebling; Sylvio Péllico Netto

    2015-01-01

    Studies concerning the diameter structure are essential for understanding the development of native forests, provide growth and yield parameters sufficient to generate estimates that support sustainable management. However, the mathematical modeling of probability functions, such as density, becomes difficult to implement in multi-modal distributions, found in forest species and communities. The species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, of social, environmental and econo...

  11. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and HPLC Analysis of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Gautam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several diseases are caused in the body due to oxidative stress of free radicals. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the antioxidant activity of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don (Araucariaceae leaf extract. The dried leaves of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don (Araucariaceae were extracted with 80% methanol. The antioxidant activity of the extract was predicted through in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, reducing power and nitric oxide scavenging assays. The total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin content of the extract were also estimated in order to draw the correlation with their bioactivities. The extract was also investigated for several polyphenolic compounds using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The antioxidant activity of extract was found to be excellent in all the three assays. A positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and phenolic content was observed. HPLC analysis identified the presence of Gallic acid, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Epicatechin, Caffeic acid, Umbelliferone, Ellagic acid, Quercetin and Kaempferol in the methanol leaf extract of Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don. Conclusions: The results of the present study point towards the fact that Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don leaves possess good antioxidant potential. The strong antioxidant activity can be correlated with the polyphenolic compounds present in the leaves.

  12. A novel gain-of-function mutation of the proneural IRX1 and IRX2 genes disrupts axis elongation in the Araucana rumpless chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowlan H Freese

    Full Text Available Axis elongation of the vertebrate embryo involves the generation of cell lineages from posterior progenitor populations. We investigated the molecular mechanism governing axis elongation in vertebrates using the Araucana rumpless chicken. Araucana embryos exhibit a defect in axis elongation, failing to form the terminal somites and concomitant free caudal vertebrae, pygostyle, and associated tissues of the tail. Through whole genome sequencing of six Araucana we have identified a critical 130 kb region, containing two candidate causative SNPs. Both SNPs are proximal to the IRX1 and IRX2 genes, which are required for neural specification. We show that IRX1 and IRX2 are both misexpressed within the bipotential chordoneural hinge progenitor population of Araucana embryos. Expression analysis of BRA and TBX6, required for specification of mesoderm, shows that both are downregulated, whereas SOX2, required for neural patterning, is expressed in ectopic epithelial tissue. Finally, we show downregulation of genes required for the protection and maintenance of the tailbud progenitor population from the effects of retinoic acid. Our results support a model where the disruption in balance of mesoderm and neural fate results in early depletion of the progenitor population as excess neural tissue forms at the expense of mesoderm, leading to too few mesoderm cells to form the terminal somites. Together this cascade of events leads to axis truncation.

  13. Whole genome sequencing of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a newly developed blue-egg laying chicken breed, reveals its origin and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Byung-Ki; Yi, Jun-Koo; Ha, Jae-Jung; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Dong Yep

    2016-01-01

    Chicken, Gallus gallus, is a valuable species both as a food source and as a model organism for scientific research. Here, we sequenced the genome of Gyeongbuk Araucana, a rare chicken breed with unique phenotypic characteristics including flight ability, large body size, and laying blue-shelled eggs, to identify its genomic features. We generated genomes of Gyeongbuk Araucana, Leghorn, and Korean Native Chicken at a total of 33.5, 35.82, and 33.23 coverage depth, respectively. Along with the genomes of 12 Chinese breeds, we identified genomic variants of 16.3 million SNVs and 2.3 million InDels in mapped regions. Additionally, through assembly of unmapped reads and selective sweep, we identified candidate genes that fall into heart, vasculature and muscle development and body growth categories, which provided insight into Gyeongbuk Araucana's phenotypic traits. Finally, genetic variation based on the transposable element insertion pattern was investigated to elucidate the features of transposable elements related to blue egg shell formation. This study presents results of the first genomic study on the Gyeongbuk Araucana breed; it has potential to serve as an invaluable resource for future research on the genomic characteristics of this chicken breed as well as others. PMID:27215397

  14. A novel gain-of-function mutation of the proneural IRX1 and IRX2 genes disrupts axis elongation in the Araucana rumpless chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Nowlan H; Lam, Brianna A; Staton, Meg; Scott, Allison; Chapman, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Axis elongation of the vertebrate embryo involves the generation of cell lineages from posterior progenitor populations. We investigated the molecular mechanism governing axis elongation in vertebrates using the Araucana rumpless chicken. Araucana embryos exhibit a defect in axis elongation, failing to form the terminal somites and concomitant free caudal vertebrae, pygostyle, and associated tissues of the tail. Through whole genome sequencing of six Araucana we have identified a critical 130 kb region, containing two candidate causative SNPs. Both SNPs are proximal to the IRX1 and IRX2 genes, which are required for neural specification. We show that IRX1 and IRX2 are both misexpressed within the bipotential chordoneural hinge progenitor population of Araucana embryos. Expression analysis of BRA and TBX6, required for specification of mesoderm, shows that both are downregulated, whereas SOX2, required for neural patterning, is expressed in ectopic epithelial tissue. Finally, we show downregulation of genes required for the protection and maintenance of the tailbud progenitor population from the effects of retinoic acid. Our results support a model where the disruption in balance of mesoderm and neural fate results in early depletion of the progenitor population as excess neural tissue forms at the expense of mesoderm, leading to too few mesoderm cells to form the terminal somites. Together this cascade of events leads to axis truncation. PMID:25372603

  15. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI GUM-BASED SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAE SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    J. ASHOK KUMAR, M.RAJESH, S.MYTHIESH KUMAR,T. GIRIRAJ KULKARNI, V.GOPAL

    2013-01-01

    A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent). The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural) and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M) on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet gr...

  16. Chemical and biochemical properties of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze. forest soils in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia, commonly named Araucaria, is a Brazilian native species that is intensively exploited due to its timber quality. Therefore, Araucaria is on the list of species threatened by extinction. Despite the importance of soil for forest production, little is known about the soil properties of the highly fragmented Araucaria forests. This study was designed to investigate the use of chemical and biological properties as indicators of conservation and anthropogenic disturbance of Araucaria forests in different sampling periods. The research was carried out in two State parks of São Paulo: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto do Ribeira and Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão. The biochemical properties carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass (MB-C and MB-N, basal respiration (BR, the metabolic quotient (qCO2 and the following enzyme activities: β-glucosidase, urease, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA were evaluated. The sampling period (dry or rainy season influenced the results of mainly MB-C, MB-N, BR, and qCO2. The chemical and biochemical properties, except K content, were sensitive indicators of differences in the conservation and anthropogenic disturbance stages of Araucaria forests. Although these forests differ in biochemical and chemical properties, they are efficient in energy use and conservation, which is shown by their low qCO2, suggesting an advanced stage of succession.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto; Erick Sigisfredo Scheuermann Salinas; Severino Matias de Alencar; Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano D'Arce; Adriano Costa de Camargo; Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz) is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits ...

  18. Protective effect of Ugni molinae Turcz against oxidative damage of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F

    2007-01-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In the present work, the antioxidant properties of U. molinae were evaluated in human erythrocytes exposed in vitro to oxidative stress induced by HClO. The experiments were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hemolysis measurements. The SEM observations showed that HClO induced a morphological alteration in the red blood cells from a discoid to an echinocytic form. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the formation of echinocytes indicates that HClO was inserted in the outer leaflet of the erythrocyte membrane. However, a concentration as low as 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) U. molinae aqueous extract neutralized the shape change effect of HClO applied in a concentration as high as 0.25 mM. The significant protection of U. molinae aqueous extract was also shown in the hemolysis experiments. In fact, very low concentrations of the extract considerably reduced the deleterious capacity of HClO to induce hemolysis in red blood cells. It is concluded that the location of the extract components into the membrane bilayer and the resulting restriction on its fluidity might hinder the diffusion of HClO and its consequent damaging effects. This conclusion can also imply that this restriction could apply to the diffusion of free radicals into cell membranes and the subsequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:17030381

  19. Avifauna en el campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina (UNALM), Lima - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Takano Goshima; Nadia Castro Izaguirre

    2007-01-01

    Se realizaron conteos mensuales de aves, entre Enero y Agosto de 2001, y avistamientos desde Setiembre de 2003 hasta Diciembre del mismo año, en las diferentes áreas del campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM, Lima). Como resultado se obtuvo una lista que incluye 46 especies vistas por lo menos en 3 ocasiones diferentes. La mayor parte de ellas pertenece al orden Passeriformes, mientras que dentro de las familias destacan Emberizidae, Columbidae y Psittacida...

  20. Analgesic activity of Ugni molinae (murtilla) in mice models of acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Inostroza, V; Aguirre, M C; Peredo, N; Silva, X; Negrete, R; Miranda, H F

    2007-05-30

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Myrtaceae) are used in Chilean folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The antinociceptive effect of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) leaf extracts was assessed by intraperitoneal, oral and topical administration in writhing, tail flick, and tail formalin tests in mice. The extracts showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all the assays under different administration routes. The ED(50) values for the different tests for the DCM, EA, ME extract and reference drug (ibuprofen) were as follows. Writhing test in acetic acid (i.p. administration): 0.21, 0.37, 1.37 and 0.85mg/kg, respectively; tail flick test (oral administration): 199, 189, 120 and 45.9mg/kg. The EC(50) values for tail flick test were (topical administration): 2.0, 0.35, 1.4 and 8.2% (w/v), respectively; and the topical analgesic effects were (formalin assay) 75.5, 77.5, 31.6 and 76.5%, respectively. Ugni molinae extracts produce antinociception in chemical and thermal pain models through a mechanism partially linked to either lipooxygenase and/or cyclooxygenase via the arachidonic acid cascade and/or opioid receptors. Flavonoid glycosides and triterpenoids have been isolated from the plant and can be associated with the observed effect. Our results corroborate the analgesic effects of Ugni molinae, and justify its traditional use for treating pain. PMID:17403589

  1. Spore density and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in preserved or disturbed Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. ecosystems Densidade de esporos e colonização radicular por fungos microrrízicos arbusculares em ecossistemas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. preservados e impactados

    OpenAIRE

    Milene Moreira; Dilmar Baretta; Siu Mui Tsai; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze., a native forest tree from Brazil, is under extinction risk. This tree depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for growth and development, especially in tropical low-P soils but, despite being a conifer, Araucaria does not form ectomycorrhiza, but only the arbuscular endomycorrhiza. This study aimed at surveying data on the spore density and root colonization (CR) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Araucaria angustifolia forest ecosystems, in orde...

  2. Wettability, Shrinkage and Color Changes of Araucaria angustifolia After Heating Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marques de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal treatment on the wettability and shrink resistance of Araucaria angustifolia (Parana pine were studied from 20 to 200 °C. The contact angles of water droplets on untreated and heat-treated samples were measured by the sessile drop method in the grain of heartwood and sapwood cut in the radial, longitudinal, and tangential directions. A significant increase of the contact angles was verified for the samples from room temperature to 120 °C, in particular in the radial and tangential directions; at higher temperatures, the contact angles assumed almost constant values. From 120 to 200 °C, the sapwood of Araucaria angustifolia showed better dimensional stability and lower thermal resistance when compared to the heartwood. Variations of color were also studied by using the CIELab system, which showed to be capable of accurately distinguishing samples treated at different temperatures.

  3. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

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    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  4. Surgical correction of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in a puma (Puma concolor araucana Corrección quirúrgica de estenosis lumbosacral degenerativa en un puma (Puma concolor araucana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Verdugo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old adult, intact male puma (Puma concolor araucana was evaluated because of abnormal hind limb gait and paresis. Neurological examination revealed a progressive paraparesis, bilateral pelvic limb proprioceptive deficit and tail paralysis. Survey radiographs and computed tomography (CT were taken at the lumbosacral region in order to determine possible causes. CT study confirmed a stenotic vertebral canal at the L7/S1 level. A dorsal laminectomy was performed in order to decompress the affected area. Histopathologic examination of the harvested material revealed inflammation and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. Two weeks after the surgery, the puma showed progressive neurologic improvement and normal ambulation.Un ejemplar de puma (Puma concolor araucana macho intacto, adulto (12 años, fue evaluado debido a una paraparesis y deambulación anormal de los miembros pélvicos. Al examen neurológico se determinó una paraparesia progresiva, ataxia simétrica de los miembros pélvicos y parálisis de la cola. Se obtuvieron radiografías simples y una tomografía computarizada (TC del segmento lumbosacro como exámenes diagnósticos para determinar posibles causas. El examen de TC confirmó una estenosis del canal vertebral en el segmento vertebral L7-S1. Se realizó una laminectomía dorsal con el fin de descomprimir el área afectada. Se tomaron muestras de tejido blando del área afectada para su análisis histopatológico. El material colectado presentó moderadas células inflamatorias e hipertrofia del ligamento flavum. Dos semanas después de la cirugía, el animal mostró un mejoramiento neurológico progresivo y retornó a una ambulación normal.

  5. Microenxertia e sua caracterização morfológica em Araucaria angustifolia Micrografting morphological characterization in Araucaria angustifolia

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    Justina Inês Anselmini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a melhor técnica para microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia. Para isto, foram realizadas auto-enxertias em plantas germinadas in vitro, com 2, 6 e 12 meses de idade. Foram testados dois locais de enxertia no porta-enxerto: caule e hipocótilo, e dois tipos de enxertia: garfagem de topo com e sem fenda. A maior porcentagem de microenxertos com fenda aberta ocorreu nas microenxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. As maiores porcentagens de microenxertos sobreviventes foram obtidas nas microenxertias realizadas no caule, e o tipo de enxertia mais eficiente foi a garfagem de topo sem fenda. A presença de calo aparente foi resultado da interação dos três fatores testados, com maior presença de calo nas enxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. O crescimento dos microenxertos indicou o restabelecimento das conexões vasculares. O maior crescimento dos microenxertos foi obtido nas enxertias realizadas no caule em porta-enxertos de 6 meses com a garfagem de topo. As metodologias testadas permitem concluir que o processo de microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia é eficiente e factível, podendo ser utilizado para a produção de mudas microenxertadas.The objeticve of this research was to determine a more efficient way of micrografting in vitro Araucaria angustifolia plants. Autografting was performed onto 2, 6- and 12- month- old in vitro germinated plants. Two different graft types (saddle with or without slit were perfomed on two different plant parts (stem or hypocotyl. Higher percentage of open slit micrografts was observed when micrografting was performed onto hypocotyls. Higher percentage of surviving micrografts was obtained when micrografting was perfomed on stem; the saddle without slit technique was the most efficient. Callus formation resulted from the combination of the three tested factors. However, more visible calluses were present in micrograftings perfomed on hypocotyls. Growth of the

  6. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    André Bellin Mariano; Leonardo Kovalhuk; Caroline Valente; Juliana Maurer-Menestrina; Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto; Miguel Pedro Guerra; Eva Gunilla Skare Carnieri

    2004-01-01

    A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-in...

  7. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-01-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The f...

  8. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon; Marcos Aurélio Da-Ré; Shigueko T. Ishiy Fukahori; Leonardo Rampinelli Zanella

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units). In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around...

  9. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  10. PHOSPHORUS DOSES DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF NATIVE ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN Araucaria angustifolia

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    Milene Moreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987562A greenhouse experiment was installed with bait cultures to extract the AMF species present in a rhizosphere soil sample of a native Araucaria angustifolia forest in Campos do Jordão, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four increasing phosphorus doses (0, 20, 50, and 150 mg kg-1, as triple superphosphate, with five replicates, the bait plant was araucaria, and all pots were inoculated with 100g of rhizospheric soil collected in an araucaria forest. After twelve months the spores were extracted, counted and identified, and the percent root colonization was also determined. When taking all four P doses into account, eleven FMA species could be identified: Acaulospora bireticulata, A. morrowiae, Acaulospora sp., Entrophospora colombiana, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus diaphanum, G. etunicatum, G. macrocarpum, Scutellospora calospora, S. gilmorei, and S. pellucida. There was no effect of the P dose on the total amount of spores neither on the percent root colonization. However, the correspondence analysis showed that the different AMF species were selectively associated mostly to either one or another P dose.

  11. DIOECY EFFECT ON GROWTH OF PLANTED Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O. Kuntze TREES

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    Afonso Figueiredo Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dioecy on the growth in diameter at breast height (DBH, individual basal area, total height and individual volume of planted Araucaria angustifolia trees. The data came from 60 trees (30 male trees and 30 female trees sampled from a 30-year-old plantation in Paraná State. Complete stem analysis was used to recover historical tree growth. The Chapman-Richards model was fitted in order to represent the growth and yield of the dendrometric variables for female and male Araucaria trees. Weighted non-linear least squared method was used in the fitting process and the inverse variance was used as weight to solve the problem of heteroscedasticity. The test to verify the equality of parameters and the identity of non-linear regression models proposed by Regazzi (2003 was used to test the influence of dioecy on growth. Dioecy significantly influenced the growth of Araucaria, and female trees have higher growth in diameter, individual basal area and individual volume, while male trees showed better height development. The asymptotic coefficient of the Chapman-Richards model showed that male trees have a higher asymptotic height than female trees.

  12. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI GUM-BASED SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAE SODIUM

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    J. ASHOK KUMAR, M.RAJESH, S.MYTHIESH KUMAR,T. GIRIRAJ KULKARNI, V.GOPAL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent. The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet granulation method containing Araucaria bidwilli gum powder concentration 10% 20% & 30% w\\w and 10% 20% &30% w\\w of HPMC K4 M with sufficient volume of granulating agent Polyvinyl pyrrolene (PVP K 30, Avicel pH101 as diluents, Magnesium stearate and Aerosil is used lubricant and glidant respectively.This study was carried out to find out the difference between synthetic and natural gum and whether synthetic gum can be replaced by natural gums. Physical and technological studies of granules and tablets were compliance with Pharmacopoial standards.The drug release increased with Araucaria bidwilli gum when compared to synthetics polymer concentration .The value of release exponent were found to be almost straight line and regression coefficient value between 0.938 and 0.998.This implies that the release mechanism is diffusion. Formulation F3 ( contained 30% w\\w Araucaria bidwilli gum met the desired requirements for a sustained release dosage form.

  13. Genome-wide association mapping and identification of candidate genes for the rumpless and ear-tufted traits of the Araucana chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorai, Rooksana E; Freese, Nowlan H; Wright, Lindsay M; Chapman, Susan C; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw) = 2.45×10(-10), P(genome) = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw) = 6.61×10(-7), P(genome) = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes. PMID:22844420

  14. Lipid profile in eggs of Araucana hens compared with Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown hens given diets with different fat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, S; De Ceulaer, K; Van Paemel, M; Raes, K; De Smet, S; Janssens, G P J

    2006-06-01

    1. In a cross-over trial, the egg cholesterol and fatty acid composition of Araucana hens was compared with those of two commercial breeds (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown) under two feeding regimes, either high (Hn-3) or low (Ln-3) in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. 2. The Hn-3 diet was formed by isocaloric substitution of animal fat in the control diet (Ln-3) by a dry product containing stabilised fish oil with standardised concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). 3. Both breed and diet had influences on egg composition, without interactions. 4. The Araucana breed showed lower feed intake and lower egg weights than the other two breeds. The yolk weight was similar, leading to a much higher yolk:albumen ratio in the Araucana eggs. 5. In comparison to commercial breeds, Araucanas produced eggs with higher cholesterol content per g of yolk, which was even more pronounced when expressed per g of egg, due to the high yolk content of the eggs. The cholesterol content of an egg remained unchanged by the diet, irrespective of the dietary fat source. 6. Changing to the Hn-3 diet led to greater concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents in the yolk, without a change in the ratio of saturated (SFA) to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). 7. Within the PUFA, the n-3 fatty acids increased at the expense of the n-6 fatty acids, indicating a competition between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for incorporation in the yolk. PMID:16787853

  15. Genome-wide association mapping and identification of candidate genes for the rumpless and ear-tufted traits of the Araucana chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooksana E Noorai

    Full Text Available Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp and ear-tufted (Et loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw = 2.45×10(-10, P(genome = 0.00575, and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw = 6.61×10(-7, P(genome = 0.0981. We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes.

  16. Detection of exonic variants within the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene in Black Silky, White Leghorn and Golden duckwing Araucana chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jungsou; Lee, Yoonseok; Hyeong, KiEun; Ha, Jaejung; Yi, JunKoo; Kim, Byungki; Oh, Dongyep

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene can be considered a candidate functional gene for the pigmentation of plumage color. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the genotype frequencies of g.69 T>C, g.376 G>A and g.427 A>G SNPs within the MC1R gene in Black silky (O), Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) and White Leghorn (W). The CC and AA genotype frequencies of g.69 T>C and g.427 A>G SNPs in White Leghorn (W) were both 1.000, and the TT genotype frequency of the g.69 T>C SNP in Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) was also 1.000. The GG and AA genotype frequencies of g.376 G>A and g.427 A>G SNPs in Black silky (O) were both 0.100. When a haplotype is observed using a combination of markers, a Golden duckwing Araucana (GA) can especially be distinguished when it is a TAG, TGG and TAA type in the SNP combination of the MC1R gene. In case of the CAA types, only White Leghorn (W) could specifically be distinguished. Therefore, three SNPs in MC1R may provide identification in chicken breeds. PMID:24830563

  17. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. PMID:26313969

  18. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

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    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  19. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries

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    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  20. Exilios y nostalgias: Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Cuiñas, Ana

    2007-01-01

    En los albores del siglo XXI y bajo el signo de la posmodernidad, Antonio Muñoz Molina y Milán Kundera llevan a cabo en “Valdemún”-un capítulo de Sefarad- y La ignorancia una serie de operaciones y articulaciones narrativas que tienen un común denominador: el tratamiento de las “interrogaciones existenciales” del exilio y la nostalgia. Ambos autores fraguan poéticas similares en lo que a la representación del horror del pasado se refiere, y apuestan en estos textos por un resca...

  1. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  2. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  4. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

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    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  5. How Race Is Made in America: Immigration, Citizenship, and the Historical Power of Racial Scripts by Natalia Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Velez, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Natalia Molina presents a critical analysis of the period 1924-1965 in U.S. immigration policy and provides an opportunity for readers to examine the racialization of Mexicans in the United States and its impact on immigration legislation and naturalization.

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  7. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  8. Grafting of Araucaria angustifolia (BERTOL. kuntze through the four seasons of the year

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    Flávio Zanette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered conifer species of South America that has been over exploited for timber. To incentivize Araucaria angustifolia planting is essential and may play a key role on the conservation of this species and the ecosystems that depend on it. Hence, techniques that allow the production of seedlings with attributes that may entice farmers to plant A. angustifolia trees are very important. Grafting may permit the selection of female trees and the production of precocious plants that will produce high quality seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the best season of the year to graft. Three-year-old seedlings were used as rootstock and orthotropic branches of young plants were used for scion collection. The technique used for the grafting was the bark patch. This procedure was carried out in the beginning of each season in 2007 and 2008, with a total of 160 grafted plants. Grafting carried out in the beginning of autumn had a 50 % success rate. Grafting success was negligible for all remaining seasons. In conclusion, grafting through bark patching is a viable technique for the production of A. angustifolia seedlings. Future research should be carried out to produce grafted seedlings in large-scale.

  9. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. WOOD FOR THREE STRATUM PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL

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    Rafael Beltrame

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of physical and mechanical properties of wood is essential for industrial use both in construction and the manufacture of furniture. Thus, the study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Araucaria angustifolia wood in terms of three strata phytosociological. For this, 15 trees were felled, five belonging to the upper stratum, the middle stratum five and five for the lower strata. The trees were deployed for the preparation of specimens used for mechanical testing. In the mechanical characterization of the species assays were performed for impact resistance, static bending, compression axial and perpendicular to the fibers. As for the characterization of physical properties, determined the apparent specific gravity at 12% relative humidity for each extract. The results did not show significant differences in the tests of impact resistance and static bending to the strata phytosociological. As for the apparent specific gravity, compression axial and perpendicular there was a change in the values of propertiesbetween the strata phytosociological, is generally butter in the middle and upper strata. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties tend to present higher values these two strata. The data analysis allowed of Araucaria angustifolia wood has moderate mechanical strength when compared with other species studies.

  10. Patogenicidade de Sphaeropsis sapinea em árvores jovens de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Paula Rachel Rabelo Corrêa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea é um patógeno que causa seca de ponteiros e morte de árvores em plantios comerciais de coníferas do mundo. No Brasil, a literatura apresenta este fungo em mudas e toras de Araucaria angustifolia após a colheita, sem relatos de seca de ramos e de ponteiros. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a patogenicidade de S. sapinea em Araucaria angustifolia. O postulado de Koch foi realizado em 25 árvores com 2 anos de idade de A. angustifolia. Discos de micélio-ágar de um isolado agressivo obtido de Pinus taeda, retirado de culturas com 10 dias de idade, foram inoculados em ramos injuriados. Três ramos foram inoculados com o fungo, deixando-se um ramo como testemunha, por planta. Todas as plantas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação por 30 dias. Ramos com e sem sintomas foram colocados em câmara úmida, sob iluminação, para reisolar o patógeno. Oito árvores inoculadas apresentaram sintomas similares aos provocados pelo S. sapinea em pínus. O fungo foi reisolado de 68 % das árvores inoculadas. Confirmou-se a seca de ramos causado por S. sapinea em árvores jovens de araucária.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  12. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  13. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos; Santos D'Angelo Neto

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and se...

  14. Earthworm populations sampled using collection methods in atlantic forests with Araucaria angustifolia Populações de minhocas amostradas usando métodos de coleta em floresta atlântica com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia, also known as the Paraná Pine is an endangered tree species in Brazil and little is known of the diversity of soil invertebrates inhabiting these forests. Therefore, the present study was set up to evaluate the biomass and diversity of earthworms in natural and reforested Araucaria plots, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient earthworm collection method. Four study areas included: native forest with Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Five soil samples containing the earthworm community were taken in a 0.3 ha area in each of the forest sites, close to five Araucaria trees selected at random. Three collection methods were tested: application of dilute Formol (0.5% to the soil surface, handsorting of small (25 ´ 25 cm or large (40´ 40 cm monoliths. Five earthworm species were found: the native Glossoscolex sp.1, Glossoscolex sp.2, Glossoscolex bondari and Urobenus brasiliensis (Glossoscolecidae, and the exotic Amynthas corticis (Megascolecidae. Formol was more efficient for collecting A. corticis, found in much higher abundance and biomass in NF than in the other areas. Larger handsorted samples were more efficient for capturing Glossoscolex species, mainly present in RF and NPF. For adequate characterization of earthworm abundance and biomass in these Araucaria forests, both the Formol and the larger monolith methods are recommended.Araucaria angustifolia, também conhecida como Pinheiro do Paraná é uma espécie de árvore ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e pouco se conhece sobre a diversidade de invertebrados que habitam os solos destas florestas. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a diversidade e a biomassa de minhocas, al

  15. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

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    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  16. Column gamma-ray scanning of the 'Hector Molina' Distillery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray scanning, often referred to as 'column scanning', is a convenient, cost effective, fast, efficient and non-invasive technique to examine internal characteristics of a certain equipment, like alcohol distillation columns, while it is in operation. Column scanning allows to engineers, to study hydraulics tray inside of distillation column in on-line condition. It provides essential data to optimize the performance of columns, extend column run times, to evaluate effects of defective track and to identify maintenance requirements. This knowledge can reduce repair times significantly. In the year 2014, the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory from Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene, introduced this service in the 'Hector Molina' Distillery. The diagnosis carried out allowed the detection of some anomalies in its operation. In this work the results obtained during gamma-ray scanning of the column are shown. (Author)

  17. Pollen germination capacity and viability in lagenaria siceraria (molina) standley (cucurbitaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to a monoecious species Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley belonging to Cucurbitaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using 'hanging drop technique'. Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different humidity conditions in a refrigerator (4 deg. C), freezer (-20 deg. C. -30 deg. C), freeze drier (-60 deg. C). The pollen were also treated in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4 deg. C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (- 60 deg. C) showed the highest percentage of germination. (author)

  18. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina Standl. Germplasm from peninsular india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil N*, Thirupathi Reddy M, Hameedunnisa B, Vinod Someswara Rao P, Sivaraj N, Kamala V, Prasad R B N, Rao B VS K, Chakrabarty S K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 20 diverse accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl., exhibited wide range of variability for qualitative and quantitative traits. The seed oil content ranged from 18.6 % (IC446598 to 28.0 % (IC446592. The fatty acid composition of bottle gourd seed oil also varied. Days to 50% flowering and peduncle length had significant positive correlation with seed oil content, whereas inter nodal length had significant negative correlation. The intermodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Based on the traits, the accessions clustered into three distinct clusters. The diversity may be exploited for crop improvement and the potential of bottle gourd as edible oil source further explored.

  19. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fr...

  1. Record of vicunas (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 as host of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Saavedra L. Fabián

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult stage Ixodidae mites were collected from wild vicuna (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782, captured at three locations from the Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba, in the Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The collected ticks corresponded to the species Amblyomma parvitarsum (Neumann 1901. This paper constitutes the second report of A. parvitarsum in Bolivia and the first confirmed report for vicuna as definitive hosts in the Andean region of this country.

  2. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  3. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bellin Mariano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases, which were stimulated by Ca2+. The procedure now described for the isolation of A. angustifolia mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the investigation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and physiology of plants.Um procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias funcionalmente intactas de calos embriogênicos de Araucaria angustifolia foi desenvolvido pela primeira vez em nosso laboratório. Mitocôndrias isoladas por este método são metabolicamente ativas, capazes de sustentar fosforilação oxidativa como mostrado pelo controle respiratório de aproximadamente 2,4, respirando na presença de succinato como substrato. Através de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio com mitocôndrias rompidas em nitrogênio líquido foi demonstrada a presença de NAD(PH desidrogenases alternativas, insensíveis à rotenona e estimuladas por Ca2+. O isolamento de mitocôndrias de A. angustifolia é um novo e importante instrumento para estudar plantas, permitindo a execução de múltiplas investigações a respeito da bioenergética mitocondrial e fisiologia vegetal.

  4. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  5. A review of the weevil fauna (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Araucariaceae in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mecke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The beetle superfamily Curculionoidea includes 43 species associated with Araucaria angustifolia trees in South Brazil. These weevil species belong to the families Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 and Curculionidae, the latter including the subfamilies Curculioninae (Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843, Cossoninae (Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964, Scolytinae (Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913 and Platypodinae (Cenocephalus Chapuis, 1865, Platypus Herbst, 1893, Tesserocerus Saunders, 1836. A checklist of all species including remarks on their life histories and taxonomic notes are presented. In addition, a key for the identification of adult Curculionoidea associated with Araucaria angustifolia to genus or species level is provided.A superfamília Curculionoidea compreende 43 espécies associadas à Araucaria angustifolia no sul do Brasil. As espécies destes gorgulhos pertencem às famílias Nemonychidae (Brarus Kuschel, 1997, Rhynchitoplesius Voss, 1952, Brentidae (Taphroderes Schönherr, 1826 e Curculionidae, (Curculioninae: Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955, Spermologus Schönherr, 1843; Cossoninae: Araucarius Kuschel, 1966, Eurycorynophorus Voss, 1964; Scolytinae: Ambrosiodmus Hopkins, 1915, Araptus Eichhoff, 1871, Cnesinus LeConte, 1868, Corthylus Erichson, 1836, Cryptocarenus Eggers, 1936, Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834, Monarthrum Kirsch, 1866, Pagiocerus Eichhoff, 1868, Phloeotribus Latreille, 1896, Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864, Xylechinosomus Schedl, 1963, Xyleborus Eichhoff, 1864, Xyleborinus Reitter, 1913; Platypodinae

  6. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia) in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Calebe Pereira Mendes; José Flávio Cândido-Jr

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding s...

  7. TREE SPECIES COMMUNITY SPATIAL PARTITION IN FUNCTION OF SOIL DRAINAGE IN AN ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Higuchi; Ana Carolina da Silva; Manoela Drews de Aguiar; Álvaro Luiz Mafra; Marcelo Negrini; Diego Fernando Zech

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814580The relationship vegetation-soil can contribute to understand the forest structure, supporting biodiversity conservation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the existence of spatial partition of the tree species community in an Araucaria forest fragment in function of soil drainage. For this sake, an environmental characterization (soil drainage, physical and chemical soil properties, topography, compression of soil, depth of soil and canop...

  8. Feeding ecology of the Green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae in dry forests in western Brazil Ecologia alimentar da Tiriba-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura molinae em matas secas do oeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pyrrhura includes small to medium-sized parakeets, which inhabit both low and dry alongside tall rainforests, mainly in South America. Pyrrhura molinae is still common, year round, in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil. This parakeet, as well as most Neotropical parrots, continues to be poorly understood. Hence, in the present study I examined their foraging ecology both in a highly deciduous and in a semi-deciduous forest in western Brazil. In addition, I assessed the relationship between food resource production (flowers and fruits, and the diet of this parakeet. Pyrrhura molinae exhibited a flexible diet consisting of 16 tree species, from which it consumed flowers (three species, seeds (three species, fruit pulp or aril (four species, and both pulp and seeds (six species. Parakeets consumed a wide array of fleshy fruits in the semi-deciduous forest, especially Cecropia pachystachya catkins. Conversely, in the highly deciduous forest they extensively foraged for figs (70% of the diet, in addition to nectar and seeds from dry fruits. Ficus calyptroceras, besides being abundant, bore fruits year round, and was substantially used by parakeets every month. Potentially, by exploiting a diverse set of plant food resources, and particularly due to the substantial use of figs, asynchronously produced, Pyrrhura molinae persists during the long dry season in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil.O gênero Pyrrhura é constituido de pequenos periquitos comuns tanto em matas secas quanto úmidas, sobretudo da América do Sul. Pyrrhura molinae ocorre durante o ano todo em florestas altamente sazonais do oeste brasileiro. Essa espécie, bem como a maioria dos psitacídeo, permanece pouco conhecida. Portanto, nesse estudo, foi examinada a ecologia alimentar de P. molinae em dois tipos de florestas secas (altamente decídua e semidecídua, do oeste brasileiro, bem como as relações entre a produção de flores frutos e a

  9. DOSES DE FÓSFORO DETERMINAM A PREVALÊNCIA DE FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES EM Araucaria angustifolia

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    Milene Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was installed with bait cultures to extract the AMF species present in a rhizosphere soil sample of a native Araucaria angustifolia forest in Campos do Jordão, Brazil. Theexperimental design was completely randomized, with four increasing phosphorus doses (0, 20, 50, and 150 mgkg-1, as triple superphosphate, with five replicates, the bait plant was araucaria, and all pots were inoculated with 100 g of rhizospheric soil collected in an araucaria forest. After twelve months the spores wereextracted, counted and identified, and the percent root colonization was also determined. When taking all four Pdoses into account, eleven AMF species could be identified: Acaulospora bireticulata, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora sp., Entrophospora colombiana, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus macrocarpum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora gilmorei, and Scutellospora pellucida. There was no effect of the P dose on the total amount of spores neither on the percent root colonization. However, the correspondence analysis showed that the different AMF species were selectively associated mostly to either one or another P dose.

  10. Quillajasides A and B: New Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters from the Inner Bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Steingass, Christof B; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-14

    The phenolic composition of freshly prepared aqueous extracts of the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina was compared to that of commercially available Quillaja extracts, which are currently used as emulsifiers in foods and cosmetics. Major phenolics in both extracts were (+)-piscidic acid and several p-coumaroyl sucrose esters. Among the latter, two new compounds were isolated and characterized: α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside A) and β-d-apif-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside B). In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of at least 20 structurally related p-coumaroyl sucrose esters was tentatively identified. Besides their antioxidant activity and their potential function as substrate for enzymatic browning reactions, the new compounds are highly characteristic for both the inner bark of Q. saponaria and commercial extracts derived therefrom. Consequently, they might serve as authenticity markers for the detection of Quillaja extracts in food and cosmetic formulations. PMID:26375986

  11. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  12. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by extracts of Ugni molinae leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F; Sotomayor, C P

    2006-08-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of their leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of their antioxidant properties and the toxicity of the aqueous extracts of leaves, the extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidyltidylcholine (DMPC), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the extracts achieved a significant alteration in the shape of the erythrocytes as they changed their discoid shape to echinocytes. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the shape change indicates that the polyphenols were located in the outer moiety of the red cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by the fluorescence experiments performed in IUM and DMPC LUV. In fact, the extracts produced slight initial increases followed by sharp decreases at higher concentrations in the anisotropy and general polarization parameters. These results imply that the extracts induced structural perturbations in the acyl chain and polar group packing arrangements of the erythrocyte IUM and DMPC LUV lipid bilayers: first ordering and afterwards disordering them as the extract concentration increased. PMID:16716480

  13. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  14. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  15. Cuterebrid parasitism (Rogenhofera bonaerensis) on the shrubland mouse (Akodon molinae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigada, A M; Tripole, E S; Zuleta, G A

    1992-10-01

    We evaluated the influence of temperature, rainfall, and host relative abundance on Rogenhofera bonaerensis (Diptera, Cuterebridae) parasitism prevalence in shrubland mouse (Akodon molinae) populations in central Argentina, from February 1983 to December 1987. Parasitism did not vary significantly with host age: juvenile-subadults (32%), adults (26%), and old adults (29%). Females were more frequently parasitized (36%) than were males (20%). There was no correlation between parasitism and reproductive activity. Infested hosts were recorded most commonly in summer (January to March, 19%), and in fall (April to June, 30%). During the dry season, July through November, cuterebrid parasitism averaged only 3%. The monthly prevalence of parasitism throughout the year was not associated either with monthly precipitation nor with mean monthly temperature at the time of sampling. But a 2 to 3 month time-lag effect of both climatic variables on parasitism was recorded. Bot fly prevalence was correlated to an index of host density. We propose climate and host availability as important factors affecting bot fly parasitism in the semiarid shrubland of central Argentina. PMID:1474666

  16. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

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    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  17. De herkomstenkwestie bij de groveden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In dit onderzoek heeft auteur als belangrijke factor de fotoperiodiciteit of daglengtereactie van de herkomsten betrokken. Naast groveden zijn ook daglengteproeven gedaan met douglas en Araucaria araucana. (Preadvies Studiekring KNBV 1984 "Groveden op een rij")

  18. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  19. Biochemical and morphological changes during the growth kinetics of Araucaria angustifolia suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Wendt dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were established in a BM liquid medium supplemented with 2 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 1 µM kinetin (BM2 and in a BM medium free of growth regulators (BM0. During 42 days in culture, the cell growth pattern of both cultures was similar. The pH of the culture medium of both BM0 and BM2 underwent progressive reduction during culture time. For both the embryogenic cultures a preferential uptake of glucose in the late stages of cell growth kinetics was observed. The extracellular protein content was similar for both the embryogenic cultures. Acetocarmine and Evan's blue double stain showed major differences for early somatic embryo organisation, in which only the embryogenic culture grown in a liquid culture medium free of plant growth regulators showed the presence of bipolar somatic pro-embryos.Culturas embriogênicas de Araucaria angustifolia foram estabelecidas em meio de cultura líquido BM suplementado com 2 µM Ácido 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético, 1 µM 6-Benzilaminopurina e 1 µM Cinetina (BM2 e em meio BM isento de reguladores de crescimento (BM0. Durante 42 dias de cultivo, o padrão de crescimento celular em ambas as culturas foi similar. O pH do meio de cultura BM0 e BM2 sofreu uma progressiva redução durante o período de cultivo. Em ambas as culturas embriogênicas foram observadas um consumo preferencial de glicose no período final da curva de crescimento celular. O nível de proteínas extracelulares foi similar para ambas as culturas embriogênicas. A dupla coloração com carmin acético e azul de Evans revelou diferenças na organização das linhagens celulares embriogênicas, sendo que a presença de proembriões somáticos bipolares foi apenas evidenciada nas culturas embriogênicas mantidas em meio de cultura líquido sem reguladores de crescimento.

  20. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  1. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ALBERTO ÁLVAREZ WATSON; HENRY ORLANDO BOLAÑOS BURBANO; FRANCISCO ORLANDO VELÁSQUEZ VÁSQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    El caso analiza la situación particular de la Institución educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina, el liderazgo del rector y el apoyo del sector privado en los procesos de gestión de la calidad. Esto motiva a los integrantes de la institución a trabajar en equipo para lograr la certificación de calidad, mejorando sus resultados académicos año tras año, destacándose a nivel regional y nacional, y generando cambios sociales en su entorno. Metodológicamente, se identificó una instituci...

  2. Narrativa de indios en las Historias naturales de Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre

    OpenAIRE

    Hachim Lara, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Los naturalistas europeos abordaron a los aborígenes de América, recurriendo a las narraciones que el archivo occidental poseía y que estaba a disposición de la racionalidad ilustrada en perspectiva de la administración colonial. A su vez, los criollos letrados, confrontan su episteme –a veces diferenciada– con esas narrativas occidentalistas. Así, los jesuitas chilenos Juan Ignacio Molina y Felipe Gómez de Vidaurre en sus Historias naturales, investigarán las costumbres civiles del indígena ...

  3. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-01-01

    Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha infl...

  4. Síntesis biográfica de Martina Guevara Molina

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    María del Carmen Amaro Cano

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una limitada búsqueda bibliográfica, consultando fuentes secundarias existentes en la Biblioteca del Museo de las Ciencias "Carlos J. Finlay", concernientes a la fundación de la primera Secretaria de Sanidad cubana, y del mundo y a la creación de la Escuela de Enfermeras del Hospital "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes". Fueron revisados también informes de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras de Cuba, fundada en 1909, así como biografías y escritos de la época acerca del hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes y su Escuela de Enfermeras. El objetivo de esta búsqueda bibliográfica era poder ofrecer a las enfermeras y estudiantes actuales de Enfermería, una información básica mínima acerca de una de las primeras graduadas Martina Guevara Molina de la primera Escuela de Enfermeras de Cuba en 1902, quien se distinguió por su identidad profesional, expresada en su activa participación en la constitución de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras de Cuba, y por haber sido la primera enfermera cubana que recibió formación teórico-práctica como docente de enfermería. Su vida y obra debería ser estudiada con rigor, a partir de un protocolo de investigación histórica que permita acercarce a una personalidad tan importante de la profesión, como medio para estimular el reforzamiento de la vocación y la identidad profesional de las actuales y futuras profesionales de la enfermería cubana.A limited bibliographic review was made by consulting secondary sources in the Library of "Carlos J. Finlay" Sciences Museum about the foundation of the first Health Secretariat in Cuba and in the world and about the establishment of the Nursing School of "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes" Hospital. Reports from the National Nursing Association of Cuba, founded in 1909, as well as biographies and writings from that time about this hospital and its Nursing School were also reviewed. The objective of this bilbliographic search was to give

  5. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. PMID:19145575

  6. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; 2. reflorestamento de araucária (R; 3. reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e 4. pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Na captura dos organismos, utilizaram-se dez armadilhas, distribuídas ao acaso em cada área, nos mesmos pontos de coleta dos atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo. O número de colêmbolos de cada família, extraído por armadilhas (abundância, o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e a riqueza de famílias foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA. A abundância de cada família de Collembola foi submetida à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Considerando as quatro áreas, foram identificadas oito famílias de colêmbolos (Brachystomellidae, Entomobryidae, Hypogastruridae, Isotomidae, Katiannidae, Paronellidae, Sminthuridae e Tomoceridae. A diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos foi maior nas áreas NF e R, em comparação com as áreas RF e NPF. Os atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo foram eficientes como variáveis explicativas, pois auxiliaram na interpretação das modificações das famílias de colêmbolos. A ACP mostrou que a identificação ao nível de família de Collembola é suficiente para separar as áreas estudadas, além de indicar quais foram as famílias de colêmbolos mais associadas a cada área, o que possibilita sua utilização como bioindicadores de intervenções antrópicas, bem como da

  7. Colêmbolos (Hexapoda: Collembola) como bioindicadores de qualidade do solo em áreas com Araucaria angustifolia Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) as soil quality bioindicators in areas with Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dilmar Baretta; Cristina Seabra Ferreira; José Paulo Sousa; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Não existem informações sobre a diversidade de colêmbolos associados às florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze no Brasil. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial da diversidade de famílias de colêmbolos como bioindicadores da qualidade do solo e para separar diferentes áreas com araucária, utilizando atributos químicos e microbiológicos do solo como variáveis explicativas. O estudo foi realizado em quatro áreas: 1. floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF)...

  8. MODELING THE OCCURRENCE OF COHORTS IN THE DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ângelo Augusto Ebling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning the diameter structure are essential for understanding the development of native forests, provide growth and yield parameters sufficient to generate estimates that support sustainable management. However, the mathematical modeling of probability functions, such as density, becomes difficult to implement in multi-modal distributions, found in forest species and communities. The species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, of social, environmental and economic features, presents multimodal distribution pattern forming units called demographic cohorts, which arise due to natural and anthropogenic agents that operate in niches. Therefore, taking inventory database of trees with a diameter at breast height equal to or greater than 9.5 cm (DBH≥9.5 cm, from the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, RS, it was possible to test different probability density functions. The best fit to the data series consists of a truncated polynomial function of seventh degree, which besides maintaining fitted values very close to those observed for total and diameter classes, maintained the multimodal distribution characteristic.

  9. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  10. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

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    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  11. Enchytraeid abundance in Araucaria Mixed Forest determined by cold and hot wet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niva, C C; Cezar, R M; Fonseca, P M; Zagatto, M R G; Oliveira, E M; Bush, E F; Clasen, L A; Brown, G G

    2015-11-01

    Enchytraeids are small oligochaetes found worldwide in soils with sufficient moisture and organic matter, but scarcely studied in the Southern hemisphere. This is the third study on enchytraeid abundance in Brazil using wet extraction and the first carried out in Araucaria Mixed Forest (subtropical region). The sampling and extraction were based on the standard method ISO 23611-3/2007 using an adapted split soil corer and wet extraction with and without heat to assess the abundance of enchytraeids in a forest fragment at Embrapa Forestry in Colombo, Paraná State. The samplings were performed in 3 occasions between September 2011 and April 2012. The average numbers estimated by each method varied from appr. 2.000-12.000 (cold) and 5.000-12.000 ind./ m2 (hot), respectively, with a maximum of 44.000 ind./ m2 in one of the samples, the highest value reported so far in Brazil. The hot extraction was more advantageous, given the speed and preservation of the specimens in vivo, allowing taxonomic identification. Advantages and disadvantages of wet extractions compared to handsorting and formol methods are also discussed. Guaranidrilus, Hemienchytraeus, Enchytraeus, Fridericia and Achaeta were the genera identified in the samples. PMID:26602336

  12. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Márcia O.; Branco, Cátia S.; Sene, Juliane; DallAgnol, Rafaela; Agostini, Fabiana; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay) damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds. PMID:26784661

  13. Analise de populações de lepidoptera em Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Araucaria angustifolia, mata nativa, agricultura e pastagem

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Elenice Nadvorny

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de estudar correlações existentes entre insetos da ordem Lepidoptera e o ecossistema a que estão inseridos, e avaliar a influência das fases de lua cheia e nova na coleta dos mesmos. As amostragens foram feitas entre maio de 1993 e março de 1994, em áreas pertencentes à INPACEL Indústria de Papel Arapoti S.A., nos municípios de Arapoti, Sarapuí e Curiúva, em comunidades florestais de Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Araucaria angustifolia ...

  14. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  15. Lope de Vega Carpio, Tirso de Molina, Miguel de Cervantes, Il teatro dei Secoli d’oro, coord. M.G. Profeti

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Trambaioli

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de Lope de Vega Carpio, Tirso de Molina, Miguel de Cervantes, Il teatro dei Secoli d’oro, coord. M.G. Profeti, Bompiani (Classici della Letteratura europea), Milán, 2014, vol. I, 2436 pp. ISBN: 9788845277252.

  16. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  17. Redox imbalance mediates entomotoxic effects of the conifer Araucaria angustifolia in Anticarsia gemmatalis velvetbean caterpillar

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    Cátia dos Santos Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the most important pests of soybean crops in tropical America. By feeding on leaves, significant defoliation occurs resulting in reduced photosynthetic capacity required for plants’ maintenance and growth, which subsequently can lead to crop losses and reduced agricultural productivity. Many studies have sought to look for compounds that have insecticidal effects. One class of compounds is phenolics, which are produced by plants and have been found to influence the behavior and development of defoliators, representing an important alternative approach to many synthetic insecticides. Particularly, Araucaria angustifolia is a plant rich in polyphenols, which are compounds able to alter cellular dynamics through modulating redox status. In this study, A. angustifolia extract (AAE was added to the artificial diet of A. gemmatalis. The results demonstrated that AAE was able to reduce larval viability by inducing morphological changes and a delay in the insect’s development. In addition, AAE was found to induce oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, as well as increased nitric oxide levels in A. gemmatalis larvae. AAE treatments also decreased the antioxidant defense systems, leading to a redox imbalance. The reduction in viability in A. gemmatalis was positively correlated with oxidative markers, suggesting that redox imbalance can lead to larvae’s death. These results suggest that AAE possess insecticidal potential through the mechanisms of action of altering cellular redox state. Though further studies are required to confirm this, our study nevertheless contributes to a better understanding of AAE’s mechanisms of action as potential biopesticides in pest management, opening new perspectives on the development of compounds with insecticidal action.

  18. Araucaria cunninghamii Seedling Response to Different Forms and Rates of 15N-Labelled Fertiliser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.J.BLUMFIELD; XU Zhi-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogenous fertilisers are under consideration for promoting the growth of nursery-reared hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex A. Cunn) seedlings in the establishment phase of second rotation (2R) plantations. Using 15Nlabelled fertilisers, we investigated the effect of different forms (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and urea) and rates of application (0, 150 and 300 mg N kg-1 dried soil) of fertilisers on the growth, 15N recovery and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of hoop pine seedlings in a 12-month glasshouse trial in southeast Queensland,Australia. The 15N-labelled fertilisers were applied to nursery-reared hoop pine seedlings, which were then grown in pots,containing ca. 1.2 kg dried soil, under well watered conditions for 12 months. Four seedlings from each treatment were harvested at 4-month intervals, divided into roots, stem and foliage, with a further subdivision for new and old foliage,and then analysed for 15N, total N, δ13C and total C. There was no significant response in the seedling growth to the form or rate of application of nitrogen (N) fertiliser within the 12-month period, indicating that the seedlings did not experience N deficiency when grown on second rotation hoop pine soils. While the combined 15N recovery from soil and plant remained at around 70% throughout the experiment, the proportion of 15N recovered from the plants increasing steadily over time. Nitrate containing fertilisers at 150 mg N kg-1 soil gradually increased seedling foliage δ13C over the 12-month period, indicating an increase in seedling water use efficiency.

  19. SAZONALIDADE E SOLUÇÕES NUTRITIVAS NA MINIESTAQUIA DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Patricia Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da sazonalidade e de soluções nutritivas na produção, sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor radicial de miniestacas juvenis de Araucaria angustifolia, bem como o hábito de crescimento das mudas formadas. As minicepas foram manejadas em minijardim sob sistema semi-hidropônico, em que foram aplicadas duas soluções nutritivas, com diferentes concentrações de nutrientes, fornecidas por gotejamento, durante as quatro estações do ano. Após 11 coletas, as minicepas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência. A maior produção ocorreu no verão, com 1.356 miniestacas.m-2.ano-1, e a menor no inverno, com 429 miniestacas.m-2.ano-1. As coletas de inverno apresentaram os melhores resultados de enraizamento, com média de 83% em casa de sombra, contra 31% das demais estações. O maior vigor radicial ocorreu nas coletas de primavera e verão e o menor, no inverno. A solução nutritiva mais concentrada propiciou maior produção de miniestacas e melhor vigor radicial, e todas as mudas resultantes da miniestaquia apresentaram hábito ortotrópico de crescimento. A técnica de miniestaquia com propágulos vegetativos de origem seminal mostrou-se potencial para a produção de mudas de araucária, sendo significativamente influenciada pela época do ano e pelas soluções nutritivas empregadas.

  20. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  1. Análise multivariada de atributos microbiológicos e químicos do solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia Multivariate analysis of soil microbiological and chemical attributes in forests with Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia é uma espécie de árvore ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e pouco se conhece sobre os atributos edáficos dessas florestas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar diferenças entre áreas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, com base em atributos microbiológicos e químicos do solo, por meio de métodos multivariados, como a análise canônica discriminante (ACD e a análise de correlação canônica (ACC. As áreas estudadas incluem: 1. floresta nativa com araucária (NF; 2. reflorestamento de araucária (R; 3. reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e 4. pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio (NPF. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, quinze árvores de araucária por área e sob a copa de cada uma delas foram retiradas três amostras de solo, em três épocas contrastantes. A ACD foi aplicada aos atributos microbianos: C da biomassa microbiana (CBM, respiração basal (C-CO2 e quociente metabólico (qCO2, enquanto a ACC foi aplicada aos atributos microbianos e químicos do solo [pH (CaCl2, C orgânico total (COT e teores de P, K, Ca, Mg e (H+Al. Os atributos microbianos e químicos do solo apresentaram alta correlação canônica, com destaque para o CBM e C-CO2, entre os atributos microbianos, e para COT e P, entre os atributos químicos do solo. A ACC mostrou que 52 % da variação total dos atributos microbianos é explicada pela variação dos atributos químicos, e 36 % da variação total dos atributos químicos é explicada pelos atributos microbianos do solo das áreas estudadas. A ACD identificou que a contribuição de cada atributo microbiano para a separação das áreas sofreu variação ao longo do tempo, e discriminou o CBM como sendo o atributo microbiano mais importante, seguido pelo C-CO2. ACC e ACD são importantes ferramentas no estudo de indicadores de qualidade do solo.Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered tree species in

  2. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

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    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  3. Angélica y el desencadenamiento de la locura: Lope de Rueda y Tirso de Molina

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    Hermenegildo, Alfredo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La locura, como recurso dramático, aparece en dos obras separadas por unas cuantas décadas: la Mederà, de Lope de Rueda, y La villana de la Sagra, de Tirso de Molina. En la primera, la presencia destructora y conflictiva de unos hermanos gemelos desencadena la locura de unos individuos, los padres de la protagonista, que alteran con sus andanzas la convivencia social del grupo a que pertenecen. La fiesta carnavalesca está también en la base misma de la construcción de los locos. En la obra de Tirso, la locura del galán, de don Luis, es utilizada para detener, con su fondo libresco, el desarrollo previsible de la fábula.…

  4. Estudio de viabilidad de una instalación fotovoltaica en una vivienda unifamiliar situada en Molina de Segura, Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    López Palazón, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento es el de estudiar la viabilidad técnico-económica de la integración de un sistema de producción de energía eléctrica mediante tecnología fotovoltaica en la localidad de Molina del Segura, provincia de Murcia, de modo que sirva de autoconsumo para una vivienda unifamiliar y/o la venta de la energía eléctrica sobrante por la instalación fotovoltaica conectada a red, a la compañía de distribución eléctrica correspondiente de la zona. Se realizará e...

  5. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of 2alpha-hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids from the leaves of Ugni molinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, María C; Delporte, Carla; Backhouse, Nadine; Erazo, Silvia; Letelier, María Eugenia; Cassels, Bruce K; Silva, Ximena; Alegría, Sergio; Negrete, Rosa

    2006-08-15

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. are used in the Chilean cosmetic industry on the assumption that they have decongestant, regenerative, and anti-aging properties. A bioassay-guided fractionation of this plant material showed that some extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Further fractionation led to the isolation and identification of betulinic acid, a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, and the 2alpha-hydroxy derivatives alphitolic, asiatic, and corosolic acids. The latter three were evaluated in vivo in the mouse ear assay for their topical anti-inflammatory activity, inducing inflammation with either arachidonic acid (AA) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). Only corosolic acid was active in the AA assay, with similar potency to nimesulide, but all three triterpene acids inhibited TPA-induced inflammation with potencies comparable to that of indomethacin. PMID:16697209

  6. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  7. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

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    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

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    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  9. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation. PMID:25627584

  10. ENVIROMENTAL VARIABLE INFLUENCE ON THE TREE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FLORISTIC PATTERNS IN A MONTANE ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN LAGES, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Higuchi; Ana Carolina da Silva; Tiago de Souza Ferreira; Sheila Trierveiler de Souza; Juliano Pereira Gomes; Karina Montibeller da Silva; Kristiana Fiorentin dos Santos; Caroline Linke; Patrícia da Silva Paulino

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985081This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure of the tree component of a montane Araucaria Forest fragment and to assess the influence of environmental variables on the patterns observed. The study area was located in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina state, close to the margin of the Caveiras River. The vegetation and the environmental variables (physical and chemical soils characteristics, relief and canopy cover) were...

  11. The effects of fragmentation on Araucaria forest: analysis of the fern and lycophyte communities at sites subject to different edge conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Leão da Silva; Jairo Lizandro Schmitt

    2015-01-01

    Edge effects impact species richness and composition as a result of environmental changes caused by fragmentation. This study analyzed edge effects on a community of terrestrial ferns and lycophytes in an Araucaria forest in Brazil at sites subjected to differing edge conditions: (1) a site bordering a road running through the interior of a conservation unit, and (2) a site bordering an agricultural property. Twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and in the interior of each site, a...

  12. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

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    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  14. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic). LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays) was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit's characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives. PMID:25838172

  15. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

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    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  16. Comparison of seedling growth among three co-occurring varieties of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze under greenhouse conditions

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    André Luiz Coutinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze is a tall, long-lived tree species, which grows as an emergent tree in the araucaria forests of southern Brazil. Four varieties have been described for this species, and three of them were selected for this study: "angustifolia" (the type variety, "caiova" and "indehiscens". These are co-occurring varieties that differ in external seed color and timing of seed maturation. The purpose of this study was to compare the initial growth of plants originated from seeds of these three varieties, in order to test the hypothesis that these varieties also differ in the initial growth of their seedlings. Seeds were collected from a single forest location, and 60 plants per variety were grown in pots for a period of 244 days. The "angustifolia" variety accumulated significantly more mass (both in shoot and root than the other two, but the three varieties did not differ in mass allocation between shoot and root and between lateral roots and the main root. The greater growth of the type variety may help explain its greater natural abundance, since attaining a larger size will have positive effects on seedling recruitment and survival.Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze é uma espécie de porte alto e vida longa, que cresce como árvore emergente em florestas de araucária no sul do Brasil. Quatro variedades foram descritas para esta espécie, e três delas foram selecionadas para este estudo: "angustifolia" (variedade típica, "caiova" e "indehiscens". Estas variedades co-ocorrentes diferem umas das outras na coloração externa de suas sementes e em relação ao tempo de maturação das mesmas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o crescimento inicial de plantas oriundas de sementes destas três variedades, a fim de testar a hipótese de que estas variedades também diferem no crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes foram coletadas em um mesmo local da floresta, e 60 plantas de cada variedade foram cultivadas

  17. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  18. Hydroponic Cultivation ofAraucaria cunninghamii%南洋杉水培诱导技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑娴; 彭鸿俊; 徐江宇; 林夏斌; 吴沙沙; 翟俊文; 彭东辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the hydroponics induction technology and provide theoretical support and practice guidance for hydroponics innovation and export ofAraucaria cunninghamii, the effects of disinfectant and rooting induction nutrition liquid on rooting ofA. Cunninghamiiwere studied. Experiment was divided into two parts as disinfection and hydroponics rooting induction. The mass growth average such as average number of new roots, rooting rate, hydroponics rooting induction rate, average length of new roots, plant height increment etc. were measured and compared. Results showed that: the optimal method of root surface sterilization forA. cunninghamiiwas soaking the roots in 0.5% Potassium Permanganate for 20~ 30 min or 70% alcohol for 60 s; the best hydroponics rooting induction liquid was foliage plant nutrient liquid plus IBA 0.5 mg/L, or foliage plant nutrient liquid plus NAA 0.5 mg/L.%研究以南洋杉(Araucaria cunninghamii)为对象,以水培植株消毒液与生根诱导营养液为变量,研究其对南洋杉水培生根的影响,旨在探索出南洋杉水培诱导技术,为南洋杉的水培创新与出口应用等提供理论支撑与实践指导。试验分消毒与诱导水培生根两部分,并测定对比其生长量(平均新根数、生根率、水培根诱导率、新根平均长度、株高增长量等)。结果表明:南洋杉根系表面消毒的最佳方法为0.5%高锰酸钾处理20~30 min,或70%酒精浸泡60 s;水培根诱导的最佳培养液为观叶植物营养液+IBA 0.5 mg/L,或观叶植物营养液+NAA 0.5 mg/L。

  19. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Nolberto Arismendi S; Nancy Andrade S; Ricardo Riegel Sch; Roberto Carrillo Ll.

    2010-01-01

    Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identif...

  20. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Fredes; Gloria Montenegro; Juan Pablo Zoffoli; Miguel Gómez; Paz Robert

    2012-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and a...

  1. The Araucaria Project: The distance to the Carina Dwarf Galaxy from infrared photometry of RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Karczmarek, P; Gieren, W; Suchomska, K; Konorski, P; Górski, M; Pilecki, B; Graczyk, D; Wielgórski, P

    2015-01-01

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the $J$- and $K$-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relation for RR Lyrae stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 $\\pm$ 0.017 (statistical) $\\pm$ 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of Red Clump stars (20.165 $\\pm$ 0.015) and Tip of Red Giant Branch (20.09 $\\pm$ 0.03 $\\pm$ 0.12 mag in $J$-band, 20.14 $\\pm$ 0.04 $\\pm$ 0.14 mag in $K$-band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The near-infrared RR Lyrae method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5 percent level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  2. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  3. TREE SPECIES COMMUNITY SPATIAL PARTITION IN FUNCTION OF SOIL DRAINAGE IN AN ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814580The relationship vegetation-soil can contribute to understand the forest structure, supporting biodiversity conservation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the existence of spatial partition of the tree species community in an Araucaria forest fragment in function of soil drainage. For this sake, an environmental characterization (soil drainage, physical and chemical soil properties, topography, compression of soil, depth of soil and canopy cover was realized in 25 plots of 20 x 20m, where tree individuals, with circumference at breast height ≥15.7 cm were previously counted, measured and identified. The data were analysed by Mann-Withney test, non-parametric multivariate ANOVA (NPMANOVA, multivariate analysis (NMDS and indicator species analysis. In this small spatial scale there were two drainage classes, corresponding to well and moderately-drained soils, with environmental differences that determined the richness, the spatial partition of the tree community and the occurrence of indicator species. Thus, we conclude that in the study forest fragment soil drainage spatial variations were determinant in the floristic-structural heterogeneity observed in tree community. 

  4. Structure of the understory community in four stretches of Araucaria forest in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Trassi Polisel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the structure of the understory community in the Atlantic Forest sensu lato, for which phytosociological descriptions of the understory are lacking. We delineated 50 plots of 10 × 20 m each at four sites within an Araucaria forest (a subtype of Atlantic Forest, located in the municipalities of Bananal, Campos do Jordão, Itaberá and Barra do Chapéu, all of which are in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. To sample the resident species of the understory, we randomly selected five 1 × 1 m subplots within each plot, resulting in a total sampling area of 250 m² at each site. We identified differences among the locations, mostly due to proportional differences in growth forms, in terms of species richness and the importance values within the community. Factors potentially influencing the understory structure include macroclimatic and microclimatic conditions, as well as forest fragmentation, the abundance of deciduous trees in the canopy, the surrounding vegetation and geographic location.

  5. Soil organic matter in fire-affected pastures and in an Araucaria forest in South-Brazilian Leptosols

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    Mariana da Luz Potes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution pattern and composition of soil organic matter (SOM and its physical pools of Leptosols periodically affected by fire over the last 100 years in South Brazil. Soil samples at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths were collected from the following environments: native pasture without burning in the last year and grazed with 0.5 livestock per hectare per year (1NB; native pasture without burning in the last 23 years and grazed with 2.0 livestock per hectare per year (23NB; and an Araucaria forest (AF. Physical fractionation was performed with the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil C and N stocks were determined in the three depths and in the physical pools, and organic matter was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The largest C stocks in all depths and physical pools were found under the AF. The 23NB environment showed the lowest soil C and N stocks at the 5-15 cm depth, which was related to the end of burning and to the higher grazing intensity. The SOM of the occluded light fraction showed a greater chemical recalcitrance in 1NB than in 23NB. Annual pasture burning does not affect soil C stocks up to 15 cm of depth.

  6. De la Historia moral a la Historia civil en el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 del abate Juan Ignacio Molina

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    Luis Hachim Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El jesuíta Juan Ignacio Molina escribió el Compendio de la Historia Geográfica, Natural y Civil deIReynodeChile (1776 y el Compendio de la HistoriaCivil del ReynodeChile (1787 en el exilio italiano. En los estudios sobre los jesuítas, sus Historias naturales no han sido exploradas en cuanto a la importancia cultural, literaria y crítica que implican. En este trabajo se tratarán algunos rasgos de la escritura de la Historia que constituyen el discurso de la ciencia y que muestran el desarrollo que va desde la Historia naturaly moral -que desde Aristótelesy Plinio representa la ciencia clásica- a los nuevos modos de conocer que representa el modelo de ciencia de la Ilustración. En consecuencia, el aporte del Abate Molina en su Compendio de la Historia Civil consiste en incorporar la concepción de progreso en los usos y costumbres de los indígenas, aportando una visión de integración diferente a la civilidad. Sabemos que con posterioridad al siglo dieciocho el aporte de muchos astrónomos, médicos y científicos jesuítas -en América- construyeron las bases de la ciencia moderna y progresiva, representando la continuidad más que la regresión en el desarrollo científico tal como lo concebimos actualmente.TheJesuit Juan Ignacio Molina vimte the Compendiode la Historia Geográfica, natural y Civil del Reyno de Chile (1776 y el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 in exile in Italy. In relation to criticism, the thinking of the naturalist of the company in the transition -some see opposition-from the model of traditional and scholastic science to the paradigm of modern and enlightened science was importantThis assignment will consider some of the characteristics of the writing of history, which constitute the discourse of science and show the development from the moral and natural history -the classical science of Aristotle and Plinio- to the new forms of knowledge that represent the model of science of the enlight

  7. ENRIQUECIMIENTO AMBIENTAL DE NUTRIA MARINA Lontra felina (MOLINA 1782) EN EL PARQUE ZOOLÓGICO HUACHIPA ENTRE FEBRERO Y MARZO DEL 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Diana Ruiz Ramos; Edward Iván Díaz Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es una herramienta empleada para mejorar situaciones de aburrimiento, estrés y así evitar enfermedades causadas por la inactividad de la vida en cautiverio en la fauna silvestre. El presente trabajo se desarrolló con 2 individuos de nutria marina Lontra felina (Molina 1782) en cautiverio, durante cinco semanas: en la primera semana se realizó la determinación de los patrones de comportamiento mediante un muestreo Ad libitum, y durante las cuatro semanas restantes ...

  8. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Tropos y fotos para establecer identidad en El jinete polaco de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Corbellini, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    A partir de la lectura de El jinete polaco Antonio Muñoz Molina se reflexiona sobre la construcción del discurso sobre la memoria histórica que realiza el autor en esta novela. Se analiza la utilización de fotos e imágenes como motivos a partir de los cuales los personajes arman su relato del pasado desde una perspectiva personal. Se pone en consideración este procedimiento con otras novelas del autor y como característica de autores contemporáneos.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  11. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  12. Controle químico de mancha azul e determinação de alguns de seus agentes causais em Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. reflorestada

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia (pinheiro-do-paraná) é susceptível ao ataque de fungos manchadores, o que desfavorece a comercialização de sua madeira no mercado nacional e internacional. Trabalhou-se num povoamento homogêneo dessa espécie florestal subdividido, desde a bordadura até o centro, em três faixas de largura igual, porém, transversais ao comprimento do mesmo. Abateram-se 36 árvores a cada mês, em 12 meses, transformando-as em toretes de 60cm de comprimento e diâmetro variável. Testaram-se t...

  13. Spore density and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in preserved or disturbed Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ecosystems Densidade de esporos e colonização radicular por fungos microrrízicos arbusculares em ecossistemas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. preservados e impactados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., a native forest tree from Brazil, is under extinction risk. This tree depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for growth and development, especially in tropical low-P soils but, despite being a conifer, Araucaria does not form ectomycorrhiza, but only the arbuscular endomycorrhiza. This study aimed at surveying data on the spore density and root colonization (CR by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in Araucaria angustifolia forest ecosystems, in order to discriminate natural, implemented, and anthropic action-impacted ecosystems, by means of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA. Three ecosystems representative of the Campos do Jordão (SP, Brazil region were selected: 1. a native forest (FN; 2. a replanted Araucaria forest (R; and 3. a replanted Araucaria forest, submitted to accidental fire (RF. Rhizosphere soil and roots were sampled in May and October, 2002, for root colonization, AMF identification, and spores counts. Root percent colonization rates at first collection date were relatively low and did not differ amongst ecosystems. At the second period, FN presented higher colonization than the other two areas, with much higher figures than during the first period, for all areas. Spore density was lower in FN than in the other areas. A total of 26 AMF species were identified. The percent root colonization and spore numbers were inversely related to each other in all ecosystems. CDA indicated that there is spatial distinction among the three ecosystems in regard to the evaluated parameters.A Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. é uma espécie florestal nativa do Brasil e encontra-se ameaçada de extinção. É altamente dependente de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares para seu desenvolvimento, principalmente em solos com baixos teores de fósforo. Embora sendo uma conífera, esta árvore não forma ectomicorriza, mas sim a endomicorriza arbuscular. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados

  14. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  15. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  16. ENVIROMENTAL VARIABLE INFLUENCE ON THE TREE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FLORISTIC PATTERNS IN A MONTANE ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN LAGES, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985081This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure of the tree component of a montane Araucaria Forest fragment and to assess the influence of environmental variables on the patterns observed. The study area was located in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina state, close to the margin of the Caveiras River. The vegetation and the environmental variables (physical and chemical soils characteristics, relief and canopy cover were surveyed within 50, 20 x 10m, permanent plots allocated systematically stratified in the forest fragment. All trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ³ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. It was calculated the importance value (VI of the species found, performed the ordination of plots according to the abundance of species through the analysis of NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and plotted the "a posterior" the significant environmental variables in the ordination diagram. One thousand, eight hundred and forty-three (1,843 individuals were sampled, which added up to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  17. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  18. Toward establishing a morphological and ultrastructural characterization of proembryogenic masses and early somatic embryos of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Neusa; Farias-Soares, Francine L; Schmidt, Éder C; Pereira, Maria L T; Scheid, Bruna; Rogge-Renner, Gladys D; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schmidt, Daniela; Maldonado, Sara; Guerra, Miguel P

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a morphogenetic route useful for the study of embryonic development, as well as the large-scale propagation of endangered species, such as the Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia). In the present study, we investigated the morphological and ultrastructural organization of A. angustifolia somatic embryo development by means of optical and electron microscopy. The proembryogenic stage was characterized by the proliferation of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), which are cellular aggregates composed of embryogenic cells (ECs) attached to suspensor-like cells (SCs). PEMs proliferate through three developmental stages, PEM I, II, and III, by changes in the number of ECs and SCs. PEM III-to-early somatic embryo (SE) transition was characterized by compact clusters of ECs growing out of PEM III, albeit still connected to it by SCs. Early SEs showed a dense globular embryonic mass (EM) and suspensor region (SR) connected by embryonic tube cells (TCs). By comparison, early somatic and zygotic embryos showed similar morphology. ECs are round with a large nucleus, nucleoli, and many cytoplasmic organelles. In contrast, TCs and SCs are elongated and vacuolated with cellular dismantling which is associated with programmed cell death of SCs. Abundant starch grains were observed in the TCs and SCs, while proteins were more abundant in the ECs. Based on the results of this study, a fate map of SE development in A. angustifolia is, for the first time, proposed. Additionally, this study shows the cell biology of SE development of this primitive gymnosperm which may be useful in evolutionary studies in this area. PMID:25968333

  19. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  20. Description of a new early-derivative mite, Pentasetacus plicatus n. sp. (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea), and remarks on the systematic position of pentasetacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Petanović, Radmila U

    2016-01-01

    A new vagrant early-derivative eriophyoid mite species Pentasetacus plicatus n. sp. (GeneBank accession number KT070291) is described from Araucaria araucana (Molina) K.Koch from Chile and Peru with the aid of conventional and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Observations on the gnathosoma of the new species indicate that the oral stylet is bent in the middle and twice shorter than the infracapitular and cheliceral stylets. A trough-like subcapitulum originated from the palpcoxae, and swollen basal parts of chelicerae bearing putative cheliceral seta, were observed under CLSM in specimens with disjointed mouth parts. Males with an exposed gonopore under an uncovered genital coverflap and remnants of soft genital organs were registered. Contrary to other eriophyoids, the plates of the longitudinal bridge in P. plicatus n. sp. and other pentasetacines are not fused so that the genital slit continues posterior to the spermathecal apparatus. The previously established taxon Pentasetacidae Shevchenko, Bagnyuk, Sukhareva, 1991 is proposed for the eriophyoids bearing five prodorsal shield setae (Loboquintus and Pentasetacus); a refined diagnosis of Pentasetacidae is given. PMID:27470849

  1. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. в образах и символах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  2. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), and its application to fishery-biological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Palma G; Patricio Arana E

    1996-01-01

    La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782), es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos ...

  3. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Control del proceso biologico mediante la medida en continuo de la edad del fango. Experiencias en la EDAr Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, F.; Pradas, P.; Lardin, C.; Simon, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  5. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    R P Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley (LS, commonly known as "bottle gourd" (English, possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina Standley (LS using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant.

  6. TENSIONES ENTRE LITERATURA, CIENCIA, EXPERIENCIA E HISTORIA EN UN INTELECTUAL DE LA SATTELZEIT HISPANOAMERICANA: LOS PREFACIOS EN LA PROSA CIENTÍFICA DE JUAN IGNACIO MOLINA Tensions between literature, science, experience and history in an intellectual of the Sattelzeit in Spanish America: the prefaces in the scientific prose of Juan Ignacio Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Nordenflycht B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una revisión de los prefacios de las principales obras de Juan Ignacio Molina (el Compendio anónimo de 1776, el Saggio de 1782 traducido al español como Compendio en 1788 y el Saggio de 1810 a fin de evidenciar cómo ciertos aspectos literarios de su prosa científica -en particular, los problemas del género (ensayo, compendio la escritura de "historias naturales", el significado del narrar y el sentido de la experiencia del sujeto- ilustran las tensiones inherentes durante el proceso del cambio semántico del concepto de "ciencia" en el marco de la Sattelzeit hispanoamericana.A study which propounds a review of the prefaces of Juan Ignacio Molina's principal works (the anonymous Compendio 1116, the Saggio 1782, translated into Spanish like Compendio in 1788 and the Saggio 1810 in order to demonstrate how certain literary aspects of his scientific prose -in particular, gender issues (essay, compendium, the writing of "Natural History", the meaning of the narrative and the sense of the subject's experience- ¡Ilustrate the tensions inherent in the process of semantic change of the concept of "science" in the frame of the Sattelzeit in Spanish América.

  7. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, and its application to fishery-biological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos que se describen, es posible separar las distribuciones de frecuencias de tallas obtenidas en los muestreos, sin diferenciar el sexo, en las correspondientes a machos y hembras. Este procedimiento es especialmente útil cuando los sexos presentan diferencias de crecimiento o mortalidad.Sex identification of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, is difficult if not done in a laboratory, therefore most of the studies on this resource does not consider sexes separately. This paper describes a simple methodology to identify sex of the sea urchin, enabling the estimation of fishery-biological parameters separately for males and females. Through the described procedures, it is possible to separate by sex the length frequency distributions from samples taken without differentiating males from females. This procedure becomes specially useful when sexes show differences in growth or mortality.

  8. PRODUÇÃO DE Araucaria angustifolia O. Ktze. NA REGIÃO DO PLANALTO MÉDIO DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL.

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    Juarez Martins Hoppe

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado a produção de povoamentos de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., na região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Observou-se que a espécie apresenta uma variação muito grande de produção, representada por 7 índices de sítio, com intervalo de 2 metros de altura dominante na idade de referência de 40 anos. Foram ajustadas funções para estimar a altura, diâmetro, fator de forma e número de árvores por hectare, o que permitiu a confeção das tabelas de produção que retratam a situação do povoamento remanescente, desbaste e a produção total.

  9. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

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    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and several adjacent sites, located in the municipalities of Gonçalves and Camanducaia. We recorded 206 bird species, of which 57 (27.7% are endemic to the Atlantic forest. Several records represent the first specimens for Minas Gerais, in the hinterlands of Serra da Mantiqueira, proving that many Atlantic species also occur in the intern most slope of this mountain range. Examples are: Dysithamnus xanthopterus, Chamaeza ruficauda, Leptasthenura setaria, Heliobletus contaminatus, Hemitriccus obsoletus, Phylloscartes difficilis, Piprites pileata, Poospiza thoracica, and Cacicus chrysopterus. The region is also a previously unknown area of sympatry of other closely related species: Scytalopus notorius and S. speluncae, Lepidocolaptes squamatus and L. falcinellus, and Basileuterus culicivorus and B. hypoleucus. Both species of Lepidocolaptes and Basileuterus hybridize in the region. We also comment on the avifauna conservation, which have been threatened by eco-tourism, building of new styles of houses, domestic animals, forest fragmentation, and plantations.A avifauna das florestas de Araucaria das partes mais elevadas da Serra da Mantiqueira é pouco conhecida e documentada. Esta região é reconhecida como uma importante área de diferenciação de aves no sudeste do Brasil. Apresentamos o primeiro levantamento ornitológico das florestas de Araucaria e ambientes associados nas montanhas do extremo sul de Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira. A área de estudo

  10. The influence of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria Forest ecotones, southern Brazil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34, Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872, Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814 and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829 - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847 and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818 -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in native and in replanted Araucaria forest Comunidades de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em floresta nativa e replantada de Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Moreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an important Brazilian conifer, but it is endangered of extinction due to excessive logging. The objective of the present case study was to survey data on the diversity of AMF in Araucaria angustifolia forests, and to learn whether it is possible to discriminate between the AMF communities associated with natural, introduced, and impacted-by-anthropogenic-action ecosystems. Three ecosystems representative of the Campos do Jordão (São Paulo State, Brazil region were selected, as follows: (i a native climax forest, with predominance of Araucaria trees, without anthropogenic interference (NF, (ii Araucaria forest introduced in 1959 (RE, and (iii Araucaria forest introduced in 1958, submitted to accidental fire in July 2001 (RF. Sampling of rhizosphere soil was performed at a 0-20 cm depth around each Araucaria tree, and 2 m from the trunk, in the months of May and October, 2002. AMF spores were separated from the soil, counted, and taxonomically identified, while the roots were evaluated for mycorrhizal colonization. The ecological indices R (Richness, Is (Simpson's dominance index and H (Shannon's diversity index were calculated. All the data were submitted to univariate (two-way ANOVA and correspondence analysis (CA. Considering both samplings and the three areas, twenty-six AMF species were found, distributed among five genera, Acaulospora and Glomus being the most frequent ones. There were no differences among the three areas for R, Is, and H. CA demonstrated that there is a spatial separation among the three areas, and the AMF that preferentially associated with each area.A Araucaria angustifolia é uma importante conífera brasileira, mas encontra-se ameaçada de extinção. Levantaram-se dados sobre a diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs em florestas de Araucaria angustifolia, visando a discriminar entre as comunidades de FMAs associadas com ecossistemas natural, implantado e impactado pela a

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF THE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ON THE SITE CLASSIFICATION IN PLANTED FORESTS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze., BASED ON PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL SOIL FACTORS AND ON THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Eloidir José Gerhardt; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Solon Jonas Longhi; Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2010-01-01

    In this work, with the help of multivariate statistical techniques, it was studied the influence of morphological and physical soil factors and litter nutrient content on site classification of a 47 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. stand located on Canela National Forest, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A stratified sampling, covering three natural sites that received four angle-count sampling (ACS) each one, according to the methodology of BITTERLICH (1984) were install...

  13. Análisis de la expresión transcripcional del receptor de estrógeno en ovario de ovejas prepúberes de razas Texel y Criolla Araucana mediante RT-PCR cuantitativo en tiempo real

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    M Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado morfofuncional del sistema reproductivo de las ovejas es determinado por las hormonas sexuales, que actúan por medio de receptores específicos, desencadenando una serie de cambios celulares, metabólicos y proliferativos dependientes de la expresión de numerosos genes. A diferencia de otros mamíferos, las ovejas presentan en el endometrio y posiblemente otros órganos del sistema reproductivo receptores de estrógenos fisiológicamente activos desde la etapa prepuberal cuya función aún no está esclarecida. La información sobre la expresión de receptores de hormonas sexuales en el aparato reproductor es muy escasa, sobre todo en el ovario y no existen estudios que correlacionen la raza con la expresión de estos receptores. Generalmente los criadores privilegian razas de mayor nivel de prolificidad y esto podría estar relacionado con el nivel de expresión de los receptores de estrógeno en el sistema reproductivo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar comparativamente la expresión transcripcional del receptor de estrógeno en el ovario de ovejas prepúberes de raza Texel de alta prolificidad y de raza Criolla Araucana de prolificidad estándar, mediante análisis de RT-PCR en tiempo real cuantitativo.

  14. Actividad de polvo, extractos y aceite esencial de Peumus boldus Molina solos y en mezcla con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Aguayo, Gonzalo Iván

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero las propiedades insecticidas del polvo, aceite esencial y extracto en cloruro de metileno de Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), además del alcaloide boldina y el terpeno 1-8-cineol (eucaliptol), solos y en combinación con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Se realizaron bioensayos para evaluar mortalidad, efecto en el ciclo de vida y las preferencias alimenticias de l...

  15. Introducción al estudio de las mineralizaciones del Señorío y Tierra de Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Perelló, José M.; Octavio PUCHE RIART

    1992-01-01

    In this communication it's efected an introduction to the study of the mineralizations placed in the Señorio and Tierra de Molina de Aragón an historical demarcation of Guadalajara situated in the Sistema Ibérico. In this comunication, we will introduce the Study Castilian mineralizations between them, C/Ag are present as well as stratiform iron and copper mineralization.

  16. Horizontal structure of arboreal community under an Araucaria angustifolia stand and a Mixed Ombrophyllous Forest Estrutura horizontal da comunidade arbórea sob um povoamento com Araucaria angustifolia e uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista

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    Rafael Rode

    2010-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    The horizontal structure of the arboreal community under an Araucaria angustifolia stand with 60 years and a Mixed Ombrophyllous Forest in National Forest of Irati, Parana State - Brazil, were

  17. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

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    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  18. Relationships between microbial activity and soil physical and chemical properties in native and reforested Araucaria angustifolia forests in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jamil de Morais Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze is the main component of the Mixed Ombrophilous forest and, in the State of São Paulo, it is associated with a high diversity of soil organisms, essential for the maintenance of soil quality, making the conservation of this ecosystem a major and pressing challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the physical and chemical properties that are most closely correlated with dehydrogenase enzyme activity, basal respiration and microbial biomass under native (NF and replanted (RF Araucaria angustifolia forests in three regions of the state of São Paulo, in winter and summer. The main differentiating factors between the areas were also determined. Each forest was represented by three true replications; at each site, from around the araucaria trees, 15 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected to evaluate the soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties. At the same points, forest litter was sampled to assess mass and chemical properties. The following microbiological properties were evaluated: microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (CO2-C, metabolic quotient (Q: CO2, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA as well as the physical properties (moisture, bulk density, macroporosity and total porosity, soil chemical properties [pH, organic carbon (org-C, P, Ca, K, Mg, Al, H+Al], litter dry mass, and C, N and S contents. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (TWO-WAY: ANOVA. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA were also performed. In the soil under NF, the values of K, P, soil macroporosity, and litter dry mass were higher and Q: CO2 and DHA lower, regardless of the sampling period, and DHA was lower in winter. In the RF areas, the levels of moisture, porosity and Q: CO2 were higher in both sampling periods, and DHA was higher in winter. The MBC was only higher under NF in the summer, while the litter contents of C, N and S were greater in

  19. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  20. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  1. Extracts of Maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and Murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.): sources of antioxidant compounds and α-Glucosidase/α-Amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Mónica; Jara, Claudio; Poo, Yohany; Acevedo, Francisca; Gutierrez, Cristian; Sineiro, Jorge; Shene, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of crude, aqueous, and organic-aqueous extracts of maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.), together with their inhibiting effect on enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a micellar system, antihemolytic activity, and inhibition of α-amylases and α-glucosidases were analyzed. Crude extracts of maqui leaves and fruits were found to be important sources of polyphenolic compounds, showing 69.0 ± 0.9 and 45.7 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g dm, respectively. Polyphenols from maqui leaves were active as antioxidants and antihemolytic compounds (p < 0.05), showing a noncompetitive inhibiting effect on α-glucosidase. Flavan-3-ol polymers and glycosylated flavonols, such as quercetin glucoside and kaempferol glucoside, were tentatively identified in extracts. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further examination of the suitability of polyphenol-enriched extracts from maqui and murta as nutritional or medicinal supplements with potential human health benefits. PMID:21294510

  2. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  3. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

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    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  4. Tratamento de efluente de galvanoplastia por meio da biossorção de cromo e ferro com escamas da pinha da Araucaria angustifolia Treatment of effluent from galvanoplasty by biosorption of chromium and iron with cone scales from the Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Abreu dos Santos; Marçal Jose Rodrigues Pires; Marlize Cantelli

    2011-01-01

    Esse trabalho tem como objetivo testar o emprego das escamas da pinha da árvore Araucaria angustifolia na remoção de cromo e ferro de efluentes líquidos de galvanoplastia. Também é feito um comparativo com outros métodos de tratamento com vistas ao atendimento da legislação ambiental. As escamas da pinha são resíduos da coleta do pinhão, que é um alimento muito consumido na região sul do país. Nos ensaios de biossorção, foi otimizado o melhor desempenho desses resíduos para remoção dos metais...

  5. The effects of fragmentation on Araucaria forest: analysis of the fern and lycophyte communities at sites subject to different edge conditions

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    Vinícius Leão da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects impact species richness and composition as a result of environmental changes caused by fragmentation. This study analyzed edge effects on a community of terrestrial ferns and lycophytes in an Araucaria forest in Brazil at sites subjected to differing edge conditions: (1 a site bordering a road running through the interior of a conservation unit, and (2 a site bordering an agricultural property. Twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and in the interior of each site, and accounted for a total of 48 plots. The edges had lost their characteristic floristic identity, suggesting that many species are sensitive to variations in environmental conditions. The edge effect had a negative impact on species richness as shown by the greater average numbers of fern and lycophyte species in forest interiors at both sites. The results showed that the forest fragments in contact with agricultural areas were subjected to more intense edge effects than the fragments bordering a road within a conservation unit.

  6. Caracterización de los suelos de usos agrícolas e industrial de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) para una planificación racional del territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez García, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende conocer la situación actual de los suelos de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) así como ver si presentan una planificación racional del territorio ya que no había estudios anteriores que caracterizaran tan detalladamente los tipos y usos de los suelos de esta comarca. Los dos principales tipos de suelos presentes son Regosoles calcáricos (suelos poco evolucionados con un horizonte A ócrico en superficie como único horizonte diagnóstico y con abundante car...

  7. Distribución paleogeográfica de las unidades del Pérmico y del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] En los sistemas Pérmico y Triásico del sector Molina de Aragón- Albarracín (Cordillera Ibérica) se pueden diferenciar dieciséis unidades litoestratigráficas. La inferior no ha podido datarse en esta zona, pero por su posición estratigráfica y características litológicas puede ser equivalente a unidades descritas como "Autuniense" por autores previos, en áreas próximas. Por encima aparece una unidad terrígena correspondiente a las facies Saxoniense, que al SE es concorda...

  8. Araucaria angustifolia management by Liocourt quotient in rural field, Painel municipality, SC, Brazil Manejo de araucaria angustifolia pelo quociente de Liocourt em propriedade rural no Município de Painel, SC

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    Andre Felipe Hess

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to calculate the ratio of Liocourt in natural forest with 50 hectares of Araucaria angustifolia. The diameter distribution behaved as expected for native forests, generating a distribution curve similar to an inverted-J. The forest showed 456 araucaria trees per hectare with diameter at breast hight (DBH above 10 cm and basal area of 24.64 m² ha-1. The value of the Liocourt quotient was 1.3, and 54 trees per hectare with 40 cm of DHB can be removed, with a reduction of 2.70 m² ha-1 of basal area or 135 m² total basal area and 34 trees per hectare for a 50 cm of DBH with a reduction of 1.9 m² ha-1 or 95 m² total basal area. Considering only the commercial classes (DBH ≥ 40 cm this withdrawal represents a reduction of 9.5% for the basal area to the diameter of 40 cm and 6.9% to the diameter of 50 cm.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.111

  1. Behavior of the hypsometric relationship of Araucaria angustifolia in the forest copse of the faculty of forest – Federal University of Paraná, Brazil Comportamento da relação hipsométrica de Araucaria angustifolia no capão da Engenharia Florestal da UFPR

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to test and select mathematics models for estimating total heigh (ht and bole high (hb, as a function of DBH, as well as, to establish the dendrometric relationship  between ht/hb. The data came from measurements of diameters (DBH, total height and bole height of all Araucaria angustifolia trees from an Ombrophylous Mix Forest fragment of 15,24 ha situated in the Botanical Garden Campus of the UFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brazil. Thirteen  models were tested, including arithmetic, logarithmic and nonlinear  models, such as Chapman-Richards and Mitschertich or monomolecular adapted; the nonlinear models were fitted by the Levenberg-Marquart algorithm. The statistic criteria for selecting the best models were the graphic analysis of residuals, Standard error of estimate in percentage (Syx% and adjusted determination coefficient (R2 aj. The R2 aj were very low for all fitted models, characterizing an advanced and asymptotic stage of the species under study. The best equation for estimating ht was that one proposed by Stoffels & Van Soest, and for hf the Curtis equation in its logarithmic form, chosen due to its statistics values and easy utilization. The adjusted linear equation to estimate total height as a function of bole height presented R2 aj = 0.88 and Syx% = 5 %, characterizing a strong relationship between these two variables.Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos testar e selecionar os melhores modelos matemáticos para estimar
    a altura total (ht e a altura de fuste (hf, em função do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, bem como estabelecer a
    relação dendrométrica entre ht/hf. Os dados provieram da medição de diâmetros, altura total e altura de fuste de
    todas as araucárias existentes no fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de 15,2 hectares, situado no Campus
    Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Curitiba, PR. Foram testados 13 modelos, incluindo
    modelos aritm

  2. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch Efeito da hidrólise ácida nas propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido de pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis

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    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p As propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido nativo e modificado (hidrólise ácida de pinhão (Araucaria angustifólia foram comparadas às propriedades do amido nativo e ácido hidrolisado de milho. As espécies de amido foram hidrolisadas (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 horas e avaliadas, antes e após a reação de hidrólise, de acordo com as análises de formação, fusão e termorreversão do gel, retrogradação (em um período de 30 dias, com medidas a cada 3 dias, estabilidade ao congelamento e descongelamento (após 6 ciclos de congelamento e descongelamento, poder de inchamento e índice de solubilidade. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o amido de pinhão apresenta menor tendência à retrogradação quando comparado ao amido

  3. Propagules removal in fragments of native forest and in reforested areas in an Araucaria Forest region of Paraná State Remoção de propágulos em fragmento de floresta nativa e reflorestamentos numa região de Floresta Ombrófila Mista do estado do Paraná

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    Yves Rafael Bovolenta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A question that has been discussed is the role that reforestations with exotic species in native fauna and several studies have shown that removal of propagules is lower in these environments. This study compared the removal rate of propagules (araucaria seeds, peanuts, corn from areas of native forest (FN, reforestations of Pinus taeda L. (RP, Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE and Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. In FN all propagules were removed. There was no difference in the removal of araucaria seeds between FN and RA, and removal rate in both areas differ from the removal rate in the RP and RE. In RP there was high removal of peanuts, while the RE showed the lowest value of removal of the three propagules. The low removal rates in reforestation of pine and eucalyptus reflect the decreased exploitation of these habitats for wildlife, which may be related to a poorly structured understory. Uma questão que tem sido discutida é o papel das monoculturas florestais exóticas na manutenção da fauna nativa e vários estudos têm mostrado que a remoção de propágulos é menor nesses ambientes. O presente trabalho comparou a taxa de remoção de propágulos (pinhão, amendoim, milho entre áreas de Floresta Nativa (FN, Reflorestamentos de Pinus taeda L. (RP, de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE e Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. Na FN, todos os propágulos foram removidos e não houve diferença significativa na remoção de pinhão entre a FN e o RA. A remoção de propágulos nessas áreas diferiu da remoção no RP e RE. No RP, houve alta remoção de amendoim, enquanto que o RE apresentou os menores valores de remoção dos três propágulos. As baixas taxas de remoção nos reflorestamentos de pinus e eucalipto refletem a menor exploração desses habitas pela fauna, o que pode estar relacionado com um subosque pouco estruturado.

  4. Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil Medicinal plants in a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest, Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    D. Martins-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar dados químicos, biológicos e etnobotânicos na literatura científica de espécies medicinais de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana. A base para este estudo foi um levantamento florístico realizado na Fazenda das Nascentes, Urupema-SC entre agosto de 2007 e setembro de 2008. A partir da lista de espécies que resultou deste levantamento, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o potencial medicinal das espécies inventariadas. Para as espécies com dados de ação medicinal, foi elaborada chave de identificação vegetativa. Das 64 espécies listadas foram encontradas informações na bibliografia consultada sobre o potencial medicinal de 29. As principais familias foram Asteraceae (oito espécies e Myrtaceae (três espécies. O hábito que mais se destacou entre as plantas com potencial medicinal foi o arbóreo (13 espécies. O componente químico de maior ocorrência entre as espécies foi o óleo essencial (60% das espécies. As atividades terapêuticas mais citadas na literatura consultadas foram antimicrobiana, anti-oxidante, anti-inflamatória, antiviral, antifúngica e anestésica. Os resultados encontrados indicam o imenso potencial econômico da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e ambientes associados como fonte de recursos naturais que fazem parte da cultura e do patrimônio catarinense.The aim of this work was to search for chemical, biological and ethnobotanical data in the scientific literature on medicinal species from a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest. This study was based on the floristics performed in "Fazenda das Nascentes", Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between August 2007 and September 2008. From the list of species obtained in this survey, a review on the medicinal potential of these recorded species was done. A vegetative identification key was elaborated for species with medicinal action Information about medicinal

  5. Taquara bamboo control as an alternative to recovery of the Araucaria Forest Controle de taquaras como alternativa para a recuperação da Floresta com Araucária

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    Carlos Roberto Sanquetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Native bamboos occur abundantly in forests with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia that were
    highly disturbed by anthropogenic causes. The occupation of the competitive space by these plants may indicate that there is a dependency relationship between the establishment of tree seedlings and bamboos in the ecosystem. This study aimed at evaluating the establishment of seedlings of tree species that appeared naturally in an area strongly dominated by bamboos in the understory. An  experiment of mechanical control of bamboos
    was established in the municipality of General Carneiro, southern Paraná State, with 1.00 hectare, following the
    completely randomized design. The results showed that felling of bamboos may be effective to stimulate the
    appearance of many species and also to increase seedling density. Mechanical bamboo control by felling,
    combined with its biomass removal and understory thinning, is effective to stimulate seedling establishment of the majority of species in the forest. In general, it can be concluded that response of the forest to management practices is quite quick. Few months after the effect of bamboo control on the regeneration of the tree species might be clearly noticed. This suggests that management practices may be very effective to the restoration of degraded ecosystems.Taquaras ocorrem abundantemente em florestas antropizadas com Araucaria angustifolia. Evidências
    levam a crer que existe uma relação de dependência entre a sua presença e o grau de estabelecimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o estabelecimento de plântulas espontaneamente regeneradas em áreas com forte presença de taquaras. Foi instalado um experimento no extremo sul do Paraná, com área de um hectare, por delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os resultados aos 18 meses revelaram que o corte das taquaras provocou o reaparecimento de

  6. Multiple use forest management: an alternative to the extinction of the Araucaria Forest? Manejo florestal de uso múltiplo: uma alternativa contra a extinção com Floresta com Araucária?

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    Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates the adoption of forest management methods that are consistent with the
    principles of sustainable development and respectful of multiple forest use as a means to efficiently revert the
    fragmentation process of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest (FOM or Araucaria Forest. The problems related to this endangered forest type are discussed within the context of progressive land use changes observed in its
    region of natural occurrence. Some concepts of forest management are presented, as well as the new approaches related to the paradigm of sustainability and the focus on other benefits provided by the forest, besides wood products solely. It is also discussed the present trend observed in society, which favors preservation policies, and the obstacles for adopting forest management practices in the FOM. The reasons for the inexpressive role played by the forest component in the incomes of small and medium landowners are analyzed and the rural poverty is considered a determinant factor. The management of the Araucaria Forest based on regulation methods
    is proposed as a means of enhancing forest conditions in what concerns its structure, species composition and
    reproductive capabilities, besides achieving sustainable yields of timber and non-timber products. The main
    characteristics of the use of the selection method are described.O artigo defende a adoção do manejo florestal de uso múltiplo como forma eficaz de reverter a
    tendência de fragmentação e degradação da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM ou Floresta de Araucária, considerada em perigo de extinção pela gradual conversão de uso do solo na sua região de ocorrência natural. Apresenta-se a evolução do conceito de manejo florestal com as mudanças de paradigma observadas na sociedade, como a sustentabilidade e o enfoque sobre múltiplos bens e serviços produzidos pela floresta, além dos madeireiros. São discutidas as tendências da

  7. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

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    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF THE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS ON THE SITE CLASSIFICATION IN PLANTED FORESTS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., BASED ON PHYSICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL SOIL FACTORS AND ON THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENT

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    Eloidir José Gerhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, with the help of multivariate statistical techniques, it was studied the influence of morphological and physical soil factors and litter nutrient content on site classification of a 47 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. stand located on Canela National Forest, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A stratified sampling, covering three natural sites that received four angle-count sampling (ACS each one, according to the methodology of BITTERLICH (1984 were installed. In the area of the ACS the tree with the average dominant height was felled for the trunk analysis and determination of the height growth, as defined by  Pollanchütz,  and  soil  samples at deeps of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm  were  collected with am extractive cylinder. These samples were equidistantly distributed under the crown projection of the average dominant tree. Later, each sample was divided into two geometric horizons, A1 e A2, from which the physical characteristics of the soil were determined. Litter samples were obtained and their chemical content was analyzed. The cluster analysis classified the group of observations into three distinct groups, according to their locations in the different natural sites. The discriminant analysis confirmed the efficiency of the groupings and indicated, with a significance level of 0.01, that the variables soil depth, contents of clay, fine sand and loam, soil density and height mean annual increment presented a higher discriminating power of separating the groups. The first one corresponds to the site of higher yearly mean growth in height and it is located on the plains and low hillsides, where soils, are deep, loamy and sandy. The second, correspond to the lower height growth sites, located on intermontane plains which occurs in the form of irregular lowlands where soils are deep, clay, compacted and with rock residuals along its profile. The third, with yearly mean growth in height intermediary when compared

  9. Predação de sementes ao longo de uma borda de Floresta Ombrófila Mista e pastagem Seed predation along an edge gradient between Araucaria forest and pasture

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    Ronei Baldissera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o processo de predação de sementes em três árvores nativas (Mimosa scabrella Bentham, Prunus sellowii Koehne e Myrsine laetevirens Mez. ao longo de uma borda de Floresta Ombrófila Mista e pastagem, na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil. Grupos de sementes foram distribuídos em dez pontos aleatórios nas distâncias: 0m, 25m, 50m, 100m e 250m da borda para dentro da floresta e 5m e 50m da borda para dentro da pastagem. As sementes foram monitoradas até a predação total ou até esgotado o tempo para germinação. Houve redução nas taxas de predação de sementes até 50m da borda para dentro da floresta em relação ao interior da floresta e da pastagem. M. scabrella e M. laetevirens apresentaram redução nas taxas de predação de sementes na pastagem próxima à borda da floresta. Os resultados indicam que houve decréscimo na atividade de predadores de sementes nas proximidades da borda florestal estudada, podendo ocorrer maior regeneração de plantas próximo à borda e um avanço da floresta na pastagem adjacente.This study aims to evaluate how seed predation of three native tree species (Mimosa scabrella Bentham, Prunus sellowii Koehne, and Myrsine laetevirens Mez. could be altered along an edge between Araucaria forest and pasture at the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Groups of seeds were placed at ten random points in each of the following distances from the forest edge: 0m, 25m, 50m, 100m, and 250m from the edge into the forest, and 5m and 50m from the edge into the pasture. Seeds were monitored until total predation or until their time for germination was over. Seed predation rates decreased from the edge up to 50m inside the forest in relation to the forest interior and open pasture. M. scabrella and M. laetevirens showed a reduction in seed predation rates in pasture points that were located at the vicinities of the forest

  10. Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest

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    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cerejeira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias, com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias, com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie.Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days, with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days, with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between

  11. PLAN DE ECOEFICIENCIA EN EL USO DEL AGUA POTABLE Y ANÁLISIS DE SU CALIDAD EN LAS ÁREAS ACADÉMICAS Y ADMINISTRATIVAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINA

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    Orlando Advíncula Zeballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de línea base para establecer un plan de Ecoeficiencia para el uso del Agua potable en las instalaciones de las áreas académicas y administrativas de la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina (UNALM, entre Se tiembre del 2011 y Agos to del año 2012, de acuerdo a la metodología propuesta por el Ministerio del Ambiente (MINAM en el 2009, como consecuencia de la promulgación de la Ley N° 29289 que determina que todas las instituciones del Estado deben adoptar medidas de ecoeficiencia. En este sentido, el presente estudio se elaboró con el objetivo de que la UNALM esté a la par con otras instituciones que ya cuentan con una línea base, la cual incluye un inventario de los equipos sanitarios, la identificación de prácticas inadecuadas y la evaluación del consumo de agua en las áreas administrativas y académicas. Durante la etapa de formulación del plan de ecoeficiencia se tomó las conclusiones de la línea base para identificar las medidas a adoptar en la minimización del consumo del agua. Se encontró que la UNALM posee equipos sanitarios antiguos con elevados consumos de agua y en mal estado; siendo el sector de los estudiantes el más crítico, con un 21% de equipos (inodoros y urinarios en mal estado. Mediante la división del consumo de agua y el promedio de personas en las instalaciones se obtuvo el consumo diario de agua promedio per cápita para los profesores fue de 14.38 litros/persona y para el personal administrativo de la Biblioteca Agrícola Nacional (BAN de 9.89 litros/persona, valores que estuvieron por debajo del valor establecido por el MINAM para instituciones públicas (82.1 litros/persona. Los análisis físico-químicos y microbiológicos realizados al agua utilizada en los servicios higiénicos de los alumnos, facultades y el Rectorado, han determinando que no cumplen con los parámetros exigidos en la Ley de Aguas para Consumo Humano. En base al diagnóstico realizado con la informaci

  12. A comunidade de peixes de um riacho de Floresta com Araucária, alto rio Iguaçu, sul do Brasil The fish community in an Araucaria Forest stream, upper Iguaçu River basin, southern Brazil

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    Vinicius Abilhoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição, a dieta, as táticas alimentares e ocupação espacial da ictiofauna em um pequeno riacho dentro de um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária. Seis espécies de peixes foram coletadas, pertencentes a três ordens e quatro famílias, totalizando 110 exemplares. No ambiente de corredeira foram coletados e observados apenas Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911, enquanto que no ambiente de remanso foram observados e capturados exemplares de Astyanax aff. scabripinnis (sensu Eigenmann, 1921, Astyanax totae Haluch & Abilhoa, 2005, Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992, T. davisi, Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 e Jenynsia eigenmanni Haseman, 1911. Dezoito itens alimentares de origem autóctone, seis de alóctone e três de origem incerta foram identificados e tiveram sua freqüência de ocorrência calculada. Uma grande quantidade de itens exclusivos foi registrada, todavia os insetos constituíram a base alimentar mais importante, principalmente na forma de fragmentos e estágios imaturos (larvas e pupas, o que permitiu inferências a respeito de sobreposição alimentar. As espécies registradas no riacho foram classificadas em quatro guildas tróficas e quatro grupos funcionais. As espécies estudadas são capazes de utilizar diversos recursos alimentares e microambientes, o que é favorecido provavelmente pelo seu pequeno porte. O remanescente florestal estudado exerce grande importância no fornecimento de alimento, hábitats e refúgios, fatores importantes para manutenção da biota aquática.The species composition, diet, feeding tactics, and spatial occupation of fishes in a headwater stream which flows within a remaining fragment of Araucaria Forest were studied. One hundred and ten fishes of six species were collected, members of three orders and four families. In riffle areas, only Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911 were

  13. Vitalidad Etnolingüística de la Lengua Araucana

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    Gastón Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available En el largo proceso histórico vivido por el o los pueblos araucanos quizás el rasgo cultural más persistente haya sido y sea su lengua. Un examen de la primera gramática escrita para ella por el jesuita Luis de Valdivia en 1606, hace 377 años, muestra en realidad muy poca diferencia con el idioma que aún hablan en determinadas situaciones sociales los mapuches contemporáneos a lo largo y ancho del territorio que ocupan.

  14. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. R.; Dinator, M. I.; Cerda, P.

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm 2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center.

  15. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, M.I. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Fisica); Cerda, P. (Bio-Bio Univ., Chillan (Chile))

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce /sup 11/C and /sup 13/N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm/sup 2/. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center. (orig.).

  16. Produção de serapilheira em Floresta Ombrófila Mista, em São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Litterfall in a Araucaria angustifolia forest in São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    A. Backes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa visou avaliar a dinâmica de produção, acúmulo e decomposição de serapilheira de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, localizada no município de São Francisco de Paula, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A Floresta Nacional está localizada entre as coordenadas 29º24' e 29º27'S e 50º22'e 50º25'W e sua altitude máxima é de 923m. O fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, objeto do presente estudo, é formado por numerosos espécimes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, e por diversas espécies consorciadas, entre as quais destacam-se Blepharocalyx salicifolius (H.B. & K. Berg, Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil., Tabebuia umbellata (Sond. Sandwith e várias espécies dos gêneros Ocotea e Nectandra. A produção de serapilheira foi avaliada por coletas mensais, durante dois anos, com o auxílio de 15 coletores de 0,80×1m, distribuídos num hectare de floresta. A serapilheira acumulada foi avaliada pela coleta, em 72 pontos diferentes, de todo o material vegetal reconhecido como tal, depositado sobre o solo florestal, numa área de um metro quadrado, em cada ponto. A taxa de decomposição foi calculada pela relação entre o total anual de serapilheira produzida e o total acumulado A floresta produziu, em média, 10.305,88kg/ha/ano de serapilheira, e acumula, em média, 14.296,00kg/ha. O tempo necessário para decompor 50% foi de 316 dias com uma taxa de decomposição correspondente a K = 0,86.The present work was conducted out in São Francisco de Paula National Forest, located in the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, at ca. 29º24' to 29º27'S and 50º22' to 50º25'W and the maximum altitude of 923m. The objective of this work was to avaluate the production, accumlation and decomposition of litter in a Araucaria angustifolia forest in south Brazil. The forest presented numerous specimens of Araucaria

  17. DYNAMICS OF CARBON STOCK IN ARAUCARIA FOREST IN PARANÁ WITH THE AID OF CO2FIX SOFTWARE AND SIMULATION SCENARIO REDD PROJECT = DINÂMICA DO ESTOQUE DE CARBONO EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA NO PARANÁ UTILIZANDO SOFTWARE CO2FIX E SIMULAÇÃO DE CENÁRIO DE PROJETO REDD

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    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a typical forest type in southern Brazil, and currently widely devastated much less than its original extension area. Thus, REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation projects can be an alternative for its conservation. The present study aimed to evaluate the carbon stock in the typology and simulate a scenario of REDD. The increment of the forest was obtained using continuous forest inventory data in General Carneiro, Paraná, Brazil, from 1999 to 2013. The species were divided into three groups: araucaria, white wood and canellas. The estimated carbon in the area ranged from 81.53 Mg.ha-1 in 1999 to 88.44 Mg.ha-1 in 2013, being the group with the largest share of white carbon fixed in the period. The simulation scenario resulted in REDD 198,850.03 Mg CO2 eq. no longer issued because the second base line adopted is believed that about 600 hectares of forest tend to be deforested in the absence of the project. The estimation method used in this study, it is concluded that the forest has increased in carbon and REDD projects may be interesting to obtain alternative income with native forests. = A Floresta Ombrófila Mista é uma tipologia florestal típica do sul do Brasil, amplamente devastada e atualmente com área muito inferior a sua extensão original. Assim, projetos REDD (Redução de Emissões por Desmatamento e Degradação Florestal podem ser uma alternativa para sua conservação. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o estoque de carbono na tipologia e simular um cenário de REDD. O incremento da floresta foi obtido utilizando dados de inventário florestal contínuo em General Carneiro, Paraná, Brasil, do período de 1999 a 2013. As espécies foram divididas em três grupos: araucárias, brancas e canelas. O carbono estimado na área variou de 81,53 Mg.ha-1 em 1999 a 88,44 Mg.ha-1 em 2013, sendo o grupo das brancas com maior participação em carbono fixado no período. A simula

  18. Composição florística e distribuição sazonal do banco de sementes em Floresta Ombrófila Mista Aluvial, Araucária, PR Floristic composition and distribution of soil seed bank in Subtropical Ombrophilous Alluvial Forest in Araucaria, Parana State, Brazil

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    Saulo Henrique Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa avaliou-se o banco de sementes do solo em um remanescente da Floresta Ombrófila Mista Aluvial, em Araucária, PR, através da análise quali-quantitativa da germinação. Adicionalmente, foi verificado se houve variação sazonal do banco. Localizado no Primeiro Planalto Paranaense, o remanescente encontra-se sob influência do rio Barigüi, tributário do rio Iguaçu. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, formadas por amostras compostas. O banco de sementes foi coletado em três estações do ano, sendo retiradas amostras de 10 cm de profundidade com serrapilheira, com auxílio de um gabarito quadrado de 40 cm de lado. As amostras de cada estação foram dispostas em caixas de madeira em casa de vegetação, por oito meses. Foi observada a ocorrência média, nas três estações, de 5.732 sementes m-2, pertencentes a 276 espécies, distribuídas em 120 gêneros e 54 famílias, num total de 34.780 sementes germinadas. O tamanho do banco de sementes não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. A composição florística do banco de sementes é influenciada pelas áreas antropizadas do entorno.doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.77In this research it was evaluated the potential of the soil seed bank in a remaining of Subtropical Ombrophilous Alluvial Forest (Araucaria Forest, by quali-quantitative analysis of seed germination. Additionally it was tested the occurrence of seasonal variation of the soil seed bank. The forest remaining located in Araucaria county, Parana State, Brazil, and it is influenced by Barigui river, affluent of Iguaçu river. It was used the completely randomized experimental design with ten replications. The soil seed bank was collected in three seasons at depth (of 10 cm plus litter, using a 0.40 m x 0.40 m sample square. The collected samples were placed in wood boxes in greenhouse, during 8 months. It was observed a season average of 5,732 individuals m-2

  19. Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Caroline Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pólen, esporos e demais palinomorfos preservados em sedimentos são material de referência básico em estudos paleoambientais. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar a taxonomia de palinomorfos correspondentes a fungos e criptógamas contidos em sedimentos do interior de duas matas com Araucária do Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul e, assim, fornecer subsídios para reconstituições paleoambientais na região. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares holocênicos de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; perfil 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. São apresentados palinomorfos de oito fungos, seis algas, cinco briófitos e 19 pteridófitos. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações e, sempre que possível, de dados ecológicos do organismo de origem. A grande quantidade de palinomorfos distintos, bem preservados nos sedimentos, mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes, junto com grãos de pólen, no estudo da gênese e expansão da mata com Araucária.Pollen, spores and other palynomorphs preserved in sediments are basic reference material for palaeoenvironmental studies. The aim of this research is to present the taxonomy of fungal and cryptogamic palynomorphs contained in sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, thus contributing to palaeoenvironmental reconstitution in the region. The analysis involved samples from two Holocene sedimentary profiles from São Francisco de Paula (profile 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; profile 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using

  20. 与瓠瓜品系'J083'白粉病抗性基因连锁的SCAR分子标记%SCAR marker linked to resistance gene of powdery mildew in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] breeding line J083

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲平; 吴晓花; 汪宝根; 徐沛; 李国景

    2011-01-01

    The genetic analysis of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] resistance to powdery mildew was evaluated with a highly resistant breeding line J083 and a highly susceptible breeding line J73 and their F1, F2 populations. The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew in J083 was controlled by a single recessive gene. From 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pair combinations, a pair of stable polymorphic AFLP markers (E-ATG/M-CTC), 105 bp in size was obtained. The AFLP fragment was then converted to a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker, named as GPDSATG/CTC75. This SCAR marker could be used effectively for molecular markerassisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs to develop bottle gourd cultivars resistance to powdery mildew.%以瓠瓜抗白粉病品系'J083'和感病品系'J73'及它们的F1代和F2代分离群体为试验材料,经接种鉴定和抗性遗传规律分析表明:瓠瓜品系'J083'对白粉病的抗性受单隐性基因控制;从100对扩增片段长度多态性(AFLP)引物组合中获得稳定的多态性引物组合1对,即E-ATG/M-CTC;经回收、测序,特异片段全长为105 bp,并成功将其转化为序列特征性扩增区域(SCAR)标记;经连锁分析,该SCAR标记与白粉病抗性基因的连锁距离为9.6 cM,将其命名为GPDSATG/CTC75.此标记可用于瓠瓜抗白粉病品种的辅助选育.

  1. Accuracy and efficiency evaluation of point-centered quarter method variations for vegetation sampling in an araucaria forest Avaliação da eficiência e precisão de variações do método quadrante centrado em um ponto para o levantamento de vegetação em uma floresta de araucária

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    Graziele Hernandes Volpato

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify Point-Centered Quarter Method (PCQM accuracy and efficiency, using different numbers of individuals by per sampled area, in 28 quarter points in an Araucaria forest, southern Paraná, Brazil. Three variations of the PCQM were used for comparison associated to the number of sampled individual trees: standard PCQM (SD-PCQM, with four sampled individuals by point (one in each quarter, second measured (VAR1-PCQM, with eight sampled individuals by point (two in each quarter, and third measuring (VAR2-PCQM, with 16 sampled individuals by points (four in each quarter. Thirty-one species of trees were recorded by the SD-PCQM method, 48 by VAR1-PCQM and 60 by VAR2-PCQM. The level of exhaustiveness of the vegetation census and diversity index showed an increasing number of individuals considered by quadrant, indicating that VAR2-PCQM was the most accurate and efficient method when compared with VAR1-PCQM and SD-PCQM.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a precisão e a eficiência do método Quadrante Centrado em um Ponto (PCQM, usando diferentes números de indivíduos por amostra, em 28 unidades amostrais em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista no sul do Paraná, Brasil. Foram comparadas três variações do método com relação ao número de indivíduos amostrados: primeira variação (SD-PCQM, amostragem com quatro indivíduos por ponto (um por quadrante, segunda variação (VAR1-PCQM, amostragem com oito indivíduos por ponto (dois em cada quadrante, e terceira variação (VAR2-PCQM, amostragem com 16 indivíduos por ponto (quatro indivíduos em cada quadrante. Foram registradas 31 espécies pelo SD-PCQM, 48 pelo VAR1-PCQM e 60 espécies pelo VAR2-PCQM. O nível de eficiência da amostragem da vegetação e o índice de diversidade apresentaram um acréscimo de acordo com o número de indivíduos por quadrante, incluídos na amostra, indicando que o VAR2-PCQM foi o mais preciso e eficiente método quando comparado com VAR1-PCQM

  2. Precondições para parcerias público-privadas em municípios: um estudo exploratório do caso de Araucária - PR Pre-requisites for public-private partnerships in municipalities: the case of Araucaria - PR

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    Sandro Aparecido Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Os anos 90 foram marcados, entre outros eventos, pela privatização de empresas estatais. Além disso, observou-se também grande número de concessões do patrimônio público à gestão privada. Independentemente do julgamento sobre o sucesso ou fracasso dessas experiências, o início desta década, e especificamente a sob a égide do governo Lula e da concepção teórica do ex-Ministro do Planejamento, Guido Mantega, o relacionamento entre o setor público e o setor privado foi reformulado, sendo conhecido agora como Parcerias Público-Privadas - PPP's. O presente trabalho buscou avaliar as precondições para a implantação desse novo modelo no Município de Araucária. Para tanto, entrevistaram-se dezenove atores sociais relevantes, que foram questionados sobre aspectos diversos das possibilidades e demandas locais. O tratamento dos dados foi qualitativo, seguido de análise quantitativa, com base em um estudo de características exploratórias. Os resultados encontrados indicam amplo desconhecimento da lei e preocupações quanto ao planejamento futuro do município.During the nineties many government companies underwent privatization and a large number of concessions of public property were made to private management. Irrespective of the appraisal of success or failure of these undertakings, in the beginning of this decade, and more specifically during the Lula government and the theoretical concept of the former Planning Minister, Guido Mantega, the relationship between the public and private sectors has been redefined as Public-Private Partnerships (PPP. This article assessed pre-requisites for implementing this new model of PPP in the city of Araucaria. Nineteen relevant social actors were interviewed about different aspects of possibilities and local requirements. Data were given qualitative treatment followed by quantitative analysis, based on a study of exploratory characteristics. Results indicate a widespread lack of knowledge

  3. Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR

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    Joselia Maria Schuber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA e Convencional (PC sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco métodos de amostragens: visual em plantas de pessegueiros e em plantas invasoras; armadilhas Möericke; funil e adesivas. No sistema BPA, foram coletados mais espécimes de inimigos naturais (53%, em relação aos pomares PCs (46%, havendo a ocorrência, em ambos, de predadores das famílias Syrphidae, Coccinellidae e Chrysopidae e parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera. Do total de inimigos naturais coletados, verificou-se a ocorrência de maior quantidade de predadores de afídeos.The pressure of the society has forced the adoption of more sustainable fruit production systems and with less environmental impact. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of production systems of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Conventional Production (CP, about the diversity of natural enemies of aphids present on six orchards of peach trees in the city of Araucaria, PR, from July 2005 to September 2006. The evaluation of the number of natural enemies of aphid's species was made by means of five sampling methods: visual in plants of peach trees; visual in invading plants; yellow water traps of Möericke type; funnel and adhesive traps. In the system GPA, more specimens of natural enemies had been collected (53% in relation to orchards CP (46%, having the occurrence, in both orchards, of predators of the Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae family and parasitoids of Hymenoptera order. Concerning the total of collected natural enemies, it was

  4. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LONG GOURD LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca for food

  5. Equações de volume para galhos de espécies em diferentes grupos de valor econômico em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista / Selection of mathematical equations to estimate the volume of branches for diferent groups of economic value in an Araucaria Forest

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    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi testar equações matemáticas e estimar o volume de galhos para espécies de três grupos de valor econômico em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, situada na região nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizada a cubagem rigorosa dos galhos de 287 árvores-amostra. Além dos galhos de cada árvore selecionada, o restante do fuste comercial (resíduo foi considerado na determinação do volume total de galhos. As árvores-amostra selecionadas foram separadas e classificadas em grupos de valor econômico. Dez modelos volumétricos foram testados, sendo que para a seleção do melhor modelo foram analisados o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o coeficiente de variação; os desvios médios relativos, desvio absoluto relativo, o valor ponderado e a distribuição gráfica dos valores residuais. A divisão da floresta em grupos de valor comercial mostrou-se eficiente no ajuste de equações matemáticas. As equações selecionadas para estimar o volume de galhos foram: “1 de Meyer”, para o grupo de baixo valor; a “5 de Spurr”, para o grupo de médio valor, a “2 de Meyer – modificada”, para o grupo de alto valor comercial; e a “equação 3, de Naslund – modificada”, para a floresta.AbstractThe objective of this study was to test mathematical equations, and estimate the volume of branches for groups of three species of economic value in an area of Araucaria Forest, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul. Rigorous scaling of branches of 287 sample trees were performed. Besides considering the branches of each tree selected, the rest of the commercial tree trunks (residue were taken into account for the determination of the total amount of branches. The selected sample trees were separated and classified into groups of economic value. Ten volumetric models were tested. For selecting the best model, the analysis focused on the determination coefficient, the

  6. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil Comunidade de aves em um fragmento de floresta de araucária em relação a mudanças na paisagem circundante no sul do Brasil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation Este estudo avaliou a dinâmica da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal ao longo de sete anos e correlacionou às mudanças ocorridas na paisagem circundante. A área de estudo localiza-se na Região Sul do Brasil (Estado do Paraná e a vegetação está representada por Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O período de amostragem ocorreu entre os anos de 1988 a 1994 e o método utilizado foi captura-marcação e recaptura. Para análise da mudança no uso e cobertura da paisagem foram utilizadas imagens Landsat TM e um sistema de informação geográfico. Quatro classes foram usadas, sendo: plantios com espécies exóticas, floresta nativa, capoeiras (vegetação nativa < 2 m de altura e áreas abertas (campo abandonado, pastagens, área agrícola e solo exposto. Foi analisada a relação entre as mudanças na paisagem e as mudanças na abundância e diversidade de aves de floresta, de área aberta, de borda e especialistas de bambu. Foram calculadas as estimativas de riqueza para cada ano estudado. A riqueza registrada na área de estudo foi de 96 espécies e as estimativas foram 114, 118 e 110 espécies para Chao 1, Jackknife 1 e Bootstrap, respectivamente. A comunidade de aves variou em abundância, riqueza e diversidade entre os anos estudados. Considerando a diversidade de espécies, os valores observados em 1991, 1993 e 1994 foram significativamente diferentes. As modificações na paisagem tamb

  7. Diseño de modelo de responsabilidad social empresarial en pyme constructora araucana

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Barrios, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    La Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) y/o Corporativa (RSC), ha tenido gran importancia en las décadas de los 80's y 90's, sin embargo a partir del año 2000 se ha convertido en un fenómeno global que ha presentado variaciones en su práctica, y ha tomado de manera significativa un lugar en las organizaciones, emergiendo como una preocupación operativa, estratégica y como un movimiento social y corporativo, que forma parte de una compleja reestructuración del papel y la posición de los ne...

  8. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  9. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure. PMID:11004549

  10. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  11. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  12. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina 1782 and C. chinchilla (Lichtenstein 1830: review of their distribution and new findings

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    Valladares, P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of Chinchilla chinchilla and C. lanigera were killed during the early twentieth century and they were nearly hunted to extinction. In order to establish the current range of distribution of these two wild species and to localize possible new colonies, we used the available scientific literature, technical reports, information from residents, and live trapping methods. Both species are ‘critically endangered’ since their current distribution is highly fragmented and all recognized colonies are small and isolated. We report a small new wild colony of C. lanigera in the Atacama region, Chile.

  13. Electrophoretic mobility as a tool to separate immune adjuvant saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Weng, Alexander; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Stöshel, Anja; Nissi, Linda; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Thakur, Mayank

    2015-06-20

    Quillaja saponins are used as adjuvants in animal vaccines but their application in human vaccination is still under investigation. Isolation and characterization of adjuvant saponins is very tedious. Furthermore, standardization of Quillaja saponins is critical pertaining to its application in humans. In this study, a convenient method based on agarose gel electrophoresis was developed for the separation of Quillaja saponins. Six different commercial Quillaja saponins were segregated by size/charge into numerous fractions. Each of the fractions was characterized by ESI-TOF-MS spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. Real-time impedance-based monitoring and red blood cell lysis assay were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and hemolytic activities respectively. Two specific regions in the agarose gel (delimited by specific relative electrophoretic mobility values) were identified and characterized by exclusive migration of acylated saponins known to possess immune adjuvant properties (0.18-0.58), and cytotoxic and hemolytic saponins (0.18-0.94). In vivo experiments in mice with the isolated fractions for evaluation of adjuvant activity also correlated with the relative electrophoretic mobility. In addition to the separation of specific Quillaja saponins with adjuvant effects as a pre-purification step to HPLC, agarose gel electrophoresis stands out as a new method for rapid screening, separation and quality control of saponins. PMID:25839418

  14. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

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    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  15. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

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    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  16. Antioxidant activity of an unusual 3-hydroxyindole derivative isolated from fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2009-01-01

    3-Hydroxyindole was isolated from the EtOH extract of fruits of Aristotelia chilensis during analyses by HPLC/MS and GC/MS and identified by its mass fragmentation pattern and spectrophotometric data. Additionally, this extract showed an interesting antioxidant activity in DPPH, crocin and TBARS assays. The presence of this type of compound in this fruit species permits us to explain its strong antioxidant activity and its important part in the biosynthetic pathway of phenolic and alkaloid compounds in this plant. Therefore this compound could be useful for the development of future nutraceutical and antioxidant protective agents. PMID:19957448

  17. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

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    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  18. Murta leaves (Ugni molinae Turcz) as a source of antioxidant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Mónica; Pinelo, Manuel; Ihl, Mónica; Scheuermann, Erik; Sineiro, Jorge; Nuñez, María José

    2006-01-11

    Extracts from Murta leaves are used by Chilean natives for their benefits on health and cosmetic properties, which are mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Extraction of such compounds is strongly influenced by several variables, the effects of which are studied in this work; the antioxidant power of the resulting extracts was measured by two different methods [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)]. On the whole, maximum values of polyphenolic yields and antiradical power (DPPH method) were attained at 50 degrees C (from 25 to 50 degrees C) and a solvent-to-solid ratio (v/w) of 15:1 (15:1-25:1). The solvents assayed were ethanol, methanol, and water. The highest polyphenolic yield values (2.6% expressed as gallic acid) were reached with methanol, whereas maximum EC50 was attained by the ethanol extract (0.121 mol gallic acid/mol DPPH). Contact time was shown to have only a slight influence in alcoholic extraction, while in water a remarkable effect of increasing contact times (30-90 min) was observed. Just water was the solvent that offered the best result when the antioxidant power was measured by the TBARS method. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, basically flavonols and flavanols, sometimes glycosilated; myricetin and quercetin glycosides were detected in all extracts, whereas epicatechin was present in alcoholic extracts and gallic acid was only present in water. PMID:16390178

  19. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  20. LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA UCT EN 1971, POR VÍCTOR RAVIOLA MOLINA

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    Victor Raviola Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el golpe de Estado, nuestro país se perfilaba como una «cosmópolis intelectual», exhibiendo condiciones como estabilidad política, modernización del sistema educacional universitario y gestión de redes internacionales tejidas desde algunas universidades. Esto propicia el florecimiento de centros académicos de investigación y formación, constituyendo un polo para intelectuales latinoamericanos, europeos y americanos que se insertan en estas instituciones con el objetivo de fortalecer dichas iniciativas, y analizar los procesos sociopolíticos que estaban teniendo lugar. En este contexto, y aun cuando en una condición periférica que implica sobre todo precariedad de recursos, las instituciones regionales buscaron afianzar su posición, se pensaron no sólo como instancias formativas, sino también de investigación, contribuyendo a través de la ciencia al desarrollo en el plano local.En la década de los setenta, la sede regional de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, hoy Universidad Católica de Temuco, abría un panorama auspicioso para el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales. Desde el Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Regional (CERER, y con el propósito de formar investigadores locales, se da apertura en 1971 a un programa de especialización denominado «Carrera de Investigadores en Ciencias Sociales», el que fue antesala de la fundación de la carrera de Licenciatura en Antropología en 1973, la tercera en el país y la segunda regional.Consideramos relevante este discurso pronunciado por el entonces director de Sede, don Víctor Raviola, en la inauguración anual de actividades académicas, en tanto deja testimonio de un estilo de universidad, a saber: regionalista, comprometida con la investigación científica aplicada, y vinculada con el medio local. Las palabras del profesor Raviola resultan señeras respecto del desarrollo de las ciencias sociales a nivel regional, proyecto que decae paulatinamente a partir de 1973 y que concluye con el cierre de la carrera de Antropología en 1978. En 1970 se da inicio a un proyecto que quedará inconcluso y que sólo volverá a cobrar fuerza en la década de los noventa con la apertura de las carreras de Antropología y Trabajo Social y la posterior creación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales en el primer decenio del siglo XXI.Agradecemos a Gloria Vergara Segura la transcripción de este texto (Héctor Mora Nawrath.

  1. NETSUKE AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, with a descriptive method and a method of analysis and synthesis, we have conducted a study of species diversity of Lagenaria on the basis of a miniature sculpture of netsuke. In Japan and China, in the period from the 17th to the 20th century, the most common was 9 species. The biological peculiarities of some rare species of lagenaria has been described

  2. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  3. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekessy, Sarah A; Allnutt, T R; Premoli, A C; Lara, A; Ennos, R A; Burgman, M A; Cortes, M; Newton, A C

    2002-04-01

    Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range. Extensive genetic variability was detected and partitioned by analysis of molecular variance, with the majority of variation existing within populations (87.2%), but significant differentiation was recorded among populations (12.8%). Estimates of Shannon's genetic diversity and percent polymorphism were relatively high for all populations and provide no evidence for a major reduction in genetic diversity from historical events, such as glaciation. All pairwise genetic distance values derived from analysis of molecular variance (Phi(ST)) were significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Although populations are geographically divided into Chilean Coastal, Chilean Andes and Argentinean regions, this grouping explained only 1.77% of the total variation. Within Andean groups there was evidence of a trend of genetic distance with increasing latitude, and clustering of populations across the Andes, suggesting postglacial migration routes from multiple refugia. Implications of these results for the conservation and use of the genetic resource of this species are discussed. PMID:11920130

  4. Species assemblages of zooplanktonic crustaceans in mountain shallow ponds of Chile (Parque Cañi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the Chilean lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy, a transition from oligotrophy to mesotrophy, due human intervention, has been reported in some lakes. Nevertheless, there are still some pristine and unpolluted small lakes and ponds in mountain zones, free of human intervention and surrounded by native forests. Nine unpolluted, oligotrophic and pristine water bodies located in Cañi Park, a mountain zone with altitudes between 1000 to 1500 m a.s.l and forests where Nothofagus dombeyi, N. pumilio and Araucaria araucana predominate, were studied. For each sampled lake, zooplankton was collected and environmental parameters were obtained (conductivity, total dissolved solids, and chlorophyll concentration. A null model of species co-occurrence was applied to determine randomness in species associations. All sites revealed low species richness (< 6; the calanoid copepod Boeckella gracilis Daday, 1902 was present in all sites. The results of the null model indicated randomness or absence of regulatory factors in species associations. Only few species occur in practically all localities. Also, a significant inverse association between chlorophyll concentration with percentage of calanoid copepods and a weak direct association between chlorophyll concentration and percentages of cladocerans were found.

  5. Distribution of total height, transverse area and individual volume for Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Eder Pereira Miguel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo testar funções densidade de probabilidade para a distribuição das variáveis altura total, área transversal e volume individual, para três diferentes intervalos de classe. Os dados provieram da medição dos diâmetros (DAP, alturas totais e estimativas dos volumes individuais de 338 pinheiros de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, com 15,24 ha, situado no Campus Jardim Botânico da UFPR, Curitiba-PR. Foram ajustadas dez funções, incluindo modelos comumente utilizados na distribuição diamétrica e outros desenvolvidos recentemente e aplicadas na ciência florestal. Os critérios de seleção foram o teste de aderência de Kolmogorov – Smirnov, erro padrão da estimativa em porcentagem e o coeficiente de determinação ajustado. Foram usados três intervalos de classe determinados pelas regras de Sturges, Dixon & Kronmal e Velleman. A função Normal, para a variável altura, e Weber, para a distribuição da área transversal e volume individual, propiciaram os melhores ajustes, considerando os três intervalos de classe adotados. Os modelos se ajustaram melhor para intervalos de classe de maior tamanho, obtidos pela regra de Sturges.

  6. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine

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    Paulo Sérgio Schlögl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz.,ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semiquantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds.

  7. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; Dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  8. The Araucaria Project: High-precision orbital parallax and masses of the eclipsing binary TZ Fornacis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Graczyk, D.; Konorski, P.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gieren, W.; Anderson, R. I.; Villanova, S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Independent distance estimates are particularly useful to check the precision of other distance indicators, while accurate and precise masses are necessary to constrain evolution models. Aims: The goal is to measure the masses and distance of the detached eclipsing-binary TZ For with a precision level lower than 1% using a fully geometrical and empirical method. Methods: We obtained the first interferometric observations of TZ For with the VLTI/PIONIER combiner, which we combined with new and precise radial velocity measurements to derive its three-dimensional orbit, masses, and distance. Results: The system is well resolved by PIONIER at each observing epoch, which allowed a combined fit with eleven astrometric positions. Our derived values are in a good agreement with previous work, but with an improved precision. We measured the mass of both components to be M1 = 2.057 ± 0.001 M⊙ and M2 = 1.958 ± 0.001 M⊙. The comparison with stellar evolution models gives an age of the system of 1.20 ± 0.10 Gyr. We also derived the distance to the system with a precision level of 1.1%: d = 185.9 ± 1.9 pc. Such precise and accurate geometrical distances to eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to test the absolute calibration of the surface brightness-colour relation for late-type stars, and will also provide the best opportunity to check on the future Gaia measurements for possible systematic errors. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal observatory under program IDs 094.D-0320.The calibrated interferometric data as OIFITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A35

  9. The Araucaria project. The distance to the small Magellanic Cloud from late-type eclipsing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a distance determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on an analysis of four detached, long-period, late-type eclipsing binaries discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey. The components of the binaries show negligible intrinsic variability. A consistent set of stellar parameters was derived with low statistical and systematic uncertainty. The absolute dimensions of the stars are calculated with a precision of better than 3%. The surface brightness-infrared color relation was used to derive the distance to each binary. The four systems clump around a distance modulus of (m – M) = 18.99 with a dispersion of only 0.05 mag. Combining these results with the distance published by Graczyk et al. for the eclipsing binary OGLE SMC113.3 4007, we obtain a mean distance modulus to the SMC of 18.965 ± 0.025 (stat.) ± 0.048 (syst.) mag. This corresponds to a distance of 62.1 ± 1.9 kpc, where the error includes both uncertainties. Taking into account other recent published determinations of the SMC distance we calculated the distance modulus difference between the SMC and the Large Magellanic Cloud equal to 0.458 ± 0.068 mag. Finally, we advocate μSMC = 18.95 ± 0.07 as a new 'canonical' value of the distance modulus to this galaxy.

  10. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  11. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    OpenAIRE

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI; CAVIERES, LOHENGRIN A.; SIMONETTI

    2007-01-01

    La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el...

  12. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Labarca Encina; Alfredo Prieto Iglesias

    2009-01-01

     Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP), ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile). Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la regió...

  13. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  14. ANALYSIS OF TISSUE SPECIFIC DIGEST IVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES FROM CUCURBITA PEPO AND LANGENARIA SICERARIA ( MOLINA STANDL

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    Shubhangi D. Shirsat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Digestive enzymes and antioxidants present in food ma terials act as a surplus for our digestive system. In present study, five digestive enzymes namely amylase, protease, lipase, pectinase and α -glucosidase and seven antioxidant assays for Catalase, Peroxidase, H 2 O 2 , Super Oxide Dismutase, Malondialdehyde, Carotenoid & radical scavenging were carried out from two members of cucurbitaceae family namely Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin and Langenaria siceraria (bottle gourd. Amongst them amylase, lipa se and pectinase activity were found in C. pepo and L. siceraria. The enzyme kinetics studies revealed their maxi mum velocities to be 0.2631 and 0.33557 mM min -1 for Amylase and Lipase respectively. Our further studies report the presence of proteinase inhibitors and α -gluosidase inducers, while absence of amylase inhibitors and α -glucosidase inhibitors in pumpkin and bottle gourd. Present findings suggest the use of these fruits as an attractive materi al for further study leading to possible development of digestive syrup.

  15. Reproductive ecology of coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtalon, P; Bó, R F; Spina, F; Jiménez, N; Cantil, L; Fernández, R; Porini, G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare some important reproductive parameters of Myocastor coypus over time (June 2006-May 2008), in wetlands of the Middle Delta of the Paraná River (MD) Entre Ríos province, R. Argentina. Within the original coypu distribution range, the MD is among the areas of highest habitat suitability for the species. Coypus were captured and the following reproductive parameters were estimated on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis: pregnancy rate (PR), litter size (LS), gross productivity (GP) and annual production (AP). Statistical non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Additionally, the expected birth date of each embryo and fetus was estimated by assigning it to a developmental stage category and considering the gestation period of the species. All the parameters showed high values and PR and LS differed significantly between the dry (2006) and humid years (2007). Two peaks of birth were detected, one in spring and another one in mid-autumn. The implications of these results for ensuring the sustainable management of this rodent are discussed. PMID:25945618

  16. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae turcz.), a native plant from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shene, Carolina; Canquil, Nelly; Jorquera, Milko; Pinelo, Manuel; Rubilar, Mónica; Acevedo, Francisca; Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extract of murta leaves (ML) and the growth of different bacterial groups was evaluated. Control incubations were made in media containing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and glucose as a carbon source. Phenolic compounds in the ML extract, likely promoters of bioactivity, were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) . Concentrations (log₁₀ CFU/mL) of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in media containing the extract and FOS were 7.33 ± 0.05/4.95 ± 0.20 and 6.44 ± 0.22/6.05 ± 0.06, respectively. Clostridia, anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae grew to a similar extent in media containing murta extract and FOS. In vitro tests (disk diffusion) showed that Gram-positive (Bacillus and Paenibacillaceae) and Gram-negative (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria isolated from fecal samples were sensitive to both water and 50/50 ethanol/water extracts of ML (28.4 μg gallic acid equivalents). At this concentration, the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts was significantly (P 0.05). No evidence of dependency between the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts and the enzymatic capability of the sensitive strains was found. PMID:22583138

  17. ANALYSIS OF FRUIT POLYMORPHISM IN THE BOTTLE LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. ON THE BASIS OF IMAGES OF ART WORKS

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of international spread the fruits of bottled gourd. Analysis of polymorphism of lagenaria fruits have been made on the basis of images of the paintings and sculpture, marked characteristic features of each country. Issues of selection on the basis of the trait of fruit form have considered

  18. Morphological and allozyme variation in a collection of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. from Côte d'Ivoire

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    Koffi KK.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the intraspecific variation of 30 edible-seed Lagenaria siceraria germplasm accessions from the University of Abobo-Adjamé. These accessions were collected from three (Centre, East and South geographical zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Selection based on seed size by the farmers has resulted in subdividing the species into two cultivars: large-seeded and smallseeded. The morphological diversity study of the collection included 18 accessions and 24 traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed a significant difference between the two groups of cultivars. Principal component analysis on 13 traits pointed out variations among individuals, mainly on the basis of flower, fruit, and seed size. Dendrogram with UPGMA method allowed clustering of the cultivars. The genetic structure analysis among accessions using allozyme markers showed the following values: 18.95% for the proportion of polymorphic loci (P, 1.21 for the number of alleles (A and 0.053 for observed heterozygosity (Ho. The level of the within accessions genetic diversity (HS = 0.188 was higher than the genetic variation among accessions (DST = 0.082. The estimates of F-statistics indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between accessions (FST = 0.298. Such a value suggested that L. siceraria maintains about 30% of its genetic variation among accessions. Nei genetic distances between the two cultivars were also low (0.002, indicating that cultivars were genetically similar enough to belong to the same genetic group.

  19. Horizontal structure of arboreal community under an Araucaria angustifolia stand and a Mixed Ombrophyllous Forest Estrutura horizontal da comunidade arbórea sob um povoamento com Araucaria angustifolia e uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rode; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Franklin Galvão; Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2010-01-01

  1. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

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    I. A. Mundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  2. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mundo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America exist for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data for several centuries or millennia. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows, 1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed through a nested principal components regression approach using a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies grouped in composite series. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the past millennium, but longer and more severe events can also be observed in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and Singular Spectral Analyses identified various multi-decadal quasiperiodic oscillations with a dominant 6.8-year cycle explaining ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. We also found that the Neuquén River discharges are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies which indicate a strong connection between rainfall patterns in northern Patagonia and SAM activity.

  3. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of labdeneamides with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Valderrama, Jaime A

    2011-03-01

    Semisynthetic aromatic amides from ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA diterpene acids have been shown to display a relevant gastroprotective effect with low cytotoxicity. The aim of this work was to assess the gastroprotective effect of amino acid amides from imbricatolic acid and its 8(9)-en isomer in the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as to determine the cytotoxicity of the obtained compounds on the following human cell lines: normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). The diterpenes 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, its 8(9)-en isomer, 15-hydroxyimbricatolic acid, and the 8(9)-en derivative, bearing a COOH function at C-19, were used as starting compounds. New amides with C-protected amino acids were prepared. The study reports the effect of a single oral administration of either compound 50 min before the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol/HCl. Some 20 amino acid monoamides were obtained. Dose-response experiments on the glycyl derivatives showed that at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg, the compounds presented an effect comparable to the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg reduced gastric lesions by about 50%. All derivatives obtained in amounts > 30 mg were compared at a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. The best gastroprotective effect was observed for the exomethylene derivatives bearing a valine residue at C-19 either with an acetoxy or free hydroxy group at C-15. The tryptophanyl derivative from the acetate belonging to the 8,9-en series presented selective cytotoxicity against hepatocytes. The glycyl amide of 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid was the most cytotoxic and less selective compound with IC₅₀ values between 47 and 103 µM for the studied cell lines. This is the first report on the obtention of semisynthetic amino acid amides from labdane diterpenes. PMID:20862639

  4. REPELLENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTANCES TO THE CONSUMING WILD MAMMALS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS AT FIELD SOWING

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows.

  5. Study on the stability of β-carotene microencapsulated with pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seeds) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Jordana Corralo; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Native and hydrolyzed pinhão starches were used as coating materials for β-carotene microencapsulation by freeze-drying. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the stability of β-carotene encapsulated under three different conditions: in the presence of ultraviolet light at 25±2 °C, in the dark at 25±2 °C and in the dark at 10.0±0.2 °C. The color of the samples was also analyzed. Microcapsules prepared with native starch showed the lowest stability during storage. In contrast, microcapsules encapsulated with 12 dextrose equivalent (DE) hydrolyzed starch exhibited the highest stability. First-order kinetic and Weibull models were applied to describe the degradation of β-carotene over time. The R(2) values of the Weibull model were greater than those of the first-order kinetic model. Moreover, multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) were also conducted. PMID:24750928

  6. Novel Camelid Antibody Fragments Targeting Recombinant Nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: A Prototype for an Early Diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Soraya S.; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S.; Morais, Michelle S. S.; Prado, Nidiane D. R.; Barros, Marcos L.; Koishi, Andrea C.; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A. C. A.; Gonçalves, Giselle M.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Stabeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ85) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ85. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ85 in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus infections. PMID:25243411

  7. The Araucaria Project: the First-overtone Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing System OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Bogumił; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Thompson, Ian B.; Smolec, Radosław; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Konorski, Piotr; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Minniti, Dante; Catelan, Márcio

    2015-06-01

    We present here the first spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the double-lined eclipsing binary containing the classical, first-overtone (FO) Cepheid OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532 (MACHO 81.8997.87). The system has an orbital period of 800 days and the Cepheid is pulsating with a period of 2.035 days. Using spectroscopic data from three high-class telescopes and photometry from three surveys spanning 7500 days, we are able to derive the dynamical masses for both stars with an accuracy better than 3%. This makes the Cepheid in this system one of a few classical Cepheids with an accurate dynamical mass determination ({{M}1}=3.90+/- 0.10 {{M}⊙ }). The companion is probably slightly less massive (3.82+/- 0.10 {{M}⊙ }), but may have the same mass within errors ({{M}2}/{{M}1}=0.981+/- 0.015). The system has an age of about 185 million years and the Cepheid is in a more advanced evolutionary stage. For the first time precise parameters are derived for both stars in this system. Due to the lack of the secondary eclipse for many years, not much was known about the Cepheid’s companion. In our analysis, we used extra information from the pulsations and the orbital solution from the radial velocity curve. The best model predicts a grazing secondary eclipse shallower than 1 mmag, hence undetectable in the data, about 370 days after the primary eclipse. The dynamical mass obtained here is the most accurate known for a FO Cepheid and will contribute to the solution of the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem. The research is based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT and 3.6 m telescopes for Programmes 092.D-0295(A), 091.D-0393(A), 089.D-0330(A), 088.D-0447(A), 086.D-0103(A), and 085.D-0398(A), and with the Magellan Clay and Warsaw telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory.

  8. The Araucaria Project: The First-Overtone Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing System OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532

    CERN Document Server

    Pilecki, B; Gieren, W; Pietrzyński, G; Thompson, I B; Smolec, R; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Konorski, P; Taormina, M; Gallenne, A; Minniti, D; Catelan, M

    2015-01-01

    We present here the first spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the double-lined eclipsing binary containing the classical, first-overtone Cepheid OGLE-LMC-CEP-2532 (MACHO 81.8997.87). The system has an orbital period of 800 days and the Cepheid is pulsating with a period of 2.035 days. Using spectroscopic data from three high-class telescopes and photometry from three surveys spanning 7500 days we are able to derive the dynamical masses for both stars with an accuracy better than 3%. This makes the Cepheid in this system one of a few classical Cepheids with an accurate dynamical mass determination (M_1=3.90 +/- 0.10 M_sun). The companion is probably slightly less massive (3.82 +/- 0.10 M_sun), but may have the same mass within errors (M_2/M_1= 0.981 +/- 0.015). The system has an age of about 185 million years and the Cepheid is in a more advanced evolutionary stage. For the first time precise parameters are derived for both stars in this system. Due to the lack of the secondary eclipse for many years not...

  9. The Araucaria Project: High-precision orbital parallax and masses of the eclipsing binary TZ~Fornacis

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Graczyk, D; Konorski, P; Kervella, P; Mérand, A; Gieren, W; Anderson, R I; Villanova, S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Independent distance estimates are particularly useful to check the precision of other distance indicators, while accurate and precise masses are necessary to constrain evolution models. Aim: The goal is to measure the masses and distance of the detached eclipsing-binary TZ~For with a precision level lower than 1\\,\\% using a fully geometrical and empirical method. Method: We obtained the first interferometric observations of TZ~For with the VLTI/PIONIER combiner, which we combined with new and precise radial velocity measurements to derive its three-dimensional orbit, masses, and distance. Results: The system is well resolved by PIONIER at each observing epoch, which allowed a combined fit with eleven astrometric positions. Our derived values are in a good agreement with previous work, but with an improved precision. We measured the mass of both components to be $M_1 = 2.057 \\pm 0.001\\,M_\\odot$ and $M_2 = 1.958 \\pm 0.001\\,M_\\odot$. The comparison with stellar evolution models gives an age of the syst...

  10. Dinâmica de regeneração de Merostachys skvortzovii Send. em remanescente de Floresta com Araucaria

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle; Fábio Hiratsuka Veiga

    2015-01-01

    Apresentam-se resultados de monitoramento da dinâmica de regeneração de Merostachys skvortzovii Send. (taquara-lixa), englobando dados de recrutamento, crescimento e mortalidade de plântulas (Floresta Ombrófila Mista, General Carneiro, Paraná, 26˚ 25′ S e 51˚ 18′ W). Foram avaliadas duas clareiras de tamanhos (aprox. 40mx40m) e situações de abertura do dossel similares, resultantes da morte de touceiras de taquara-lixa entre 2003-2005, utilizando-se 80 parcelas (1mx1m) em cada clareira (2007)...

  11. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF RR LYRAE VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained deep infrared J- and K-band observations of nine 4.9 x 4.9 arcmin fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with the ESO New Technology Telescope equipped with the SOFI infrared camera. In these fields, 34 RR Lyrae stars cataloged by the OGLE collaboration were identified. Using different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the infrared period-luminosity-metallicity relation, we find consistent SMC distance moduli, and find a best true distance modulus to the SMC of 18.97 ± 0.03 (statistical) ±0.12 (systematic) mag, which agrees well with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy, and puts the SMC 0.39 mag more distant than the Large Magellanic Cloud for which our group has recently derived, from the same technique, a distance of 18.58 mag.

  12. The Araucaria Project. On the Tip of the Red Giant Branch distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gorski, Marek; Gieren, Wolfgang; Catelan, Marcio; Pilecki, Bogumil; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Graczyk, Dariusz; Konorski, Piotr; Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Wielgorski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We present a precise optical and near-infrared determination of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) brightness in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (respectively LMC and SMC). The commonly used calibrations of the absolute magnitude of the TRGB lead to an overestimation of the distance to the LMC and SMC in the K band, and an underestimation of the distance in the optical I band for both galaxies. Reported discrepancies are at the level of 0.2 mag, with respect to the very accurate distance determinations to both Clouds based on late-type eclipsing binaries. The differential distances between the LMC and SMC obtained in the J and K bands, and for the bolometric brightness are consistent with each other, and with the results obtained from eclipsing binaries and other distance indicators.

  13. The Araucaria Project: On the Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distance Determination to the Magellanic Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Marek; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Catelan, Márcio; Pilecki, Bogumił; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Graczyk, Dariusz; Konorski, Piotr; Zgirski, Bartłomiej; Wielgórski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    We present a precise optical and near-infrared determination of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) brightness in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (respectively, LMC and SMC). The commonly used calibrations of the absolute magnitude of the TRGB lead to an overestimation of the distance to the LMC and SMC in the K band, and an underestimation of the distance in the optical I band for both galaxies. Reported discrepancies are at the level of 0.2 mag, with respect to the very accurate distance determinations to both MCs based on late-type eclipsing binaries. The differential distances between the LMC and SMC obtained in the J and K bands, and for the bolometric brightness are consistent with each other, and with the results obtained from eclipsing binaries and other distance indicators.

  14. The Araucaria Project: Dependence of mean K, J, and I absolute magnitudes of red clump stars on metallicity and age

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrzy{ń}ski, G.; Gieren, W.; Udalski, A.

    2003-01-01

    (Abridged) We present results of deep near-infrared JK imaging of LMC, SMC, and the Carina and Fornax dwarf galaxies. A comparison of the extinction-corrected K-band red clump star magnitudes with the tip of the red giant branch magnitude, the mean RR Lyrae star V-band magnitude, and the mean K-band magnitude of Cepheid variables at a period of 10 days (for the LMC and SMC) strongly suggest that the red clump star absolute K-band magnitude has a very low (if any) dependence on metallicity ove...

  15. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p < 0.05 when compared to that of acid-thinned corn starch (ACS. From the results obtained, it can be said that the acid treatment was efficient in producing a potential fat substitute from pinhão starch variety, but this ability must be further investigated.

  16. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis) starch

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys; Andréia Gomes Aires; Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak; Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña

    2013-01-01

    Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine) starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours) and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days), paste freezing and th...

  17. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrzynski, G; Bresolin, F; Dall'Ora, M; Gieren, W; Kudritzki, R P; Soszynski, I; Storm, J

    2006-01-01

    We have measured accurate near-infrared magnitudes in the J and K bands of 39 Cepheid variables in IC 1613 with well-determined periods and optical VI light curves. Using the template light curve approach of Soszy{\\'n}ski, Gieren and Pietrzy{\\'n}ski, accurate mean magnitudes were obtained from these data which allowed to determine the distance to IC 1613 relative to the LMC from a multiwavelength period-luminosity solution in the optical VI and near-IR JK bands, with an unprecedented accuracy. Our result for the IC 1613 distance is $(m-M)_{0} = 24.291 \\pm 0.014$ (random error) mag, with an additional systematic uncertainty smaller than 2%. From our multiwavelength approach, we find for the total (average) reddening to the IC 1613 Cepheids $E(B-V) = 0.090 \\pm 0.007$ mag,which is significantly higher than the foreground reddening of about 0.03 mag,showing the presence of appreciable dust extinction inside the galaxy. Our data suggest that the extinction law in IC 1613 is very similar to the galactic one.Our dis...

  18. Chemical composition of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in two populations in northern Chile: reproductive and environmental considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Moreno-Reyes; Carlos A Méndez-Ruiz; Gina X Díaz; Jaime A Meruane; Pedro H Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Reductions of its natural populations have led to recent efforts in small-scale aquaculture of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius, either for conservation or commercial purposes. However, the lack of knowledge about its nutritional requirements has been one of the major obstacles for its successful culture. Given its importance, this study determines and compares the chemical composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, total lipids and nitrogen free extract) of whole animals and main ...

  19. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Führer; Anny Rudolph; Claudio Espinoza; Rodrigo Díaz; Marisol Gajardo; Nuria Camaño

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and ...

  20. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L(-1) (LC(50-96 hours)). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L(-1) were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L(-1) stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  1. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Führer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L-1 (LC50-96 hours. Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L-1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L-1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone.

  2. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización e...

  3. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  4. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani; Gerby Giovanna Rondán-Sanabria; Flavio Finardi-Filho

    2013-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M.), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C.) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P.) were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape) was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oc...

  5. Sedimentología de las unidades carbonáticas del Triásico en el sector Molina de Aragón-Albarracín

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Arlucea, Marta

    1987-01-01

    [ES] cinco unidades litoestratigráficas bien diferenciadas, que se distribuyen en dos barras de litología carbonática, separadas por un tramo terrígeno-evaporítico. Estos grandes tramos se disponen en "onlap", presentando una mayor extensión areal, las unidades superiores respecto de las inferiores. El límite de la primera barra carbonática se encuentra dentro de la zona estudiada. Sin embargo el tramo lutíticoevaporítico y la barra superior ocupan toda esta región, acuñándo...

  6. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extract...... extracts was significantly (P <0.05) lower than that of penicillin (10 U), whereas the difference between activity of ML extracts and gentamicin (10 μg) was not significant (P > 0.05). No evidence of dependency between the antimicrobial activity of ML extracts and the enzymatic capability of the sensitive...

  7. Reassessment of morphology and historical distribution as factors in conservation efforts for the Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer Hippocamelus bisulcus (Molina 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Force

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To assist with conservation of Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus, the Huemul Task Force (HTF reassessed information on appendicular morphology, paleobiogeography, and historical distribution as potential factors in recovery efforts. Traditional claims of being a mountain specialist of the Andes were refuted by empirical evidence showing huemul morphology to coincide with other cervids rather than the commonly implied homology to rock-climbing ungulates. It thus supports historical evidence of huemul in treeless habitat and reaching the Atlantic coast, which cannot be dismissed as past erroneous observations. Instead, pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic impacts resulted in huemul displacement from productive sites and in survival mainly in remote and marginal refuge areas. The process of range contraction was facilitated by easy hunting of huemul, energetic incentives from seasonal fat cycles and huemul concentrations, the change from hunting-gathering to a mobile equestrian economy, and colonization with livestock. However, areas used presently by huemul, as supposed mountain specialists, are also used by wild and domestic ungulates that clearly are not considered mountain specialists, whereas the only other Hippocamelus successfully uses areas homologous to tree-less Patagonia. Rigid application of modern habitat usage to infer past habitat use and ignoring historic extra-Andean accounts is unwarranted; these conclusions reached by the HTF indicate new opportunities for recovery efforts by considering morphological and historical evidence. For instance, reintroductions to other portions of the landscape used formerly by huemul, which tend to be more productive sites than those currently occupied by many huemul groups, would present a promising avenue.

  8. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  9. Instructions and Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)......Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)...

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvarado López, Guillermo, El poder desde el espíritu: la visión política del Pentecostalismo en el México contemporáneo. Buenos Aires, Libros de la Araucaria, 2006, 149 pp.Páginas 193-196David Oviedo SilvaCandela Sevila, Virgilio F., Del franquismo a la democracia. La formación de la UCD en la provincia de Alicante. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 196-198Mónica Fernández AmadorCardenal, Ernesto, Vida perdida: memorias 1. México, Fondo de Cultura Económico, 2003, 446 pp.Páginas 198-199Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (ed., « De l’anarchisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIè siècles », monográfico de Regards, 9 (2007, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 460 pp.Páginas 199-201Iván López CabelloDíaz Rangel, Eleazar, La prensa venezolana en el siglo XX. Caracas, Ediciones B, 2007, 218 pp.Páginas 201-203Carmen Rodríguez González“El nuevo orden mundial y el mundo islámico”, dossier de Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 65 (2007, 313 pp.Páginas 203-205Antonio Javier Martín CastellanosLewis Gaddis, John, El paisaje de la historia. Cómo los historiadores representan el pasado. Barcelona, Anagrama, 2004, 244 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánMalgat, Gérard, Max Aub y Francia o la esperanza traicionada. Sevilla, Renacimiento, 2007, 416 pp.Páginas 207-209José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaMearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen, El lobby israelí. Madrid, Taurus, 2007, 616 pp.Páginas 209-211Javier Lión BustilloMoradiellos García, Enrique, 1936: Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 211-212David Molina RabadánPrieto Borrego, Lucía; Barranquero Texeira, Encarnación, Población y Guerra Civil en Málaga: Caída, éxodo y refugio. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones-Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga, 2007, 348 pp.Páginas 212-214Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaQuirosa-Cheyrouze y Muñoz, Rafael (coord., Historia de la Transición en

  11. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  12. Large-scale impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders on monkey puzzle forest regeneration, native seed predators and their ecological interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Tella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ecosystems of the world are being increasingly invaded by a variety of alien species. However, little is known about the combined ecological impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders. We assessed the impact of a community of exotic mammals (five domestic and four wild on forests of monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana, a globally endangered tree restricted to ca 400 km2 on the slopes of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Seeds of monkey puzzles provide food during winter to a small community of native mice and Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus. We recorded the number of uneaten seeds and the number of young seedlings at the end of winter under 516 female monkey puzzle trees located across the species’ distribution, and identified the signals of native and exotic species that visited the under-canopy of each tree. Moreover, we studied the diet and foraging behavior of Austral parakeets to explore the potential indirect effects of exotic mammals through the disruption of a key ecosystem service (seed dispersal supposedly provided by parakeets. All but one tree were visited by at least one seed predator species. Austral parakeets and mice predated seeds from 85% and at least 45% of the trees, respectively, and both the number of remaining seeds and seedlings were significantly larger when only parakeets or mice predated seeds than when exotic mammals also visited the trees. At least 90% of trees were visited by one or more exotic species, and the number of seeds and seedlings dropped drastically when at least two and four exotic species visited the tree, respectively. Austral parakeets mostly foraged on monkey puzzle trees during the winter period and dispersed their seeds in most feeding instances once seeds fell to the ground. The proliferation of exotic mammals may reduce the populations of native seed-predators in the long-term as well as the regeneration of monkey puzzle forests, directly through a reduction of seed availability

  13. Why so many apparently rare beetles in Chilean temperate rainforests? ¿Por qué hay tantos coleópteros presuntamente raros en los bosques templados de Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARRY J RICHARDSON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance curves were calculated from data sets collected by fogging 52 trees in Nothofagus forest (~46000 specimens and 24 trees in Araucaria forest (~15000 specimens in Chile. Neither data set fitted the standard species abundance models. Like similar data sets collected from tropical forests, there were too many species represented by single specimens. The proposal that these were vagrants normally found on other tree species was not supported as, unlike tropical forests, Nothofagus forests are not diverse, often consisting of single species stands. Examination of three assumptions of the most parsimonious equilibrium models showed them to be false. Between them the observations of undersampling bias, community disequilibria and combining data from different feeding guilds with different species abundance curves are likely to be sufficient to explain the divergence of data for large speciose beetle communities from the predictions of any of the equilibrium models. Until these three factors can be fully accounted for and residual divergence detected, there is no necessity to propose further, more complex, mechanisms to explain such data sets. Estimated values of alpha and Simpson D were shown to be strongly sample size dependent, affecting their value as estimators of biological diversity.Se calcularon curvas de abundancia de especies a partir de datos obtenidos por medio de nebulización de 52 árboles en bosques de Nothofagus (aproximadamente 46000 ejemplares y 24 árboles en bosques de Araucaria araucana (aproximadamente 15000 ejemplares en Chile. Los datos obtenidos no se ajustan a los modelos estándares de abundancia de especies, al igual que los datos obtenidos de bosques tropicales, existen muchas especies representadas por ejemplares únicos. La hipótesis de que los mencionados ejemplares únicos son erráticos y que se encuentran normalmente en otros árboles no fue aceptada, contrario a los bosques tropicales, los bosques

  14. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini) in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior; Betina Blochtein; João Feliz de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonie...

  15. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonies during each season. In parallel, we analyzed the influence of hour of the day and meteorological factors on flight activity. Flights were most intense during spring and summer, with daily mean estimates of 2,100 and 2,333 flights respectively, while in fall and winter the daily flight estimate was reduced to 612 and 1,104 flights, respectively. Nectar and water were the most frequently-collected resources, followed by pollen and building materials. This preference occurred in all seasons, but with variations in intensity. During spring, daily flight activity lasted over 14 hours; this period was reduced in the other seasons, reaching eight hours in winter. Meteorological factors were associated with 40.2% of the variation in flight and resource collection activity. Apparently, other factors that we did not measure, such as colony needs and availability of floral resources, also strongly influence the intensity of resource collection.

  16. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C.; Cruz, Marco Antônio L.; Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; de Oliveira, Eduardo A. G.; Elbl, Paula M.; Floh, Eny I. S.; Silveira, Vanildo

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27064899

  17. The Araucaria Project: A Study of the Classical Cepheid in the Eclipsing Binary System OGLE LMC562.05.9009 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Thompson, Ian B.; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Smolec, Radosław; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Márcio; Szymański, Michał; Kozłowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Skowron, Jan; Minniti, Dante; Ulaczyk, K.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Nardetto, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4-8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M1 = 3.70 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 28.6 ± 0.2 R⊙) than its companion (M2 = 3.60 ± 0.03 M⊙, R2 = 26.6 ± 0.2 R⊙). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids. This research is based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT, 3.6 m and NTT telescopes for Programmes 092.D-0295(A), 091.D-0393(A), 089.D-0330(A), 088.D-0447(A), 086.D-0103(A) and 085.D-0398(A)), and with the Magellan Clay and Warsaw telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory.

  18. The Araucaria Project: A study of the classical Cepheid in the eclipsing binary system OGLE LMC562.05.9009 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszynki, Igor; Thompson, Ian B; Moroni, Pier Giorgio Prada; Smolec, Radoslaw; Konorski, Piotr; Gorski, Marek; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Taormina, Monica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Marcio; Szymanski, Michal; Kozlowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Pawel; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Skowron, Jan; Minniti, Dante; Ulaczyk, K; Mroz, P; Pawlak, M; Nardetto, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4-8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M_1 = 3.70 +/- 0.03M_sun, R_1 = 28.6 +/- 0.2R_sun) than its companion (M_2 = 3.60 +/- 0.03M_sun, R_2 = 26.6 +/- 0.2R_sun). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 +/- 150K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond...

  19. The ARAUCARIA project Deep near-infrared survey of nearby galaxies. I. The distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud from K-band photometry of red clump stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrzynski, G

    2002-01-01

    We have obtained deep imaging in the near-infrared J and K bands for 2 nearby fields in the bar of the LMC with the ESO NTT telescope, under exquisite seeing conditions. The K, J-K color-magnitude diagrams constructed from these data are of outstanding photometric quality and reveal the presence of several hundreds of red clump stars. Using the calibration of Alves for the K-band absolute magnitude of Hipparcos-observed red clump stars in the solar neigbourhood we derive a distance modulus to our observed LMC fields of 18.487 mag. Applying a correction for the tilt of the LMC bar with respect to the line of sight according to the geometrical model of van der Marel et al., the corresponding LMC barycenter distance is 18.501 mag. If we adopt a K-band population correction of -0.03 mag, as done by Alves et al. 2002, to account for the difference in age and metallicity between the solar neighborhood and LMC red clump star populations, we obtain an LMC barycenter distance modulus of 18.471 mag from our data. This ...

  20. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF THE DYNAMICAL MASS OF THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID IN THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM OGLE-LMC-CEP-1812

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the double-lined eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC-CEP-1812 in the LMC and demonstrate that it contains a classical fundamental mode Cepheid pulsating with a period of 1.31 days. The secondary star is a stable giant. We derive the dynamical masses for both stars with an accuracy of 1.5%, making the Cepheid in this system the second classical Cepheid with a very accurate dynamical mass determination, following the OGLE-LMC-CEP-0227 system studied by Pietrzyński et al. The measured dynamical mass agrees very well with that predicted by pulsation models. We also derive the radii of both components and accurate orbital parameters for the binary system. This new, very accurate dynamical mass for a classical Cepheid will greatly contribute to the solution of the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem, and to our understanding of the structure and evolution of classical Cepheids.

  1. The ARAUCARIA project. OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718: An exotic eclipsing binary system composed of two classical overtone cepheids in a 413 day orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Gallenne, Alexandre, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: dgallenne@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: bpilecki@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); and others

    2014-05-10

    We have obtained extensive high-quality spectroscopic observations of the OGLE-LMC-CEP-1718 eclipsing binary system in the Large Magellanic Cloud that Soszyński et al. had identified as a candidate system for containing two classical Cepheids in orbit. Our spectroscopic data clearly demonstrate binary motion of the Cepheids in a 413 day eccentric orbit, rendering this eclipsing binary system the first ever known to consist of 2 classical Cepheid variables. After disentangling the four different radial velocity variations in the system, we present the orbital solution and the individual pulsational radial velocity curves of the Cepheids. We show that both Cepheids are extremely likely to be first overtone pulsators and determine their respective dynamical masses, which turn out to be equal to within 1.5%. Since the secondary eclipse is not observed in the orbital light curve, we cannot derive the individual radii of the Cepheids, but the sum of their radii derived from the photometry is consistent with overtone pulsation for both variables. The existence of two equal-mass Cepheids in a binary system having different pulsation periods (1.96 and 2.48 days, respectively) may pose an interesting challenge to stellar evolution and pulsation theories, and a more detailed study of this system using additional data sets should yield deeper insight about the physics of stellar evolution of Cepheid variables. Future analysis of the system using additional near-infrared photometry might also lead to a better understanding of the systematic uncertainties in current Baade-Wesselink techniques of distance determinations to Cepheid variables.

  2. The Araucaria Project. Accurate stellar parameters and distance to evolved eclipsing binary ASAS J180057-2333.8 in Sagittarius Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Suchomska, K; Smolec, R; Pietrzyński, G; Gieren, W; Stȩpień, K; Konorski, P; Pilecki, B; Villanova, S; Thompson, I B; Górski, M; Karczmarek, P; Wielgórski, P

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the double-lined eclipsing binary system ASAS J180057-2333.8 from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue . We measure absolute physical and orbital parameters for this system based on archival $V$-band and $I$-band ASAS photometry, as well as on high-resolution spectroscopic data obtained with ESO 3.6m/HARPS and CORALIE spectrographs. The physical and orbital parameters of the system were derived with an accuracy of about 0.5 - 3%. The system is a very rare configuration of two bright well-detached giants of spectral types K1 and K4 and luminosity class II. The radii of the stars are $R_1$ = 52.12 $\\pm$ 1.38 and $R_2$ = 67.63 $\\pm$ 1.40 R$_\\odot$ and their masses are $M_1$ = 4.914 $\\pm$ 0.021 and $M_2$ = 4.875$\\pm$ 0.021 M$_\\odot$ . The exquisite accuracy of 0.5% obtained for the masses of the components is one of the best mass determinations for giants. We derived a precise distance to the system of 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.06 kpc (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.05 (syst.) which places the star in the Sagittariu...

  3. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval quality of the species, under conditions of culture. The larvae, were cultured, in a tank of 250 L with water at 20 psu, at a constant temperature (25° ± 1°C, controlled with a thermostat and with 100% refill every day. The diet consisted of microalgae (Nannochloris sp. and Isochrysis sp., rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplii of Artemia franciscana and formulated food. Five indicators were used, considering morphologic and behavior aspects: intestinal fill, midgut gland condition, gill development, swimming behavior and phototactic response. The indicators selected in the present work, were feasible of being used for the determination of the condition and quality of the larvae of C. caementarius, being able to make an effective follow-up and association with every condition of larval development, standardize desirable characteristics in the larvae and demonstrate verifiable results, using a protocol for culture and food supply. Moreover, it was possible to identify an extensive range of potential studies, based on the relationships that the morphology and the larval behavior support with the physiological capacities of the larvae in development.

  4. Podding of juvenile king crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782 (Crustacea in association with holdfasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh, 1980 Agregaciones de juveniles de centolla Lithodes santolla (Molina, 1782 (Crustacea en asociación con discos de fijación de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh, 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Cárdenas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photographic records and sampling were carried out in Steamer Bay, Strait of Magellan, Chile, to study the spatial distribution patterns of juvenile king crabs Lithodes santolla during late winter and early spring in 2006. Observations were made on the relationship between these crabs and the holdfasts and stipes of the large kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Dense aggregations, known as “pods”, of juvenile king crab (34-75 mm CL were observed and photographed for the first time in specific areas of the embayment in relation to Macrocystis; pod abundance varied between 2 and 70 ind·m-2. Maximum abundance was detected on plants having holdfasts > 15 cm in diameter and abundant stipes and sporophylls. The ratio between male and female abundance was nearly 1:1. This study attempts to bring attention to previously unknown ecological roles of the kelp M. pyrifera in relation to its associated benthic fauna in habitats near the southern tip of South America as background information on the ecological functions of this species prior to allowing its industrial-scale exploitationSe efectuaron registros fotográficos y colecta de muestras en bahía Steamer, estrecho de Magallanes, Chile, para estudiar los patrones de distribución espacial de juveniles de la centolla Lithodes santolla durante fines de invierno y comienzo de la primavera en 2006. Las observaciones fueron realizadas en relación a presencia de centollas juveniles en discos de fijación y estipes de la macroalga parda Macrocystis pyrifera. Se observaron y fotografiaron por primera vez, densas agregaciones de juveniles de centolla (34-75 mm LC, conocidas como “pods”, en áreas específicas de la bahía relacionadas con Macrocystis. La abundancia varió entre 2 y 70 ind·m-2. Las mayores abundancias se detectaron en plantas con disco de fijación con diámetros > 15 cm y con presencia de abundantes estipes y esporofilas. La proporción de abundancia entre machos y hembras fue cercana a 1:1. El presente estudio pretende llamar la atención de los roles ecológicos, previamente desconocidos, del alga M. pyrifera en relación a la fauna bentónica asociada a hábitats distribuidos en el extremo sur de Sudamérica básica para conocer las funciones ecológicas de esta macroalga antes de permitir su explotación a escala industrial

  5. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  6. Amido no megagametófito de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: degradação durante a germinação e desenvolvimento do esporófito Starchy reserve of the megagametophyte of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: mobilization during germination and on the developing sporophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maris Rosado

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available O pinheiro brasileiro possui um diásporo de grandes dimensões, o pinhão, rico em reservas amiláceas. A mobilização dessas reservas pelo embrião foi quantificada em secções transversais do megagametófito, em cinco estágios de desenvolvimento da plântula, sob dois tratamentos, na luz e no escuro. Na luz, o consumo das reservas do megagametófito pela plântula é mais rápido do que no escuro e, existe uma tendência ao consumo do amido realizar-se primeiro na região do megagametófito próxima ao embrião.The parana pine has a very large dispore, the "pinhão", rich in starchy reserves. The mobilization of these reserves by the embryo was quantified in transversal sections of the megagametophyte, in five stages of seedling development, sampled in the light and in the darkness. The consuption of starch grains was in plantlets grown in light than those grown in darkness. There was a tendency to quicker use up of the the megagametophyte starch near to embryo.

  7. Biblioteca universitaria, CRAI y alfabetización informacional / Maria Pinto Molina, Dora Sales y P. Martínez Osorio : Reseña bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hernández, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Obras como la de Pinto, Sales y Osorio ayudan a consolidar el rol bibliotecario de apoyo al aprendizaje permanente a través de la competencia informacional. A través de ello, además, las bibliotecas refuerzan su utilidad social y académica, y se legiti-man por su capacidad de cambio y adapta-ción a las demandas de la sociedad y las personas. De modo que sólo cabe felicitar-se de su aparición, y desear que su lectura anime todavía más a adoptar la alfabetiza-ción continua como una práctica pro...

  8. El Triásico de la región Nuevalos-Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector del borde de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    García Royo, J.F.C.; Arche, Alfredo

    1987-01-01

    El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se hace...

  9. El Triásico de la región Nuévalos - Cubel (Zaragoza). Sedimentación en un sector de cuenca del surco Molina-Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; García-Royo, J. F. C.

    1987-01-01

    [ES] El Triásico de la región Nuévalos-Cubel (Zaragoza) se depositó en el flanco SO del Umbral de Ateca, límite de la Cuenca Ibérica durante la mayor parte de este período. La sedimentación, controlada por falías de dirección NO-SE, comenzó al O por abanicos aluviales retrogradantes, seguidos de ríos meandriformes, diversos complejos costeros siliciclásticos y al comienzo de la sedimentación de las facies Muschelkalk> el Umbral queda totalmente cubierto por sedimentos. Se ...

  10. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" : Paul J Crutzen, Mario J Molina and F Sherwood Rowland

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Prof. Paul J Crutzen presents "The stratospheric ozone hole : a man-caused chemical instability".The discovery of the spring time stratospheric ozone hole by scientists of the British Antarctic Survey, led by Joe Farman, was one of the greatest surprises in the history of the atmospheric sciences and global change studies. After intensive research efforts by many international scientific teams it has clearly been demonstrated that the observed rapid ozone depletions are due to catalytic reactions involving CIO radicals, more than 80571130f which are produced by the photochemical breakdown of the industrial chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. In this lecture I will present the course of events leading to the rapid ozone depletions. International agreements have been reached to forbid the production of the CFC gases. However, despite these measures, it will take almost 50 years before the ozone hole will have disappeared. I will also show that mankind has indeed been very lucky and that things could have been far w...

  11. José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, El Estado frente a la Anarquía. Los grandes procesos contra el anarquismo español (1883-1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    La confluencia entre conmemoraciones históricas e iniciativas editoriales que viene caracterizando nuestro mercado cultural hacía presagiar la aparición de buen número de títulos que, coincidiendo con el centenario de la Semana Trágica de 1909, se centraran en el estudio de esta revuelta popular. A la hora de la verdad no han sido más que dos los libros publicados ex-novo (los de Dolors Marín y Francisco Bergasa), otras dos las rediciones (de los textos clásicos ya de Josep Benet y Joan Conne...

  12. New records and description of the microstructural patterns of guard hair in Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 (Carnivora, Skunk for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bazilio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show new records of Conepatus chinga for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, contributing to increase knowledge on its distribution, besides describing the microstructural patterns of its guard hair. Three run-over specimens were found in highway BR-280, two of them in the town of Palmas, in Paraná, and one in the town of Abelardo Luz, in Santa Catarina. For describing the cuticular and medullary pattern of guard hairs, sixty slides were made. Conepatus chinga has a cross-sectional and undulated cuticular pattern and an anisocytic medullary pattern. The description of microstructural patterns of C. chinga makes it easier to conduct studies related to its ecology, increasing the chances to identify hairs found in fecal samples from carnivores in mastofauna studies.

  13. Teores de Carbono Orgânico de Seis Espécies Naturais do Ecossistema da Floresta Ombrófi la Mista / Organic Carbon Contents in Six Native Species in the Araucaria Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Simone Weber

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitas vezes o estoque de carbono de uma floresta é estimado com a aplicação de equações matemáticas que utilizam os teores de carbono para um determinado grupo de espécies. No entanto, isto só é possível se não houver diferenças significativas entre os teores de carbono destas espécies. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa analisar estatisticamente os teores de carbono de seis espécies nativas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na região sul do estado do Paraná. Foram feitas análises de variância entre os teores de carbono das espécies Myrsine ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Spreng. (capororoca, Ocotea porosa (Nees L. Barroso (imbuia, Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Styrax leprosus Hook & Arn. (carne-de-vaca, Symplocos unifl ora (Pohl Benth. (mariamole e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate para verificar se existe variação estatisticamente significativa entre espécies, entre as mesmas partes (casca, fuste, folhagem, galho vivo, galho morto e miscelânea de diferentes espécies e entre diferentes partes da mesma espécie. Os resultados revelam que a folhagem de Styrax leprosus foi à única que se diferenciou das demais, pois possui um baixo teor de carbono. Em todas as outras partes não houve diferenças em função da espécie. A análise entre partes da mesma espécie, revelou que existem padrões diferentes para cada espécie, mas que a porção folhagem sempre concentra os maiores teores de carbono. Desconsiderando a separação em diferentes partes, não houve diferença estatística entre os teores de carbono quando comparados os valores médios de cada espécie.

  14. Comportamiento a la impregnación por vacío y presión de las maderas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws y Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gabriel; Maly, Laura; De Cristófano, Natalia; Refort, Mercedes; Acciaresi, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    La mejora tecnológica de las maderas amplía su espectro de usos cuando a éstas se les incorporan sustancias que mejoran su aptitud natural. La incorporación de sustancias químicas tiene por objetivos la mejora de sus propiedades ignífugas y el incremento de su durabilidad natural, densidad y dureza. El Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws, Pino ponderosa, es la conífera de rápido crecimiento de mayor difusión en la región andino patagónica argentina. La gran proporción de madera juvenil en madera p...

  15. Estudo in vitro da atividade protetora do azeite de oliva e da pasta de pinhão (Araucaria angustifólia) sobre o esmalte dentário submetido à erosão

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Érico Bahena da

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A erosão dentária é a perda progressiva de estrutura dental devido à exposição crônica desta a ácidos não bacterianos e de origem intrínseca (suco gástrico) ou extrínseca, através da alimentação. Devido à existência de alimentos em benefício humano, o desenvolvimento e inovação de produtos com componentes naturais têm motivado pesquisas que objetivam prevenir doenças, além de criar novos nichos de mercado.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito protetor do azeite de oliva e da ...

  16. Simulação das emissões atmosféricas sobre o município de Araucária com uso do modelo AERMOD Simulation of atmospheric emissions over Araucaria municipality using the AERMOD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo Barbon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o uso de um modelo computacional de dispersão de poluentes em meio atmosférico, modelo AERMOD, na modelagem da dispersão das emissões atmosféricas produzidas pelas principais indústrias do município de Araucária. Os dados estimados de emissões de poluentes na atmosfera referem-se às fontes estacionárias da refinaria Presidente Getúlio Vargas (REPAR e das principais indústrias que compõem o distrito industrial de Araucária. Não foram utilizados dados das fontes móveis por representarem uma pequena parcela da carga total de poluentes. Inicialmente, o modelo AERMOD foi avaliado pela comparação entre concentrações simuladas e concentrações observadas de óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx, óxidos de enxofre (SOx monóxido de carbono (CO e materiais particulados (MP na estação de amostragem de qualidade do ar existente na REPAR. Realizou-se uma análise de sensibilidade do modelo AERMOD em diferentes cenários de emissões, procurando avaliar a influência da variação dos parâmetros de entrada do modelo sobre as concentrações simuladas para a estação REPAR e para a região central do município de Araucária.The present paper aims to evaluate the use of the air quality model AERMOD to simulate the dispersion of atmospheric emissions produced by the main industries located in the Araucária municipality area. Pollutant emissions were estimated for both stationary sources in the President Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR and stationary sources in the main industries located at the industrial district of Araucária municipality. As the pollutant emissions from mobile sources are small in comparison to stationary sources, the simulations were performed using only emissions from the stationary sources. Initially, the AERMOD model was evaluated by comparing simulated concentrations and observed concentrations from the air quality station located inside the REPAR. The observed data concerns the following pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (MP. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of input data variations on the simulated concentrations for two air quality stations located at REPAR and downtown Araucária.

  17. Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil Medicinal plants in a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest, Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martins-Ramos; R.L.C. Bortoluzzi; Mantovani, A

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar dados químicos, biológicos e etnobotânicos na literatura científica de espécies medicinais de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana. A base para este estudo foi um levantamento florístico realizado na Fazenda das Nascentes, Urupema-SC entre agosto de 2007 e setembro de 2008. A partir da lista de espécies que resultou deste levantamento, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o potencial medicinal das espécies inventariadas. Para...

  18. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos; Juliano Morales Oliveira; Sandra Cristina Müller; Valério DePatta Pillar

    2011-01-01

    Mecanismos de dispersão de diásporos e recrutamento de plântulas evitam a competição intra-específica e possibilitam a colonização de novos ambientes. Em áreas de transição entre florestas e vegetação campestre esses processos não são aleatórios, e sim associados muitas vezes a indivíduos lenhosos isolados em tais áreas de campo ou a formações arbustivas. No sul do Brasil, as Florestas com Araucária formam mosaicos com áreas campestres e observa-se o avanço da floresta sobre os campos. O estu...

  19. A diversidade inventarial de Coleoptera (Insecta em uma paisagem antropizada do Bioma Araucária The inventory diversity of Coleoptera (Insecta of an anthropized landscape in the Biome Araucaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como parte do Projeto PROVIVE, foram analisadas a riqueza de espécies, a composição taxonômica, a proporção de espécies raras e a constância taxonômica ao nível de família relacionada à riqueza de espécies, em comunidades de Coleoptera, em Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de coletas através de armadilha malaise no estrato do sub-bosque de cinco áreas com diferentes graus de intervenção antrópica, de setembro de 1999 a agosto de 2000. As 52 semanas de amostragem nas cinco áreas resultaram na coleta de 10.822 indivíduos de 1659 espécies. Todas as áreas apresentaram alta riqueza de espécies e diversidade, como indicado por vários índices. A área em estágio mais avançado de sucessão vegetal foi menos rica do que aquelas em estágio inicial/intermediária. De acordo com diferentes estimadores de riqueza de espécies, o número de espécies coletadas poderia aumentar de 22-123% com o aumento do esforço de coleta. As áreas menos conservadas foram mais ricas em espécies raras ("singletons", "doubletons" e únicas do que as mais conservadas. Nas cinco áreas houve uma constância taxonômica entre as famílias mais ricas (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Mordelidae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, Coccinellidae e Tenebrionidae envolvendo 60% do total de espécies, como observado para a abundância de indivíduos. A existência de um padrão de constância taxonômica de famílias, quando considerados 60% da riqueza de espécies e/ou de abundância de indivíduos por local, poderá tornar mais fácil e rápido o estudo de comunidades de Coleoptera, habilitando a ordem a ser um táxon indicador de condições ambientais de áreas florestadas.The species richness, taxonomic composition, rare species, and taxonomic constancy at family level were studied in communities of Coleoptera in Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, as part of PROVIVE project. The data were gathered through malaise traps in the understory stratum of five sites with different floristic conditions product of anthropogenic effects, from September/1999 to August/2000. The 52 weeks sampling in the five sites produced 10,822 specimens of 1,659 species. All areas present high species richness and high diversity as indicated by various indices. The area in advanced condition of vegetation succession was less rich than ones in early/middle stage. According to different species richness estimators, the number of observed species could be increased by 22-123% if more time colleting effort had been made. The early successional stage areas were richer in rare species (singletons, doubletons and uniques than the more preserved ones. In the five areas there were a taxonomic constancy among the richest families (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Mordelidae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, Coccinellidae and Tenebrionidae involving 60% of the total species as observed with the specimens abundance. If the existence of this pattern is confirmed, it will be easier and faster to study Coleoptera communities and soon apply this order as a forest environmental indicator taxon.

  20. Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest

    OpenAIRE

    Moeses Andrigo Danner; Idemir Citadin; Simone Aparecida Zolet Sasso; Marcos Robson Sachet; Rodrigo Ambrósio

    2010-01-01

    Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cerejeira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valore...

  1. Towards Teachers' Professional Autonomy through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustingorry, Sonia Osses

    2008-01-01

    Educational action research was carried out between 2003 and 2006, focusing on developing high-school teachers' professional autonomy belonging to the scientific area in poor communes of the ninth Region de la Araucana, Chile. The research is contextualized in the Chilean educational reality and based on each of the stages of the action research…

  2. Lisa maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Uued teosed sarjast "Maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramu": Tirso de Molina "Sevilla pilkaja ja kivist külaline" ja Pedro Calderon de la Barca "Suur Maailmateater" (Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2006)

  3. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Courtney Love "American Sweetheart", Haltya "Electric Help Elves", Beats and Styles "This Is... Beats and Styles", "Ennio Morricone Remixes vol. 2", Delta Goodrem "Innocent Eyes", Juana Molina "Segundo"

  4. 75 FR 8945 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Sentillion, Inc. G Sentillion, Inc. 20100294 G George J. Pedersen. G Michael Gualario. G Sensor Technologies.... 20100362 G Molina Healthcare, Inc. G Unisys Corporation. G Unisys Corporation. 20100363 G...

  5. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  6. Varela-Mato, V.; Cancela, J.M.; Ayan, C.; Molina, A.; Martín, V. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2728–2741

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]. In the article it is mentioned that “the study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers and also by the Ethics Committee of the University of Vigo.” However, it should read: “The study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers” only.

  7. Composição e dinâmica de grupos de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) em Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Composition and dynamics of Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, groups (Primates, Atelidae) on an Araucaria Pine Forest remnant on Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède, 1799 são sociais e formam grupos que mostram grandes variações na sua composição sexo-etária. Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 é uma das espécies com escassos trabalhos que mostrem aspectos sociais deste primata. O estudo foi conduzido na Chácara Payquerê, localizada no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. A área é inserida no contexto da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e faz parte da Área de Proteção Ambiental da Escarpa Devonian...

  8. Produção de serapilheira em Floresta Ombrófila Mista, em São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Litterfall in a Araucaria angustifolia forest in São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, A; Felipe L. Prates; Mariana G. Viola

    2005-01-01

    A presente pesquisa visou avaliar a dinâmica de produção, acúmulo e decomposição de serapilheira de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, localizada no município de São Francisco de Paula, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A Floresta Nacional está localizada entre as coordenadas 29º24' e 29º27'S e 50º22'e 50º25'W e sua altitude máxima é de 923m. O fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, objeto do presente estudo, é formado por numerosos...

  9. Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Joselia Maria Schuber; Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Alex Sandro Poltronieri; Nerio Aparecido Cardoso; Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2008-01-01

    A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA) e Convencional (PC) sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco m...

  10. New species of the spider genera Aysenia and Aysenoides from Chile and Argentina: description and phylogenetic relationships (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Amaurobioidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Alvaro; Ramírez, Martín J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    New spider species of the genera Aysenia Tullgren and Aysenoides Ramírez are described and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The new species Aysenia paposo, from the coastal desert in northern Chile is sister to Aysenia araucana Ramírez. The diagnosis of Aysenia araucana is updated and new somatic variability is reported for the species. We present new records for other species of Aysenia and Aysenoides. The new species Aysenoides simoi, from temperate forests in Chile and adjacent Argentina is sister to Aysenoides nahuel. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of both genera. The support values of the genera are relatively high, but some internal branches show low support values. The genus Aysenia is supported by three synapomorphies, two of these from leg spination and one from the male genitalia. Aysenoides is supported by three synapomorphies from male and female genitalia. PMID:25277558

  11. Variabilidad fenotípica de Nodilittorina en la Reserva de Paracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las observaciones realizadas en setiembre de 1999, en las proporciones fenotípicas de Nodilittorina peruviana y Nodilittorina araucana, en 7 orillas rocosas de la parte norte de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas. Los individuos fueron evaluados en relación a los caracteres de su conchilla, como son la pigmentación blanca zigzag en N. peruviana y la escultura espiral en N. peruviana y N. araucana. Se observo que existen diferencias significativas entre las orillas rocosas respecto a las proporciones mencionados. Estas diferencias podrían ser relacionadas con la heterogeneidad geológica y geográfica del área de estudio.

  12. The freshwater amphipods Hyalella Smith, 1874 in Chile (Crustacea: Amphipoda Los anfípodos de agua dulce del género Hyalella Smith, 1874 en Chile (Crustacea: Amphipoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EXEQUIEL R. GONZÁLEZ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean fauna of amphipods has been poorly studied. Freshwater amphipods in Chile have a single genus in epigean environments. Seven species of the genus Hyalella are reported for Chile: H. simplex; H. fossamancinii, H. kochi; H. chiloensis; H. costera; H. araucana, and H. franciscae. A short diagnosis, a key and figures are given for each speciesLa fauna de anfípodos chilenos ha sido pobremente estudiada. En el caso de los de agua dulce y de ambientes epigeos, el grupo está representado solo por un género. Se reportan siete especies del género Hyalella para Chile: H. simplex; H. fossamancinii, H. kochi; H. chiloensis; H. costera; H. araucana, y H. franciscae. Se entrega una breve diagnosis, una clave y figuras para cada especie

  13. Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy – Part 1: The Araucariaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of the conifer family Araucariaceae, including Araucaria (6 species, Agathis (3 species and Wollemia (1 species genera, were submitted to artificial maturation by confined pyrolysis. The aim of these experiments is to transform the biomolecules synthesized by these species into their homologous geomolecules in laboratory conditions. Determination of the diagenetic molecular signatures of Araucariaceae through experimentation on extant representatives allows us to complete our knowledge in botanical palaeochemotaxonomy. Such knowledge is relevant to palaeoenvironmental, environmental and archaeology purposes. All artificially diagenetic species of Araucariaceae are firstly characterized by a predominance of saturated tetracyclic diterpenoids including ent-beyerane, phyllocladanes and ent-kauranes. Moreover, Araucaria genus shows a high relative abundance of bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, particularly the cadalane-type compounds accompanied by those of eudesmane and bisabolane types as well as chamazulene and pentamethyl-dihydroindenes. Diterpenoids are of labdane, isopimarane and abietane types (essentially derived from abietanoic acids as well as isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons. Compared to the tetracyclic diterpenoids, these compounds show a relatively lower abundance, reaching trace levels in the case of saturated abietanes. Distributions of sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids of Agathis show some similarities to that of Araucaria, with the exception of one species, in which the tetracyclic compounds are absent and the abietane type (essentially derived from abietanoic acids predominant. High similarities between the Wollemia and Araucaria genera are observed. Both are characterized by some high relative abundance of tetracyclic compounds with no predominance of other specific diterpenoids.

  14. Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy - Part 1: The Araucariaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Hautevelle, Y.; Michels, R.

    2013-03-01

    Twelve species of the conifer family Araucariaceae, including Araucaria (6 species), Agathis (3 species) and Wollemia (1 species) genera, were submitted to artificial maturation by confined pyrolysis. The aim of these experiments is to transform the biomolecules synthesized by these species into their homologous geomolecules in laboratory conditions. Determination of the diagenetic molecular signatures of Araucariaceae through experimentation on extant representatives allows us to complete our knowledge in botanical palaeochemotaxonomy. Such knowledge is relevant to palaeoenvironmental, environmental and archaeology purposes. All artificially diagenetic species of Araucariaceae are firstly characterized by a predominance of saturated tetracyclic diterpenoids including ent-beyerane, phyllocladanes and ent-kauranes. Moreover, Araucaria genus shows a high relative abundance of bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, particularly the cadalane-type compounds accompanied by those of eudesmane and bisabolane types as well as chamazulene and pentamethyl-dihydroindenes. Diterpenoids are of labdane, isopimarane and abietane types (essentially derived from abietanoic acids) as well as isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons. Compared to the tetracyclic diterpenoids, these compounds show a relatively lower abundance, reaching trace levels in the case of saturated abietanes. Distributions of sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids of Agathis show some similarities to that of Araucaria, with the exception of one species, in which the tetracyclic compounds are absent and the abietane type (essentially derived from abietanoic acids) predominant. High similarities between the Wollemia and Araucaria genera are observed. Both are characterized by some high relative abundance of tetracyclic compounds with no predominance of other specific diterpenoids.

  15. Palynology of a peat in Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper obtains some data about paleoenvironments and paleoclimates of the last millenia in the region of Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This park has a subtropical vegetation, where fields predominate and on which, like a mosaic, grow Araucaria forests. At the lower parts of the fields there are peats. Quantitative analysis, radiocarbon data are also presented. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of the family Araucariaceae based on the DNA sequences of eight genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nian; ZHU Yong; WEI ZongXian; CHEN Jie; WANG QingBiao; JIAN ShuGuang; ZHOU DangWei; SHI Jing; YANG Yong; ZHONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Araucariaceae is one of the most primitive families of the living conifers,and its phylogenetic relationships and divergence times are critically important issues.The DNA sequences of 8 genes,i.e.,nuclear ribosomal 18S and 26S rRNA,chloroplast 16S rRNA,rbcL,mafK and rps4,and mitochondrial coxl and atp1,obtained from this study and GenBank were used for constructing the molecular phylogenetic trees of Araucariaceae,indicating that the phylogenetic relationships among the three genera of this family should be ((Wollemia,Agathis),Araucaria).On the basis of the fossil calibrations of Wollemia and the two tribes Araucaria and Eutacta of the genus Araucaria,the divergence time of Araucariaceae was estimated to be (308±53) million years ago,that is,the origin of the family was in the Late Carboniferous rather than Triassic as a traditional view.With the same gene combination,the divergence times of the genera Araucaria and Agathis were (246 ±47) and (61±5) Ma,respectively.Statistical analyses on the phylogenetic trees generated by using different genes and comparisons of thedivergence times estimated by using those genes suggested that the chloroplast mafK and rps4 genes are most suitable for investigating the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of the family Araucariaceae.

  17. ANALYSES OF IMAGES OF LAGENARIA (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. IN PAINTING AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION AND CROP ARCHEOGENETIC Анализ изображения лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (molina standl. в живописи как источник информации для истории интродукции и археогенетики культуры

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Works of painters of past is the source of information of crop domestication, use in horticultural, species diversity. Lagenaria crop images in painting can also be a resource for determining the morphological changes of the crop in evolution

  18. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  19. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  20. Agua malgastada y agua utilizada: observaciones sobre la modernización del regadío en el Oasis de Kuqar (Xinjiang, República Popular China)

    OpenAIRE

    Faggi, Pierpaolo

    1993-01-01

    Texto traducido por Gloria Navarro Albaladejo y revisado por Juan Antonio Marco Molina Esta investigación ha sido financiada al 60% por el Ministerio Universitario de Investigación Científica y Técnica y por el Centro Nacional de Investigación de Italia

  1. El aumento del sodio intracelular inducido por la eliminación de calcio externo regula la movilidad del espermatozoide humano /

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Flores, Víctor Manuel

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, presenta Víctor Manuel Torres Flores ; asesor Alberto Darszon Israel, Luis Manuel Montaño Ramírez, Juan Arcadio Molina Guarneros. 79 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2011

  2. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  3. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  4. Historien er ikke slut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurah, Thomas

    , Seamus Heaney, Stefan Heym, Peer Hultberg, Per Højholt, Imre Kertész, Jan Kjærstad, Ivan Klíma, Jaan Kross, Siegfried Lenz, Claudio Magris, Antonio Muñoz Molina, Cees Nooteboom, Ljudmila Petrusjevskaja, Christoph Ransmayr, Klaus Rifbjerg, Salman Rushdie, José Saramago, Peter Seeberg, Tage Skou...

  5. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  6. Influencia de la despolarización atrial en la velocidad de conduccion y refractariedad en la unión atrioventricular /

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández de Lara, Luis Gerardo

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Ciencias Medicas, presenta Luis Gerardo Molina Fernández de Lara ; asesor Ruy Pérez Tamayo, David Kershenobich Stalnikowitz, Juan Garduño Espinosa75 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Ciencias Medicas UNAM, Facultad de Medicina, 2012

  7. Fisica y vida cotidiana

    CERN Multimedia

    Méndez, R

    2002-01-01

    "Estaba harto de escuchar lo dificil que es ensenar fisica, interesar a los alumnos en gases, tiros parabolicos y campos magneticos. Por eso el profesor de Fisica de la Universidad de Murcia Rafael Garcia Molina decidio hace cinco anos dejar sin argumentos a sus colegas. Comenzo la busqueda de juguetes, regalos y objetos cotidianos para explicar la fisica" (1 page).

  8. Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Alternativas. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: Título: Las enseñanzas de Trabajo Social en España: 1932-1983. Estudio socio-educativo. Autora: Mª Victoria Molina Sánchez. Edita: Universidad Pontificia de Comillas. Madrid / por Mª Carmen Santos Aguado.

  9. A bi-weekly actual evapotranspiration dataset derived from NOAA-AVHRR images across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands, 1981-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Martin-Hernandez, Natalia; Tomas-Burguera, Miquel;

    -series. For an accurate quantification of daily ETa, cloud cover was removed applying the algorithm developed by Azorin-Molina et al. (2013), and the evaporative fraction estimated by means of the “triangle method”, using the spatial relationship between Ts and albedo for each daily image. The daily time...

  10. Sefarad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2014-01-01

    is at stake is really a change of form in the memory debate. Drawing on theories from Astrid Erll (2011) and Michael Rothberg (2009), the article aims to show how the novel Sefarad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation of a multidirectional memory, in which...

  11. "The great night of Europe is shot through with long, sinister trains"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2015-01-01

    of the millennium such a notion is constantly being challenged by global and transnational influences that affect and reshape the local memory discourse(s). The following article aims to show how the novel Sepharad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation...

  12. Programa de educación emocional y gestión del estrés en la Escuela Universitaria de Trabajo Social de Santiago de Compostela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Piñeiro, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Màster en Educació Emocional i Benestar, Facultat de Pedagogia, Departament de Mètodes d’Investigació i Diagnòstic en Educació, Universitat de Barcelona, curs: 2012-2013, Tutor/Tutora: Mª Cruz Molina Garuz

  13. Ord der forandrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rolle som kritisk og historisk bevidsthed. Værker af så forskellige forfattere som Durif, Tabucchi, Houellebecq, Molinas, Mertens og Antunes tager Sartres grundlæggende spørgsmål om litteraturens samfundsmæssige funktion op igen og bliver analyseret i antologien, der tager forholdet mellem litteratur og...

  14. Nuevo hospedador de Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae en Argentina New host record for Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Villacide

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de adultos de Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898 (Cerambycidae fue detectada en una plantación de Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf. Engelm. en la localidad de Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. Este es el primer registro del desarrollo de H. livida en una especie hospedadora distinta de Araucaria spp. Esta contribución agrega una nueva especie y una nueva familia al listado de plantas hospedadoras descriptas para este Cerambycidae en Chile.Adult of Huequenia livida (Germain, 1898 (Cerambycidae were captured in a Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. murrayana (Balf. Engelm. plantation located in Lago Puelo ( Chubut , Argentina . This is the first mention of the development of H. livida on a host species different than Araucaria spp. This contribution also adds a new host species and family to the list of host plants described for this Cerambycidae in Chile .

  15. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...

  16. Reproductive biology and pollination of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae) Biologia reprodutiva e polinização em Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson João Scrok; Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive biology, including phenology, flower biology, pollination, and the reproductive system in the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha were studied in an Araucaria forest in the state of Paraná. Phenology and reproduction in terricolous plants were followed in October 2006 and May - October of 2007. Flowering peaked from June to September and fruiting was from June to October. Flower anthesis lasted one day. Flowers were pollinated the most by the hummingbird Stephanoxis lalandi and the mo...

  17. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  18. Occurrence of mycorrhizal symbioses in the metal-rich lateritic soils of the Koniambo Massif, New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Perrier, Nicolas; Amir, H.; Colin, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was surveyed in ten endemic plant species of the Koniambo Massif (New Caledonia) and associated metal-enriched ultramafic soils along a topographic sequence ranging from a plateau at 900 m altitude to a valley at 700 m. In the four different plant formations (Araucaria group on the plateau, ligno-herbaceous maquis, Tristaniopsis maquis and Nothofagus forest in the valley), all plants were consistently colonised by AM fungi, even the sedges Costular...

  19. Species diversity and community structure in trap-nesting bees in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Tunes Buschini, Maria

    2006-01-01

    International audience The species diversity and community structure of trap-nesting bees in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in Southern Brazil was studied during 2 years. Three different habitats (Araucaria forest, swamp and grassland) were investigated in terms of abundance, richness, diversity and similarity of bee communicites. A total of 120 nests of 11 species were collected. The largest abundance of individuals and species richness was found for the family Megachilidae. The most...

  20. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos; Mateus Pellanda; Ana Cristina Tomazzoni; Heinrich Hasenack; Sandra Maria Hartz

    2004-01-01

    A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The Nation...

  1. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Román Carlos Ríos; Franklin Galvão; Gustavo Ribas Curcio

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m). In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angusti...

  2. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Carlo MELORO; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species mig...

  3. Soils in the southern Brazilian highlands: genesis, soil organic matter composition, and relations to vegetation history

    OpenAIRE

    Dümig, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The soils in the highlands of north-eastern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are distributed in a mosaic of grassland and deciduous forest with the conifer Araucaria angustifolia. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the relationships between vegetation mosaic and soil properties, (2) to reconstruct the vegetation history, (3) to investigate if the composition of soil organic matter is associated with vegetation changes. Overall, the results of this investigation are important cont...

  4. «Obra toda tejida de una admirable variedad de cosas»: the ekphrasis in «El Bernardo» of Balbuena

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Zulaica Lopez

    2016-01-01

    The ekphrasis has attracted the recent literary criticism as a key for poetic interpretation. We will check her particular presence in El Bernardo of Balbuena, noted by Frank Pierce, together with La Araucana and La Cristíada, as one of the three great Spanish epic poems. In this baroque poem, the ekphrasis will achieve the greater development in the genre becoming a major articulator of the text. Being a sample of a literary period where the action, the narrative progress, loses relevance in...

  5. «Obra toda tejida de una admirable variedad de cosas»: the ekphrasis in «El Bernardo» of Balbuena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Zulaica Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ekphrasis has attracted the recent literary criticism as a key for poetic interpretation. We will check her particular presence in El Bernardo of Balbuena, noted by Frank Pierce, together with La Araucana and La Cristíada, as one of the three great Spanish epic poems. In this baroque poem, the ekphrasis will achieve the greater development in the genre becoming a major articulator of the text. Being a sample of a literary period where the action, the narrative progress, loses relevance in favor to other literary elements, as the descriptive.

  6. Indígenas de Chile : entre el río, la ficción y la nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Albizú Labbé

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una tentativa de análisis de la influencia del río Bío-Bío –y, por ende, de la histórica « frontera araucana »– en la problemática de la identidad nacional chilena y de sus bases étnico-culturales. Respetando las restricciones de extensión exigidas, nos limitaremos aquí a efectuar una síntesis general del tema propuesto.

  7. Porcentagens de saponinas e taninos em vinte e oito cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L.) em duas épocas de corte - Botucatu - SP Saponins and tannins in twenty-eight alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivates grown in Botucatu - SP

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eunice de Queiroz Vieira; Ciniro Costa; Antônio Carlos Silveira; Mário De Beni Arrigoni

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os conteúdos de saponinas, taninos e a solubilidade da proteína (SP) de 28 cultivares de alfafa: Crioula, Monarca, BR 4, Alto Great, MH 4, SW 9210 A, 5929, BR 1, EL Grande, 5715, MH 15, Valley Plus, BR 2, Rio, SW 8210, Maricopa, ICI 990, 5888, P 30, Alfa-200, WL 516, SW 8112 A, BR 3, Florida 77, Araucana, Falcon, Semit 921 e Sutter. O material analisado foi obtido do 10º e 14º corte, respectivamente; em 08/12/97 e 16/04/98, de um experimento desenvolvido na...

  8. Porcentagens de saponinas e taninos em vinte e oito cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L.) em duas épocas de corte - Botucatu - SP

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Maria Eunice de Queiroz; Costa Ciniro; Silveira Antônio Carlos; Arrigoni Mário De Beni

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os conteúdos de saponinas, taninos e a solubilidade da proteína (SP) de 28 cultivares de alfafa: Crioula, Monarca, BR 4, Alto Great, MH 4, SW 9210 A, 5929, BR 1, EL Grande, 5715, MH 15, Valley Plus, BR 2, Rio, SW 8210, Maricopa, ICI 990, 5888, P 30, Alfa-200, WL 516, SW 8112 A, BR 3, Florida 77, Araucana, Falcon, Semit 921 e Sutter. O material analisado foi obtido do 10º e 14º corte, respectivamente; em 08/12/97 e 16/04/98, de um experimento desenvolvido na...

  9. Análisis estructural de la obra de Luis Moya Blanco

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Marcén, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Fin de Máster, se encuadra dentro de la asignatura “Análisis de estructuras históricas”; se va a proceder a realizar un estudio estructural en detalle de dos construcciones religiosas, la Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Araucana y la Iglesia de San Agustín, ambas del Arquitecto español Luis Moya Blanco. Por suerte se dispone de casi toda la documentación del proyecto original de ambas iglesias, por lo que se procederá a realizar un estudio comprensivo del “como fue pensado...

  10. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  11. Susceptibilidad a Insecticidas y Actividad Enzimática de Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Proveniente de Tres Huertos de la Región del Maule, Chile Insecticide Susceptibility and Enzymatic Activity of Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae from Three Apple Orchards of Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Reyes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cydia pomonella L., la principal plaga de pomáceas y nogales en Chile, ha sido controlada casi exclusivamente con aplicaciones de insecticidas organofosforados. Sin embargo, durante las últimas temporadas se han observado crecientes niveles de frutos dañados a cosecha. Dado que esta plaga ha desarrollado resistencia a insecticidas en varios países, se evaluó la susceptibilidad a dosis diagnóstico de azinfos metil y tebufenozide de larvas diapausantes provenientes de tres huertos de manzano de la Región del Maule y una cepa susceptible de referencia (S; además de la actividad de enzimas detoxificadoras en adultos emergidos de las mismas Tanto la actividad de oxidasas de función múltiple (OFM como de glutation-S-transferasas (GST se evaluó a través de fluorimetría, mientras la de esterasas (EST se determinó por absorbancia. La mortalidad larvaria frente a azinfos metil fue significativamente menor para Molina y Teno (30 y 85,4%, respectivamente que para la cepa S (95,3%. Para tebufenozide la mortalidad larvaria fue significativamente menor en Molina (35,31% que en la cepa S (88,6%. La actividad de GST fue significativamente mayor en dos de los tres huertos analizados (Teno = 13.679 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1 y Molina =13.096 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1. Similarmente, la actividad de OFM fue significativamente mayor en los mismos huertos, con valores 25,08 y 17,95 picogramos (pg de 7OH insecto-1 min.-1 para Molina y Teno, respectivamente. La cepa S presentó una actividad de EST significativamente mayor que la de las otras poblaciones, la cual parece no estar relacionada con la menor susceptibilidad a los insecticidas evaluados.Cydia pomonella L., the major pest of pome fruits and walnuts in Chile, has been controlled almost exclusively with applications of organophosphates insecticides. However, during the last few seasons, increasing levels of fruit damage at harvest have been observed. Given that this insect has

  12. Reinventing Democracy in Bolivia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Salman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available – Citizenship in Latin America, by Joseph S. Tulchin and Meg Ruthenburg (eds. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006. – Participación política, democracia y movimientos indígenas en los Andes, by Jorge León, et al. La Paz, Lima: PIEB / IFEA / Embajada de Francia en Bolivia, 2005. – El estado del Estado en Bolivia – Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2007, coordinación general George Gray Molina. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – El Estado de la opinión: los bolivianos, la Constitución y la Constituyente – Encuestas para el Desarrollo Humano, coordinadores George Gray Molina, Alfonso Ferrufino and Antonio Araníbar. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – Democracia de alta tensión – Conflictividad y cambio social en la Bolivia del siglo XXI, by César Rojas Ríos. La Paz: Plural Editores, 2007.

  13. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  14. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamila S. Battauz; Susana B. José de Paggi; Juan C. Paggi; Marcelo Romano; Ignacio Barberis

    2013-01-01

    The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina), constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii). Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zo...

  15. Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtyroký, Jiří; Kwiecien, P.; Richter, I.; Cheben, P.

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM: SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.) ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Optical waveguide theory * numerical modeling * Bloch modes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Uribe Barichivith; Daniel López Stefoni

    1980-01-01

    The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W), it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782), primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera En...

  17. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an exp...

  18. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Mauricio González; Campuzano, Hermelinda Servín

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christian...

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh P Prajapati; Manisha Kalariya; Parmar, Sachin K.; Sheth, Navin R.

    2010-01-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit p...

  20. Taller de capacitación en el manejo del gorgojo de Los Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable

    2008-01-01

    El presente documento contiene el desarrollo del taller de manejo del gorgojo de los Andes en la Comunidad Campesina de Santa María, trabajo fue realizado por el equipo del Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable (IPPS) de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - UNALM, en el marco del desarrollo del proyecto: Desarrollo de capacidades para la adaptación al cambio climático y de mercado en comunidades del Altiplano.

  1. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Alonso de Molinas Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements an...

  2. A Discrete/Continuous Choice Approach to Residential Water Demand under Block Rate Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Julie A.; W. Michael Hanemann

    1995-01-01

    A discrete/continuous choice model of the residential demand for water under block rate pricing is presented, estimated, and compared to results of regression models. The empirical analysis uses a dataset from a previously published study, Nieswiadomy and Molina (1989), of household level panel data from Denton, Texas, for summer months from 1981 to 1985 with an increasing block rate in effect. The striking result is that the discrete/ continuous choice model produces price elasticity estimat...

  3. Nuevas adiciones de bivalvos a la malacofauna marina peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro especies de moluscos bivalvos marinos, Nuculana (Jupiteria cuneata (Sowerby, 1833, Isognomon (Isognomón janus Carpenter, 1857, Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857 y Mysella (Rochefortia molinae Ramorino, 1968 se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano. Se incluye datos sobre la distribución geográfica y el hábitat de cada una de las especies.

  4. Resonance effects in the optical antennas shaped as finite comb-like gratings of noble-metal nanostrips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shapoval, O.V.; Nosich, A. I.; Čtyroký, Jiří

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM : SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.) ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : noble-metal thin strips * nanoantennas * grating resonance s Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  6. Overfishing population characteristics of razor clam, Ensis macha, from Independencia Bay, Peru, in 2004 year

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tarazona; Jürgen Laudien

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative monthly samplings, in 2004, were carried out to estimate the density and biomass of Ensis macha (Molina 1782), from Morro Quemado area, Bay Independence, Pisco. The present study analyzes biometric relationships, growth parameters and somatic production using the ELEFAN I routine and the Crisp’s method. During the year 2004 the rate of exploitation (E= 0.69 y-1) was significantly bigger than the values of 2003 and the monthly landings (maximum of 335 t) and fishing effort (maximu...

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  8. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  9. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Newman; Oman, L.D.; A. R. Douglass; E. L. Fleming; Frith, S. M.; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S. R.; C. H. Jackman; Krotkov, N.A.; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J E; S. Pawson; Stolarski, R. S.; Velders, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling studies. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use...

  10. Global Governance and the MDGs: The story of an impossible love?

    OpenAIRE

    Núria Molina Gallart

    2005-01-01

    If current world trends do not change, the attainment of the millennium development goals (MDGs) will be seriously compromised. During the last decades, priority has been given to economic and commercial globalization, while little is done towards the vitally important issue of globalizing sustainable human development. Nuria Molina argues for institutional mechanisms to ensure greater global social justice, adjusting social imbalances worldwide and guaranteeing a more ethical functioning of ...

  11. Luces y sombras de la calidad de la democracia en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alcántara Sáez

    2008-01-01

    El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer), The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.

  12. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, P. A; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; Fleming, E. L.; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S.R.; Jackman, C. H.; N. A. Krotkov; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  13. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Kristerson Reinaldo de Luna Freire; Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activi...

  14. Simulations of waveguide Bragg grating filters based on subwavelength grating waveguide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtyroký, Jiří; Kwiecien, P.; Wang, J.; Richter, I.; Glesk, I.; Chen, L.

    Vol. 9516. Bellingham: SPIE, 2015 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, J.; Molina-Fernandez, I.), 95160M ISBN 978-1-62841-637-4. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations II. Prague (CZ), 13.04.2015-15.04.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07908S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fourier modal method * finite difference time domain method * photonic nanowire Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Ethnobotany of Hulu(Lagenaria siceraria)%葫芦的民族植物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈重明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 葫芦(Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.)系葫芦科植物,在我国有着悠久的应用的历史,在古代人民的经济生活和医疗活动中均有重要的地位,而且在民俗文化方面更有丰富的内容,和宗教、植物崇拜有着密切的关系.

  16. A variabilidade espacial das famílias de Coleoptera (Insecta entre fragmentos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana (Bioma Araucária e plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelmann, no Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Spatial variability of Coleoptera (Insecta families between a Montane Ombrophilous Mixed Forest (Bioma Araucaria and Pinus elliottii Engelmann plantation fragments, in the Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias questões sobre a biodiversidade vêm sendo levantadas nas últimas décadas. Uma delas é o papel que as plantações florestais exóticas monoculturais desempenham na manutenção da fauna nativa, principalmente de insetos. Estudos têm demonstrado que os Coleoptera são sensíveis a variações florísticas e estruturais, em pequena escala espacial. Para analisar as possíveis diferenças na diversidade de Coleoptera entre um ambiente de floresta natural e uma plantação florestal exótica monocultural foi desenvolvido um inventário no Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná. Para tanto, durante 52 semanas (agosto de 2004 a julho de 2005, seis armadilhas malaise foram dispostas ao longo de um transecto através de dois ambientes adjacentes, com diferentes condições florísticas: três em fragmento da floresta natural (Floresta Ombrófila Mista e três na plantação de Pinus elliottii exótico. Neste primeiro estudo, as comunidades de Coleoptera foram analisadas com base na abundância e na riqueza das famílias. Foram coletados 12397 exemplares de 57 famílias. A abundância foi maior na floresta natural, decrescendo do interior desta para o interior da plantação de pinus. O ecótono - borda da floresta natural/borda da plantação de pinus - foi o mais rico em famílias. Como observado em inventários de outras localidades, os estudos apoiados em dados das famílias que se incluem nos primeiros 60% da abundância total de cada área, mostram os mesmos resultados quando são aplicados os dados de todas as famílias. Na plantação de pinus as famílias dominantes foram, pela ordem: Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Curculionidae, Nitidulidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae, Chrysomelidae; na floresta natural: Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Lampyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae.An important question for biodiversity is what is the impact of monocultures of exotic forest trees on native fauna, especially insects. Coleoptera have been shown to be sensitive to small-scale variations in forest floristic and structure. To test this idea, a comparison of families of Coleoptera was made between a natural forest and a monoculture of Pinus elliottii Engelmann at the Vivat Floresta Ecological Park, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, in southern Brazil. A one-year inventory was carried out from August 2004 to July 2005 with three malaise traps in each forest type, to compare, in this first preliminary study, family richness and abundance. A total of 12,397 insects in 57 families were collected. Abundance was greatest in the natural forest, while family richness was greatest at the border of the two forest types. As commonly found, studies on comparative abundance composition of areas including only dominant families involved in the first 60% of total abundance in any given area show the same trends as studies that include total abundance of all the families. In the pine monoculture, the dominant families were, in order of abundance, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Curculionidae, Nitidulidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae and Chrysomelidae. In the natural forest, the order of dominance was Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Lampyridae, Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae.

  17. MANUSCRITOS TRADUCTORIOS DEL BRASIL IMPERIAL. “LA ARAUCANA” DE DON PEDRO II

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    Ana María Barrera Conrad Sackl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Don Pedro II, emperador del Brasil entre 1840 y 1889, se dedicó con ahínco y pasión a la tarea traductora de varios idiomas hacia el portugués. Del español menciona en sus diarios dos trabajos, una traducción de "Granada" (1853 de Zorrilla, cuyo manuscrito aún no se ha encontrado y "La Araucana" de Don Alonso De Ercilla y Zúñiga (1558, que analizamos. El prototexto del último fue descubierto por el equipo de NUPROC (http://www.item.ens.fr/ en el IGHB de Rio de Janeiro en 2011, está fechado en 1889 y lleva la firma del emperador. El análisis se realiza desde la perspectiva teórica de la Crítica Genética y de los Estudios Descriptivos de la Traducción. Palabras claves: traducción; español; portugués; manuscritos de Don Pedro II. Manuscritos traduzidos no Brasil Imperial: La Araucana de Dom Pedro II Resumo: Don Pedro II, imperador do Brasil entre 1840 e 1889, dedicou-se com afinco e paixão à tarefa tradutória de vários idiomas para o português. Menciona em seus diários duas traduções do espanhol, Granada (1853 de Zorrilla, cujo manuscrito ainda não foi localizado e La Araucana de Dom Alonso de Ercilla y Zuñiga (1558 que analisamos neste artigo. O prototexto do último formado por três páginas foi descoberto pela equipe do NUPROC no IGBH de Rio de Janeiro em 2011, está assinada pelo imperador no ano de 1889. Os fundamentos teóricos da análise são a Crítica Genética e os Estudos Descritivos da Tradução. Palavras-chave: Tradução. Espanhol. Português. Manuscritos de Dom Pedro II. Translated manuscripts in Imperial Brasil: Don Pedro II's La Araucana Abstract: Don Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil between 1840 and 1889, devoted himself with zeal and passion to the task of translation into Portuguese texts from different languages. For his translation into Spanish he mentions in his diaries two works, a translation of Granada (1853 by Zorrilla, whose manuscript has not yet been found and La Araucana by Don

  18. Indicadores de impacto ambiental de plantaciones forestales – componente vegetal

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    Alicia Borhen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscando determinar indicadores sobre el impacto ambiental, basados en características vegetales, que generarían los monocultivos forestales lindantes con bosques nativos, se instalaron 32 unidades de muestreo en un área de propiedad de la empresa LIPSIA, Departamento Esperanza (Misiones, que reunía estas características. Las parcelas, de 100 m2, se distribuyeron sistemáticamente a cada 25 m. La vegetación se dividió en tres estratos: superior (CAP ≥ 30 cm, medio (5 cm ≤ CAP > 30 cm e inferior (CAP 30 cm e inferior (CAP < 5 cm. Se instalaron 10 parcelas en bosque nativo explotado, 10 parcelas en una plantación de Pinus elliottii Engelm. de 18 años aproximadamente (400 árboles/ha, 6 parcelas en la zona límite de una plantación de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze de 20-25 años (900 árboles/ha y 6 parcelas en el interior de esta plantación. En el área en estudio se identificaron 150 especies vegetales. En el estrato inferior se encontraron diferencias en función de varios índices de diversidad florística. En todos los casos el bosque nativo presentó mayor diversidad que las plantaciones, seguido por el pinar, el interior de la plantación de araucaria y por la zona límite de la plantación de araucaria. Todos los bosques estudiados ajustaron a la serie logarítmica de distribución de especies, lo que estaría reflejando la incidencia de un factor ambiental en esta distribución.

  19. potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed of Araucaria angustifolia, “pinhão”, is becoming a alternative way of income for many families living at south and southeast of Brazil. The intensive attack on Paraná pine seeds by the wild fauna, that occur at newly-planted areas by direct sowing and at nursery of seedlings, is one of several adverses and distimulating factors to specie spreading. The objective of this work was to verify probable phytotoxics effects of some naturals and synthetics substances potentially repellentes to wild fauna, in Araucaria angustifolia seeds “in vitro”. The experiment was realized at Phytopatology and Plant Physiology Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State – Brazil, from june to december, 2004. The Paraná pine seeds, after preparation and treatment with vegetal and not vegetal substances, were sown in plastic trays with vermiculite substratum and put on cabin of growth with controlled temperature, relative humidity of air, humidity of substratum and photoperiods. It was adopted the randomized complete design with 15 treatments, with 10 seeds each treatment and with 4 repetitions. The tested substances separately or in mixtures were: extract of fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur and látex ink. The root emission, stem emission, length of main root and length of stem were evaluated 76 days after sowing and statisticaly analyzed. The analysis make possible to conclude that the tested extract do not have phytotoxic effect on seeds and that the substances tested “in vitro” can be used in field experiments, in repellence traits for Parana pine seeds consuming fauna. Keywords: effects fitotóxicos; pine seeds of Araucaria angustifolia; predação of seeds.

  20. Recent palynological spectra from the Planalto region of the Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Reconstruction of contemporary vegetation - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between vegetation and recent palynomorphs are examined along a areal of 8000 km² in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. This areal is located between Caxias do Sul (NW) and Cambará do Sul (NE), and Canela/Gramado (SW) and the CPCN Pró-Mata (Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, SE). Local plant communities of semi-deciduous and deciduous forests, Araucaria forests, Capões, gallery forests, Capoeiras, grasslands (Campos) and anthropogenic affected...

  1. Effect of alkaline treatment on the ultrastructure of starch granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is a plant polysaccharide that occurs as discrete and partially crystalline microscopic granules. The development of different extraction methods to isolate granules with high purity and well-defined physical properties has increased due to the wide utilization of starch as an ingredient in the food industry. Alternatives to the pattern alkaline extraction protocol have been investigated in order to improve the extraction yield while maintaining the functional properties of the starch granules. In this work, we focused our efforts on the evaluation of the effect of alkaline treatments on the ultrastructure of Araucaria angustifolia (pinhao) starch granules during their extraction. (author)

  2. Viabilidade do processamento de biscoitos com farinha de pinhão / Viability of cookie-processing with Paraná pine nut flour

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Mariana Zanon Barão; Daniela Marina Acorsi; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    ResumoO pinhão é a semente do pinho ou pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia) de grande ocorrência no estado do Paraná. A farinha obtida é uma fonte de proteína, carboidratos e fibras e sua aplicação na indústria de alimentos poderia contribuir para melhorar o valor nutricional de vários produtos. Biscoito é o produto obtido pelo amassamento e cozimento de massa preparada com farinhas, amidos, fermentada ou não e outras substâncias alimentícias. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a elaboração ...

  3. USE OF BABAÇU FLOUR WITH ALTERNATIVE EXTENDER FOR PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    Érika da Silva Ferreira; Edvá Oliveira Brito; Setsuo Iwakiri; Silviana Rosso; Djeison Cesar Batista

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the potentiality of babaçu flour under differents percents (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) as alternative extensers to wheatmeal for plywood manufacturing. Third three panels with five veneers were produced using Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) Ktze, with urea-formaldehyde – UF and phenol-formaldehyde – FF resins and being three panels per treatment. The following formulations (in parts per wheight) were used: UF resin – 100 x extender – 50 x water – 50 x catalyst – 7 and...

  4. Composition of mixed-species flocks of forest birds in the Parque Estadual das Araucárias, western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-species flocks are associations of two or more species possibly derived from the maximization of foraging and/or minimization of predation. Several studies with mixed-species flocks have been carried out in southern Brazil, but none of them in a native Araucaria forest. Mixed-species bird flocks were surveyed between 2006 to 2007 at the Parque Estadual das Araucárias (PEA), in São Domingos, in the western part of the state of Santa Catarina. Fifty-six species were recorded in 29 flocks ...

  5. POESÍA E HISTORIA EN MEZQUINA MEMORIA DE ANTONIO GIL

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    Pilar García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo proponemos que la novela Mezquina memoria del escritor Antonio Gil actualiza la compleja relación entre poesía e historia que instituye a La Araucana de Alonso de Ercilla como canto épico fundacional. Según esta propuesta de lectura, Mezquina memoria se configura a partir de una hipótesis que constantemente se frustra y que dice relación con la imposibilidad de construir un relato --unitario, un “gran relato”-- sobre la escritura de Ercilla como acto poético creador. De esta manera, la dimensión mitohistórica de la novela da lugar a una lectura crítica de Chile como territorio simbólico.

  6. Notas e descrições em Parandrini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae

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    Santos -Silva Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Parandra is reviewed and four genera are recognized: Parandra Latreille, 1804, Neandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov., Archandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov. and Acutandra gen. nov. The genus Parandra is subdivided in two subgenera: Parandra (Parandra s. str. and Parandra (Birandra subgen. nov. The geographical distribution of P. (P. laevis Latreille, 1804 is commented and the probable synonymy between P. cubaecola Chevrolat, 1862 and P. (P. cribrata Thomson, 1861 is discussed. New species described: P. (P. tavakiliani from Puerto Rico and P. (Birandra mariahelenae from Jamaica. New combinations: Neandra brunnea (Fabricius, 1798, Neandra marginicollis (Schaeffer, 1929, Archandra caspia (Ménétriès, 1832, Acutandra punctatissima (Thomson, 1861, A. degeeri (Thomson, 1867, A. murrayi (Lameere, 1912, A. araucana (Bosq, 1951, A. ubitiara (Santos-Silva & Martins, 2000, all from Parandra. Keys to genera of Parandrini, subgenera of Parandra and American species of Parandra and Acutandra are added.

  7. CONSOLIDACIÓN DEL ESTADO-NACIÓN Y LAS CONTRADICCIONES DE LA PERSPECTIVA INDIANISTA: GUALDA, CAILLOMA Y A ORILLAS DEL BÍO-BÍO The Consolidation of Nation State and the Contradictions of the Indianista Perspective: Gualda, Cailloma and A Orillas del Bío Bío

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    Amado Láscar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan tres novelas de referente indígena (Cailloma, A orillas del Bío-Bío, Gualda publicadas en la década del setenta del siglo XIX. Estas novelas utilizan los modelos de La araucana de Ercilla y el Cautiverio feliz de Núñez de Pineda como paradigmas heroico y evangelizador, respectivamente. Representan tiempos pre-republicanos, utilizando estrategias románticas en la escritura, mistificando la realidad mapuche para construir un pasado épico sintonizado con el momento histórico en que fueron publicadas. Estos escritores católicos-criollos intentan reivindicar el “alma indígena” para “salvar al hombre” y no la etnia, que consideran anacrónica según la ley de evolución de la modernidad. Finalmente, estos textos se entroncan con la idea de Andrés Bello de hacer del pasado mapuche cantado en La araucana el origen de la chilenidad, apropiando el heroísmo mapuche para ser utilizado como mito fundacional en el nuevo orden creado por el estado nación. Este proceso se instituye con la negación de la sociedad indígena y de su derecho de definirse y mantener su cosmovisión y autonomía frente al establecimiento de la entidad criolla que se impone como universal en las tierras ocupadas.This article analizes three novels of indigenous referent (Cailloma, A orillas del Bío-Bío, Gualda published in the 1870s. The novels use the heroic and evangelist paradigms Ercilla’s La araucana and Núñez de Pineda’s Cautiverio feliz, respectively. They represent pre-republican times, utilizing romantic literary strategies to mystify Mapuche reality for the construction of an epic past that meets the demands of the historical moment in which they are published. These catholic-criollo authors attempt to vindicate the “native soul’ in order to “save the man” and not the ethnicity, which they consider anachronical according to modernity’s law of evolution. Finally, these texts fit into Andrés Bello

  8. Resenha da Obra Dom Pedro II: Um Tradutor Imperial

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    Patricia Leonor Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanelli, S; Soares, G. N.; Souza, R. de.  (Orgs.. Dom Pedro II: Um Tradutor Imperial, Tubarão: Ed. Copiart; Florianópolis: PGET/UFSC, 2013., 260p. A obra recém-publicada, intitulada Dom Pedro II: Um tradutor Imperial apresenta as análises dos manuscritos das traduções realizados pelo segundo Imperador brasileiro para o português das obras As mil e uma noites (do árabe, Hitopadesa (do sânscrito, A Divina comédia (do toscano, La Araucana (do espanhol e Il cinque maggio (do italiano. Escrito e organizado por Noêmia Guimarães Soares, Rosane de Souza e Sergio Romanelli, com participação de Romeu Porto Daros, Adriano Mafra, Ana Maria Sackl e Rosana Schmidt.

  9. La familia Acmaeidae (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda en el Perú

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    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan siete especies de la familia Acmaeidae de la zona litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima: Scurria viridula (Lamarck, S. parasitica (Orbigny, S. variabilis (Sowerby, S. zebrina (Lesson, Collisella orbignyi (Dall, C. ceciliana (Orbigny y C. araucana (Orbigny. Se amplía el límite norte de la distribución geográfica de las dos últimas especies y asimismo para S. zebrina y S. parasitica. Se informa sobre la zonación vertical de las especies, su dominancia relativa y otras observaciones ecológicas. De la revisión de la literatura y los resultados del presente estudio se concluye que, conjuntamente con Scurria scurra (Lesson, 1830, son ocho las especies de Acmaeidae presentes en la Provincia Peruana.

  10. Is aboriginal food less allergenic? Comparing IgE-reactivity of eggs from modern and ancient chicken breeds in a cohort of allergic children.

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    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. METHODOLOGY: Egg allergic children (n = 25 were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1-5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3-5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family.

  11. Comparison of phytosociological parameters among three strata of a fragment of ombrophylous mixed forest

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies based on sampling have been very common in the last 20 years, however, they are rarely carried out using complete enumeration of trees (census. This research compare the phytossociological parameters between three different strata from a remnant of Ombrophylous Mixed Forest (OMF, which are: OMF Montana, Border OMF Montana and OMF Alluvial. The area of 13.71 was topographically divided in blocks of 50 x 50 meters for a better control of the 100% forest inventory (census. All trees with CBH (circumference measured at 1,30 m above ground ≥ 31,5 centimeters were measured, georeferencied, numbered, painted at DBH and identified at species level. In the strata OMF Montana the species with the highest Value of Coverage (VC was Araucaria angustifolia, with 30.6%, followed by Casearia sylvestris with 25.8%. In the Border OMF Montana the species that succeeded Araucaria angustifolia (29.0% was Gochnatia polymorpha with 27.2% of VC. The third strata, OMF Alluvial, presented as predominant species Schinus terebinthifolius (55,5%, followed by Sebastiania commersoniana (27,7%, both characteristics of alluvial environments. In the three strata there was prevalence of secondary pioneer species, proving that the area is in a secondary stage of ecological succession due to past exploratory process.

  12. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Santos Bianchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED PLANTS

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    Sneh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria cookii, Bauhinia blakeana and Brassaia actinophylla are ornamental plants. The presence of various phytochemicals and pharmacologically important compounds in these plants can be exploited for their medicinal use. But there are no reports on the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and this study aims at investigating these. The plant extracts were prepared in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hexane, water and chloroform. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals were assessed. The anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity was determined for all three plant extracts. Anti-bacterial activity against three gram negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella was done and Araucaria cooki showed highest antibacterial activity among the three plants. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in methanol extract of Brassaia actinophyla with 81% inhibition. The order of the antioxidant activity of the three plants are in the order B.actinophylla>A cookie>B.blakeana. The results of phytochemical analysis suggest that phytosteroids are present in all the three plants. Maximum inhibition against the tested enzymes was exhibited by hexane and chloroform extracts of A.cookii. Hemolytic activity was done and the hexane extract showed maximum haemolysis where as aqueous extracts showed minimum activity. From the results it is clear that the three plant extracts has pharmacological applications. This is the first report of antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of these three plant extracts. Further studies are needed to exploit the actual mechanism and active compounds of these plants.

  14. Carbon storage increases by major forest ecosystems in tropical South America since the Last Glacial Maximum and the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann

    2002-06-01

    To study the carbon storage increase of major forest ecosystems in tropical South America, such as Amazon rain forest, Atlantic rain forest, semideciduous forest, and Araucaria forest, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the early Holocene vegetation cover were reconstructed by pollen records. Marked forest expansion points to a significant total carbon storage increase by tropical forests in South America since the LGM and the early Holocene. The Amazon rain forest expansion, about 39% in area, had 28.3×10 9 tC (+20%), the highest carbon storage increase since the LGM. The expansion of the other much smaller forest areas also had a significant carbon storage increase since the LGM, the Atlantic rain forest with 4.9×10 9 tC (+55%), the semideciduous forest of eastern Brazil with 6.3×10 9 tC (+46%), the Araucaria forest with 3.4×10 9 tC (+108%). The estimated carbon storage increase of the four forest biomes since the early Holocene is also remarkable. The extensive deforestation in the last century strongly affected the carbon storage by tropical forests.

  15. Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Troian, Vera R; Baldissera, Ronei; Hartz, Sandra M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different landscape structures on the understory Collembola community. Four different forest physiognomies were compared: Pinus spp. plantation, Eucalyptus spp. plantation, Araucaria angustifolia plantation, and a remaining native Araucaria forest. Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, which was beaten with a 1 m long stick, seasonally from September 2003 to August 2004. We evaluated the influence of forest physiognomies on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola communities. It was also verified if the habitat structure of each physiognomy was associated with the composition of the Collembola community. A total number of 4,111 individuals were collected belonging to the families Entomobrydae and Tomocerida (Entomobryomorpha), and Sminthuridae (Symphypleona), and divided in 12 morphospecies. Pinus plantation presented the highest richness, abundance and diversity of Collembola and it was associated to diverse understory vegetation. The abundance of Entomobrydae and Sminthuridae was associated to the presence of bushes, while Tomoceridae abundance was associated to the presence of trees. The habitat structure, measured through understory vegetation density and composition, plays an important role on the determination of the structure and composition of the Collembola community. PMID:19618049

  16. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE AND MIGRATION ROUTES OF TREE SPECIES ON THE PHYTOGEOGRAPHY PATTERNS OF FORESTS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812338This study aimed to evaluate the influence of bioclimatic variables and tree species migration routes onthe phytogeographic pattern of different forest physiognomy in southern Brazil. For this proposal, floristiccheck-lists of tree species of Araucaria Forest (AF, Subtropical Rain Forest (SRF, Seasonal DeciduousForest (SDF and Seasonal semi-deciduous Forest (SSF were extracted from the scientific literature.The vegetation matrix went through a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and, subsequently, theenvironmental matrix was adjusted to the ordination axes. The significant environmental variables (p ≤0.001 were plotted as vectors in the ordination diagram. A Multivariate Regression Tree (MRT was used inorder to analyze the floristic relationship among areas in function of bioclimatic variables. The eigenvaluesfor axis 1 and 2 of the DCA were, respectively, 0.49 and 0.25, which indicated high species turnover alongaxis 1, strongly associated with mean temperature of the wettest quarter, minimum temperature of thecoldest month, altitude and annual average temperature. The results allowed the conclusion that (i thereis greater floristic similarity between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forests, and (ii the tree component ofsouthern Brazil forests shows physiognomic and floristic variation in response to bioclimatic heterogeneityand migration routes.

  17. General characterization of noncommercial microbial lipases in hydrolytic and synthetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, C; Berrendero, M A; Cardenas, F; Alvarez, E; Elson, S W

    2005-03-01

    Fourteen noncommercial preparations of microbial lipases were investigated with respect to their catalytic activity for hydrolysis and synthesis of ester bonds. Six of the lipases were derived from microorganisms that have not previously been described as lipase producers, and another four were characterized for the first time. The synthetic reactions were carried out in two solvents of different polarities (n-heptane and acetone) using a series of fatty acids and primary and secondary alcohols with different chain lengths. Under the culture conditions employed, Pseudomonas cepacia produced more active enzyme than the other microorganisms. The lipase preparations produced using Ovadendron sulphureo-ochraceum, Monascus mucoroides, Monascus sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhodotorula araucariae, Pseudomonas cepacia, Streptomyces halstedii, and Streptomyces sp.were the most efficient catalysts for hydrolysis at lipid-water interfaces. Enzyme preparations from P. cepacia, Streptomyces sp., S. halstedii, and R. araucariae were good biocatalysts for esterification in the polar medium (acetone). When the lipase preparations with the greatest activity for hydrolytic reactions were excluded, regression analysis of the data for the hydrolytic and synthetic activities of the remaining lipase preparations yielded high multiple correlation coefficients for these reactions in both n-heptane and acetone (R = 0.82 and 0.91, respectively). PMID:15767695

  18. In vivo transmission of 'candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' by Amplicephalus curtulus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and its effect on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. tama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, N L; Riegel, R; Carrillo, R

    2014-02-01

    In Chile, phytoplasmas have been reported in sugar beet, grapevine, peony, and Chilean shrubs. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' have been detected in plants of Ugni molinae Turczanínow (Myrtaceae) and the leafhopper Amplicephalus curtulus Linnavuori & DeLong. We evaluated the possibility of phytoplasma transmission from native plants to grasses by A. curtulus and the possible effect on the plant hosts. Newly emerged adults were placed in cages with phytoplasma-infected U. molinae for 72 h (acquisition access period). These plants were then replaced by healthy ryegrasses for 20 d (latent period). They were again replaced for other healthy ryegrasses and were place in cages for 14, 7, and 1 d (inoculation access period [IAP]). After IAP, these plants were moved into different insect-free cages for 30 d, after which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were carried out. Phytoplasma-free insects on ryegrasses were considered as control treatments. Furthermore, plant height and leaf area were recorded for all treatments. After PCR, 46, 60, and 13% of the plants exposed to infected A. curtulus by 14, 7, and 1 d of IAP, respectively, were infected with 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi'. Similarly, plants exposed to an IAP of 14, 7, and 1 d with phytoplasma-infected leafhoppers showed a reduction in plant height of 19, 39, and 28% and leaf area of 302, 169, and 55%, respectively, in comparison to those exposed to phytoplasma-free leafhoppers. We showed that A. curtulus has the ability to transmit phytoplasma from U. molinae to ryegrasses, affecting ryegrass plant height and leaf area PMID:24665688

  19. De la capa al agujero: los descuidos de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Martínez, Carlos E.

    1997-01-01

    Diez años después de la firma del Protocolo de Montreal para regular el uso de sustancias nocivas para la capa de ozono, firmado por 24 países en 1987, se reseñan algunos inventos tecnológicos que si bien hacen la vida cotidiana más cómoda, continúan ocasionando daños a la capa de ozono. Asimismo, se presentan las batallas libradas hasta entonces por los científicos Mario Molina y Sherwood Rowland para que se reconocieran los efectos dañinos de los clorofluorocarbonos. Se incluye la reproducc...

  20. Los humos del mercedario: el postre americano de 'La villana de Vallecas'

    OpenAIRE

    García-Santo-Tomás, E. (Enrique)

    2010-01-01

    El estudio de cómo se representan en las obras áureas algunos objetos de la vida cotidiana, como el tabaco, avanza la comprensión de las mismas, como es el caso de 'La villana de Vallecas', de Tirso de Molina. Utilizando la dicha comedia y fuentes tratadísticas de la época, este artículo muestra que el tabaco –como el chocolate– fue objeto de la fascinación del mercedario, que vio en él un ambiguo símbolo del Nuevo Mundo, del consumismo avant la lettre y de la sensualidad. The study ...

  1. Conocimiento y aplicación de los principios éticos y deontológicos por parte de los psicólogos forenses expertos en el ámbito de familia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Bartumeus, Asunción

    2011-01-01

    [spa] Existe un aumento de requerimientos de intervención de los psicólogos forenses en procedimientos de familia y es reconocida la existencia de numerosas denuncias ante las comisiones deontológicas derivadas de dichas intervenciones (Del Río, 2000; Cayuela, Jarne y Molina, 2.005). No obstante, la investigación hasta el momento sobre la práctica profesional ética en este área concreta de la psicología es escasa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal el análisis del nivel de conocim...

  2. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña; José Luis Gutiérrez Molina; David Molina Rabadán; Alejandro Román Antequera; Jesús Fernández García; Roberto Germán Fandiño Pérez; Rafael Gómez Sánchez; Julio Pérez Serrano; Leonardo Mazzei de Grazia; Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2008-01-01

    Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed.), Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David...

  3. On creating mass/matter by extra dimensions in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Kaluza-Klein (KK) black hole solutions in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity in $D$ dimensions obtained in the current series of the works by Maeda, Dadhich and Molina are examined. Interpreting their solutions, the authors claim that the mass/matter is created by the extra dimensions. To support this claim, one needs to show that such objects have classically defined masses. We calculate the mass and mass flux for 3D KK black holes in 6D EGB gravity whose properties are sufficiently phy...

  4. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. ¿Y por qué no quedarse en Laraos?

    OpenAIRE

    Brougère, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    El Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos es un organismo de investigación cientifica en cooperación. Es asi que los resultados que nos presenta Anne- Marie Brougère se inscriben en el marco de un proyecto de investigación, conducido conjuntamente con la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina entre 1983 y 1986, sobre el estudio de las politicas agrarias de cuatro comunidades del valle del Río Cañete ubicadas en alturas diferentes, desde el nivel del mar hasta 3600 m. Este proyecto multidiscipl...

  6. Energía solar térmica y fotovoltaica aislada para pequeñas comunidades en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piriz Sagahon, Imanol Yalli Atahualpa

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de este proyecto se hizo gracias al apoyo económico del Centro de Cooperación al Desarrollo (CCD) y del Programa de Educación en Ciencia y Tecnología del Agua para la Población Infanto-juvenil de Perú PCIAECID (A1-035941-11). El apoyo en logística e instalaciones por parte del Departamento de Ordenamiento Territorial y Desarrollo Sostenible de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El presente trabajo final de master esta orientado al diseño y la implement...

  7. Enchancemnt of the optical power stimulated by impact ionization in GaSb-based heterostructures with deep quantum wells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M.; Zegrya, G.; Danilov, L.; Ivanov, E.; Kalinina, K.; Stoyanov, N.; Salikhov, Kh.; Yakovlev, Yu.; Hulicius, Eduard; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta

    Vol. 8781. BELLINGHAM: SPIE, 2013 - (Cheben, P.; Čtyroký, P.; MolinaFernandez, I.), s. 1-9 ISBN 978-0-8194-9583-9. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-18.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum wells * ionization * interfaces * lasers * LED * Mid-IR * quantum efficiency * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2017124

  8. Reseñas de Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca; Francisco de Paula Villatoro Sánchez; David Molina Rabadán; Daniel Alcalde Güelfo; Daniel Francisco Álvarez Espinosa; Mª del Rocío Piñeiro Álvarez; Manuel Baraja Escudero; José Joaquín Fernández Alles; Gema León Ravina

    2009-01-01

    Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición), Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps.), Econom...

  9. El Surrealismo vergonzante (tres poetas peruanos)*

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En el ámbito de América Latina el Perú tiene una poderosa poesía de vanguardia. Sin olvidar, por supuesto, a los mexicanos del grupo Contemporáneos o a su poeta precursor Tablada. (Ni al grupo veracruzano de los Estridentistas). Sin olvidar a los cubanos de Orígenes, quiero decir, sin olvidar a Lezama Lima. Ni a los argentinos Oliverio Girondo y Enrique Molina. Ni a las aves solitarias de Nicaragua, José Coronel Urtecho, o Vicente Huidobro de Chile. Ni a los extraordinarios modernistas brasil...

  10. Instalación del cultivo de papa en las parcelas experimentales, una a nivel comunal (aynokas) y otra a nivel individual

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable

    2008-01-01

    El presente documento contiene el desarrollo DE LA INSTALACIÓN del cultivo de papa en en dos sistemas de manejo el primero esta en un manejo colectivo (aynokas) y el segundo esta en un manejo individual estos experimentos estan instaladas en la Comunidad Campesina de Santa María, trabajo trabajo que fue realizado por el equipo del Instituto de la Pequeña Producción Sustentable ¿ IPPS de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - UNALM, en el marco del desarrollo del proyecto: ¿Desarrollo de ...

  11. V Actas Congreso. Poder, poderes y empoderamiento… ¿Y el amor? ¡Ah, el amor!

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gómez, Alicia; Escrig Gil, Gemma; Forcada Martínez, Águeda

    2009-01-01

    ÍNDICE: Presentación,BEATRIZ MOLINA GABRIEL Y GALÁN. I. CONFERENCIAS. ¿Es la explotación sólo algo malo o… qué tipo de poder es el poder del amor?,ANNA JÓNASDÓTTIR. Una experiencia en el poder ,SOLEDAD MURILLO DE LA VEGA. II. MESAS REDONDAS. MESA 1. Sentimientos, educación, amor y sexo Del mito del amor romántico a la construcción de relaciones amorosas entre iguales: una mirada feminista ,NIEVES SIMÓN RODRÍGUEZ. El cuerpo en la educación afectivo-sexual ,MATILDE FO...

  12. De El burlador de Tirso al Don Juan de Molière. Estudio Comparativo de Fuentes Textuales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Rosado, Irene

    2014-01-01

    He querido reflejar en este trabajo las fuentes o influencias folklóricas, literarias y de ciertos personajes nobles de la sociedad de la época, tanto de El burlador de Tirso de Molina como de Don Juan de Molière, además de realizar un estudio comparativo de ambas obras para analizar los elementos de convergencia o de desunión en una y otra comedia. De forma exhaustiva, he querido mostrar prácticamente todo lo que han escrito sobre el tema de don Juan expertos como Menéndez Pidal, Márquez ...

  13. Re-Gendering the Lbertine; or, The Taming of the Rake: Lucy Vestris as Don Giovanni on the Early Nineteenth-Century London Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Cowgill, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    When Luigi Bassi entered the stage of the Prague National Theatre in 1787 to create the title role of Mozart and Da Ponte's Don Giovanni, he could have drawn inspiration from a rich tradition of theatrical, pantomimic and marionette representations of the legendary Don Juan, to which this new opera was the latest contribution. Previous incarnations had been shaped by the likes of Tirso de Molina, Molière, Shadwell, Purcell and Gluck; yet it is Mozart and Da Ponte's version that has for us bec...

  14. Canci??n espa??ola e identidad nacional en la Espa??a franquista: Manolo Escobar

    OpenAIRE

    Otaola Gonz??lez, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Es bien conocido el gusto de Franco por la copla y la canci??n espa??ola que contribu??a a reforzar el sentimiento nacional espa??ol. Cada a??o, en la conmemoraci??n del 18 de Julio, las estrellas del momento como Conchita Piquer, Juanita Reina, Lola Flores, Antonio Amaya, Antonio Molina etc. eran invitadas a interpretar las canciones favoritas del General??simo. Entre los int??rpretes de la canci??n espa??ola, Manolo Escobar fue uno de los m??s populares en los a??os 60 y 7...

  15. Pioneers in ozone research receive Nobel Prize in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded its 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three AGU members for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Only one other Nobel prize has ever been awarded in the realm of atmospheric research. The honorees are professors Paul Crutzen of the Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The Academy credits the three with contributing to “our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences.”

  16. Generación de banco de propagación de bambú- guadua en zonas áridas de la costa peruana regado con distintos tipos de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Rodríguez, Juan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un proyecto de investigación experimental que se ha realizado en la facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola de La Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. Se basa en el aprovechamiento de diferentes tipos de agua, a las que se les aplican diversas tecnologías sostenibles de tratamientos de agua, tal como sistemas de humedales construidos de flujo horizontal y reservorios. El reúso de estos cuerpos de agua se utiliza para la generación de un banco de pr...

  17. Reinventing Democracy in Bolivia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    – Citizenship in Latin America, by Joseph S. Tulchin and Meg Ruthenburg (eds). Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006. – Participación política, democracia y movimientos indígenas en los Andes, by Jorge León, et al. La Paz, Lima: PIEB / IFEA / Embajada de Francia en Bolivia, 2005. – El estado del Estado en Bolivia – Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2007, coordinación general George Gray Molina. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – El Estado de la opinión: los bolivianos, la Constitución y la Co...

  18. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; López-Illescas, Carmen; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F. (dir.), Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z. (coord.), Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., López-Illescas, C., Vargas-Quesada, B. Informe de calidad y datos de producción científica (2003-2009)en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Nuevos Materiales y Nuevos Procesos Industriales. Madrid: Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología, 2012. NIPO: 720-12-041-0

  19. Estratigrafía del Pérmico y Triásico en el sector central de la rama castellana de la Cordillera Ibérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Arlucea, M.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The main Permian and Triassic sequence in Molina de Aragón and South Albarracín is established. More than 45 sections have been studied, analysing the lateral changes and establishing 16 lithoestratigraphic Units. Part of these 1ithoestraigraphic Units were originally established by Ramos (1979 in the Molina de Aragon area, but this study prove that they can be followed to our arca. .
    The description, main characteristics, lateral changes and extension of each lithoestratigraphic Units are established here. .
    The paleogeography of this area with a large high located in the half north of Albarracín Sierra, is discussed here. That high was related with the tectonic movements contemporaneous to sedimentation during Upper Permian and Triassic.

    Se establece la sucesión estratigráfica tipo del Pérmico y Triásico de la región comprendida entre Molina de Aragón y el sur de Albarracín. Sobro la base do más de 45 columnas estratigráficas levantadas y del análisis de las variaciones que presentan los distintos tramos litológicos de que se compone la serie, se establecen 16 unidades litoestratigráficas, Aunque una parte de estas unidades fueron definidas originalmente en otros sectores de la Cordillera Ibérica, el estudio realizado demuestra que son también válidas en este área. Es el caso de las unidades definidas para parte del Pérmico y para las facies Buntsandstein por Ramos (1979, al oeste de Molina de Aragón.
    Se describen y analizan las principales características de cada una de las unidades litoestratigráficas establecidas. así como sus variaciones laterales y extensión superficial. .
    Por último, se discuten las implicaciones paleogeográficas que tuvo la existencia de un importante umbral situado en la mitad norte de la Sierra de Albarracín, Y se relaciona su presencia con la actividad tectónica contemporánea de la sedimentación del Pérmico superior y del Triásico.

  20. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants. PMID:27477343

  1. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Mauricio González

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christianity in Mexico are similar to global.

  2. Diferencias en el perfil psicológico y en la conducta alimentaria de madres de mujeres con y sin trastornos alimentarios /

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez Velazquez, Veronica

    2012-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Psicología, presenta Verónica Vázquez Velázquez ; tutores principales de tesis Lucy María Reidl Martínez, Gilda Libia Gómez Pérez Mitré, Juan Pablo Méndez Blanco, Martha Kaufer Horwitz, Teresita de Jesús Saucedo Molina177 páginas : ilustracionesDoctorado en Psicología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2012 Programa de Posgrado en Psicología

  3. Agresividad escolar y resolución de conflictos en los centros de Educación Secundaria en la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-López, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como propósito realizar una breve aproximación conceptual sobre la agresividad escolar en cinco centros educativos de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la Región de Murcia. Estos centros están ubicados en diferentes poblaciones: Abanilla, Bullas, Molina de Segura, Murcia capital y Yecla. Para ello, se ha analizado la frecuencia con que se presentan agresiones en estos centros, el sexo del agresor, el escenario y las formas de agresión más frecuentes y las ...

  4. Vertical zonality of fractionated granite plutons reflected in zircon chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel

    s. l : Universidad d Salamanca ; Escuela politécnica superior de Avila ; Universidad de Granada, 2011 - (Molina, J.; Scarrow, J.; Bea, F.; Montero, P.). s. 25-25 ISBN 978-84-694-5253-0. [Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks /7./. 04.07.2011-09.07.2011, Avila] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : zircon * granite geochemistry * granite zonality * Cínovec * Beauvoir Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.seventh-hutton.org/meeting/Abstracts,_posters,_Lithos_Special_Issue_files/abstracts_book_Hutton_ISBN.pdf

  5. De vuelta sobre la seducción en los libros de caballerías. Con especial atención a la figura masculina y el ‘donjuanismo’

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Perdomo, María del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el motivo del caballero seductor y mujeriego, antecedente del Don Juan de Tirso de Molina, que corresponde en el catálogo de Stith Thompson al motivo T10.4 (G), “Man continually falling in love”. Se hace una revisión de los herederos de Gauvain artúrico en los libros de caballerías castellanos, con especial atención a Galaor en el Amadís de Gaula, Rogel de Grecia del Florisel de Niquea y Floriano del Desierto del Palmerín de Inglaterra para descubrir los ra...

  6. El suelo, un sistema organizado que sustenta la vida terrestre, una propuesta de aula para ciclo I

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Mora, Yenny Patricia

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo diseñar una propuesta de aula donde se integren conceptualmente la estructura, y los procesos: físicos, químicos, biológicos y sociales, que inciden en el desarrollo y protección del suelo, con el fin de lograr un aprendizaje significativo, el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento y una conciencia del cuidado de éste en los estudiantes del ciclo I, del colegio Gerardo Molina Ramírez IED. Se realizó una prueba diagnóstica con el fin de identificar la...

  7. Understanding the crisis in Spain: An unhealthy political environment or a plain vanilla recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Winther, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to examine the crisis in Spain and to consider whether an unhealthy political environment and the existence of an extractive political class can explain the crisis, or whether the situation in the country should be understood merely as a temporary economic crisis. To do so I investigate and discuss the causes to the crisis and test the assumptions and propositions in César Molinas’ theory of the political class in Spain. Molinas argues that the Spanish politicians do n...

  8. La traducción de culturemas en el ámbito del patrimonio cultural: análisis de folletos turísticos de la Región de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Almela, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de culturemas es una de las principales dificultades a las que ha de hacer frente el traductor de textos turísticos. Dichos elementos proceden de diversos ámbitos de una cultura y encuentran en el folleto turístico su nexo de unión. Uno de los ámbitos que ya desde Nida (1945) ha sido objeto de catalogaciones es el de la cultura material, también llamado ámbito del patrimonio cultural (Molina Martínez, 2001). Precisamente el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en...

  9. Aprendizaje comunitario en la Escuela TIC 2.0: nuevos modelos de organización del aula

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Rosa; Rodríguez, Pilar; Segovia Aguilar, Blas

    2011-01-01

    La presente comunicación describe la experiencia que viene desarrollándose en el segundo ciclo de primaria del CEIP Tirso de Molina de Córdoba. Integra dos aspectos fundamentales en la educación mediática: el desarrollo de la competencia digital y de tratamiento de la información mediante el blog y las presentaciones, y la creación de nuevos contextos para el aprendizaje en los que participan familiares y voluntarios, junto con el profesorado en el aula para acelerar el aprendizaje de los esc...

  10. Effects of Different Common Cucurbitaceae Grafting Rootstock on Growth, Development and Quality of Melon(Cucumis melo L.)%常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜其品质差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 于高波; 盛云燕; 王洋洋; 廖佳宁

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze growth, development and quality of melon after grafting using common Cucurbitaceae grafting rootstock. [Method] The self-root seedling of Dongtian 02 was used as control. And pumpkin( Cucurbita moschata), big gourd[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. gourda Ser. ] , ground melon[Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. var. clavata Ser. ], zucchini(Luffa cylin-drica) , and luffa[Benincasa hispida (Thunb. ) Cogn. var. chieh-qua How] were used for grafting to melon Dongtian 02. The experiment studied different rootstocks on the grafting survival rate, growth rate and fruit characteristics. [ Result] The results indicated that using luffa and zucchini as grafting rootstock were not suitable for the improvement of melon quality whereas gourd melon and pumpkin had the positive influence on performance. As grafting rootstock, big gourd has advantages and disadvantages. [ Conclusion] The study provides a theoretical basis for melon grafting cultivation development.%[目的]分析常见葫芦科作物砧木嫁接甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)后甜瓜的生长发育及果实品质.[方法]以东甜02自根苗作为对照,进行以南瓜(Cucuita moschata)、大葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.gourda Ser.]、瓠子[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl.var.clavata Ser.]、丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)、节瓜[Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.var.chieh-qua How]为砧木、东甜02为接穗的嫁接栽培比较试验,研究不同砧穗组合的嫁接成活率、植株生长速率和果实性状.[结果]以节瓜、丝瓜为砧木,不利于东甜02果实优良性状的表现,而以瓠子、南瓜为砧木,对东甜02有积极的影响,而以大葫芦为砧木,则利弊参半.[结论]该研究可为甜瓜嫁接栽培的发展提供理论依据.

  11. Kings, Saints and Husbands: Portuguese Characters in the Golden Age Theatre

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    María Rosa Álvarez Sellers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese reality is part of the thematic heritage of the Spanish Golden Age theatre which highlights from the Lusitanian their courage at war and their excess in passion. Literary interactions took place in two senses: the Lusitanian tradition was treated in Spanish pieces, and Portuguese playwrights wrote in Castilian following Lope de Vega in his Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (1609. Although history and hagiography will be the most exploited aspects due to the impact of their protagonists, on other occasions Portugal will be used as a setting to universal conflicts. Kings such as D. Afonso Henriques, D. João II and D. Sebastião star in works of Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega or Cubillo de Aragón; and El príncipe constante by Calderón and Caer para levantar by Moreto, Matos Fragoso and Cáncer relate, respectively, the lives of two Portuguese saints, S. Fernando and S. Gil. We will analyse El príncipe constante and A secreto agravio, secreta venganza by Calderón and Las quinas de Portugal by Tirso de Molina, with the aim of discovering the degree of involvement between the dramaturgical approaches and historical context that includes or propitiates them, in order to try to reveal the elements that motivated the rise and the decline of Portuguese topics in the seventeenth century Spanish theatre.

  12. DO PENSAR HISTÓRICO Á NEGAÇÃO DO PÓS-TURISMO: Ensaio crítico sobre Pós-Turismo

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    João dos Santos Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente ensaio propõe uma análise crítica do livro O Pós-Turismo, do mexicano Sergio Molina. Inicialmente, destacamos os métodos funcionalista, estruturalista e do materialismo histórico como instrumentos capazes de interpretar a realidade turística, mostrando seus avanços e limites, para, em seguida, discutir o conceito de pós-modernidade e o surgimento do sufixo “pós”. Assim, poderemos iniciar a discussão em torno do pós-turismo e explicitar o método utilizado por Molina para criar tal conceito e demonstrar como o mesmo contribui para o empobrecimento científico e acadêmico da teoria do Turismo, evidenciando que tal conceito aplica-se como uma construção voltada para o mercado e não para o saber turístico. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Teoria do Turismo. Pós-Turismo. Funcionalismo. Neoliberalismo. 

  13. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  14. 海南岛葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫种类鉴定%Species identification of the root-knot nematode on Cucurbitaceae vegetables in Hainan Is land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟明; 陈绵才; 肖彤斌; 王会芳

    2011-01-01

    The root knot nematodes on Cucurbitaceae vegetables collected from 4 cities in Hainan Island were identified by using morphological characters, isozymes and mtDNA-PCR.Meloidogyne enterolobii were found in 5 samples, and it was a new record species on Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl and Luffa cylindrica Roem.Its distribution in Wenchang and Lingshui was also reported.Miscegenation of M.enterolobii and M.incognita was observed on two samples.%运用比较形态学、同工酶和mtDNA-PCR对采自海南岛4个市县的葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫进行鉴定,结果发现5个种群均存在象耳豆根结线虫(Meloidogyne enterolobii).该种线虫是葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl]和丝瓜[Luffa cylindrica(Linn)Roem]上的新记录种,文昌和陵水属其首次被报道的分布地区.有2个样本表现为象耳豆根结线虫和南方根结线虫(M.incognita)的混合种群.

  15. ombrófila mista montana no período entre 1979 e 2000

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    Luciano Budant Schaaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The floristic and structure alterations were studied in an Ombrophyllous Mixed Forest located in São João do Triunfo (Paraná State - Brazil. Nine plots of 1ha, first evaluated in 1979, were recovered and, measured in 2000. In 1979, all the trees with dbh ≥ 20 cm were identified and tagged, and they had their commercial height and diameter measured. In 2000, based on the same criteria described before, the trees which had not been counted in 1979 were considered as ingrowth, and the missing ones were considered mortality. In 1979, 2133 individuals, 51 species and 29 families were found and in the 2000 survey, 2202 individuals, 55 species and 31 families ware journal. In both surveys, the families Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Canellaceae were the most represented in terms of quantity of individuals. Although in both times more than 50 species were counted, in 1979 only 7 species (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porous, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora and Campomanesia xanthocarpa represented 80.4% of the individuals and, in 2000, the same 7 species plus Ocotea corymbosa covered 80.9% of the total number of individuals. Hovenia dulcis, exotic specie, based on the number of adult and regeneration individuals, became to be seen as a threat to the autocnons species. All the structural indicators which were analyzed showed that the community has become more mature during the studied period and that the Araucaria angustifolia increased its dominance. There was a sensible increase of the occupancy grade, indicated by the absolutely dominance that changes from 23.52 m2/ha in 1979, to 28.53 m2/ha, in 2000, an increase of 21.3%. These results indicate that this community is still in development, and has not yet found its equilibrium. It also demonstrates that the Araucaria dominance increased in this period, suggesting that this profile can even increase future in the

  16. Biochemical and developmental characterization of carbonic anhydrase II from chicken erythrocytes

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    Orito Kensuke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA of the chicken has attracted attention for a long time because it has an important role in the eggshell formation. The developmental profile of CA-II isozyme levels in chicken erythrocytes has not been determined or reported. Furthermore, the relations with CA-II in erythrocyte and egg production are not discussed. In the present study, we isolated CA-II from erythrocytes of chickens and determined age-related changes of CA-II levels in erythrocytes. Methods Chicken CA-II was purified by a combination of column chromatography. The levels of CA-II in the hemolysate of the chicken were determined using the ELISA system in blood samples from 279 female chickens, ages 1 to 93 weeks, 69 male chickens, ages 3 to 59 weeks and 52 weeks female Araucana-chickens. Results The mean concentration of CA-II in hemolysate from 1-week-old female was 50.8 ± 11.9 mg/g of Hb. The mean levels of CA-II in 25-week-old (188.1 ± 82.6 mg/g of Hb, 31-week-old (193.6 ± 69.7 mg/g of Hb and 49-week-old (203.8 ± 123.5 mg/g of Hb female-chickens showed the highest level of CA-II. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chickens significantly decreased at 63 week (139.0 ± 19.3 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in female WL-chicken did not change from week 63 until week 93.The mean level of CA-II in hemolysate of 3-week-old male WL-chickens was 78.3 ± 20.7 mg/g of Hb. The levels of CA-II in male WL-chickens did not show changes in the week 3 to week 59 timeframe. The mean level of CA-II in 53-week-old female Araucana-chickens was 23.4 ± 1.78 mg/g of Hb. These levels of CA-II were about 11% of those of 49-week-old female WL-chickens. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between the level of CA-II and egg laying rate from 16 week-old at 63 week-old WL-chicken (p Conclusions Developmental changes and sexual differences of CA-II concentration in WL-chicken erythrocytes were observed. The concentration of CA-II in

  17. Nesting biology oF Centris (Hemisiella) tarsata Smith in southern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Wolff, L L

    2006-11-01

    A total of 67 nests of Centris tarsata were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters, consisting of a linear series of brood cells built with sand mixed with oil. This species showed a preference for open habitats, since it occurred only in Swamp and Grassland areas and has never been found in the Araucaria forest. Nesting activity was bigger during the hot season, especially in December and January. The Sex ratio was of 1.48:1 (females/males), significantly different from 1:1. The females were larger than the males and these showed no dimorphism. Males were produced in the outermost cells and females in the innermost cells. C. tarsata presented a direct development without diapause in larval stage. They overwinter as adults. Development time was similar for males and females. Natural enemies are Bombyliidae Mesocheira bicolor, Coelioxys sp. and Meloidae. PMID:17299945

  18. The bioindicative potential evaluation of Tabebuia alba (Cham. Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, in urban atmospheric pollution

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    César Vinícius Carvalheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the existence of leaf anatomic characteristics in Tabebuia alba changed by air pollutants, which could be used as tool for a bioindication program. The quantification of mutagenic events on pollen grains also were measured. For this, median leaves and pre-anthesis flowers were collected from the adult plants from three places of Curitiba and one place in Araucaria, all nearby to the air monitoring stations. The comparison of the four study sites showed a reduction in leaf area, an increasing of stomatal density, subepidermic layer, epidermis in both faces and the amount of micronucleus. Also, there was reduction of chlorophyllian parenchymas at the site where there was the higher average for the ozone level. It was concluded that these modifications might be a consequence of the effect of troposferic pollution on T. alba plants. However, further studies with this species would be necessary to confirm its potential for bioindication.

  19. Genetic improvement of forest tree species

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    Teotônio Francisco Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forestry sector is considered one of the most developed in the world, being the base for important industrialsegments which use wood as raw material. Tree breeding has played an important role on improving the competitiveness ofBrazilian forestry-based companies, especially for its positive reflexes on increasing adaptation, forestry productivity and woodquality. In spite of the importance of other forest trees for the economy, such as Schizolobium, Araucaria, Populus and Hevea, themain genera under genetic improvement in the country are Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia and Tectona. They are used by industries likepulp and paper, siderurgy, tannin, chips for exportation and lumber, constituting an important source of revenues for the Brazilian’seconomy, besides their positive social and environmental impacts. This paper presents a generic approach to genetic improvementaspects of these four major genera currently undergoing breeding in Brazil.

  20. Compilation of woody species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex

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    Rodrigo Scarton Bergamin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present data from 206 floris- tic checklists describing the occurrence of 1,916 species across the southern portion of the Atlantic Forest. This dataset can be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying plant community assembly processes and the historical relationships between different forest formations.