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Sample records for araucaria araucana molina

  1. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos

  2. Toward the characteristics of the development of the seedlings and immature plants of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch (Araucariaceae in its natural habitats (Neuquén Province, Argentina

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    N.L. Kazakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria forests were studied and their types were distinguished. Descriptive characteristics of defined forest types were established. Araucaria araucana regrowth rate and seed survival expressed as thousands per hectare were estimated in the natural habitats of araucaria. The anatomical features of needles of immature and generative plants were compared. A. araucana life cycle from the seedling to the immature developmental stage was described. Growth power classes of immature plants were defined according to the environmental conditions of A. araucana growth.

  3. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la

  4. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  5. Short communication: Development of a new polymorphic genetic marker in Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch

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    Drake, F.; Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, A.; Molina, J. R.; Alvarez, J. B.; Herrera, M. A.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Seed storage proteins have been used as genetic marker in forest species to evaluate genetic variability, demonstrating its effectiveness both in conifers and broad-leaved. In conifers, megagametophyte storage proteins are particularly useful because of their haploid nature. The aim of this study was to determine whether these proteins could be used as a new marker of genetic diversity in Araucaria araucana, one of the oldest conifers of South America and a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity. For this, megagametophytes from two A. araucana populations were assessed to identify polymorphic bands and to obtain a preliminary estimation of the genetic diversity. The results revealed that globulin is the best fraction for measuring the variability in the species, due to their high level of variation (20 identified bands, 11 of them polymorphic). Both populations showed high genetic diversity, with more than 92% of the variation within populations. The study highlighted that these proteins can be used to measure the genetic diversity in A. araucana, providing good information to ensure the preservation of the species genetic resources. (Author) 29 refs.

  6. Incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana y consideraciones ecológicas al madereo de aprovechamiento en áreas recientemente quemadas Wildfire in Araucaria araucana forests and ecological considerations about salvage logging in areas recently burned

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    Mauro E. González; Veblen, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    El fuego es el tipo de disturbio más importante en conformar el paisaje forestal de Araucaria araucana en la zona centro-sur de Chile y Argentina. En la Región de la Araucanía el clima y el ser humano han influenciado el régimen de fuego durante al menos los últimos mil años. Los incendios catastróficos ocurridos recientemente (año 2002) que afectaron los bosques de Araucaria atrajeron la atención pública, política y científica generando una importante necesidad de entender las causas y efect...

  7. Factores que inciden en la germinación de Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) del bosque xérico

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    Duplancic, María Andrea; Martínez Carretero, Eduardo; Cavagnaro, Juan Bruno; Herrera Moratta, Mario; Navas Romero, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Araucaria araucana es una conífera dioica endémica de la Patagonia de Argentina y Chile. Los árboles femeninos producen semillas grandes que son dispersadas desde febrero a mayo. Aunque se destaca la importancia de esta especie por su valor biológico y cultural, el conocimiento sobre algunos aspectos de su autoecología es limitado, en particular en el extremo xérico de su distribución. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto de la temperatura y de tratamientos pre-ger...

  8. Incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana y consideraciones ecológicas al madereo de aprovechamiento en áreas recientemente quemadas Wildfire in Araucaria araucana forests and ecological considerations about salvage logging in areas recently burned

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    MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El fuego es el tipo de disturbio más importante en conformar el paisaje forestal de Araucaria araucana en la zona centro-sur de Chile y Argentina. En la Región de la Araucanía el clima y el ser humano han influenciado el régimen de fuego durante al menos los últimos mil años. Los incendios catastróficos ocurridos recientemente (año 2002 que afectaron los bosques de Araucaria atrajeron la atención pública, política y científica generando una importante necesidad de entender las causas y efectos de tales eventos en los ecosistemas forestales. Estos grandes incendios produjeron una abundante cantidad de material muerto en pie y en el suelo, promoviendo el desarrollo de otros atributos estructurales conocidos como legados biológicos que tienen un rol crítico en la recuperación de los ecosistemas luego de este tipo de eventos. El madereo de aprovechamiento ("salvage logging" es considerado un factor negativo en la recuperación de áreas afectadas significando tanto una pérdida o menoscabo de la capacidad de regeneración como un deterioro en otros procesos ecológicos clave. Incendios catastróficos de alta severidad, ya sea antrópicos o naturales, crean presiones tanto para reemplazar el bosque nativo por plantaciones de especies de crecimiento rápido o llevar a cabo operación de madereo de aprovechamiento. Las decisiones de manejo deben estar basadas en un mejor entendimiento de la ocurrencia pasada de incendios y su rol en modelar los presentes ecosistemas de Araucaria. Particularmente, en el contexto del excepcional valor ecológico y cultural de estos ecosistemas, las agencias y profesionales del manejo forestal deberían considerar políticas que efectivamente aseguren y sean consistentes con la restauración de procesos ecológicos y atributos clave en los ecosistemas de AraucariaFire is the most important kind of disturbance shaping the Araucaria araucana forest landscapes of south-central Chile and Argentina. In the

  9. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  10. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  11. First records of three species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae in Argentina and use of a predictive model to compare their potential distribution with the range of their host-plant, Araucaria araucana Primera cita de las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae en Argentina y uso de un modelo predictivo para comparar su distribución potencial con el rango de su planta huésped, la Araucaria araucana

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    M.S. FERRER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the three known species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae in Argentina are reported, and added to their known distribution in Chile. These weevils are of interest because of their association with the pehuén or monkey puzzle tree, Araucaria araucana, a species of conservation concern. Their distribution data are of value for the protection of biodiversity in natural areas of Patagonia. The potential distribution of Oxycraspedus, as predicted by a model using bioclimatic variables, is coincident as expected, with the geographic range of the araucaria host-plantSe reportan por primera vez en Argentina las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae y se añaden a su distribución en Chile. Estos gorgojos son de interés debido a su asociación con el pehuén Araucaria araucana, una especie de gran interés en temas de conservación. Los datos sobre su distribución son valiosos para proteger la biodiversidad en áreas de la Patagonia. La distribución potencial de Oxycraspedus predicha por un modelo a partir de variables bioclimáticas, es coincidente, como se esperaba, con el rango geográfico de su planta huésped, la araucaria

  12. Evidence of solar activity and El Niño signals in tree rings of Araucaria araucana and A. angustifolia in South America

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    Perone, A.; Lombardi, F.; Marchetti, M.; Tognetti, R.; Lasserre, B.

    2016-10-01

    Tree rings reveal climatic variations through years, but also the effect of solar activity in influencing the climate on a large scale. In order to investigate the role of solar cycles on climatic variability and to analyse their influences on tree growth, we focused on tree-ring chronologies of Araucaria angustifolia and Araucaria araucana in four study areas: Irati and Curitiba in Brazil, Caviahue in Chile, and Tolhuaca in Argentina. We obtained an average tree-ring chronology of 218, 117, 439, and 849 years for these areas, respectively. Particularly, the older chronologies also included the period of the Maunder and Dalton minima. To identify periodicities and trends observable in tree growth, the time series were analysed using spectral, wavelet and cross-wavelet techniques. Analysis based on the Multitaper method of annual growth rates identified 2 cycles with periodicities of 11 (Schwebe cycle) and 5.5 years (second harmonic of Schwebe cycle). In the Chilean and Argentinian sites, significant agreement between the time series of tree rings and the 11-year solar cycle was found during the periods of maximum solar activity. Results also showed oscillation with periods of 2-7 years, probably induced by local environmental variations, and possibly also related to the El-Niño events. Moreover, the Morlet complex wavelet analysis was applied to study the most relevant variability factors affecting tree-ring time series. Finally, we applied the cross-wavelet spectral analysis to evaluate the time lags between tree-ring and sunspot-number time series, as well as for the interaction between tree rings, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and temperature and precipitation. Trees sampled in Chile and Argentina showed more evident responses of fluctuations in tree-ring time series to the variations of short and long periodicities in comparison with the Brazilian ones. These results provided new evidence on the solar activity-climate pattern-tree ring connections over

  13. Redescription of an early-derivative mite, Pentasetacus araucariae (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae), and new hypotheses on the eriophyoid reproductive anatomy.

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    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Beliavskaia, Alexandra Y; Rautian, Maria S; Sukhareva, Sogdiana I

    2014-06-01

    A unique set of plesiomorphic characters, and its association with an ancient gymnosperm, Araucaria araucana, have made Pentasetacus araucariae a putative relict of a lineage of gymnosperm-associated mites, itself possibly basal to all extant eriophyoids. However, the suboptimal description of this species is impeding morphological comparisons with other species, which are fundamental to eriophyoid systematics. Herein, we designate a female lectotype from syntype specimens and use additional non-type material to redescribe P. araucariae based on external and internal anatomy using different microscopic and 3D reconstruction techniques. Contrarily to statements in the literature, P. araucariae has undivided empodia in all instars, short spermathecal tubes, and large, globose spermathecae in females, as well as rudimentary genital fovea in immatures. In addition, males of P. araucariae were shown to have genitalic attributes similar to a species of Trisetacus studied in parallel, including two reservoir-like structures, which may represent parts of the genital chamber and of the ductus ejaculatorius, respectively, as well as paired testes and ducti deferentes. This is contrary to previous, limited knowledge on eriophyoids indicating that they possess a single testis. Although their short spermathecal tubes weaken the cladistic relationship between P. araucariae (Pentasetacinae) and conifer-associated Nalepellinae (e.g. Trisetacus) having long tubes, the structural similarities in male genitalia may reinforce it.

  14. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

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    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  15. Controlled pollination in Araucaria angustifolia

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    Justina Inês Anselmini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for controlled pollination of Araucaria angustifolia, aiming at the genetic improvement of the species and increased yield of pine nuts through management with supplemental pollination. A methodology of controlled pollination was developed in which several experiments were carried out in 2003-2005 period. The effects of the following parameters were evaluated: controlled pollination, amount of pollen applied per female strobilus, time of pollination, and development stage of the female strobilus during pollination on the number of pine nuts yielded per pine cone. A single controlled pollination procedure results in low yield of fully filled pine nuts, and pollination at later development stages of the female strobilus results in high yields of fully filled pine nuts per pine cone. Controlled pollination in A. angustifolia proved effective for pine nut production and its application in oriented breeding procedures will enable breeding that up until now was considered impossible in nature on account of the considerable distance between the parent plants. Controlled pollination performed twice in female strobili more than 30 mm in diameter does increase the yield of pine nuts per pine cone.

  16. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

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    Zhang, Renyi [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  17. Gerardo Molina y el Estado providente

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    Cataño , Gonzalo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo Gonzalo Cataño examina la visión del Estado del notable pensador y dirigente socialista colombiano, Gerardo Molina. Ofrece una breve información biográfica y comenta su enfoque sobre las funciones del aparato estatal. Aunque en la exposición predomina un tono crítico, muestra que las limitaciones de un analista inteligente de los asuntos públicos son más instructivas que las consideraciones correctas de un comentarista trivial de la política. En este trabajo se denomina por Estado providente ¿conocido también como asistencial o de bienestar¿ al que garantiza niveles mínimos de ingreso, salud, alimentación, vivienda, educación y trabajo, como derecho político y no como beneficencia.

  18. DANGEROUS GAMES IN CARLOS DENIS MOLINA'S PLAYS

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    Braillon-Chantraine, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    International audience; De par son hyper réflexivité, l'oeuvre dramatique de l'écrivain uruguayen Carlos Denis Molina (1916-1983) constitue un témoignage des pratiques théâtrales de son époque et des mutations socio-économiques que traverse son pays, l'Uruguay, au cours du vingtième siècle. Le procédé méta théâtral du jeu, mettant en scène des personnages en train de se divertir et de jouer un rôle, est présent dans plusieurs de ses pièces, à chaque étape de sa production dramatique, et débou...

  19. Highlights on eclipsing binary variables from Araucaria Project

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    Karczmarek Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Project, which main goal is to provide precise determination of the cosmic distance scale, has recently made a set of discoveries involving variable stars in binary systems. Among these discoveries we highlight three: 1% precise measurement of a Cepheid's dynamical mass and its projection factor, accurate determination of both stellar and orbital parameters of eclipsing binary consisting of two Cepheid variables, and discovery of new class of variable stars, mimicking RR Lyrae pulsators.

  20. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

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    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  1. Biology and life table of Dirphia araucariae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: A herbivore of potentially high impact on Araucaria angustifolia

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    Mauricio M. Zenker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-history and biology of Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908, including its life fertility table, are here described. Moths were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions on their host plant, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze - Araucariaceae. We describe several life-history traits of the species, namely: developmental period, survival rate, growth rate, fertility, fecundity, sex ratio, cephalic capsule width, and pupal weight. Mean duration of life stages were: egg = 26.78 days; larva = 61.78 days; prepupa = 6.85 days; pupa = 62.46 days; adult = 8.37 days. We found statistically significant differences between sexes for adult, larval and pupal stage duration; larval stage was longer in females while pupal stage was longer in males. The survival rate of each life stage was: egg = 96.18%; larva = 95.38%; prepupa = 83.87%; pupa = 100%. The larvae developed through six instars and the mean growth rate was 1.418. The width of male and female cephalic capsules were different in last three instars, even though the total mean width between sexes was not different. Pupal mean weight ranged from 2.40 g to 4.79 g, with females being heavier than males. Fertility ranged from 66.78% to 100%, and the total fecundity was 358.45 eggs/female, including both laid eggs and eggs held in the abdomen. The sex ratio was 0.50 ± 0.05. The estimated biotic potential was 48731.08 specimens/female/year. We found the following values for the fertility life table: (Ro = 117.21 females; (T = 162.75 days; (r m = 0.21; (l = 1.23. Considering the biological parameters evaluated in this study, we conclude that D. araucariae is not able to cause primary damage in A. angustifolia forests, although further studies are needed to understand the reasons for occasional population outbreaks.

  2. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  3. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

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    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  4. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmi, Aiman Hanis; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2011-11-02

    A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  5. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

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    Abu Hassan Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP, Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests. Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  6. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia Ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas em Araucaria angustifolia

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    Rafaela de Fátima Neroni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirmed using the acetylene reduction assay. According to their 16S rRNA sequences, most of these isolates belong to the genus Burkholderia.Araucaria angustifolia é uma espécie arbórea ameaçada de extinção e toda a comunidade viva das Florestas de Araucária deve ser estudada com a finalidade de sua preservação. Bactérias diazotróficas apresentam grande importância para a manutenção de ecossistemas, mas sua ocorrência nunca foi pesquisada em araucária. Neste estudo foi demonstrada a associação de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio com A. angustifolia. Amostras de solo e raízes de araucária apresentaram a ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas, quando inoculadas em meios semi-sólidos semi-específícos. O caráter diazotrófico de alguns isolados recuperados foi confirmado através da análise de redução do acetileno. De acordo com a análise das seqüências do 16S rRNA, estes isolados são na sua maioria pertencentes ao gênero Burkholderia.

  7. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  8. JEUX DANGEREUX DANS LE THEATRE DE CARLOS DENIS MOLINA?

    OpenAIRE

    Braillon-Chantraine, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    International audience; De par son hyper réflexivité, l'oeuvre dramatique de l'écrivain uruguayen Carlos Denis Molina (1916-1983) constitue un témoignage des pratiques théâtrales de son époque et des mutations socio-économiques que traverse son pays, l'Uruguay, au cours du vingtième siècle. Le procédé méta théâtral du jeu, mettant en scène des personnages en train de se divertir et de jouer un rôle, est présent dans plusieurs de ses pièces, à chaque étape de sa production dramatique, et débou...

  9. Ultrasonically enhanced extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Garretón, L; Vargas-Hernández, Yolanda; Cares-Pacheco, María G; Sainz, Javier; Alarcón, John

    2011-07-01

    A study of ultrasonic enhancement in the extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. The effects influencing the extraction process were studied through a two-level factorial design. The effects considered in the experimental design were: granulometry, extraction time, acoustic Power, raw matter/solvent ratio (concentration) and acoustic impedance. It was found that for aqueous extraction the main factors affecting the ultrasonically-assisted process were: granulometry, raw matter/solvent ratio and extraction time. The extraction ratio was increased by Ultrasonics effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified without any influence in the product quality. In addition the process can be carried out at lower temperatures than the conventional method. As the process developed uses chips from the branches of trees, and not only the bark, this research contributes to make the saponin exploitation process a sustainable industry.

  10. Noticia preliminar de los grabados de la Peña Escrita (Canales de Molina, Guadalajara

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    María Luisa CERDEÑO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La Peña Escrita está situada en el término de Canales de Molina, a escasos kilómetrros de Molina de Aragón al noreste de la provincia de Guadalajara. El paraje lo componen una serie de afloramientos de rocas calizas entre las que discurre el arroyo de la Dehesa que poco después, aguas abajo, desemboca en el río Gallo, afluente del Tajo.

  11. Somatic Embryogenesis in Parana Pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Santos André Luis Wendt dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were induced from dominant and non-dominant zygotic embryos excised from immature seeds proceeding from three different genotypes and five harvest dates. Zygotic embryos were inoculated in inductive culture medium LP and BM supplemented with or without plant growth regulators 2,4-D (5 µM, BA (2 µM and Kin (2 µM. The genotype of the mother tree and the developmental explant stage affected the induction frequency. In the maintenance phase, embryogenic cultures were maintained at continuous repetitive cell cycles every 20 days in semi-solid or liquid medium. In the maturation phase the culture medium was supplemented with different types and levels of growth regulators, osmotic agents, carbohydrates and derived. Embryogenic cultures inoculated in culture medium supplemented with PEG 3350 (6 and 9%, maltose (6 and 9%, plus BA and Kin (1 µM each resulted in the progression of somatic embryos to globular and torpedo developmental stages.

  12. Araucaria forest management by the liocourt method, Painel municipality, SC

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    André Felipe Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the diameter distribution and calculate the value of the Liocourt quotient 'q' for the species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze in natural forest, as well as evaluating competition indexes in a fragment with an area of 74.2 ha. Fixed area sample plots of 400 m2 were used in this study, totaling one hectare sampling area. Trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured in all plots and later distributed in diameter classes for the calculation of the density probability function and competition index. The forest showed a density of 228 trees per hectare and basal area of 19.49 m2·ha-1. The value of the "q" quotient for the forest was 1.1, indicating that the recruitment and mortality rates are in equilibrium. The calculated competition indices showed that the forest is in a competition stage, with Glover and Holl index of 0.9798 and 0.7069 m2 for the BALmod.

  13. La ficción de Iván Molina Jiménez (Science Fiction by Iván Molina Jiménez

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    Roy Alfaro Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza la narrativa de ciencia ficción de Iván Molina Jiménez, a partir de un cuerpo teórico para abordar el análisis y la producción literaria de ciencia ficción, desde una adecuada poiesis. Se plantean los principios alrededor de la noción de novum, para la producción literaria de este tipo. Luego, se analizan algunos textos de ciencia ficción de Molina, y se muestran deficiencias de tal producción para así iniciar la construcción de las bases de la ciencia ficción costarricense. This article analyzes the tales of science fiction by Iván Molina Jiménez using a theoretical framework which makes it possible to address the literary production of science fiction, from the perspective of an adequate poiesis. The necessary principles based on the notion of novum are proposed for this genre. Then, some texts of science fiction by Iván Molina are analyzed, indicating certain deficiencies in order to begin the construction of the basis of the Costa Rican science fiction.

  14. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  15. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, M. G.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Sainz, J.; Alarcón, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance. The production of the quillaja extracts is done with an aqueous extraction and the process is assisted by an ultrasonic field; no other solvents are used in its production. The final product only incorporates natural ingredients and raw materials, authorized for their use in food manufacturing processes. The principal factors affecting the ultrasonic extraction process were: Granulometry and Extraction time. The enhanced of ultrasonic assisted extraction ratio was measuring the increasing yield of extracted components, the extraction ratio was increased by ultrasonic effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified. In addition the process can be carried out at temperatures lower than the traditional way. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of bioactive principles was examined by HPLC technique and no influence of ultrasound on natural components was found.

  16. Chemical and biochemical properties of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze. forest soils in the state of São Paulo

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    Fernanda de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia, commonly named Araucaria, is a Brazilian native species that is intensively exploited due to its timber quality. Therefore, Araucaria is on the list of species threatened by extinction. Despite the importance of soil for forest production, little is known about the soil properties of the highly fragmented Araucaria forests. This study was designed to investigate the use of chemical and biological properties as indicators of conservation and anthropogenic disturbance of Araucaria forests in different sampling periods. The research was carried out in two State parks of São Paulo: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto do Ribeira and Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão. The biochemical properties carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass (MB-C and MB-N, basal respiration (BR, the metabolic quotient (qCO2 and the following enzyme activities: β-glucosidase, urease, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA were evaluated. The sampling period (dry or rainy season influenced the results of mainly MB-C, MB-N, BR, and qCO2. The chemical and biochemical properties, except K content, were sensitive indicators of differences in the conservation and anthropogenic disturbance stages of Araucaria forests. Although these forests differ in biochemical and chemical properties, they are efficient in energy use and conservation, which is shown by their low qCO2, suggesting an advanced stage of succession.

  17. La mujer como sujeto: Josefina Molina en la Escuela Oficial de Cine

    OpenAIRE

    Deltell Escolar, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Josefina Molina es la primera mujer diplomada en Dirección Cinematográfica en la Escuela Oficial de Cine de España (E.O.C.). Fue una de las primeras realizadoras televisivas incorporadas a la T.V.E. Durante toda su carrera artística, ha sido una pione

  18. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

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    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  19. Wettability, Shrinkage and Color Changes of Araucaria angustifolia After Heating Treatment

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    Rodrigo Marques de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal treatment on the wettability and shrink resistance of Araucaria angustifolia (Parana pine were studied from 20 to 200 °C. The contact angles of water droplets on untreated and heat-treated samples were measured by the sessile drop method in the grain of heartwood and sapwood cut in the radial, longitudinal, and tangential directions. A significant increase of the contact angles was verified for the samples from room temperature to 120 °C, in particular in the radial and tangential directions; at higher temperatures, the contact angles assumed almost constant values. From 120 to 200 °C, the sapwood of Araucaria angustifolia showed better dimensional stability and lower thermal resistance when compared to the heartwood. Variations of color were also studied by using the CIELab system, which showed to be capable of accurately distinguishing samples treated at different temperatures.

  20. Microenxertia e sua caracterização morfológica em Araucaria angustifolia Micrografting morphological characterization in Araucaria angustifolia

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    Justina Inês Anselmini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a melhor técnica para microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia. Para isto, foram realizadas auto-enxertias em plantas germinadas in vitro, com 2, 6 e 12 meses de idade. Foram testados dois locais de enxertia no porta-enxerto: caule e hipocótilo, e dois tipos de enxertia: garfagem de topo com e sem fenda. A maior porcentagem de microenxertos com fenda aberta ocorreu nas microenxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. As maiores porcentagens de microenxertos sobreviventes foram obtidas nas microenxertias realizadas no caule, e o tipo de enxertia mais eficiente foi a garfagem de topo sem fenda. A presença de calo aparente foi resultado da interação dos três fatores testados, com maior presença de calo nas enxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. O crescimento dos microenxertos indicou o restabelecimento das conexões vasculares. O maior crescimento dos microenxertos foi obtido nas enxertias realizadas no caule em porta-enxertos de 6 meses com a garfagem de topo. As metodologias testadas permitem concluir que o processo de microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia é eficiente e factível, podendo ser utilizado para a produção de mudas microenxertadas.The objeticve of this research was to determine a more efficient way of micrografting in vitro Araucaria angustifolia plants. Autografting was performed onto 2, 6- and 12- month- old in vitro germinated plants. Two different graft types (saddle with or without slit were perfomed on two different plant parts (stem or hypocotyl. Higher percentage of open slit micrografts was observed when micrografting was performed onto hypocotyls. Higher percentage of surviving micrografts was obtained when micrografting was perfomed on stem; the saddle without slit technique was the most efficient. Callus formation resulted from the combination of the three tested factors. However, more visible calluses were present in micrograftings perfomed on hypocotyls. Growth of the

  1. «Héctor Molina Riaño»

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    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en los campos pertenecientes a la Empresa Azucarera «Héctor Molina Riaño», con el objetivo de desarrollar una metodología que permita realizar una evaluación energética y económica durante la recogida y transportación de los residuos agrícolas cañeros (RAC hasta la industria, partiendo de la determinación de los volúmenes de RAC, en campos cosechados con máquinas CAMECO y en el centro de limpieza. Para esto se utilizaron utensilios e instrumentos reglamentados por las normas de medición y control de la calidad. El valor de los RAC quedados en el campo ascendió a 3,87 t/ha, que pueden ser recogidos y transportados para producir energía y el índice de RAC para estas condiciones fue de 0,11. El volumen total de RAC a transportar desde el campo alcanzó 26 524,74 t y desde el centro de limpieza alcanzó 28 051,70 t. Según criterios planteados por diversos autores se realizó la evaluación energética de la recogida y transportación de los RAC hasta la industria, obteniéndose una energía requerida total de 680 478,34 Mcal y la energía que se puede producir con los RAC recogidos y transportado s es de 256 509 268 Mcal. También se realizó la evaluación económica, obteniéndose un gasto económico total de 411 256,27 pesos, costo de la energía producida de 909 607 pesos, con un costo unitario de 7,53 peso/t de RAC recogido y transportado y 16,66 peso/t de RAC utilizados en la generación de energía. Con estos resultados se evidencia que es factible el uso de los RAC como combustible alternativo en el sector azucarero.

  2. Isolation and screening for plant growth-promoting (PGP) actinobacteria from Araucaria angustifolia rhizosphere soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos,Rafael Leandro de Figueiredo; Silva,Mylenne Calciolari Pinheiro da; RIBEIRO, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso,Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Actinobacteria are capable of playing several different roles in soil ecosystems. These microorganisms affect other organisms by producing secondary metabolites and are responsible for the degradation of different complex and relatively recalcitrant organic compounds. In our survey of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Araucaria angustifolia, five culture media (AI, WYE, YCED, MSSC and LNMS) were compared for their effectiveness in isolating these microorganisms. When summing up ...

  3. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

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    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  4. DIOECY EFFECT ON GROWTH OF PLANTED Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O. Kuntze TREES

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    Afonso Figueiredo Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dioecy on the growth in diameter at breast height (DBH, individual basal area, total height and individual volume of planted Araucaria angustifolia trees. The data came from 60 trees (30 male trees and 30 female trees sampled from a 30-year-old plantation in Paraná State. Complete stem analysis was used to recover historical tree growth. The Chapman-Richards model was fitted in order to represent the growth and yield of the dendrometric variables for female and male Araucaria trees. Weighted non-linear least squared method was used in the fitting process and the inverse variance was used as weight to solve the problem of heteroscedasticity. The test to verify the equality of parameters and the identity of non-linear regression models proposed by Regazzi (2003 was used to test the influence of dioecy on growth. Dioecy significantly influenced the growth of Araucaria, and female trees have higher growth in diameter, individual basal area and individual volume, while male trees showed better height development. The asymptotic coefficient of the Chapman-Richards model showed that male trees have a higher asymptotic height than female trees.

  5. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI GUM-BASED SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DICLOFENAE SODIUM

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    J. ASHOK KUMAR, M.RAJESH, S.MYTHIESH KUMAR,T. GIRIRAJ KULKARNI, V.GOPAL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A gel forming Polysaccharide gum obtained form the bark of Araucaria bidwilli was employed as a matrix sustained release tablet formulation of Diclofenac sodium (a non steroidal anti inflammatory agent. The effect of Araucaria bidwilli gum (Natural and Synthetic polymer Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M on the release of Diclofenac sodium was studied. The FT-IR spectroscopic studies of drug, gum and mixture indicated no chemical interaction. Six formulations were prepared by wet granulation method containing Araucaria bidwilli gum powder concentration 10% 20% & 30% w\\w and 10% 20% &30% w\\w of HPMC K4 M with sufficient volume of granulating agent Polyvinyl pyrrolene (PVP K 30, Avicel pH101 as diluents, Magnesium stearate and Aerosil is used lubricant and glidant respectively.This study was carried out to find out the difference between synthetic and natural gum and whether synthetic gum can be replaced by natural gums. Physical and technological studies of granules and tablets were compliance with Pharmacopoial standards.The drug release increased with Araucaria bidwilli gum when compared to synthetics polymer concentration .The value of release exponent were found to be almost straight line and regression coefficient value between 0.938 and 0.998.This implies that the release mechanism is diffusion. Formulation F3 ( contained 30% w\\w Araucaria bidwilli gum met the desired requirements for a sustained release dosage form.

  6. Amores intertextuales y parodias posmodernistas: Vicente Molina Foix y la poesía

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    Gala, Candelas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a point of departure the two poetry books, Los espías del realista y Vanas penas de amor, that Vicente Molina Foix published in 1990 and 1998, respectively, this essay analyzes the role of the ironic glance the poetic speaker casts on the literary, artistic and cultural models firmly rooted in the analytical-referential system of tradition. A careful reading of specific poems from both collections reveals Molina Foix’s use of parodic and inter-textual strategies to debunk the monumentality of such discourses, not so much to ridicule or do away with them, but to show their incongruence in the modern context and at the level of the individual person.Tomando como punto de partida los dos libros de poesía, Los espías del realista y Vanas penas de amor, que Vicente Molina Foix publica en 1990 y 1998, respectivamente, este ensayo analiza el papel de la mirada irónica que el hablante poético dirige a los modelos literarios, artísticos y culturales sólidamente establecidos en el sistema analítico y referencial de la tradición. La lectura atenta de poemas específicos procedentes de ambas colecciones revela el uso que hace Molina Foix de estrategias paródicas e intertextuales para desbancar la monumentalidad de dichos discursos con el fin no tanto de descartarlos y ridiculizarlos, sino más bien de mostrar su incongruencia en el contexto moderno y a nivel de la persona individual.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  8. Distribución temporal y espacial del polen de Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) en Misiones, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Fabiana; Alarcón, Pamela Cecilia; Fassola, Hugo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze es una especie nativa de alto valor comercial que ha sido explotada indiscriminadamente; actualmente está en peligro crítico. Este trabajo inicia un programa de investigación aerobiológica sobre su fenología reproductiva en Misiones (Argentina). Se utilizaron muestreadores volumétricos continuos: uno fijo y otro portátil, variando la ubicación de este último entre 6 puntos de muestreo en dirección de los vientos predominantes. El período principal de po...

  9. CONSERVAÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  10. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. WOOD FOR THREE STRATUM PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL

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    Rafael Beltrame

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of physical and mechanical properties of wood is essential for industrial use both in construction and the manufacture of furniture. Thus, the study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Araucaria angustifolia wood in terms of three strata phytosociological. For this, 15 trees were felled, five belonging to the upper stratum, the middle stratum five and five for the lower strata. The trees were deployed for the preparation of specimens used for mechanical testing. In the mechanical characterization of the species assays were performed for impact resistance, static bending, compression axial and perpendicular to the fibers. As for the characterization of physical properties, determined the apparent specific gravity at 12% relative humidity for each extract. The results did not show significant differences in the tests of impact resistance and static bending to the strata phytosociological. As for the apparent specific gravity, compression axial and perpendicular there was a change in the values of propertiesbetween the strata phytosociological, is generally butter in the middle and upper strata. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties tend to present higher values these two strata. The data analysis allowed of Araucaria angustifolia wood has moderate mechanical strength when compared with other species studies.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  12. Grafting of Araucaria angustifolia (BERTOL. kuntze through the four seasons of the year

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    Flávio Zanette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered conifer species of South America that has been over exploited for timber. To incentivize Araucaria angustifolia planting is essential and may play a key role on the conservation of this species and the ecosystems that depend on it. Hence, techniques that allow the production of seedlings with attributes that may entice farmers to plant A. angustifolia trees are very important. Grafting may permit the selection of female trees and the production of precocious plants that will produce high quality seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the best season of the year to graft. Three-year-old seedlings were used as rootstock and orthotropic branches of young plants were used for scion collection. The technique used for the grafting was the bark patch. This procedure was carried out in the beginning of each season in 2007 and 2008, with a total of 160 grafted plants. Grafting carried out in the beginning of autumn had a 50 % success rate. Grafting success was negligible for all remaining seasons. In conclusion, grafting through bark patching is a viable technique for the production of A. angustifolia seedlings. Future research should be carried out to produce grafted seedlings in large-scale.

  13. De herkomstenkwestie bij de groveden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In dit onderzoek heeft auteur als belangrijke factor de fotoperiodiciteit of daglengtereactie van de herkomsten betrokken. Naast groveden zijn ook daglengteproeven gedaan met douglas en Araucaria araucana. (Preadvies Studiekring KNBV 1984 "Groveden op een rij")

  14. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

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    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  15. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis.

  16. Paralelismos y divergencias entre Juan Tenorio de Tirso de Molina y Miguel Páramo, personaje de Juan Rulfo.

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    Herlinda Ramírez-Barradas.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este breve artículo se presentan algunas características de Miguel Páramo que, primero, permiten incluirlo en la larga lista de personajes donjuanescos derivados de la obra de Tirso de Molina y que, además, hacen posible entender su función trágica.Summary: This article presents some of Miguel Páramo's characteristics that, first, allow including him in the long list of prominent Don Juan figures derived from Tirso de Molina's work and, in addition, make it possible to understand his tragic function.

  17. Intoxicación por bromuro de metilo en la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Ramirez, Arturo; Rodríguez Espinosa, Félix

    2004-01-01

    El 21 de setiembre del presente, el Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Medio Ambiente (CENSOPAS) del INS es notificado por la Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA) sobre la fuga de bromuro de metilo, ocurrido el 20 de setiembre en la Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias de la Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina. Un equipo conformado por técnicos de CENSOPAS y de DIGESA realizó la investigación de campo, entrevistaron a las autoridades, profesores, trabaja...

  18. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  19. Actividad insecticida del polvo de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae) contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Diana; Gonzalo SILVA; Tapia,Maritza; J. Concepción RODRÍGUEZ; Angélica URBINA; Angel LAGUNES; Candelario SANTILLÁN-ORTEGA; Agustín ROBLES-BERMÚDEZ; Sotero AGUILAR-MEDEL

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de follaje de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos y estados inmaduros de S. zeamais. La mayor toxicidad por contacto y fumigación se obtuvo con las concentraciones iguales o mayores a 1,25% registrando una mortalidad superior a 90%. Los tratamientos con mayor mortalidad mostraron también una baja emergencia de insectos adultos (F 1) y menor pérdida de peso del grano. En el control de estados inmaduros la menor F1 se observó en la...

  20. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  1. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

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    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  3. Neoclásica y disidente: La Fábula de Polifemo de Francisco Nieto Molina

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    Bonilla Cerezo, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article revives the figure of a mid-seventeenth century forgotten ingenious from Cadiz: Francisco Nieto Molina. I try to place him in the central literary debates of the Enlightenment: gongorism trail and Lope de Vega’s tragicomedy. I edit his Fábula de Polifemo («No anuncios de Jano», included in El Fabulero (1764, with a comprehensive analysis. Lastly, I illuminate, through this little romance, both the footsteps of the great poet from Cordoba as well as the keys that make Nieto a «dissident neoclassic».Este artículo resucita la figura de un olvidado ingenio gaditano de mediados del XVIII: Francisco Nieto Molina. Procuro ubicarlo en los principales debates literarios de la Ilustración: la estela del gongorismo y la tragicomedia lopista. Edito con amplio comentario su Fábula de Polifemo («No anuncios de Jano», incluida en El Fabulero (1764. Ilumino, por último, en virtud de este romancillo, tanto las huellas del poeta cordobés como las claves que convierten a Nieto en un «neoclásico disidente».

  4. Practical method for germination of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. seeds

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    Moreira-Souza Milene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian Pine is generally a slow and fastidious process that causes loss of many seeds because of the incidence of pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether seeds with cut edges present greater germination percentages or precocity when compared to untreated, normal seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized design with 100 pre-cut and 100 non-treated seeds. The experiment was installed twice, in 1998 and 1999, from fresh seeds. Pre-cut seed germination was higher: 92 and 95% respectively, whereas whole seed germination was 60 and 64% in the two experiments. Seedlings originated from pre-cut seeds were uniform and showed less fungal contaminants.

  5. Chemical composition and glycemic index of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; De Menezes Wenzel, Elizabete; Genovese, Maria Inés; Colli, Célia; De Souza Gonçalves, Alessandra; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2004-06-02

    The seeds of Parana pine (Araucaria brasiliensis syn. Araucaria angustifolia), named pinhão, are consumed after cooking and posterior dehulling, or they are used to prepare a flour employed in regional dishes. Native people that live in the South of Brazil usually consume baked pinhão. As a result of cooking, the white seeds become brown on the surface due to the migration of some tinted compounds present in the seed coat. In this work, the proximate composition, minerals, flavonoids, and glycemic index (GI) of cooked and raw pinhão seeds were compared. No differences in moisture, lipids, soluble fiber, and total starch after boiling were found. However, the soluble sugars and P, Cu, and Mg contents decreased, probably as a consequence of leaching in the cooking water. Also, the boiling process modified the profile of the phenolic compounds in the seeds. No flavonols were detected in raw pinhão seeds. The internal seed coat had a quercetin content five times higher than that of the external seed coat; also, quercetin migrated into the seed during cooking. The internal seed coat had a high content of total phenolics, and seeds cooked in normal conditions (with the seed coat) showed a total phenolics content five times higher than that of seeds cooked without the seed coat. Cooking was then extremely favorable to pinhão seeds bioactive compounds content. The carbohydrate availability was evaluated in a short-term assay in humans by the GI. The GI of pinhão seeds cooked with the coat (67%) was similar to that of the seeds cooked without a coat (62%) and lower than bread, showing that cooking does not interfere with starch availability. The low glycemic response can be partly due to its high content of resistant starch (9% of the total starch).

  6. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    André Bellin Mariano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases, which were stimulated by Ca2+. The procedure now described for the isolation of A. angustifolia mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the investigation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and physiology of plants.Um procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias funcionalmente intactas de calos embriogênicos de Araucaria angustifolia foi desenvolvido pela primeira vez em nosso laboratório. Mitocôndrias isoladas por este método são metabolicamente ativas, capazes de sustentar fosforilação oxidativa como mostrado pelo controle respiratório de aproximadamente 2,4, respirando na presença de succinato como substrato. Através de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio com mitocôndrias rompidas em nitrogênio líquido foi demonstrada a presença de NAD(PH desidrogenases alternativas, insensíveis à rotenona e estimuladas por Ca2+. O isolamento de mitocôndrias de A. angustifolia é um novo e importante instrumento para estudar plantas, permitindo a execução de múltiplas investigações a respeito da bioenergética mitocondrial e fisiologia vegetal.

  7. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  8. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

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    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  10. Tirso de Molina: the Dramatist in the Crisis of the Succession of 1621

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    Alan K.G. Paterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis is the political upheaval that accompanied the ascent of Olivares to power. Its repercussions on the religious and literary career of Fr. Gabriel Téllez/Tirso de Molina are examined. The primary documents analysed include the two passages in Téllez’s Historia de la Orden de la Merced (one from the early 1630s. the other revised towards the end of the decade containing his hostile criticism of the struggle between the two groups, Lerma’s associates and those of Olivares. This hostility relates to the sentence issued by the Junta de Reformación (1625 and to be meted out as its response to the notorious case of Fr. Gabriel Téllez oka Tirso de Molina, etc. This connection confirms our seeing Tirso as a notable political victim. Yet in the thirties, Tirso’s position is complex. To offset the clear indications of a major if not terminal disruption to his activity as dramatist, the circumstances attendant on the Parte tercera de las comedias (1634 are examined to show how Fr. Gabriel came to the defence of his creation Tirso de Molina, by ensuring his survival in print. The text of the Junta’s sentence informs us of the reason its judges had to silence the dramatist; it concerns his writing plays which are profane and give bad examples. This information invites us to ask to which plays can the harsh sentence of the Junta refer? The reply to this question forms the main theme of the study. It is argued that La venganza de Tamar is a work seriously involved in the turbulent politics of the succession. This argument is preceded by an essential study on the text as authorized by Tirso and subject to the editorial scrutiny of Lucas de Avila. The nexus of images referring to physical hunger that develops into sexual and political hunger is coordinated with the recurring image of the body, presented in a series of progressively morbid pathological states. The human body receives focus in a spectacular way, as a conspicuous object on

  11. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

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    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  12. Catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina

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    María Concepción Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este artículo se prentende difundir el catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina (Fuente Victoria, 1903- Almería, 1995, compositor, profesor, director, y sobre todo la cuna musical almeriense de la postguerra, conocido en Almería como el maestro Barco, obras que pertenecen al patrimonio musical de Almería y que hasta el momento han permanecido refugiadas, en su mayor parte, en archivos privados (familia, amigos y discípulos y/o instituciones de ámbito privado (hermandades y SGAE y en muy pocos casos, en instituciones públicas como es el caso de la Biblioteca Nacional de España, en la que se encuentran seis de los títulos que forma la obra musical de este compositor y el archivo de la Banda Municipal de Almería.

  13. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  14. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina Standl. Germplasm from peninsular india

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    Sunil N*, Thirupathi Reddy M, Hameedunnisa B, Vinod Someswara Rao P, Sivaraj N, Kamala V, Prasad R B N, Rao B VS K, Chakrabarty S K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 20 diverse accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl., exhibited wide range of variability for qualitative and quantitative traits. The seed oil content ranged from 18.6 % (IC446598 to 28.0 % (IC446592. The fatty acid composition of bottle gourd seed oil also varied. Days to 50% flowering and peduncle length had significant positive correlation with seed oil content, whereas inter nodal length had significant negative correlation. The intermodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Based on the traits, the accessions clustered into three distinct clusters. The diversity may be exploited for crop improvement and the potential of bottle gourd as edible oil source further explored.

  15. Biochemical and morphological changes during the growth kinetics of Araucaria angustifolia suspension cultures

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    André Luis Wendt dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were established in a BM liquid medium supplemented with 2 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 1 µM kinetin (BM2 and in a BM medium free of growth regulators (BM0. During 42 days in culture, the cell growth pattern of both cultures was similar. The pH of the culture medium of both BM0 and BM2 underwent progressive reduction during culture time. For both the embryogenic cultures a preferential uptake of glucose in the late stages of cell growth kinetics was observed. The extracellular protein content was similar for both the embryogenic cultures. Acetocarmine and Evan's blue double stain showed major differences for early somatic embryo organisation, in which only the embryogenic culture grown in a liquid culture medium free of plant growth regulators showed the presence of bipolar somatic pro-embryos.Culturas embriogênicas de Araucaria angustifolia foram estabelecidas em meio de cultura líquido BM suplementado com 2 µM Ácido 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético, 1 µM 6-Benzilaminopurina e 1 µM Cinetina (BM2 e em meio BM isento de reguladores de crescimento (BM0. Durante 42 dias de cultivo, o padrão de crescimento celular em ambas as culturas foi similar. O pH do meio de cultura BM0 e BM2 sofreu uma progressiva redução durante o período de cultivo. Em ambas as culturas embriogênicas foram observadas um consumo preferencial de glicose no período final da curva de crescimento celular. O nível de proteínas extracelulares foi similar para ambas as culturas embriogênicas. A dupla coloração com carmin acético e azul de Evans revelou diferenças na organização das linhagens celulares embriogênicas, sendo que a presença de proembriões somáticos bipolares foi apenas evidenciada nas culturas embriogênicas mantidas em meio de cultura líquido sem reguladores de crescimento.

  16. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  17. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1995: Paul Crutzen, Sherwood Rowland, and Mario Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-10-01

    The 1995 Nobel Prize was awarded to Paul Crutzen, Sherwood Rowland, and Mario Molina "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone". Collectively, their work established atmospheric chemistry as a major focus at the end of the twentieth century. The results have drawn attention to significant environmental issues in particular, the threat posed to the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons.

  18. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; A J Mossi; CANSIAN,R.L.; M. L. Corazza; Dariva,C.; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  19. IN VITRO ROOTING OF ARAUCARIA EXCELSA R. BR. VAR. GLAUCA USING AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENES

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    Mostafa Khoshhal Sarmast

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Araucariaceae encompasses several evergreen forest tree species, which has a high ornamental value due to being a good specimen and having symmetrical branches. Conventional propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca by cutting has limited success because of topophysis and difficult-to-root characteristics, and grafting is accompanying incompatibility. The aim of this research was to evaluate the application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes as well as the IBA, NAA and ancillary compounds potential to increase the rooting of this plant under in vitro condition. Neither ancillary compounds such as salicylic acid, putrescine nor hydrogen peroxide affected the rooting of this recalcitrant species. Subculturing in vitro shoots to MS medium containing 7.5 μM of both IBA and NAA for 15 days before being moved to hormone-free half-strength MS medium, resulted in a 33% increase of rooting of shoots each with one or two roots. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 improved rooting percentage up to 40%. Green fluorescents protein (GFP gene, as a reporter gene, was employed to verify the successful transformation.

  20. Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five “genetic clusters” (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three “genetic clusters”. These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations. PMID:21637518

  1. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  2. Carbon concentration in species of the araucaria forest and effect of the ecological group

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    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Boa Ventura do São Roque, Paraná State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the carbon concentration in components of 12 arboreal species from the Araucaria Forest, as well as the performance of the 0.5 conversion factor and the influence of trees ecological groups in their carbon concentration. Carbon concentration averages were obtained from the tree components, and compared among them, among the species and the conversion factor, to assess the interspecific differences and the reliability of the conversion factor. To analyze the influence of ecological groups over the carbon concentration of the species, cluster analyzes were performed. It was not found significant difference among the carbon concentration in the components of the trees. However, comparing the 12 species, Luehea divaricata, Albizia polycephala and Cestrum sp. differed significantly, presenting lower carbon concentration. Comparison between carbon concentration average of the species and the 0.5 conversion factor indicated that the latter overestimates the carbon concentration in the trees at an average rate of 14.27%. No correlation was found between the ecological groups of the species and their carbon concentration, since groups were formed by species with distinct ecological traits.

  3. Establishment of post-harvest early-developmental categories for viability maintenance of Araucaria angustifolia seeds

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    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are recalcitrant, and their metabolism remains high during storage. This research aimed to describe the initiation of germination in A. angustifolia seeds during storage in order to standardize the assessment of physiological quality and to promote seed conservation. Seeds were collected from two populations and stored for 270 days in the natural laboratory environment and cold chamber. Seeds were classified according to four early developmental stages: I - mature seeds; II - seeds with elongation along the embryonic axis; III - beginning of root protrusion; IV - advanced germination stage, with seedling shoots. After categorization, physical and physiological quality was assessed. In freshly collected seeds, only category I was observed. At 270 days, approximately 40% of seeds were in category III in laboratory conditions, while the maintenance in a cold chamber delayed germinative metabolism. Viability tests showed that seeds in categories III and IV were more susceptible to damage caused by storage. In conclusion, the percentage of viable A. angustifolia seeds depends on the development stage after collection. Seeds that have reached early developmental category III should be prioritized for propagation, while those remaining in categories I and II should be longer stored with periodic assessment for reduction in physiological quality.

  4. Axial variation of basic density of Araucaria angustifolia wood in different diameter classes

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the wood characteristics is of fundamental importance for the correct use of this raw material and, among its properties, the basic density is a major, being reference in the quality of this material. This study aimed to evaluate the axial variation of basic density of the wood of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze in different diameter classes. For this, three trees were selected in six diameter classes, called class 1 (20-30cm, class 2 (30.1-40cm, class 3 (40.1-50cm, class 4 (50.1-60cm, class 5 (60.1-70cm and class 6 (70.1-80cm. From each individual sampled was withdrawn a disc at 0.1m (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of the first live branch and in the diameter at 1.30m from the ground (DBH, which were used for determining basic density. The weighted average basic density was equal to 0.422g cm-3 and, regardless of the diameter class analyzed, this property decreased in the axial direction. Diameter induced variation of basic density, but has not been verified a positive or negative systematic tendency in relation to the sampled interval.

  5. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

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    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  6. MODELAGEM DE OCORRÊNCIA DE COORTES NA ESTRUTURA DIAMÉTRICA DA Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Ebling,Ângelo Augusto; Netto, Sylvio Péllico

    2015-01-01

    Estudos referentes à estrutura diamétrica das florestas nativas são essenciais para o entendimento do desenvolvimento, fornecer parâmetros do crescimento e produção suficientes para gerar estimativas que subsidiem o manejo sustentado. No entanto, a modelagem matemática de funções probabilísticas, como as de densidade, tornam-se de difícil aplicação em distribuições multimodais. A espécie Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, de importância social, ambiental e econômica, apresenta padrão de...

  7. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  8. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  9. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

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    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  10. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

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    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  11. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  12. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

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    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  13. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

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    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Redox imbalance mediates entomotoxic effects of the conifer Araucaria angustifolia in Anticarsia gemmatalis velvetbean caterpillar

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    Cátia dos Santos Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the most important pests of soybean crops in tropical America. By feeding on leaves, significant defoliation occurs resulting in reduced photosynthetic capacity required for plants’ maintenance and growth, which subsequently can lead to crop losses and reduced agricultural productivity. Many studies have sought to look for compounds that have insecticidal effects. One class of compounds is phenolics, which are produced by plants and have been found to influence the behavior and development of defoliators, representing an important alternative approach to many synthetic insecticides. Particularly, Araucaria angustifolia is a plant rich in polyphenols, which are compounds able to alter cellular dynamics through modulating redox status. In this study, A. angustifolia extract (AAE was added to the artificial diet of A. gemmatalis. The results demonstrated that AAE was able to reduce larval viability by inducing morphological changes and a delay in the insect’s development. In addition, AAE was found to induce oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, as well as increased nitric oxide levels in A. gemmatalis larvae. AAE treatments also decreased the antioxidant defense systems, leading to a redox imbalance. The reduction in viability in A. gemmatalis was positively correlated with oxidative markers, suggesting that redox imbalance can lead to larvae’s death. These results suggest that AAE possess insecticidal potential through the mechanisms of action of altering cellular redox state. Though further studies are required to confirm this, our study nevertheless contributes to a better understanding of AAE’s mechanisms of action as potential biopesticides in pest management, opening new perspectives on the development of compounds with insecticidal action.

  15. Araucaria cunninghamii Seedling Response to Different Forms and Rates of 15N-Labelled Fertiliser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.J.BLUMFIELD; XU Zhi-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogenous fertilisers are under consideration for promoting the growth of nursery-reared hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex A. Cunn) seedlings in the establishment phase of second rotation (2R) plantations. Using 15Nlabelled fertilisers, we investigated the effect of different forms (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and urea) and rates of application (0, 150 and 300 mg N kg-1 dried soil) of fertilisers on the growth, 15N recovery and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of hoop pine seedlings in a 12-month glasshouse trial in southeast Queensland,Australia. The 15N-labelled fertilisers were applied to nursery-reared hoop pine seedlings, which were then grown in pots,containing ca. 1.2 kg dried soil, under well watered conditions for 12 months. Four seedlings from each treatment were harvested at 4-month intervals, divided into roots, stem and foliage, with a further subdivision for new and old foliage,and then analysed for 15N, total N, δ13C and total C. There was no significant response in the seedling growth to the form or rate of application of nitrogen (N) fertiliser within the 12-month period, indicating that the seedlings did not experience N deficiency when grown on second rotation hoop pine soils. While the combined 15N recovery from soil and plant remained at around 70% throughout the experiment, the proportion of 15N recovered from the plants increasing steadily over time. Nitrate containing fertilisers at 150 mg N kg-1 soil gradually increased seedling foliage δ13C over the 12-month period, indicating an increase in seedling water use efficiency.

  16. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  17. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-01-01

    The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and la...

  18. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  19. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  20. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    M.C.S. Barbosa; Belletti,K.M. da S.; Corrêa,T.F.; C.A. de M. Santos

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  1. Alonso Quesada, Agustín Millares Carlo, Argote de Molina y el solar norte de la catedral

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Henríquez Jiménez

    2001-01-01

    Se presentan dos textos: una carta de don Agustín Millares Carlo y una "Crónica de la ciudad" de Alonso Quesada, que no aparece en su Obra Completa, en los que se habla del solar norte de la catedral de Las Palmas y del enterramiento en él del historiador y genealogista sevilano Gonzalo Argote de Molina.Two Texts are presented: A letter from D. Agustín Millares Carlo and a "Crónica de la ciudad" from Alonso Quesasda, that doesn't appear in the Obra Completa from Alonso Quesada in which is spo...

  2. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  3. Narrar para contarlo: Labrando la memoria histórica en Beatus ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    Natalia Corbellini

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to analyze Muñoz Molina's discourse as a form of "new memory" of the facts and events prevailing in twentieth-century Spain. In his text, the author confronts the ®heroic history¼ of the Civil War and its poets, with the private life-stories of his characters. Beatus ille narrate a heroic discourse on the biography and works of a dark and forgotten writer of the Generación del 27, but the voice, placed emphatically in 1968, omits the moment in which the novel is written and published.

  4. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector.

  5. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  6. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  7. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  8. Luis de Molina y la esclavitud de los negros africanos en el siglo XVI. Principios doctrinales y conclusiones

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    García Añoveros, Jesús María

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important consequences of Portuguese discoveries was the black slavery business. A most reputed theologist and jurist of the time, Juan de Molina, who had a first-hand knowledge of the subject, made a thorough analysis of the justness of slavery from a Theology and Law perspective, while showing himself opposed to the same. His doctrine set basis for future thought and he must be considered as the first great tratadist on black slavery.

    Una de las consecuencias más importantes de los descubrimientos portugueses en África fue el negocio de los esclavos negros. Luis de Molina, uno de los teólogos y juristas más importantes de su época y con un gran conocimiento del asunto, trató el tema de la licitud de los esclavos negros en amplitud, analizándolo desde la perspectiva de la teología y del derecho, sin omitir su opinión personal contraria a dicha esclavitud. Su doctrina creó escuela y debe ser considerado como el primer gran tratadista de la esclavitud de los negros.

  9. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

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    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  10. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  11. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

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    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  12. Hydroponic Cultivation ofAraucaria cunninghamii%南洋杉水培诱导技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑娴; 彭鸿俊; 徐江宇; 林夏斌; 吴沙沙; 翟俊文; 彭东辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the hydroponics induction technology and provide theoretical support and practice guidance for hydroponics innovation and export ofAraucaria cunninghamii, the effects of disinfectant and rooting induction nutrition liquid on rooting ofA. Cunninghamiiwere studied. Experiment was divided into two parts as disinfection and hydroponics rooting induction. The mass growth average such as average number of new roots, rooting rate, hydroponics rooting induction rate, average length of new roots, plant height increment etc. were measured and compared. Results showed that: the optimal method of root surface sterilization forA. cunninghamiiwas soaking the roots in 0.5% Potassium Permanganate for 20~ 30 min or 70% alcohol for 60 s; the best hydroponics rooting induction liquid was foliage plant nutrient liquid plus IBA 0.5 mg/L, or foliage plant nutrient liquid plus NAA 0.5 mg/L.%研究以南洋杉(Araucaria cunninghamii)为对象,以水培植株消毒液与生根诱导营养液为变量,研究其对南洋杉水培生根的影响,旨在探索出南洋杉水培诱导技术,为南洋杉的水培创新与出口应用等提供理论支撑与实践指导。试验分消毒与诱导水培生根两部分,并测定对比其生长量(平均新根数、生根率、水培根诱导率、新根平均长度、株高增长量等)。结果表明:南洋杉根系表面消毒的最佳方法为0.5%高锰酸钾处理20~30 min,或70%酒精浸泡60 s;水培根诱导的最佳培养液为观叶植物营养液+IBA 0.5 mg/L,或观叶植物营养液+NAA 0.5 mg/L。

  13. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  14. Development and growth curve of the pine cones of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze, in the region of Curitiba - PR

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    Justina Inês Anselmini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to describe the development and growth rate of the pine cones of Araucaria angustifolia during and after the pollination period, to identify the period of maximum growth of the cones and the period of pollination and maturation of the pine nuts. The adult individuals were found at the Setor de Ciencias Agrarias of the UFPR, in Curitiba - PR. Collections and measurements of pine cones were made in 2003 and 2005. The diameter and the length of the pine cones were measured 15 different times in both the years. In the studied environmental conditions, the period between the pollination and maturation of the pine nuts was 20 months. The maximum pine cone growth was achieved between October and January after the pollination, and between October and April of the following year.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o desenvolvimento e o crescimento das pinhas da Araucaria angustifolia durante e após o período de polinização, identificando os períodos de maior crescimento das pinhas, a época de polinização e maturação dos pinhões. As plantas adultas pesquisadas situam-se no Setor de Ciências Agrárias da UFPR, em Curitiba - PR. Para o acompanhamento do crescimento das pinhas foram realizadas coletas e medições de pinhas durante os anos de 2003 a 2005. O diâmetro e o comprimento das pinhas foram medidos em 15 datas, durante os três anos. Para as condições ambientais de Curitiba, o período compreendido entre a polinização das pinhas e a maturação das sementes foi de 20 meses. Há dois picos de crescimento das pinhas, um de outubro a janeiro, logo após a polinização, e outro de outubro a abril do ano seguinte.

  15. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  16. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

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    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  17. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation.

  18. [Larvae culture of ovine gastrintestinal nematodes in sawdust substrates of Pinus taeda, P. elliottii and Araucaria angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Valdomiro; de Souza, Antonio P; Sartor, Amélia A; da Silva, Ana Valéria D B; Henschel, Gustavo Dos S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of sawdust substrates obtained from wood treated with sodium tribromophenate and not treated of Pinus elliotti, P. taeda, and Araucaria angustifolia in larval cultures of ovine gastrintestinal helminths. Feces samples were collected between 8 to 12am, from a lamb naturally infected with gastrintestinal nematodes and analysed by the modified Mc Master technique for worm egg counting (epg). Six groups of 20g of feces were prepared. Each group received 5g of one of the sawdust substrates and 5ml of distilled water. The material has been processed, identified and taken to a climatized chamber with a temperature of 27 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity above 70%, and in escotophase for seven days. The third stage larvae were recovered by the Baermann technique after four hours of sedimentation for the counting and identification of one hundred larvae per treatment. For each treatment were realized 10 repetitions. The average of EPG of Strongylida Order was 630. The average of the larvae number obtained in 20 grams of feces and the percentage of recovery in the different substrates based on the EPG was: P. taeda treated, 2719 (22.66%) and not treated, 2353 (20.08%); P. elliotti treated, 3069 (22.48%) and not treated, 3181 (24.54%); A. angustifolia treated, 2370 (18.73%) and not treated, 3361 (26.75%). There was no statistic difference in 5% level of significance between the averages and the number of larvae in the different substrates.

  19. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study.

  20. The periodic wetting of leaves enhances water relations and growth of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassana, F F; Dillenburg, L R

    2013-01-01

    The importance of foliar absorption of water and atmospheric solutes in conifers was recognised in the 1970s, and the importance of fog as a water source in forest environments has been recently demonstrated. Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) is an emergent tree species that grows in montane forests of southern Brazil, where rainfall and fog are frequent events, leading to frequent wetting of the leaves. Despite anatomical evidence in favour of leaf water absorption, there is no information on the existence and physiological significance of a such process. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the use of atmospheric water by leaves takes place and is physiologically relevant for the species, by comparing growth, water relations and nutritional status between plants grown under two conditions of soil water (well-watered and water-stressed plants) and three types of leaf spraying (none, water and nutrient solution spray). Leaf spraying had a greater effect in improving plant water relations when plants were under water stress. Plant growth was more responsive to water available to the leaves than to the roots, and was equally increased by both types of leaf spraying, with no interaction with soil water status. Spraying leaves with nutrient solution increased shoot ramification and raised the concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the roots. Our results provide strong indications that water and nutrients are indeed absorbed by leaves of A. angustifolia, and that this process might be as important as water uptake by its roots.

  1. Soil organic matter in fire-affected pastures and in an Araucaria forest in South-Brazilian Leptosols

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    Mariana da Luz Potes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution pattern and composition of soil organic matter (SOM and its physical pools of Leptosols periodically affected by fire over the last 100 years in South Brazil. Soil samples at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths were collected from the following environments: native pasture without burning in the last year and grazed with 0.5 livestock per hectare per year (1NB; native pasture without burning in the last 23 years and grazed with 2.0 livestock per hectare per year (23NB; and an Araucaria forest (AF. Physical fractionation was performed with the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil C and N stocks were determined in the three depths and in the physical pools, and organic matter was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The largest C stocks in all depths and physical pools were found under the AF. The 23NB environment showed the lowest soil C and N stocks at the 5-15 cm depth, which was related to the end of burning and to the higher grazing intensity. The SOM of the occluded light fraction showed a greater chemical recalcitrance in 1NB than in 23NB. Annual pasture burning does not affect soil C stocks up to 15 cm of depth.

  2. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  3. Three new species of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 from Araucaria forests with a key to species of the genus (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ilana; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Areas of Araucaria moist forest have been considered to constitute hotspots of land flatworm diversity, harbouring a high number of undescribed species. Herein we describe three new species of land flatworms of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 occurring in such type of forest in south Brazil. The three species are differentiated from their congeners mainly by their colour pattern, anatomy of the pharynx and prostatic vesicle, and details of the penis papilla and male atrium. An identification key to species of the genus in the Neotropical region is provided. PMID:28144173

  4. Three new species of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 from Araucaria forests with a key to species of the genus (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola

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    Ilana Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Areas of Araucaria moist forest have been considered to constitute hotspots of land flatworm diversity, harbouring a high number of undescribed species. Herein we describe three new species of land flatworms of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 occurring in such type of forest in south Brazil. The three species are differentiated from their congeners mainly by their colour pattern, anatomy of the pharynx and prostatic vesicle, and details of the penis papilla and male atrium. An identification key to species of the genus in the Neotropical region is provided.

  5. Genetic and conservation of Araucaria angustifolia: III DNA extraction protocol and informative capacity of RAPD markers for the analysis of genetic diversity in natural population

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at adapting a DNA extraction protocol by Araucaria angustifolia leaves, and testing the informative capacity of RAPD markers for genetics diversity analysis in natural populations of this species. The extraction method was standardized by eight tested protocols and it was possible to obtain good quality DNA for RAPD reactions. The OD260/OD280 ratio ranged from 1.7 to 2.0 in 80% of the samples, indicating that they had a low level of protein contamination. The RAPD markers...

  6. Spore density and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in preserved or disturbed Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ecosystems Densidade de esporos e colonização radicular por fungos microrrízicos arbusculares em ecossistemas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. preservados e impactados

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    Milene Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., a native forest tree from Brazil, is under extinction risk. This tree depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for growth and development, especially in tropical low-P soils but, despite being a conifer, Araucaria does not form ectomycorrhiza, but only the arbuscular endomycorrhiza. This study aimed at surveying data on the spore density and root colonization (CR by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in Araucaria angustifolia forest ecosystems, in order to discriminate natural, implemented, and anthropic action-impacted ecosystems, by means of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA. Three ecosystems representative of the Campos do Jordão (SP, Brazil region were selected: 1. a native forest (FN; 2. a replanted Araucaria forest (R; and 3. a replanted Araucaria forest, submitted to accidental fire (RF. Rhizosphere soil and roots were sampled in May and October, 2002, for root colonization, AMF identification, and spores counts. Root percent colonization rates at first collection date were relatively low and did not differ amongst ecosystems. At the second period, FN presented higher colonization than the other two areas, with much higher figures than during the first period, for all areas. Spore density was lower in FN than in the other areas. A total of 26 AMF species were identified. The percent root colonization and spore numbers were inversely related to each other in all ecosystems. CDA indicated that there is spatial distinction among the three ecosystems in regard to the evaluated parameters.A Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. é uma espécie florestal nativa do Brasil e encontra-se ameaçada de extinção. É altamente dependente de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares para seu desenvolvimento, principalmente em solos com baixos teores de fósforo. Embora sendo uma conífera, esta árvore não forma ectomicorriza, mas sim a endomicorriza arbuscular. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

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    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  8. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

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    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  9. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

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    DANIEL ALBERTO ÁLVAREZ WATSON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso analiza la situación particular de la Institución educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina, el liderazgo del rector y el apoyo del sector privado en los procesos de gestión de la calidad. Esto motiva a los integrantes de la institución a trabajar en equipo para lograr la certificación de calidad, mejorando sus resultados académicos año tras año, destacándose a nivel regional y nacional, y generando cambios sociales en su entorno. Metodológicamente, se identificó una institución líder en la ciudad de Cali (Colombia, luego fuentes de información en el contexto local, regional y mundial, consolidándose un caso que muestra las mejores prácticas que una institución educativa realiza para lograr un modelo administrativo susceptible de ser replicado en otras instituciones.

  10. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha influenciado el desarrollo de esta área en el Perú no solo en las adaptaciones curriculares que se han producido en varias universidades del país sino también en las investigaciones biotecnológicas que se llevan a cabo en universidades e institutos de investigación en las diferentes regiones del país. En este devenir histórico se concluye que el balance es muy positivo y que la mejor corriente epistemológica es la que nos lleva mediante la investigación a encontrar verdades usables en la solución de los problemas del país y, también por qué no, del planeta.

  11. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.

  12. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

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    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  13. pH do Exsudato na Avaliação da Viabilidade de Sementes de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste estudo objetivou verificar a eficiência de métodos de pré-condicionamento e períodos de embebição em água para a realização do teste de pH do exsudato para avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia. Testaram-se três pré-condicionamentos (semente inteira; semente seccionada longitudinalmente; embrião excisado e três períodos de embebição em água (30, 60 e 90 minutos, avaliando-se a coloração da solução. Adicionalmente, as sementes foram envelhecidas artificialmente por 4 e 8 dias, a 40 °C. A viabilidade foi superior em embriões excisados e embebidos por 30 minutos, apresentando elevado coeficiente de correlação com os testes de germinação e tetrazólio. Para sementes em avançado estádio de deterioração, a avaliação deve associar a coloração da solução ao aspecto dos tecidos. Conclui-se que o teste do pH do exsudato é eficiente na avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de A. angustifolia, devendo ser realizado utilizando-se apenas o embrião embebido em água por 30 minutos.

  14. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  15. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  16. ENVIROMENTAL VARIABLE INFLUENCE ON THE TREE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FLORISTIC PATTERNS IN A MONTANE ARAUCARIA FOREST FRAGMENT IN LAGES, SANTA CATARINA STATE

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985081This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure of the tree component of a montane Araucaria Forest fragment and to assess the influence of environmental variables on the patterns observed. The study area was located in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina state, close to the margin of the Caveiras River. The vegetation and the environmental variables (physical and chemical soils characteristics, relief and canopy cover were surveyed within 50, 20 x 10m, permanent plots allocated systematically stratified in the forest fragment. All trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ³ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. It was calculated the importance value (VI of the species found, performed the ordination of plots according to the abundance of species through the analysis of NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and plotted the "a posterior" the significant environmental variables in the ordination diagram. One thousand, eight hundred and forty-three (1,843 individuals were sampled, which added up to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  17. Diversification of Chilean aquaculture: the case of the giant barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 Diversificación de la acuicultura chilena: el caso del cirripedio gigante Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782

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    Daniel A López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented supporting the technical and economic possibilities of giant barnacle Austromegabalanuspsittacus (Molina, 1782 culture, one of the main alternatives for diversifying aquaculture in Chile. Spat collection from the wild varied between different sites in the north and south of the country and according to type of artificial collector. Growth also varied between sites (greater in the north, technological systems (greater in tubular systems and depths (greater at 4 m. Average commercial size in the national market was reached over a period between 18 and 24 months. A long-line can produce between 7 to 10 gross ton during this period, therefore average annual fisheries production can be reached with only 10 to 30 long-lines, in an area of 1 to 3 ha. There is demand for this resource in the external market, particularly in the Japanese market, either as product similar to "fujit subo" (Balanus rostratus, or as a new resource; the relationship between production costs and price determines that giant barnacle culture has commercial potential. Economic indicators for cultured giant barnacle were as follows: net present value (NPV: US$ 490,000; internal rate of return (IRR: 32%; discounted payback period (DPBP: 4 years. Results obtained suggest the natural bank repopulation option, and the development of mass cultures. Giant barnacle culture is based on biological characteristics that differentiate it from other crustaceans species, as well as simple and economic production technologies and favourable economic projections on external markets.Se presentan evidencias de las posibilidades técnicas y económicas del cultivo del cirripedio gigante o "picoroco", Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782. Esta especie es una de las principales alternativas para la diversificación de la acuicultura en Chile. La captación de semilla desde el ambiente varió entre distintos sitios del norte y sur del país y según el tipo de colector

  18. What will it take to close the racial and ethnic health disparities gap? A conversation with Michael E. Bird, Reed Tuckson, and Marilyn Aguirre-Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Carmen J; Lathan, Monica J

    2006-07-01

    In the United States, the health of a community is often times determined by poverty and race. As the nation becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, new directives and approaches must be taken to improve health outcomes of minority and underserved communities. Three leading experts in racial and ethnic health share their perspectives regarding where we are and where we need to be in addressing health disparities. Michael E. Bird, MSW, MPH, Reed Tuckson, MPH, and Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, EdD, offer transdisciplinary-focused recommendations that encompass disease prevention, health care, and community mobilization.

  19. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  20. El arte, la mirada y la intimidad en Ventanas de Manhattan, de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Entre los relatos de Antonio Muñoz Molina, quizá sea Ventanas de Manhattan (2004) aquel que explora con mayor intensidad un motivo recurrente en su obra: la observación del entorno y de las huellas del pasado. En este texto híbrido, que participa de la crónica periodística, el libro de viajes, el ensayo y la novela, dividido en secuencias que a veces constituyen verdaderos microrrelatos, Nueva York se presenta como el espacio del anonimato y la indiferencia, donde “estar viendo y no mirar ...

  1. Larvicidal activity of essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina and its ascaridole-enriched fraction against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Débora Silva Borges; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Tibúrcio, Jacqueline Domingues; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Ferraz, Vany; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Alves, Stênio Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment. The present work evaluated the larvicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) and ascaridole-enriched fraction (EF4-5) obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina (boldo). The EO, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC/MS and fractionated on silica gel. EO and EF4-5, containing 31.4% and 89.5% ascaridole, respectively, were evaluated against C. quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml on the third and fourth instars. They showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 82.14 and 41.85 μg/ml, respectively. Larvae treated with the EF4-5 showed morphological changes in the midgut, with cells possessing a cytoplasm that contained small vacuole-like structures, as well as a nucleus with decondensed chromatin and a cell apex with a short brush border. The cells of the fat body showed larger protein granules, which were acidophilic relative to the larvae of the control group. Moreover, the enriched fraction at a dose of 50 μg/ml showed a residual larvicidal effect according to exposure time on C. quinquefasciatus. This residual effect deserves consideration, since a long-term larvicidal product may be a useful tool for vector control.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  3. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS.

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    Adriana Bastías

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%, followed by tetranucleotide (26% and trinucleotide motifs (24%. The motif AG/CT (28.4% was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species.

  4. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and δC-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime

  5. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellanomexicano (1555 de Fray A. De Molina

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    Manuel Galeote

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aqui comiença vn vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina —el Nebrija de las Indias — y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  6. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

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    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  7. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  8. A New Female Cone, Araucaria beipoiaoensis sp. nov. from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation, Beipiao, Western Liaoning, China and Its Evolutionary Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shaolin; ZHANG Lidong; ZHANG Wu; YANG Yajun

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Araucaria, Araucaria beipiaoensis sp. nov., collected from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation, southern hill of Shebudai village, near Beipiao city, western Liaoning is based on a permineralized female cone, which is ovate to elliptical in shape, about 11 cm×7 cm ×4.5 cm in size. The cone bears rhomboid bracts that are spirally attached, texture thicker, with wings on both sides, with a detached lamina-like apex at the tip. In inner structure the ovuliferous scales are thicker and fused with bracts at the end with a ligular sulcus. There is one wingless ovule/seed per seed-scale complex embedded in the ovuliferous scale tissue, with the micropyle directed toward the cone axis. The ovules/seeds are long ovate or elliptical in shape, I cm long and near the base about 3 mm in diameter; the ovule/seed integuments have begun differentiation into 3 layers: the sarcotesta,sclerotesta, and endotesta. The nucellus is free from the enclosing integuments except in the chalazal region where it is fused to the inner layer (endotesta) of integument. Some ovules show cellularized nucellar tissue. Mature seeds exhibit the papery-thin wavy nucellus characteristically near to the micropyle. The embryonic tissue appears to be four cotyledons. The morphology and structure of the cone shows a close relationship to the araucarian cones of fossil and living genera but differs from any known species. The new species is distributed in the Middle Jurassic of the northern hemisphere, especially Asia, and has important significance for the evolution of the Family Araucariaceae.

  9. [Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Neogene micromammalian faunas from the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (Spain) / Freudenthal, M. (editor)]: Rodents and lagomorphs from a lower Vallesian fissure filling near Molina de Aragon (Prov. Guadalajara, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anduenza, J.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new lower Vallesian micromammalian fauna from a locality near Molina de Aragon is described. Five species of Cricetidae, three species of Sciuridae - including a new one (Heteroxerus molinensis) -, two species of Gliridae, and one lagomorph species are described. Also, the paleoecological implicat

  10. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. в образах и символах

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  11. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) в образах и символах

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  12. Produção de biomassa no corte raso em plantio de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze de 27 anos de idade em Quedas do Iguaçu, PR

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in a 27-year-old Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Quedas do Iguaçu (PR county, aimed to estimate tree components, understory and accumulated litter biomasses. Biomass was estimated through regression equation adjustments, with 21 trees felled, distributed among 7 diametric classes, and with litter and understory based on known sample unit areas. Total stand biomass was 241.92 Mg ha-1, with 82.2% composed of Araucaria angustifolia, 9.6% composed of understory and 8.2% composed by litter. Considering only Araucaria angustifolia, the biomass was of 198.62 Mg ha-1, composed of wood (51.5%, bark (14.7%, roots (13.0%, lives branches (11.8%, aciculated branches (6.6% and dead branches (0.5%. Relative biomass production for the wood component may be low, when compared to other forest species, mainly due to the high allocation in the bark component.

  13. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana O Rocha; Maria Magali S. R. Soares; Cristiana Leslie Corrêa

    2004-01-01

    A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usa...

  14. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Control del proceso biologico mediante la medida en continuo de la edad del fango. Experiencias en la EDAr Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, F.; Pradas, P.; Lardin, C.; Simon, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Soil invertebrates in southern Brazilian Araucaria forest - grassland mosaic: differences between disturbed and undisturbed areas Invertebrados de solo no mosaico floresta com Araucaria - campos no sul do Brasil: diferenças entre áreas impactadas e não impactadas

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    André Frainer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil invertebrate distribution in Araucaria forest, grassland and edge habitats was studied in both disturbed and undisturbed areas in southern Brazil. Mean-density and taxa compositions were verified. Invertebrate densities differed between grassland and the other two habitats in the undisturbed area but not across the disturbed one. At the disturbed area taxa differed between the grassland and the other two habitats. The undisturbed area, on the other hand, presented taxa differences only between the grassland and the forest habitats. Acari, Arachnida and Collembola were the most sensitive taxa for detecting differences across habitats in both areas. At the disturbed area, these taxa presented densities lowering from the forest to the grassland. At the undisturbed area the same taxa increased from the forest to the grassland. Coleoptera and Formicidae (Insecta presented no difference between habitats at the studied taxonomic level.A distribuição dos invertebrados de solo entre os em ambientes de floresta com Araucaria, borda-de-mata e campo, foi analisada em duas áreas no sul do Brasil: uma reserva ecológica e uma propriedade agrícola. A densidade média e a composição dos principais taxa foram verificadas. A densidade total de invertebrados diferiu entre o campo e os outros dois hábitats na área protegida, mas não na fazenda. A composição dos taxa diferiu entre o hábitat de campo e os outros dois habitats na fazenda, e entre o campo e a mata com Araucaria na área protegida. Acari, Arachnida e Collembola foram os grupos que mais apresentaram diferenças entre os diferentes habitats. Na área alterada (fazenda, esses grupos apresentaram diminuição na densidade na direção da floresta com Araucária para o campo, enquanto que na área protegida suas densidades foram maiores no campo do que na floresta com Araucária. Coleoptera e Formicidae (Insecta não apresentaram diferenças significativas no nível taxonômico estudado.

  16. Un Andalou au Pays basque. Ardor guerrero de Muñoz Molina (1995) : problèmes identitaires pendant la Transition espagnole (1975-1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Elvire Diaz

    2007-01-01

    L’écrivain, journaliste et académicien, Antonio Muñoz Molina (Jaén, 1956) retrace dans Ardor guerrero, roman à caractère autobiographique, son expérience militaire en tant qu’appelé, affecté au Pays Basque, entre octobre 1979 et décembre 1980. Dans un contexte de transition politique et idéologique, qui définit les Statuts d’autonomie des anciennes régions « historiques», le narrateur-personnage d’Ardor guerrero décrit et analyse non seulement la rudesse de la vie militaire dans la caserne de...

  17. Un Andalou au Pays basque. Ardor guerrero de Muñoz Molina (1995 : problèmes identitaires pendant la Transition espagnole (1975-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvire Diaz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L’écrivain, journaliste et académicien, Antonio Muñoz Molina (Jaén, 1956 retrace dans Ardor guerrero, roman à caractère autobiographique, son expérience militaire en tant qu’appelé, affecté au Pays Basque, entre octobre 1979 et décembre 1980. Dans un contexte de transition politique et idéologique, qui définit les Statuts d’autonomie des anciennes régions « historiques», le narrateur-personnage d’Ardor guerrero décrit et analyse non seulement la rudesse de la vie militaire dans la caserne de...

  18. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    R P Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley (LS, commonly known as "bottle gourd" (English, possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina Standley (LS using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant.

  19. Relationships between microbial activity and soil physical and chemical properties in native and reforested Araucaria angustifolia forests in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jamil de Morais Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze is the main component of the Mixed Ombrophilous forest and, in the State of São Paulo, it is associated with a high diversity of soil organisms, essential for the maintenance of soil quality, making the conservation of this ecosystem a major and pressing challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the physical and chemical properties that are most closely correlated with dehydrogenase enzyme activity, basal respiration and microbial biomass under native (NF and replanted (RF Araucaria angustifolia forests in three regions of the state of São Paulo, in winter and summer. The main differentiating factors between the areas were also determined. Each forest was represented by three true replications; at each site, from around the araucaria trees, 15 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected to evaluate the soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties. At the same points, forest litter was sampled to assess mass and chemical properties. The following microbiological properties were evaluated: microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (CO2-C, metabolic quotient (Q: CO2, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA as well as the physical properties (moisture, bulk density, macroporosity and total porosity, soil chemical properties [pH, organic carbon (org-C, P, Ca, K, Mg, Al, H+Al], litter dry mass, and C, N and S contents. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (TWO-WAY: ANOVA. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA were also performed. In the soil under NF, the values of K, P, soil macroporosity, and litter dry mass were higher and Q: CO2 and DHA lower, regardless of the sampling period, and DHA was lower in winter. In the RF areas, the levels of moisture, porosity and Q: CO2 were higher in both sampling periods, and DHA was higher in winter. The MBC was only higher under NF in the summer, while the litter contents of C, N and S were greater in

  20. TENSIONES ENTRE LITERATURA, CIENCIA, EXPERIENCIA E HISTORIA EN UN INTELECTUAL DE LA SATTELZEIT HISPANOAMERICANA: LOS PREFACIOS EN LA PROSA CIENTÍFICA DE JUAN IGNACIO MOLINA Tensions between literature, science, experience and history in an intellectual of the Sattelzeit in Spanish America: the prefaces in the scientific prose of Juan Ignacio Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Nordenflycht B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una revisión de los prefacios de las principales obras de Juan Ignacio Molina (el Compendio anónimo de 1776, el Saggio de 1782 traducido al español como Compendio en 1788 y el Saggio de 1810 a fin de evidenciar cómo ciertos aspectos literarios de su prosa científica -en particular, los problemas del género (ensayo, compendio la escritura de "historias naturales", el significado del narrar y el sentido de la experiencia del sujeto- ilustran las tensiones inherentes durante el proceso del cambio semántico del concepto de "ciencia" en el marco de la Sattelzeit hispanoamericana.A study which propounds a review of the prefaces of Juan Ignacio Molina's principal works (the anonymous Compendio 1116, the Saggio 1782, translated into Spanish like Compendio in 1788 and the Saggio 1810 in order to demonstrate how certain literary aspects of his scientific prose -in particular, gender issues (essay, compendium, the writing of "Natural History", the meaning of the narrative and the sense of the subject's experience- ¡Ilustrate the tensions inherent in the process of semantic change of the concept of "science" in the frame of the Sattelzeit in Spanish América.

  1. Fatores ecológicos determinantes na ocorrência de Araucaria angustifolia e Podocarpus lambertii, na Floresta Ombrófila Mista da FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil Ecological factors that determine the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia and Podocarpus lambertii in Mixed Ombrophylous Forest at São Francisco de Paula's FLONA, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na Floresta Nacional (FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, no Rio Grande do Sul. Teve como objetivo determinar, via análise de regressão logística, os fatores ambientais que influenciam a ocorrência das espécies Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista na FLONA de São Francisco de Paula. Para o estudo, foram avaliados os indivíduos com cap=30cm, em 1.000 subunidades amostrais de 10 x 10m, demarcadas em 10 conglomerados permanentes de 1ha (100 x 100m previamente instalados na floresta. Em cada subunidade amostral, foram avaliados os fatores passíveis de influenciar a ocorrência das espécies, como os fatores relativos ao habitat: físicos do solo (profundidade, presença de afloramentos rochosos e umidade, exposição à luz e inclinação do terreno; e os fatores relativos à concorrência: área basal, densidade do sub-bosque e frequência de indivíduos. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que a Araucaria angustifolia ocorre em locais com solos profundos, expostos para o norte e com baixa frequência de indivíduos. Por outro lado, Podocarpus lambertii prefere locais não pedregosos, pouco inclinados, com exposição sul, relativamente úmidos, com alta frequência de indivíduos e alta densidade do sub-bosque.The present research was accomplished at São Francisco de Paula's National Forest (FLONA, in Rio Grande do Sul. The objective was to determine, through logistics regression analysis, the environmental and competition factors that could influence on the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze and Podocarpus lambertii former Klotzsch Endl. species in Mixed ombrophylous forest. For the study, the individuals with cap=30cm had been evaluated, in 1000 samples of 10 x 10m, demarcated in ten permanent conglomerate of 1ha (100 x 100m previously installed in the forest. In each sample the factors that

  2. Open and disturbed habitats support higher diversity of Syrphidae (Diptera)? A case study during three yr of sampling in a fragment of Araucaria forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jana Magaly Tesserolli de; Marinoni, Renato Contin; Marinoni, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of hoverflies in five different habitats of the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, from September 1999 to August 2002 was studied. These five areas had been exposed to various types of anthropogenic disturbance at different times, which resulted in different stages of plant succession. In total, 2,841 specimens of 151 species of Syrphidae were collected using malaise traps. The highest species richness and abundance were found at the edge of the forest (Forest Edge), whereas the lowest was found in the most conserved areas. Evenness values increased along the succession gradient. The accumulation curve of new occurrences of syrphid species nearly approached an asymptote starting on the third month of the third year. Estimates of syrphid species richness using different methods indicated that between 155 and 288 species are found in the study area, according the Michaelis-Menten and the Chao2 estimators, respectively. The richness and abundance of representatives of the subfamily Syrphinae were higher in more open areas, where herbaceous plants predominate. Nineteen hoverfly species can be considered as environmental indicators, as they were collected exclusively or mainly in one of the defined habitat types. The degree of opening of the vegetation seems to be the factor determining the distribution of Syrphidae species, a conclusion based on the finding that grassy clearings in Araucaria Forests had more species. Hence, we conclude that, to become established, Syrphidae communities need conserved mosaic landscapes.

  3. The Araucaria Project. A Distance Determination to the Local Group Spiral M33 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; Konorski, P; Suchomska, K; Graczyk, D; Pilecki, B; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Karczmarek, P; Gallenne, A; Calderon, P; Geisler, D

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by an amazing range of reported distances to the nearby Local Group spiral galaxy M33, we have obtained deep near-infrared photometry for 26 long-period Cepheids in this galaxy with the ESO VLT. From the data we constructed period-luminosity relations in the J and K bands which together with previous optical VI photometry for the Cepheids by Macri et al. were used to determine the true distance modulus of M33, and the mean reddening affecting the Cepheid sample with the multiwavelength fit method developed in the Araucaria Project. We find a true distance modulus of 24.62 for M33, with a total uncertainty of +- 0.07 mag which is dominated by the uncertainty on the photometric zero points in our photometry. The reddening is determined as E(B-V)=0.19 +- 0.02, in agreement with the value used by the HST Key Project of Freedman et al. but in some discrepancy with other recent determinations based on blue supergiant spectroscopy and an O-type eclipsing binary which yielded lower reddening values. Our der...

  4. The effects of fragmentation on Araucaria forest: analysis of the fern and lycophyte communities at sites subject to different edge conditions

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    Vinícius Leão da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects impact species richness and composition as a result of environmental changes caused by fragmentation. This study analyzed edge effects on a community of terrestrial ferns and lycophytes in an Araucaria forest in Brazil at sites subjected to differing edge conditions: (1 a site bordering a road running through the interior of a conservation unit, and (2 a site bordering an agricultural property. Twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and in the interior of each site, and accounted for a total of 48 plots. The edges had lost their characteristic floristic identity, suggesting that many species are sensitive to variations in environmental conditions. The edge effect had a negative impact on species richness as shown by the greater average numbers of fern and lycophyte species in forest interiors at both sites. The results showed that the forest fragments in contact with agricultural areas were subjected to more intense edge effects than the fragments bordering a road within a conservation unit.

  5. The genetics and conservation of Araucaria angustifolia: I. Genetic structure and diversity of natural populations by means of non-adaptive variation in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Neiva Maria Frizon Auler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to generate information relative to the allele distribution and dynamics within and among populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a naturally-occurring conifer in the south of Brazil, being known popularly as "pinheiro-do-Paraná", "araucaria" or pine tree. In order to elucidate the levels and the distribution of the genetic variability, the population's genetic structure and the genetic distance among natural populations of this species with different levels of disturbance in different geographical areas were studied in detail. For this, samples of leaf tissue were collected from 328 adult individuals in nine natural populations in Santa Catarina State. To analyze the samples, the allozyme technique was applied in starch gel electrophoresis (penetrose 13%, with citrate/morfholine buffer. Nine enzymatic systems (PGM, PGI MDH, PRX, SKDH, 6PGDH, ACP, IDH and G6PDH revealed 15 loci. The analysis provided values for He and Ho of 0.084 and 0.072, respectively. The general average of polymorphic loci was 73% in the species and 26.6% in the studied populations and the allele number per locus was 1.6. Wright's F-statistical estimates indicated the existence of inbreeding in populations (F IS= 0.148 and a low divergence among populations (F ST = 0.044. However, the inbreeding values were variable in different populations. Taken together, the results indicated that the greater part of the genetic variability is contained within populations. The working hypothesis that originally there was greater genetic diversity can be supported by these results which indicate that in the degraded populations the diversity indexes are lower in the degraded populations than those found in better-conserved populations. Thus the fragmentation of the forest followed by "araucaria" exploitation could have contributed to the genetic differentiation expressed through the allele frequency of the studied population.

  6. Araucaria angustifolia management by Liocourt quotient in rural field, Painel municipality, SC, Brazil Manejo de araucaria angustifolia pelo quociente de Liocourt em propriedade rural no Município de Painel, SC

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    Andre Felipe Hess

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to calculate the ratio of Liocourt in natural forest with 50 hectares of Araucaria angustifolia. The diameter distribution behaved as expected for native forests, generating a distribution curve similar to an inverted-J. The forest showed 456 araucaria trees per hectare with diameter at breast hight (DBH above 10 cm and basal area of 24.64 m² ha-1. The value of the Liocourt quotient was 1.3, and 54 trees per hectare with 40 cm of DHB can be removed, with a reduction of 2.70 m² ha-1 of basal area or 135 m² total basal area and 34 trees per hectare for a 50 cm of DBH with a reduction of 1.9 m² ha-1 or 95 m² total basal area. Considering only the commercial classes (DBH ≥ 40 cm this withdrawal represents a reduction of 9.5% for the basal area to the diameter of 40 cm and 6.9% to the diameter of 50 cm.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.111

  1. Caracterización de los suelos de usos agrícolas e industrial de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) para una planificación racional del territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez García, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende conocer la situación actual de los suelos de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) así como ver si presentan una planificación racional del territorio ya que no había estudios anteriores que caracterizaran tan detalladamente los tipos y usos de los suelos de esta comarca. Los dos principales tipos de suelos presentes son Regosoles calcáricos (suelos poco evolucionados con un horizonte A ócrico en superficie como único horizonte diagnóstico y con abundante car...

  2. Statistical design of experiments as a tool for optimizing the batch conditions to Cr(VI) biosorption on Araucaria angustifolia wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Jorge L; Ev, Ricardo R; Milcharek, Caroline D; Martins, Lucas C; Pavan, Flavio A; dos Santos, Araci A; Dias, Silvio L P; Dupont, Jairton; Zapata Noreña, Caciano P; Lima, Eder C

    2006-05-20

    In order to reduce the total number of experiments for achieving the best conditions for Cr(VI) uptake using Araucaria angustifolia (named pinhão) wastes as a biosorbent, three statistical design of experiments were carried out. A full 2(4) factorial design with two blocks and two central points (20 experiments) was experimented (pH, initial metallic ion concentration-C(o), biosorbent concentration-X and time of contact-t), showing that all the factors were significant; besides, several interactions among the factors were also significant. These results led to the performance of a Box-Behnken surface analysis design with three factors (X, C(o) and t) and three central points and just one block (15 experiments). The performance of these two statistical designs of experiments led to the best conditions for Cr(VI) biosorption on the pinhão wastes using a batch system, where: pH 2.0; C(o) = 1200 mg l(-1) Cr(VI); X = 1.5 g l(-1) of biosorbent; t = 8 h. The maximum Cr(VI) uptake in these conditions was 125 mg g(-1). After evaluating the best Cr(VI) biosorption conditions on pinhão wastes, a new Box-Behnken surface analysis design was employed in order to verify the effects of three concomitant ions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-)) on the biosorption of Cr(VI) as a dichromate on the biosorbent (15 experiments). These results showed that the tested anions did not show any significant effect on the Cr(VI) uptake by pinhão wastes. In order to evaluate the pinhão wastes as a biosorbent in dynamic system, a glass column was fulfilled with pinhão wastes (4.00 g) as biosorbent, and it was fed with 25.0 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) at pH 2.0 and 2.5 ml min(-1). The breakpoint was attained when concentrations of effluent of the column attained the value of 0.05 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) using 5550 ml of the metallic ion solution. In these conditions, the biosorbent was able to remove completely Cr(VI) from aqueous solution with a ratio of Cr(VI) effluent volume/biosorbent volume of 252.3.

  3. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mecanismos de dispersão de diásporos e recrutamento de plântulas evitam a competição intra-específica e possibilitam a colonização de novos ambientes. Em áreas de transição entre florestas e vegetação campestre esses processos não são aleatórios, e sim associados muitas vezes a indivíduos lenhosos isolados em tais áreas de campo ou a formações arbustivas. No sul do Brasil, as Florestas com Araucária formam mosaicos com áreas campestres e observa-se o avanço da floresta sobre os campos. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais associadas a áreas de ecótonos de Floresta com Araucária e campos e a indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Os estudos foram realizados no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata PUCRS, em São Francisco de Paula, RS, em vegetação campestre excluída de fogo e de pastejo há 16 anos, circundada por florestas. A chuva de sementes foi avaliada mensalmente por um período de oito meses com o uso de coletores que foram posicionados em ecótonos de floresta e campos com diferentes fisionomias e sob indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Tais ambientes foram comparados através de análise de variância univariada e multivariada para verificar padrões de chuva de sementes. Os resultados indicaram que a dispersão de sementes em áreas campestres ocorre preferencialmente associada a indivíduos isolados de Araucaria angustifolia e a formações arbustivas de Baccharis uncinella e que tais ambientes funcionariam como extensões de condições mais semelhantes à floresta na matriz campestre.Mechanisms of seed dispersal and recruitment avoid intraspecific competition and allow plants to colonize new habitats. In transition areas between forest and grassland, these processes are not spatially random, but are often associated with isolated woody individuals in the grassland or with areas of continuous shrub cover. In

  4. COMPARAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA ENTRE AMOSTRAS DE Peumus boldus Molina INDUSTRIALIZADAS E ARTESANAIS DO MUNICÍPIO DE CURRAIS NOVOS, RN.

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    Fabio Gonçalves Macêdo de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, embora constituam válida vertente da Medicina Tradicional, quando mal utilizadas representam risco potencial a saúde humana. O consumo de produtos contaminados pode gerar intoxicações diversas por subprodutos advindos de microrganismos patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de Peumus boldus Molina artesanais, comercializadas na feira popular, e compará-la com a qualidade microbiológica de amostras da mesma espécie industrializadas, comercializadas no comércio varejista local. Foram quantificados: aeróbios mesófilos (ágar Padrão de Contagem, 35±1°C/24h, coliformes totais/Escherichia coli (teste presuntivo: caldo LST, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; CT: caldo VB, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; E. coli: caldo EC, 44,5±0,2°C/24±2h; ágar L-EMB, 35±0,5°C/24±2h, bolores e leveduras (ágar Batata Dextrosado Acidificado, 25±1°C/5 dias e Staphylococcus aureus (ágar Baird-Parker, 35-37°C/24±2h. Para a confirmação de E. coli, colônias foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas da série IMViC. A E. coli estava presente em 10% das amostras, o S. aureus em 50%, bolores e leveduras em 80% e aeróbios mesófilos em 100% das amostras analisadas. O estudo revelou que a tanto amostras industrializadas quanto artesanais não estavam de acordo com as recomendações de padrões sanitários e microbiológicos adequados para o comércio, caracterizando-se como riscos potenciais à Saúde Pública.

  5. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

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    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  6. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

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    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  7. Tendências de consumo e preço de comercialização do pinhão (semente da Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., no estado do Paraná / Trends of consumption and commercialization price of the Brazilian-pine nut – seed of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze., in the state of Parana

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    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a evolução do preço e do volume de comercialização de pinhão, semente da Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze (Pinheiro-do-Paraná, no Estado do Paraná, no período de agosto1994 a fevereiro de 2002. Apesar do importante papel desempenhado poreste produto na economia, principalmente de famílias de baixa renda, e na cultura do Paraná, são quase inexistentes as informações e estudos sobre suas infl uências econômicas. Com a análise dos dados obtidos nas Centrais Estaduais de Abastecimento (CEASA´s de Curitiba, Maringá, Londrina, Foz do Iguaçu e Cascavel, os principais centros consumidoresdo Estado, foi possível observar uma grande variação dos preços, efeito da sazonalidade de sua produção. Também observou-se uma redução no preço real médio da saca de 20 kg do produto de R$25,00 em agosto de 1994 para R$8,47 em julho de 2002 , que corresponde a um preço nominal de R$18,88, sendo que, para manter o valor real de 1994, este teria que estar sendo comercializado a R$53,50. Quanto ao volume, aproximadamente 8,4 mil toneladas (cerca 80,7% do total, foramcomercializadas pelo CEASA de Curitiba, maior centro consumidor do Estado. A variação anual do volume comercializado chegou a 50% entre 2000 e 2001, sendo que a média anual de comercialização é de 1.300 toneladas, com tendência de manter esta média e a variação. Não foi detectada a presença de componente cíclico. Também não foi observada relação entre o volume comercializado e os preços praticados.

  8. Isolation and screening for plant growth-promoting (PGP actinobacteria from Araucaria angustifolia rhizosphere soil Isolamento e seleção de actinobactérias promotoras do crescimento de plantas de solo rizosférico de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Rafael Leandro Figueiredo de Vasconcellos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are capable of playing several different roles in soil ecosystems. These microorganisms affect other organisms by producing secondary metabolites and are responsible for the degradation of different complex and relatively recalcitrant organic compounds. In our survey of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Araucaria angustifolia, five culture media (AI, WYE, YCED, MSSC and LNMS were compared for their effectiveness in isolating these microorganisms. When summing up all the isolates randomly obtained, we got 103 isolates. After isolation, the phosphate-solubilizing ability and the "in vitro" production of indole-acetic acid and chitinases were evaluated. The AI medium was ineffective for actinobacteria isolation, when it was compared with the other four culture media. Indole-acetic acid and chitinase were produced by respectively 36% and 24% of the strains tested. However, only 2% of the 103 strains presented some phosphate-solubilizing ability. These results demonstrate the biotechnological potential of these microorganisms.Actinobactérias são capazes de desenvolver diferentes funções no ecossistema edáfico. Esses microrganismos, além de interagir com outros grupos de microrganismos e plantas, ao produzir metabólitos secundários, são responsáveis pela degradação de diferentes compostos orgânicos. Com intuito de facilitar os estudos envolvendo actinobactérias encontradas em sistemas florestais, cinco meios de cultura (AI, WYE, YCED, MSSC e LNMS foram avaliados quanto à eficiência em isolar estes microrganismos. Além disso, foi analisada a capacidade dos diferentes isolados em solubilizar fosfato de cálcio, produzir ácido indol-acético e quitinases. Dos cinco meios de cultura testados, somente o AI foi ineficiente em isolar actinobactérias. A produção de ácido indol-acético e quitinases foi observada em 36% e 24% dos isolados analisados, respectivamente. Contudo, apenas 2% dos 103 isolados foram

  9. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

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    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  10. El túnel viario de María de Molina en Madrid. Optimización en el diseño y descripción de las soluciones estructurales adoptadas

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    Granda San Segundo, Laura

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria de Molina tunnel which will join paseo de la Castellana and Velázquez street with the N-II highway (Madrid - Barcelona will be the largest municipal underground work in Spain. The tunnel is 1171 meters long and it will absorbe a traffic of 30000 vehicles going out every day. The initial part of the tunnel has been designed as false tunnels made with foundation walls and slabs. The concrete has been cast over the ground and the tunnel has been excavated afterwards in order to minimize the effect of the work on Madrid traffic. Once a sufficient depth has been reached, two different construction systems have been proposed, depending on the conditions the tunnel finds in each case. The project presents some singular points in which the solutions adopted are structurally extraordinary.El túnel viario de María de Molina, que unirá el Paseo de la Castellana y la calle Velázquez con la N-II de Madrid a Barcelona, constituirá la mayor obra municipal de pasos subterráneos. El túnel de un total de 1.171 m de longitud va a absorber una salida de tráfico de 30.000 vehículos diarios. En los tramos iniciales se han proyectado falsos túneles con pantallas y losas hormigonadas sobre el terreno y excavadas a posteriori, para minimizar los efectos tráfico. Cuando se alcanza una profundidad adecuada se ha planteado la ejecución de un túnel con dos sistemas constructivos diferentes, dependiendo de los condicionantes que se encuentran en cada momento. El proyecto presenta una serie de puntos singulares en los que las soluciones adoptadas son estructuralmente extraordinarias

  11. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

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    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  12. Dendrochronology of species from Brazilian Araucaria Forest, Candoi, PR Dendrocronologia de espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Município de Candói, PR

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the dendrochronological potential of six species of the Araucaria Forest is analyzed. The trunks of 20 trees were collected in Candoi, State of Parana, Brazil, from an area that belongs to
    ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão, for the following species: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea porosa, Podocarpus lambertii and Sebastiania commersoniana (3 to 6, from each species. The trunks were sawed, and at breast height a sample was taken from the center of the board, from bark to bark, crossing the pith, for macroscopic analysis. These samples were dried and polished, making possible the recognition and measurement of growth rings The historical climatic data series were provided by SIMEPAR, the State weather institute. The trees presented diameter at breast height (DBH, varying from 14 cm to 40 cm, with age of 60 years, annual diameter increment of 0.6 cm, in average. Although the number of trees was small, it was possible to observe that the site was not limiting for the species, as the growth rings showed very low sensitivity.
    However, the very extreme growth condition of 1999 and 2000, when  occurred a very low precipitation period followed by a very severe winter, was registered in the growth ring series of most of the disks analyzedFoi analisado o potencial dendrocronológico de seis espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM.
    Foram coletados troncos em Candói, PR, em uma área pertencente a ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão,
    sendo três a seis indivíduos das espécies: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea
    porosa, Podocarpus lambertii e Sebastiania commersoniana. Os troncos foram serrados, sendo retiradas amostras à altura do peito, da prancha central, de casca a casca, cruzando a medula, para análise macroscópica. Essas amostras foram secas e lixadas, possibilitando o reconhecimento e medição dos anéis de crescimento. A

  13. Rehabilitation practices in a burned Araucaria Forest patch: partial results Ações de recuperação em área degradada por fogo em Floresta Ombrófila Mista: resultados parciais

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    Nelson Carlos Rosot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study describes the initial measures taken to reconstitute the forest cover in a burned area of Araucaria Forest by means of planting seeds and seedlings of Araucaria angustifolia (parana pine and Ocotea porosa (imbuia. The study area is located at the Experimental Station of Caçador, in Caçador, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Species were systematically arranged in lines and rows over the experimental area and a spacing of 5 x 5 m between trees belonging to the same species was adopted. There were planted 123 parana-pines and 96 imbuias. Thirty-five trees, which remained after the fire, were also left in the area. Parana-pines were firstly planted by seed, but due to the attack of Cebus apella nigritus on the newly emerged plants, it was necessary to replant them using seedlings. Imbuias were planted using seedlings and some damages due to ants and caterpillars were observed. At the present phase of the research, survival analyses are being performed, as well as the collection of data for a Geographic Information System. Next steps will include sampling of natural regeneration of tree species of economic importance occurring in the same area.

    O presente trabalho relata as ações iniciais desenvolvidas em um   remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, que sofreu perturbação por  fogo, no qual se pretende favorecer a recomposição da cobertura  florestal por meio do plantio de sementes e mudas de Araucaria  angustifolia (pinheiro e Ocotea porosa (imbuia. A área de estudo  localiza-se na Estação Experimental de Caçador, Município de Caçador,  SC. A distribuição das espécies sobre a área ocorreu de  forma sistemática, com o plantio em linhas, respeitando-se o  espaçamento de 5 m x 5 m entre indivíduos de mesma espécie.  Foram plantados na área 123 indivíduos de araucária e 96 de imbuia,  somandose aos 35 indivíduos adultos remanescentes. Para a  arauc

  14. Conservação pós-colheita de pinhões [sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Postharvest preservation of 'pinhões' [seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] stored at different temperatures

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão (semente de Araucaria angustifolia representa importante fonte de renda aos produtores rurais e uma opção a mais de alimento característico a ser oferecido aos turistas e à população em geral na região Sul do Brasil. A temperatura e a umidade de armazenamento são os principais determinantes da preservação pós-colheita de pinhões. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento nas taxas respiratórias e de evolução de etileno, bem como na perda de massa fresca e na germinação pós-colheita de pinhões destinados para consumo alimentar humano. Seguiu-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis temperaturas de armazenamento (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50°C e quatro repetições, cada repetição correspondendo a amostras contendo cerca de 300g de pinhões. Pinhões armazenados nas diferentes temperaturas não apresentaram produção de etileno (em níveis detectáveis através de cromatografia gasosa, com sensibilidade de 1ppm. A taxa respiratória aumentou substancialmente com o aumento na temperatura, com um Q10 @ 2,5 na faixa de temperatura de 2 a 37,1°C. Houve redução substancial da respiração com o aumento na temperatura de 37,1 para 50°C. A maior germinação dos pinhões foi verificada na temperatura de 20°C (~55% dos pinhões germinados aos 26 dias de armazenamento, reduzindo em temperaturas menores (~1% e 21% de germinação nas temperaturas de 2 e 10°C, respectivamente ou maiores (9% e The seeds ('pinhões' of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia represent an important sorce of income to the rural comunities and also an additional food product to be offered to the tourists and population in Southern Brazil. Temperature and humidity in the storage environment are the mais factors affecting 'pinhões' postharvest preservation. This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on postharvest respiration and ethylene production, as well as on

  15. Vitalidad Etnolingüística de la Lengua Araucana

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    Gastón Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available En el largo proceso histórico vivido por el o los pueblos araucanos quizás el rasgo cultural más persistente haya sido y sea su lengua. Un examen de la primera gramática escrita para ella por el jesuita Luis de Valdivia en 1606, hace 377 años, muestra en realidad muy poca diferencia con el idioma que aún hablan en determinadas situaciones sociales los mapuches contemporáneos a lo largo y ancho del territorio que ocupan.

  16. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

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    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  17. Behavior of the hypsometric relationship of Araucaria angustifolia in the forest copse of the faculty of forest – Federal University of Paraná, Brazil Comportamento da relação hipsométrica de Araucaria angustifolia no capão da Engenharia Florestal da UFPR

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to test and select mathematics models for estimating total heigh (ht and bole high (hb, as a function of DBH, as well as, to establish the dendrometric relationship  between ht/hb. The data came from measurements of diameters (DBH, total height and bole height of all Araucaria angustifolia trees from an Ombrophylous Mix Forest fragment of 15,24 ha situated in the Botanical Garden Campus of the UFPR, Curitiba-PR, Brazil. Thirteen  models were tested, including arithmetic, logarithmic and nonlinear  models, such as Chapman-Richards and Mitschertich or monomolecular adapted; the nonlinear models were fitted by the Levenberg-Marquart algorithm. The statistic criteria for selecting the best models were the graphic analysis of residuals, Standard error of estimate in percentage (Syx% and adjusted determination coefficient (R2 aj. The R2 aj were very low for all fitted models, characterizing an advanced and asymptotic stage of the species under study. The best equation for estimating ht was that one proposed by Stoffels & Van Soest, and for hf the Curtis equation in its logarithmic form, chosen due to its statistics values and easy utilization. The adjusted linear equation to estimate total height as a function of bole height presented R2 aj = 0.88 and Syx% = 5 %, characterizing a strong relationship between these two variables.Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos testar e selecionar os melhores modelos matemáticos para estimar
    a altura total (ht e a altura de fuste (hf, em função do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, bem como estabelecer a
    relação dendrométrica entre ht/hf. Os dados provieram da medição de diâmetros, altura total e altura de fuste de
    todas as araucárias existentes no fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de 15,2 hectares, situado no Campus
    Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Curitiba, PR. Foram testados 13 modelos, incluindo
    modelos aritm

  18. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch Efeito da hidrólise ácida nas propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido de pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis

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    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p As propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido nativo e modificado (hidrólise ácida de pinhão (Araucaria angustifólia foram comparadas às propriedades do amido nativo e ácido hidrolisado de milho. As espécies de amido foram hidrolisadas (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 horas e avaliadas, antes e após a reação de hidrólise, de acordo com as análises de formação, fusão e termorreversão do gel, retrogradação (em um período de 30 dias, com medidas a cada 3 dias, estabilidade ao congelamento e descongelamento (após 6 ciclos de congelamento e descongelamento, poder de inchamento e índice de solubilidade. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o amido de pinhão apresenta menor tendência à retrogradação quando comparado ao amido

  19. Propagules removal in fragments of native forest and in reforested areas in an Araucaria Forest region of Paraná State Remoção de propágulos em fragmento de floresta nativa e reflorestamentos numa região de Floresta Ombrófila Mista do estado do Paraná

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    Yves Rafael Bovolenta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A question that has been discussed is the role that reforestations with exotic species in native fauna and several studies have shown that removal of propagules is lower in these environments. This study compared the removal rate of propagules (araucaria seeds, peanuts, corn from areas of native forest (FN, reforestations of Pinus taeda L. (RP, Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE and Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. In FN all propagules were removed. There was no difference in the removal of araucaria seeds between FN and RA, and removal rate in both areas differ from the removal rate in the RP and RE. In RP there was high removal of peanuts, while the RE showed the lowest value of removal of the three propagules. The low removal rates in reforestation of pine and eucalyptus reflect the decreased exploitation of these habitats for wildlife, which may be related to a poorly structured understory. Uma questão que tem sido discutida é o papel das monoculturas florestais exóticas na manutenção da fauna nativa e vários estudos têm mostrado que a remoção de propágulos é menor nesses ambientes. O presente trabalho comparou a taxa de remoção de propágulos (pinhão, amendoim, milho entre áreas de Floresta Nativa (FN, Reflorestamentos de Pinus taeda L. (RP, de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE e Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. Na FN, todos os propágulos foram removidos e não houve diferença significativa na remoção de pinhão entre a FN e o RA. A remoção de propágulos nessas áreas diferiu da remoção no RP e RE. No RP, houve alta remoção de amendoim, enquanto que o RE apresentou os menores valores de remoção dos três propágulos. As baixas taxas de remoção nos reflorestamentos de pinus e eucalipto refletem a menor exploração desses habitas pela fauna, o que pode estar relacionado com um subosque pouco estruturado.

  20. Multiple use forest management: an alternative to the extinction of the Araucaria Forest? Manejo florestal de uso múltiplo: uma alternativa contra a extinção com Floresta com Araucária?

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    Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates the adoption of forest management methods that are consistent with the
    principles of sustainable development and respectful of multiple forest use as a means to efficiently revert the
    fragmentation process of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest (FOM or Araucaria Forest. The problems related to this endangered forest type are discussed within the context of progressive land use changes observed in its
    region of natural occurrence. Some concepts of forest management are presented, as well as the new approaches related to the paradigm of sustainability and the focus on other benefits provided by the forest, besides wood products solely. It is also discussed the present trend observed in society, which favors preservation policies, and the obstacles for adopting forest management practices in the FOM. The reasons for the inexpressive role played by the forest component in the incomes of small and medium landowners are analyzed and the rural poverty is considered a determinant factor. The management of the Araucaria Forest based on regulation methods
    is proposed as a means of enhancing forest conditions in what concerns its structure, species composition and
    reproductive capabilities, besides achieving sustainable yields of timber and non-timber products. The main
    characteristics of the use of the selection method are described.O artigo defende a adoção do manejo florestal de uso múltiplo como forma eficaz de reverter a
    tendência de fragmentação e degradação da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM ou Floresta de Araucária, considerada em perigo de extinção pela gradual conversão de uso do solo na sua região de ocorrência natural. Apresenta-se a evolução do conceito de manejo florestal com as mudanças de paradigma observadas na sociedade, como a sustentabilidade e o enfoque sobre múltiplos bens e serviços produzidos pela floresta, além dos madeireiros. São discutidas as tendências da

  1. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

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    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  2. Effects of Different Fertilizers on Early Growth of Araucaria cunninghamii%不同施肥处理对肯氏南洋杉早期生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁称利; 龙友深

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested the effects of inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer (OCF) as well as inorganic and organic compound fertilizer on the early growth of 4. 5 years old Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at state-owned Zhenhai Forest Farm of Kaiping City. The results demonstrated significant differences in height, DBH and volume among the tested eight different fertilization treatments (P <0. 01). Fertilization significantly increased the growth volume of the plantation. When treating with NPK inorganic and organic fertilizers only, growth traits were enhanced as the dosage of fertilization increased. Similar amount of organic fertilization became more effective with added P. However, over-dosage of P could suppress growth. Overall analysis showed that the optimal fertilization combination was 450 g NPK organic fertilizer ( F3) , whereas the combination of 1 kg OCF plus 200 g P ( F5 ) was not as efficient. At 4. 5 years old, the height and DBH of F3 and F5 were 63. 16% and 58. 55% higher than CK, respectively, and the volumes improved by 411.20% and 348.00% , respectively.%以无机肥、有机肥以及两者的混合肥为基肥探讨肥料种类及配比对肯氏南洋杉人工林早期生长的影响.研究结果表明,不同处理间树高、胸径和材积生长差异显著,施基肥能显著提高植株生长量,单施NPK无机肥和有机肥时,生长指标均随施肥量增加而显著增加,等量有机肥加入P肥后,效果比单施有机肥好,但P肥用量过高会有一定的抑制作用.综合分析结果表明,施450 g NPK无机肥(F3)时效果最佳,施1kg有机肥配合200 g P肥(F5)的效果次之,4.5a生时其树高和胸径分别比对照(CK)高63.16%和58.55%、77.27%和68.18%,材积分别高411.2%和348.00%.

  3. Growth acceleration of subtropical tree species through 90 years in an Araucaria Forest Aceleração do crescimento em diâmetro de espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista nos últimos 90 anos

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    Patrícia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Araucaria Forest is considered one of the most important forest formations of Atlantic Forest Biome. Regarding its importance, there is a lack of information  about growth dynamics of its forest species. The present study aimed at to estimate the past growth of selected tree species of Araucaria Forest. Dendrochronological analysis was carried out on non-destructive samples of Araucaria angustifolia, Ocotea porosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea puberula and Ocotea pulchella. The average periodic diameter increment until 2006 was approximately 0.5 cm year-1, for A. angustifolia, C. fissilis, O. porosa and O. pulchella. O. puberula and I. paraguariensis presented average periodic diameter increment until 2006 of 0.9 cm year-1 or greater. The  growth rhythm has accelerated since the first decades of last century. It is suggested that this different growth pattern is a consequence of climatic changes throughout the growing period.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.319

    A Floresta Ombrófila Mista é considerada uma das principais formações do bioma Mata Atlântica. Apesar de sua importância, existe uma carência de informações sobre a dinâmica de crescimento de espécies dessa tipologia florestal. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estimar o crescimento passado de espécies arbóreas de Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Foram realizadas avaliações dendrocronológicas não destrutivas nas espécies Araucaria angustifolia, Ocotea porosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea puberula e Ocotea pulchella. O crescimento periódico médio em diâmetro até 2006 foi de aproximadamente 0,5 cm ano-1, para A. angustifolia, C. fissilis, O. porosa e O. pulchella. O. puberula e I

  4. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica na produtividade da ameixeira 'Reubennel', na região de Araucária - PR Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on yield of plum at Araucaria County Parana Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Dolinski

    2007-08-01

    fertilization in the plum yield (Prunus salicina, cv. 'Reubennel'. The experiment was established in a five years old commercial orchard in Araucaria County Parana. The experiment design was a split-plot in a randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot treatments were potassium rates (55 and 110 kg of K2O ha-1 ano-1, and subplot treatments were the nitrogen rates (40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg of N ha-1 ano-1, that were applied during three years. The year factor was analyzed as split-split plot. The analyzed variables were yield, fruit number before the thinning and during harvesting, and fruit weight and caliber. The result indicated a high productive potential of the orchard used, with a mean yield of 38.7 tons ha-1 ano-1 in the three years evaluated. However, there was no difference in the treatments or interaction effects of the treatments on any evaluated parameters which could be associated to the chemical and physics characteristics of the soil and plant management (trims and thinning. Year factor influenced yield, caliber, and fruit number. Regardless of the treatments Plum yield was direct and inverse related with fruit number and fruit size, respectively. Low N and K rates were able to obtain high yield during three years.

  5. A comunidade de peixes de um riacho de Floresta com Araucária, alto rio Iguaçu, sul do Brasil The fish community in an Araucaria Forest stream, upper Iguaçu River basin, southern Brazil

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    Vinicius Abilhoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição, a dieta, as táticas alimentares e ocupação espacial da ictiofauna em um pequeno riacho dentro de um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária. Seis espécies de peixes foram coletadas, pertencentes a três ordens e quatro famílias, totalizando 110 exemplares. No ambiente de corredeira foram coletados e observados apenas Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911, enquanto que no ambiente de remanso foram observados e capturados exemplares de Astyanax aff. scabripinnis (sensu Eigenmann, 1921, Astyanax totae Haluch & Abilhoa, 2005, Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992, T. davisi, Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 e Jenynsia eigenmanni Haseman, 1911. Dezoito itens alimentares de origem autóctone, seis de alóctone e três de origem incerta foram identificados e tiveram sua freqüência de ocorrência calculada. Uma grande quantidade de itens exclusivos foi registrada, todavia os insetos constituíram a base alimentar mais importante, principalmente na forma de fragmentos e estágios imaturos (larvas e pupas, o que permitiu inferências a respeito de sobreposição alimentar. As espécies registradas no riacho foram classificadas em quatro guildas tróficas e quatro grupos funcionais. As espécies estudadas são capazes de utilizar diversos recursos alimentares e microambientes, o que é favorecido provavelmente pelo seu pequeno porte. O remanescente florestal estudado exerce grande importância no fornecimento de alimento, hábitats e refúgios, fatores importantes para manutenção da biota aquática.The species composition, diet, feeding tactics, and spatial occupation of fishes in a headwater stream which flows within a remaining fragment of Araucaria Forest were studied. One hundred and ten fishes of six species were collected, members of three orders and four families. In riffle areas, only Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911 were

  6. Tirso de Molina, Indios y Encomenderos

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    Caro López, Ceferino

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the text of Tirso's Trilogía de los Pizarro elements are to be found which allow to affirm that the playwright availed himself of an occasional commission to make an instrument of political criticism aiming at false advisers and validos. Tirso fought against the novelties in the government and policy of the Inidies and stood for the abolition of the humanitarian measures of the Leyes Nuevas and the strengthening of the encomenderos' power. Thus the Trilogy presents itself as a telling instance of the mental shift between Renaissance erasmism and the crisis of the Counter-Reformation.

    En la Trilogía de los Pizarro hay elementos que permiten afirmar que el dramaturgo usó un encargo ocasional para hacer un instrumento de crítica de la política de su tiempo, poniendo en evidencia la figura de los validos y de los malos consejeros. Contra las novedades introducidas en el gobierno y en la política indiana Tirso proponía la abolición de las medidas humanitarias incluidas en las Leyes Nuevas y el fortalecimiento de la autoridad de los encomenderos. La Trilogía se presenta por lo tanto como un ejemplo del cambio cultural entre el erasmismo del Renacimiento y la crisis de la Contrarreforma.

  7. Florística, estrutura e distribuição espacial em fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista em São Francisco de Paula (RS / Floristic, structure and spacial distribution in an Araucaria Forest fragment in São Francisco de Paula (RS

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    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição florística, a estrutura horizontal e vertical, bem como os padrões de distribuição espacial do componente arbóreo em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista situada na FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil. Para o levantamento florístico, análise fitossociológica e distribuição espacial foram utilizadas dez unidades amostrais permanentes de 1 ha (100m x 100m, das quais todos os indivíduos com DAP ≥ 9,5cm foram medidos. O processamento e a análise dos dados foram realizados com o software SADEF. Foram encontradas 803 árvores por hectare, distribuídas em 107 espécies e 41 famílias botânicas, destacando-se com maior frequência as famílias Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araucaraceae, Aquifoliaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Sapindaceae. A espécie dominante foi a Araucaria angustifolia, que também apresentou o maior valor de importância (49,80%, seguida por Ilex brevicuspis (14,62%, Blepharocalyx salicifolius (14,32%, Cryptocarya aschersoiana (10,01%,Casearia decandra (9,72% e Sebastiania commersoniana (9,25%. A vegetação arbórea apresentou índice de diversidade de Shannon Weaver estimado em 3,71. O diagrama h-M demonstrou a existência de três estratos arbóreos, sendo o estrato superior formado por 56 espécies, com 147,8 (18,27% árvores por hectare; o estrato médio com 634,3 (78,41% árvores por hectare, distribuídas em 105 espécies e o estrato inferior composto por 21,6 (3,32% árvores por hectare, divididas em 39 espécies. As espécies dominantes nos estratos superior, médio e inferior foram a Araucaria angustifolia, Casearia decandra e a Dicksonia sellowiana, respectivamente. O padrão espacial foi o agrupado para 79,44% das espécies e o aleatório para 20,56% das espécies. A área estudada apresentou alta riqueza florística, comuniformidade média em que poucas espécies são as predominantes na comunidade, caracterizada principalmente pela ocorrência de

  8. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  9. DYNAMICS OF CARBON STOCK IN ARAUCARIA FOREST IN PARANÁ WITH THE AID OF CO2FIX SOFTWARE AND SIMULATION SCENARIO REDD PROJECT = DINÂMICA DO ESTOQUE DE CARBONO EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA NO PARANÁ UTILIZANDO SOFTWARE CO2FIX E SIMULAÇÃO DE CENÁRIO DE PROJETO REDD

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    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a typical forest type in southern Brazil, and currently widely devastated much less than its original extension area. Thus, REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation projects can be an alternative for its conservation. The present study aimed to evaluate the carbon stock in the typology and simulate a scenario of REDD. The increment of the forest was obtained using continuous forest inventory data in General Carneiro, Paraná, Brazil, from 1999 to 2013. The species were divided into three groups: araucaria, white wood and canellas. The estimated carbon in the area ranged from 81.53 Mg.ha-1 in 1999 to 88.44 Mg.ha-1 in 2013, being the group with the largest share of white carbon fixed in the period. The simulation scenario resulted in REDD 198,850.03 Mg CO2 eq. no longer issued because the second base line adopted is believed that about 600 hectares of forest tend to be deforested in the absence of the project. The estimation method used in this study, it is concluded that the forest has increased in carbon and REDD projects may be interesting to obtain alternative income with native forests. = A Floresta Ombrófila Mista é uma tipologia florestal típica do sul do Brasil, amplamente devastada e atualmente com área muito inferior a sua extensão original. Assim, projetos REDD (Redução de Emissões por Desmatamento e Degradação Florestal podem ser uma alternativa para sua conservação. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o estoque de carbono na tipologia e simular um cenário de REDD. O incremento da floresta foi obtido utilizando dados de inventário florestal contínuo em General Carneiro, Paraná, Brasil, do período de 1999 a 2013. As espécies foram divididas em três grupos: araucárias, brancas e canelas. O carbono estimado na área variou de 81,53 Mg.ha-1 em 1999 a 88,44 Mg.ha-1 em 2013, sendo o grupo das brancas com maior participação em carbono fixado no período. A simula

  10. Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Caroline Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pólen, esporos e demais palinomorfos preservados em sedimentos são material de referência básico em estudos paleoambientais. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar a taxonomia de palinomorfos correspondentes a fungos e criptógamas contidos em sedimentos do interior de duas matas com Araucária do Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul e, assim, fornecer subsídios para reconstituições paleoambientais na região. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares holocênicos de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; perfil 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. São apresentados palinomorfos de oito fungos, seis algas, cinco briófitos e 19 pteridófitos. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações e, sempre que possível, de dados ecológicos do organismo de origem. A grande quantidade de palinomorfos distintos, bem preservados nos sedimentos, mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes, junto com grãos de pólen, no estudo da gênese e expansão da mata com Araucária.Pollen, spores and other palynomorphs preserved in sediments are basic reference material for palaeoenvironmental studies. The aim of this research is to present the taxonomy of fungal and cryptogamic palynomorphs contained in sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, thus contributing to palaeoenvironmental reconstitution in the region. The analysis involved samples from two Holocene sedimentary profiles from São Francisco de Paula (profile 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; profile 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using

  11. Aproximación a la confrontación jurídico-económica entre María de Molina y las aljamas castellanas a finales del siglo XIII y principios del siglo XIV

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    Rica AMRAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail a été conçu dans une perspective bien précise : l’aspect historiographique de la question, introduit par les chroniques. Toutefois, à cause du laconisme de ces textes, et bien que la base de notre étude soit le récit historiographique des règnes de Sanche IV et de Ferdinand IV, nous avons aussi utilisé la documentation des cortès et celle de la collection Burriel. D’autres documents, relatifs à des conciles et à des synodes, proviendront de la jurisprudence ecclésiastique. Nous évoquerons d’abord les communautés juives castillanes dans leur situation interne (sociale et spirituelle et analyserons la situation économique à laquelle la majorité de leurs membres fut soumise, avant de passer au coeur de notre propos : les relations de Marie de Molina avec les juifs (points communs avec les époques antérieures, changements provoqués par la reine et enfin signification de sa politique envers cette minorité et impact de celle-ci au XIVe siècle.El presente trabajo ha sido concebido bajo una visión bien dirigida : la vertiente historiográfica que introducen las crónicas. Sin embargo y debido a la parquedad de las mismas, y aunque las bases serán estas, las del periodo de Sancho IV y Fernando IV, me he permitido también utilizar los documentos de Cortes, al mismo tiempo que algunos sobre el periodo insertos en la colección Burriel ; otros provendrán de la jurisprudencia eclesiástica, relativos a concilios y sínodos. Y ya en un segundo plano trabajaremos sobre las aljamas castellanas (situación social y espiritualidad desde un punto de vista interno ; analizaremos desde la óptica de la mayoría la situación económica a los que estos se vieron sometidos y por último, lo que será el centro de nuestro estudio, la relación de María de Molina con la comunidad judía : los puntos comunes con épocas anteriores, los cambios que esta realiza en su relación con la comunidad, para concluir con lo que

  12. Accuracy and efficiency evaluation of point-centered quarter method variations for vegetation sampling in an araucaria forest Avaliação da eficiência e precisão de variações do método quadrante centrado em um ponto para o levantamento de vegetação em uma floresta de araucária

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    Graziele Hernandes Volpato

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify Point-Centered Quarter Method (PCQM accuracy and efficiency, using different numbers of individuals by per sampled area, in 28 quarter points in an Araucaria forest, southern Paraná, Brazil. Three variations of the PCQM were used for comparison associated to the number of sampled individual trees: standard PCQM (SD-PCQM, with four sampled individuals by point (one in each quarter, second measured (VAR1-PCQM, with eight sampled individuals by point (two in each quarter, and third measuring (VAR2-PCQM, with 16 sampled individuals by points (four in each quarter. Thirty-one species of trees were recorded by the SD-PCQM method, 48 by VAR1-PCQM and 60 by VAR2-PCQM. The level of exhaustiveness of the vegetation census and diversity index showed an increasing number of individuals considered by quadrant, indicating that VAR2-PCQM was the most accurate and efficient method when compared with VAR1-PCQM and SD-PCQM.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a precisão e a eficiência do método Quadrante Centrado em um Ponto (PCQM, usando diferentes números de indivíduos por amostra, em 28 unidades amostrais em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista no sul do Paraná, Brasil. Foram comparadas três variações do método com relação ao número de indivíduos amostrados: primeira variação (SD-PCQM, amostragem com quatro indivíduos por ponto (um por quadrante, segunda variação (VAR1-PCQM, amostragem com oito indivíduos por ponto (dois em cada quadrante, e terceira variação (VAR2-PCQM, amostragem com 16 indivíduos por ponto (quatro indivíduos em cada quadrante. Foram registradas 31 espécies pelo SD-PCQM, 48 pelo VAR1-PCQM e 60 espécies pelo VAR2-PCQM. O nível de eficiência da amostragem da vegetação e o índice de diversidade apresentaram um acréscimo de acordo com o número de indivíduos por quadrante, incluídos na amostra, indicando que o VAR2-PCQM foi o mais preciso e eficiente método quando comparado com VAR1-PCQM

  13. Equações de volume para galhos de espécies em diferentes grupos de valor econômico em uma Floresta Ombrófila Mista / Selection of mathematical equations to estimate the volume of branches for diferent groups of economic value in an Araucaria Forest

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    Geedre Adriano Borsoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi testar equações matemáticas e estimar o volume de galhos para espécies de três grupos de valor econômico em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, situada na região nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizada a cubagem rigorosa dos galhos de 287 árvores-amostra. Além dos galhos de cada árvore selecionada, o restante do fuste comercial (resíduo foi considerado na determinação do volume total de galhos. As árvores-amostra selecionadas foram separadas e classificadas em grupos de valor econômico. Dez modelos volumétricos foram testados, sendo que para a seleção do melhor modelo foram analisados o coeficiente de determinação ajustado, o coeficiente de variação; os desvios médios relativos, desvio absoluto relativo, o valor ponderado e a distribuição gráfica dos valores residuais. A divisão da floresta em grupos de valor comercial mostrou-se eficiente no ajuste de equações matemáticas. As equações selecionadas para estimar o volume de galhos foram: “1 de Meyer”, para o grupo de baixo valor; a “5 de Spurr”, para o grupo de médio valor, a “2 de Meyer – modificada”, para o grupo de alto valor comercial; e a “equação 3, de Naslund – modificada”, para a floresta.AbstractThe objective of this study was to test mathematical equations, and estimate the volume of branches for groups of three species of economic value in an area of Araucaria Forest, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul. Rigorous scaling of branches of 287 sample trees were performed. Besides considering the branches of each tree selected, the rest of the commercial tree trunks (residue were taken into account for the determination of the total amount of branches. The selected sample trees were separated and classified into groups of economic value. Ten volumetric models were tested. For selecting the best model, the analysis focused on the determination coefficient, the

  14. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil Comunidade de aves em um fragmento de floresta de araucária em relação a mudanças na paisagem circundante no sul do Brasil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation Este estudo avaliou a dinâmica da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal ao longo de sete anos e correlacionou às mudanças ocorridas na paisagem circundante. A área de estudo localiza-se na Região Sul do Brasil (Estado do Paraná e a vegetação está representada por Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O período de amostragem ocorreu entre os anos de 1988 a 1994 e o método utilizado foi captura-marcação e recaptura. Para análise da mudança no uso e cobertura da paisagem foram utilizadas imagens Landsat TM e um sistema de informação geográfico. Quatro classes foram usadas, sendo: plantios com espécies exóticas, floresta nativa, capoeiras (vegetação nativa < 2 m de altura e áreas abertas (campo abandonado, pastagens, área agrícola e solo exposto. Foi analisada a relação entre as mudanças na paisagem e as mudanças na abundância e diversidade de aves de floresta, de área aberta, de borda e especialistas de bambu. Foram calculadas as estimativas de riqueza para cada ano estudado. A riqueza registrada na área de estudo foi de 96 espécies e as estimativas foram 114, 118 e 110 espécies para Chao 1, Jackknife 1 e Bootstrap, respectivamente. A comunidade de aves variou em abundância, riqueza e diversidade entre os anos estudados. Considerando a diversidade de espécies, os valores observados em 1991, 1993 e 1994 foram significativamente diferentes. As modificações na paisagem tamb

  15. Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em área de Floresta com Araucária no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil Ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of the Araucaria Forest, State of Paraná, South Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre estreblídeos e nicteribiídeos e seus hospedeiros são escassas na Floresta com Araucária (FA, não havendo dados sobre a riqueza, o padrão de distribuição e a abundância desses ectoparasitos sobre uma determinada comunidade de morcegos. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em fragmentos de FA (aproximadamente 470 ha localizados no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de dezembro de 2001 a maio de 2003. Foram registrados 12 indivíduos pertencentes a três espécies de Nycteribiidae e 119 de seis espécies de Streblidae sobre 127 hospedeiros examinados (quatro espécies de Phyllostomidae e sete de Vespertilionidae. Cinco das seis espécies de estreblídeos foram encontradas apenas sobre Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Em 62 indivíduos de S. lilium foram coletadas: Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926 com prevalência de 65,4% e intensidade média de infestação de 2,00; Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, 1976 com 13,5% e 2,29; Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 com 7,7% e 1,00; e Metelasmus wenzeli Graciolli & Dick, 2004 com 1,6% e 4,00. Não foi encontrada diferença na prevalência (p = 0,544 e na intensidade média (p = 0,361 em relação ao sexo de S. lilium. Em 26 A. lituratus, foi encontrada apenas Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 com prevalência de 32% e intensidade média de 1,50.The information available on streblid and nycteribiid bat flies and their hosts are scant in the Araucaria Forest (AF and there are no data on richness, distribution patterns or abundance of these ectoparasites in bat communities. Therefore, we conducted a study on bats and their ectoparasites in AF remnants (approximately 470 ha located in the municipality of Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná State, between December 2001 and May 2003. Twelve individuals of three species of Nycteribiidae and 119 individuals of six species of Streblidae were collected on 127 bats (four species of

  16. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LONG GOURD LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca for food

  17. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  18. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  19. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  20. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  1. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure.

  2. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  3. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekessy, Sarah A; Allnutt, T R; Premoli, A C; Lara, A; Ennos, R A; Burgman, M A; Cortes, M; Newton, A C

    2002-04-01

    Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle), a southern South American tree species of exceptional cultural and economic importance, is of conservation concern owing to extensive historical clearance and current human pressures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterise genetic heterogeneity within and among 13 populations of this species from throughout its natural range. Extensive genetic variability was detected and partitioned by analysis of molecular variance, with the majority of variation existing within populations (87.2%), but significant differentiation was recorded among populations (12.8%). Estimates of Shannon's genetic diversity and percent polymorphism were relatively high for all populations and provide no evidence for a major reduction in genetic diversity from historical events, such as glaciation. All pairwise genetic distance values derived from analysis of molecular variance (Phi(ST)) were significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Although populations are geographically divided into Chilean Coastal, Chilean Andes and Argentinean regions, this grouping explained only 1.77% of the total variation. Within Andean groups there was evidence of a trend of genetic distance with increasing latitude, and clustering of populations across the Andes, suggesting postglacial migration routes from multiple refugia. Implications of these results for the conservation and use of the genetic resource of this species are discussed.

  4. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  5. The Araucaria project. Precise physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, D.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pietrzyński, G.; Pilecki, B.; Konorski, P.; Gieren, W.; Storm, J.; Gallenne, A.; Anderson, R. I.; Suchomska, K.; West, R. G.; Pollacco, D.; Faedi, F.; Pojmański, G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to precisely measure the physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aqr and derive a distance to this system by applying a surface brightness - colour relation. Our motivation is to combine these parameters with future precise distance determinations from the Gaia space mission to derive precise surface brightness - colour relations for stars. Methods: We extensively used photometry from the Super-WASP and ASAS projects and precise radial velocities obtained from HARPS and CORALIE high-resolution spectra. We analysed light curves with the code JKTEBOP and radial velocity curves with the Wilson-Devinney program. Results: We found that IO Aqr is a hierarchical triple system consisting of a double-lined short-period (P = 2.37 d) spectroscopic binary and a low-luminosity and low-mass companion star orbiting the binary with a period of ≳25 000 d (≳70 yr) on a very eccentric orbit. We derive high-precision (better than 1%) physical parameters of the inner binary, which is composed of two slightly evolved main-sequence stars (F5 V-IV + F6 V-IV) with masses of M1 = 1.569 ± 0.004 and M2 = 1.655 ± 0.004 M⊙ and radii R1 = 2.19 ± 0.02 and R2 = 2.49 ± 0.02 R⊙. The companion is most probably a late K-type dwarf with mass ≈0.6 M⊙. The distance to the system resulting from applying a () surface brightness - colour relation is 255 ± 6 (stat.) ± 6 (sys.) pc, which agrees well with the Hipparcos value of 270+91-55 pc, but is more precise by a factor of eight.

  6. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Schlögl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz.,ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semiquantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds.

  7. Nesting Biology of Podium angustifrons Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae in an Araucaria Forest Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MLT. Buschini

    Full Text Available Podium angustifrons Kohl 1902 is a species of solitary wasp which nests in pre-existing cavities, with neotropical distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and French Guyana. The aim of this study was to investigate the nesting biology of P. angustifrons, discussing aspects of their life history. To capture its nests, wooden trap-nests were installed in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, Guarapuava (PR, Brazil, from January 2003 to April 2009. A total of 29 nests were collected, all during the warmer months. These showed no vestibular and intercalary cells, and their closures were made up of chewed plants and mud mixed with organic materials and resin-coated surfaces, sometimes showing a layer of lichens. The cells were provisioned with various wild species of cockroaches (Chorisoneura sp, Riata sp and Helgaia sp in the nymph stage and/or adults. The sex ratio was 4.6 females per male, significantly higher that the expected 1:1. Most pre-pupae entered diapause in winter with development time ranging from 187 to 283 days for females and 180 to 283 days for males. Deaths occurred in 41.66% of cells provisioned, 33.33% were attributed to faulty development and 8.33% to Chrysididae.

  8. The Araucaria Project. Precise physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aqr

    CERN Document Server

    Graczyk, D; Pietrzynski, G; Pilecki, B; Konorski, P; Gieren, W; Storm, J; Gallenne, A; Anderson, R I; Suchomska, K; West, R G; Pollacco, D; Faedi, F; Pojmanski, G

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to precisely measure the physical parameters of the eclipsing binary IO Aqr and derive a distance to this system by applying a surface brightness - colour relation. Our motivation is to combine these parameters with future precise distance determinations from the GAIA space mission to derive precise surface brightness - colour relations for stars. We extensively used photometry from the Super-WASP and ASAS projects and precise radial velocities obtained from HARPS and CORALIE high-resolution spectra. We analysed light curves with the code JKTEBOP and radial velocity curves with the Wilson-Devinney program. We found that IO Aqr is a hierarchical triple system consisting of a double-lined short-period (P=2.37 d) spectroscopic binary and a low-luminosity and low-mass companion star orbiting the binary with a period of ~25000 d (~70 yr) on a very eccentric orbit. We derive high-precision (better than 1%) physical parameters of the inner binary, which is composed of two slightly evolved main-sequence st...

  9. The Araucaria Project : the Baade-Wesselink projection factor of pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nardetto, N; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; Poretti, E

    2013-01-01

    The projection factor used in the Baade-Wesselink methods of determining the distance of Cepheids makes the link between the stellar physics and the cosmological distance scale. A coherent picture of this physical quantity is now provided based on several approaches. We present the lastest news on the expected projection factor for different kinds of pulsating stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  10. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  11. The involvement of PUMP from mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cells in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Caroline; Pasqualim, Patrícia; Jacomasso, Thiago; Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Carnieri, Eva Gunilla Skare; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the responses of plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria from embryogenic cells of A. angustifolia subjected to cold stress (4°C for 24 h or 48 h) is reported. In the mitochondria of stressed cells, PUMP activity increased by approximately 45% (at 24h and 48 h), which was determined by measuring the oxygen consumption after the addition of linoleic acid and the inhibition by BSA and ATP. PUMP activation was confirmed using transmembrane electrical potential (Δψ) assays. Immunoblot assays showed an increase of PUMP expression by 40% and 150% after 24h and 48 h of cold stress, respectively. AOX activity, measured under conditions similar to those of the PUMP assays, was only slightly increased in the mitochondria from stressed cells (at 24h and 48 h), as demonstrated by oxygen consumption experiments. Cell viability was unaffected by cold stress, indicating that the effects on PUMP and AOX were not caused by cell death. These results show that the main response of this gymnosperm to cold stress is the activation of PUMP, which suggests that this protein may be involved in the control of reactive oxygen species generation, which has been previously associated with this condition.

  12. The Araucaria Project: High-precision orbital parallax and masses of the eclipsing binary TZ Fornacis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, A.; Pietrzyński, G.; Graczyk, D.; Konorski, P.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gieren, W.; Anderson, R. I.; Villanova, S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Independent distance estimates are particularly useful to check the precision of other distance indicators, while accurate and precise masses are necessary to constrain evolution models. Aims: The goal is to measure the masses and distance of the detached eclipsing-binary TZ For with a precision level lower than 1% using a fully geometrical and empirical method. Methods: We obtained the first interferometric observations of TZ For with the VLTI/PIONIER combiner, which we combined with new and precise radial velocity measurements to derive its three-dimensional orbit, masses, and distance. Results: The system is well resolved by PIONIER at each observing epoch, which allowed a combined fit with eleven astrometric positions. Our derived values are in a good agreement with previous work, but with an improved precision. We measured the mass of both components to be M1 = 2.057 ± 0.001 M⊙ and M2 = 1.958 ± 0.001 M⊙. The comparison with stellar evolution models gives an age of the system of 1.20 ± 0.10 Gyr. We also derived the distance to the system with a precision level of 1.1%: d = 185.9 ± 1.9 pc. Such precise and accurate geometrical distances to eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to test the absolute calibration of the surface brightness-colour relation for late-type stars, and will also provide the best opportunity to check on the future Gaia measurements for possible systematic errors. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal observatory under program IDs 094.D-0320.The calibrated interferometric data as OIFITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A35

  13. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  14. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño,Miguel; Cantillánez,Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  15. LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA UCT EN 1971, POR VÍCTOR RAVIOLA MOLINA

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    Victor Raviola Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el golpe de Estado, nuestro país se perfilaba como una «cosmópolis intelectual», exhibiendo condiciones como estabilidad política, modernización del sistema educacional universitario y gestión de redes internacionales tejidas desde algunas universidades. Esto propicia el florecimiento de centros académicos de investigación y formación, constituyendo un polo para intelectuales latinoamericanos, europeos y americanos que se insertan en estas instituciones con el objetivo de fortalecer dichas iniciativas, y analizar los procesos sociopolíticos que estaban teniendo lugar. En este contexto, y aun cuando en una condición periférica que implica sobre todo precariedad de recursos, las instituciones regionales buscaron afianzar su posición, se pensaron no sólo como instancias formativas, sino también de investigación, contribuyendo a través de la ciencia al desarrollo en el plano local.En la década de los setenta, la sede regional de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, hoy Universidad Católica de Temuco, abría un panorama auspicioso para el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales. Desde el Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Regional (CERER, y con el propósito de formar investigadores locales, se da apertura en 1971 a un programa de especialización denominado «Carrera de Investigadores en Ciencias Sociales», el que fue antesala de la fundación de la carrera de Licenciatura en Antropología en 1973, la tercera en el país y la segunda regional.Consideramos relevante este discurso pronunciado por el entonces director de Sede, don Víctor Raviola, en la inauguración anual de actividades académicas, en tanto deja testimonio de un estilo de universidad, a saber: regionalista, comprometida con la investigación científica aplicada, y vinculada con el medio local. Las palabras del profesor Raviola resultan señeras respecto del desarrollo de las ciencias sociales a nivel regional, proyecto que decae paulatinamente a partir de 1973 y que concluye con el cierre de la carrera de Antropología en 1978. En 1970 se da inicio a un proyecto que quedará inconcluso y que sólo volverá a cobrar fuerza en la década de los noventa con la apertura de las carreras de Antropología y Trabajo Social y la posterior creación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales en el primer decenio del siglo XXI.Agradecemos a Gloria Vergara Segura la transcripción de este texto (Héctor Mora Nawrath.

  16. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2004-01-01

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  17. Mi Confesión. Revelaciones de un criminal de guerra (Mauricio Aranguren Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Gonzálvez Torralbo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de un libro como el que paso a reseñar, implica comentar en un primer momento, qué es aquello que entendemos por confesión. Señalo esto porque cuando vemos la carátula del libro y leemos su título, el lector puede pensar que el protagonista del mismo revela voluntariamente acontecimientos de su propia vida, pero no sólo eso sino que además el lector puede pensar también que ésto s acontecimientos son relatados con el ánimo, no sólo de la revelación de una verdad, la verdad de Carlos Castaño, sino también con la intención de buscar una reconciliación (no sabría muy bien con quién pues son muchos los que han sufrido su falta de piedad por todos los crímenes cometidos. Es cierto, que cualquier tipo de confesión de un paramilitar que busque el perdón nunca se sostendrá,pero una confesión de un paramilitar es algo que llama la atención, sea esta del calibre que sea y sea cual sea el motivo de la misma.

  18. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  19. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782) (Cirripedia, Balanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Contreras; Nicolás Luna; Enrique Dupré

    2015-01-01

    Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste pri...

  20. Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M S; Mathur, Vineet; Agrawal, Purti; Chandrawanshi, H K; Pilaniya, Urmila

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate a flavonol, kaempferol, from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) as a sole compound and to explore the fibrinolytic potential of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria and the isolated compound using their in vitro activity. The fibrinolytic activity in terms of percentage of plasma clot liquefaction was determined by plasma clot lysis at 37°C in 24 h. The fibrinolytic activity of both substances was compared to the well-known thrombolytic agent streptokinase (30,000 IU). The percentage of fibrinolytic activity of the extract and isolated compound were found to be 54.72 ± 0.7210 and 77.37 ± 1.3010, respectively. Streptokinase was considered as the standard fibrinolytic enzyme for comparative purposes and had 91.46 ± 0.7625% fibrinolytic activity. The conclusion drawn in our study after testing the hypothesis by experimental procedures is that in vitro fibrinolytic activity on plasma clots is an inherent property of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of L. siceraria, and its comparison with streptokinase is a new aspect for further study.

  1. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  2. NETSUKE AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, with a descriptive method and a method of analysis and synthesis, we have conducted a study of species diversity of Lagenaria on the basis of a miniature sculpture of netsuke. In Japan and China, in the period from the 17th to the 20th century, the most common was 9 species. The biological peculiarities of some rare species of lagenaria has been described

  3. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  4. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

    2012-04-01

    In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903-2009), in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  5. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mundo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America exist for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data for several centuries or millennia. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows, 1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed through a nested principal components regression approach using a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies grouped in composite series. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the past millennium, but longer and more severe events can also be observed in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and Singular Spectral Analyses identified various multi-decadal quasiperiodic oscillations with a dominant 6.8-year cycle explaining ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. We also found that the Neuquén River discharges are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies which indicate a strong connection between rainfall patterns in northern Patagonia and SAM activity.

  6. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  7. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  8. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  9. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an ecologically important species due to its aggregates, providing habitat for other species. In addition, it is an economically important species being commercially exploited along the coast of Chile. Here, changes in distribution and abundance have been observed during the last decade that have been linked to overfishing. Patterns of genetic variation and population structure are important to understand biodiversity, management and conservation of species. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Pyura chilensis in three localities along the Chilean coast (Antofagasta, Talcahuano, Puerto Montt. The polymorphic loci obtained were: Mdh-1 and Gpi-1 for P. chilensis. The Fst values showed slight population structure (Fst = 0.019, and the genetic differentiation showed statistically significant values (P = 0.031. The Puerto Montt locality was significantly different from the other two sites in the pairwise comparison in some loci. The genetic differentiation among localities of P. chilensis could be explained by a combination of different causes: (i low larval dispersion capacity associated to the larval life time of this species (12 to 24 h, and (ii differences in oceanographic conditions between localities and a closed circulation pattern that restrict dispersion. We conclude that monitoring of genetic diversity levels are essential to establish conservation and management plans of exploited marine resources

  10. Partially acetylated chitosan oligo- and polymers induce an oxidative burst in suspension cultured cells of the gymnosperm Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Trombotto, Stéphane; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria

    2008-12-01

    Suspension-cultured cells were used to analyze the activation of defense responses in the conifer A. angustifolia , using as an elicitor purified chitosan polymers of different degrees of acetylation (DA 1-69%), chitin oligomers of different degrees of polymerization (DP 3-6), and chitosan oligomer of different DA (0-91%). Suspension cultured cells elicited with chitosan polymers reacted with a rapid and transient generation of H2O2, with chitosans of high DA (60 and 69%) being the most active ones. Chitosan oligomers of high DA (78 and 91%) induced substantial levels of H2O2, but fully acetylated chitin oligomers did not. When cultivated for 24-72 h in the presence of 1-10 microg mL(-1) chitosan (DA 69%), cell cultures did not show alterations in the levels of enzymes related to defense responses, suggesting that, in A. angustifolia , the induction of an oxidative burst is not directly coupled to the induction of other defense reactions.

  11. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

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    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus infections.

  12. The Araucaria Project. On the Tip of the Red Giant Branch distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gorski, Marek; Gieren, Wolfgang; Catelan, Marcio; Pilecki, Bogumil; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Graczyk, Dariusz; Konorski, Piotr; Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Wielgorski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We present a precise optical and near-infrared determination of the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) brightness in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (respectively LMC and SMC). The commonly used calibrations of the absolute magnitude of the TRGB lead to an overestimation of the distance to the LMC and SMC in the K band, and an underestimation of the distance in the optical I band for both galaxies. Reported discrepancies are at the level of 0.2 mag, with respect to the very accurate distance determinations to both Clouds based on late-type eclipsing binaries. The differential distances between the LMC and SMC obtained in the J and K bands, and for the bolometric brightness are consistent with each other, and with the results obtained from eclipsing binaries and other distance indicators.

  13. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch

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    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p < 0.05 when compared to that of acid-thinned corn starch (ACS. From the results obtained, it can be said that the acid treatment was efficient in producing a potential fat substitute from pinhão starch variety, but this ability must be further investigated.

  14. Evidences of delayed size recovery in Araucaria angustifolia populations after post-glacial colonization of highlands in Southeastern Brazil

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    Valdir M. Stefenon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the relationship between historical demography and the current genetic structure of A. Angus As a first effort towards overcoming this lack, microsatellite data scored in six populations and isozyme allele frequencies published for 11 natural stands of this species were analysed in order to assess molecular signatures of populations' demographic history. Signatures of genetic bottlenecks were captured in all analysed populations of southeastern Brazil. Among southern populations, signatures of small effective population size were observed in only three out of 13 populations. Southern populations likely experienced faster recovery of population size after migration onto highlands. Accordingly, current genetic diversity of the southern populations gives evidence of fast population size recovery. In general, demographic history of A. Angusmatches climatic dynamics of southern and southeastern Brazil during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Palynological records and reconstruction of the past climatic dynamics of southeastern and southern Brazil support the hypothesis of different population size recovery dynamics for populations from these regions.Até o momento, pouco se conhece sobre a relação entre história demográfica e a presente estrutura genética da A. Angus Como uma primeira tentativa em transpor esta deficiência, dados de microssatélites coletados em seis populações e freqüências alélicas de isoenzimas publicadas para 11 populações naturais desta espécie foram analisadas com o objetivo de acessar assinaturas moleculares da história demográfica populacional. Assinaturas de gargalos genéticos foram capturadas em todas as populações analisadas provenientes do Sudeste do Brasil. Entre as populações do Sul, assinaturas de pequeno tamanho populacional efetivo foram observadas em somente três entre 13 populações. Populações do Sul provavelmente apresentaram uma rápida recuperação do tamanho efetivo após a migração para os planaltos. Em acordança, a presente diversidade genética das populações do Sul apresenta evidências de uma rápida recuperação do tamanho populacional. Em geral, a história demográfica da A. Angus concorda com as dinâmicas climáticas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil durante o Pleistoceno e o Holoceno. Estudos palinológicos e reconstrução de dinâmicas climáticas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil suportam a hipótese de diferentes dinâmicas de recuperação do tamanho populacional em populações destas regiões.

  15. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus infections.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVI CCD photometry of Carina region stars (Molina-Lera+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Lera, J. A.; Baume, G.; Gamen, R.; Costa, E.; Carraro, G.

    2016-08-01

    Photometric parameters for 62730 stars in the carina region covering 6 stellar clusters (NGC 3752, Trumpler 18, NGC 3590, Hogg 10, 11 and 12) and the surrounding field. The photometry was secured in March 2006 and March 2009 with the Y4KCAM camera attached to the Cerro Tololo Inter American Observatory (CTIO, Chile) 1.0-m telescope. (1 data file).

  17. Morphological and allozyme variation in a collection of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. from Côte d'Ivoire

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    Koffi KK.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the intraspecific variation of 30 edible-seed Lagenaria siceraria germplasm accessions from the University of Abobo-Adjamé. These accessions were collected from three (Centre, East and South geographical zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Selection based on seed size by the farmers has resulted in subdividing the species into two cultivars: large-seeded and smallseeded. The morphological diversity study of the collection included 18 accessions and 24 traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed a significant difference between the two groups of cultivars. Principal component analysis on 13 traits pointed out variations among individuals, mainly on the basis of flower, fruit, and seed size. Dendrogram with UPGMA method allowed clustering of the cultivars. The genetic structure analysis among accessions using allozyme markers showed the following values: 18.95% for the proportion of polymorphic loci (P, 1.21 for the number of alleles (A and 0.053 for observed heterozygosity (Ho. The level of the within accessions genetic diversity (HS = 0.188 was higher than the genetic variation among accessions (DST = 0.082. The estimates of F-statistics indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between accessions (FST = 0.298. Such a value suggested that L. siceraria maintains about 30% of its genetic variation among accessions. Nei genetic distances between the two cultivars were also low (0.002, indicating that cultivars were genetically similar enough to belong to the same genetic group.

  18. ANALYSIS OF FRUIT POLYMORPHISM IN THE BOTTLE LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. ON THE BASIS OF IMAGES OF ART WORKS

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of international spread the fruits of bottled gourd. Analysis of polymorphism of lagenaria fruits have been made on the basis of images of the paintings and sculpture, marked characteristic features of each country. Issues of selection on the basis of the trait of fruit form have considered

  19. La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado y El burlador de Sevilla, tres comedias atribuidas a Tirso de Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez López-Vázquez,Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Planteamos tres problemas de atribución de obras autoría dudosa en el teatro del Siglo de Oro: El condenado por desconfiado y La mujer por fuerza, editadas a nombre de Tirso en la problemática Segunda parte, y El burlador de Sevilla, editada a nombre de Tirso en el volumen de Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores (circa 1630). Aplicamos una metodología de análisis de metáforas y de léxico poco usual, y cotejamos con varias obras de los dos dramaturgos implicados en su atribución, Tirs...

  20. La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina

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    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: El condenado por desconfiado and La mujer por fuerza, both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic Segunda parte and El burlador de Sevilla, edited under the name of Tirso in the volume Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores (about 1630. We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated it with several works by the two dramaturgians concerned by its attributions, Tirso and Claramonte, and also with several others, as reference group. We conclude that La mujer por fuerza is a work by Tirso, El burlador de Sevilla is a Claramonte’s work, and El condenado por desconfiado is also a work by Claramonte, perhaps with a collaboration from Mira de Amescua.

  1. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  2. Large-scale impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders on monkey puzzle forest regeneration, native seed predators and their ecological interactions

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    José L. Tella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ecosystems of the world are being increasingly invaded by a variety of alien species. However, little is known about the combined ecological impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders. We assessed the impact of a community of exotic mammals (five domestic and four wild on forests of monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana, a globally endangered tree restricted to ca 400 km2 on the slopes of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Seeds of monkey puzzles provide food during winter to a small community of native mice and Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus. We recorded the number of uneaten seeds and the number of young seedlings at the end of winter under 516 female monkey puzzle trees located across the species’ distribution, and identified the signals of native and exotic species that visited the under-canopy of each tree. Moreover, we studied the diet and foraging behavior of Austral parakeets to explore the potential indirect effects of exotic mammals through the disruption of a key ecosystem service (seed dispersal supposedly provided by parakeets. All but one tree were visited by at least one seed predator species. Austral parakeets and mice predated seeds from 85% and at least 45% of the trees, respectively, and both the number of remaining seeds and seedlings were significantly larger when only parakeets or mice predated seeds than when exotic mammals also visited the trees. At least 90% of trees were visited by one or more exotic species, and the number of seeds and seedlings dropped drastically when at least two and four exotic species visited the tree, respectively. Austral parakeets mostly foraged on monkey puzzle trees during the winter period and dispersed their seeds in most feeding instances once seeds fell to the ground. The proliferation of exotic mammals may reduce the populations of native seed-predators in the long-term as well as the regeneration of monkey puzzle forests, directly through a reduction of seed availability

  3. Why so many apparently rare beetles in Chilean temperate rainforests? ¿Por qué hay tantos coleópteros presuntamente raros en los bosques templados de Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARRY J RICHARDSON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance curves were calculated from data sets collected by fogging 52 trees in Nothofagus forest (~46000 specimens and 24 trees in Araucaria forest (~15000 specimens in Chile. Neither data set fitted the standard species abundance models. Like similar data sets collected from tropical forests, there were too many species represented by single specimens. The proposal that these were vagrants normally found on other tree species was not supported as, unlike tropical forests, Nothofagus forests are not diverse, often consisting of single species stands. Examination of three assumptions of the most parsimonious equilibrium models showed them to be false. Between them the observations of undersampling bias, community disequilibria and combining data from different feeding guilds with different species abundance curves are likely to be sufficient to explain the divergence of data for large speciose beetle communities from the predictions of any of the equilibrium models. Until these three factors can be fully accounted for and residual divergence detected, there is no necessity to propose further, more complex, mechanisms to explain such data sets. Estimated values of alpha and Simpson D were shown to be strongly sample size dependent, affecting their value as estimators of biological diversity.Se calcularon curvas de abundancia de especies a partir de datos obtenidos por medio de nebulización de 52 árboles en bosques de Nothofagus (aproximadamente 46000 ejemplares y 24 árboles en bosques de Araucaria araucana (aproximadamente 15000 ejemplares en Chile. Los datos obtenidos no se ajustan a los modelos estándares de abundancia de especies, al igual que los datos obtenidos de bosques tropicales, existen muchas especies representadas por ejemplares únicos. La hipótesis de que los mencionados ejemplares únicos son erráticos y que se encuentran normalmente en otros árboles no fue aceptada, contrario a los bosques tropicales, los bosques

  4. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: A STUDY OF THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM OGLE LMC562.05.9009 IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Górski, Marek; Taormina, Mónica; Gallenne, Alexandre, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4–8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius, and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M{sub 1} = 3.70 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 1} = 28.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}) than its companion (M{sub 2} = 3.60 ± 0.03 M{sub ⊙}, R{sub 2} = 26.6 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 ± 150 K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond the red edge of the instability strip. Within current observational and theoretical uncertainties, both stars fit on a 205 Myr isochrone arguing for their common age. From our model, we determine a value of the projection factor of p = 1.37 ± 0.07 for the Cepheid in the OGLE-LMC562.05.9009 system. This is the second Cepheid for which we could measure its p-factor with high precision directly from the analysis of an eclipsing binary system, which represents an important contribution toward a better calibration of Baade-Wesselink methods of distance determination for Cepheids.

  5. The Araucaria Project: A study of the classical Cepheid in the eclipsing binary system OGLE LMC562.05.9009 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszynki, Igor; Thompson, Ian B; Moroni, Pier Giorgio Prada; Smolec, Radoslaw; Konorski, Piotr; Gorski, Marek; Karczmarek, Paulina; Suchomska, Ksenia; Taormina, Monica; Gallenne, Alexandre; Storm, Jesper; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Marcio; Szymanski, Michal; Kozlowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Pawel; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Skowron, Jan; Minniti, Dante; Ulaczyk, K; Mroz, P; Pawlak, M; Nardetto, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the classical Cepheid in the double-lined, highly eccentric eclipsing binary system OGLE-LMC562.05.9009. The Cepheid is a fundamental mode pulsator with a period of 2.988 days. The orbital period of the system is 1550 days. Using spectroscopic data from three 4-8-m telescopes and photometry spanning 22 years, we were able to derive the dynamical masses and radii of both stars with exquisite accuracy. Both stars in the system are very similar in mass, radius and color, but the companion is a stable, non-pulsating star. The Cepheid is slightly more massive and bigger (M_1 = 3.70 +/- 0.03M_sun, R_1 = 28.6 +/- 0.2R_sun) than its companion (M_2 = 3.60 +/- 0.03M_sun, R_2 = 26.6 +/- 0.2R_sun). Within the observational uncertainties both stars have the same effective temperature of 6030 +/- 150K. Evolutionary tracks place both stars inside the classical Cepheid instability strip, but it is likely that future improved temperature estimates will move the stable giant companion just beyond...

  6. Avaliação do impacto no ambiente de compostos hidrossolúveis de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia (Coniferae) utilizando indicadores biológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    O impacto mais importante das coníferas no ambiente é atribuído à liberação de fitotoxinas/aleloquímicos (predominantemente compostos fenólicos) da biomassa no solo (Singh et al. , 1999). Os polifenóis são considerados um dos grupos mais amplamente distribuídos entre as substâncias químicas produzidas pelas plantas e têm potencial aleloquímico devido à sua alta solubilidade em água e sua propriedade de inibir o crescimento de outras espécies de plantas (Inderjit 1996;. Graça et al 2002 ). A p...

  7. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extrac...

  8. Reassessment of morphology and historical distribution as factors in conservation efforts for the Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer Hippocamelus bisulcus (Molina 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Force

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To assist with conservation of Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus, the Huemul Task Force (HTF reassessed information on appendicular morphology, paleobiogeography, and historical distribution as potential factors in recovery efforts. Traditional claims of being a mountain specialist of the Andes were refuted by empirical evidence showing huemul morphology to coincide with other cervids rather than the commonly implied homology to rock-climbing ungulates. It thus supports historical evidence of huemul in treeless habitat and reaching the Atlantic coast, which cannot be dismissed as past erroneous observations. Instead, pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic impacts resulted in huemul displacement from productive sites and in survival mainly in remote and marginal refuge areas. The process of range contraction was facilitated by easy hunting of huemul, energetic incentives from seasonal fat cycles and huemul concentrations, the change from hunting-gathering to a mobile equestrian economy, and colonization with livestock. However, areas used presently by huemul, as supposed mountain specialists, are also used by wild and domestic ungulates that clearly are not considered mountain specialists, whereas the only other Hippocamelus successfully uses areas homologous to tree-less Patagonia. Rigid application of modern habitat usage to infer past habitat use and ignoring historic extra-Andean accounts is unwarranted; these conclusions reached by the HTF indicate new opportunities for recovery efforts by considering morphological and historical evidence. For instance, reintroductions to other portions of the landscape used formerly by huemul, which tend to be more productive sites than those currently occupied by many huemul groups, would present a promising avenue.

  9. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) e camomila (Matricaria recutita L.) comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    OpenAIRE

    F.P. SOARES; N.M. FREIRE; SOUZA, T. R. de

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus) e camomila (Matricaria recutita) são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE), além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de ca...

  10. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  11. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  12. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  13. El Código vital detrás de los espejos en “Con tal de no morir” de Vicente Molina Foix

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón-García, E. (Emilio)

    2013-01-01

    Con tal de no morir presenta doce mundos aparentemente inconexos llenos de ansiedades contemporáneas. Gracias a la numerología pitagórica, esta colección se muestra como el espejo de una serie de frustraciones y de intertextos culturales que se agrupan en triadas y que va más allá de lo aparente. Según la Gestalt, podríamos aceptar una lectura superficial, la tendencia de la experiencia perceptiva más común, pero al ahondar en los intertextos y en sus reagrupamientos descubrimos, siguiendo el...

  14. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvarado López, Guillermo, El poder desde el espíritu: la visión política del Pentecostalismo en el México contemporáneo. Buenos Aires, Libros de la Araucaria, 2006, 149 pp.Páginas 193-196David Oviedo SilvaCandela Sevila, Virgilio F., Del franquismo a la democracia. La formación de la UCD en la provincia de Alicante. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 196-198Mónica Fernández AmadorCardenal, Ernesto, Vida perdida: memorias 1. México, Fondo de Cultura Económico, 2003, 446 pp.Páginas 198-199Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (ed., « De l’anarchisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIè siècles », monográfico de Regards, 9 (2007, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 460 pp.Páginas 199-201Iván López CabelloDíaz Rangel, Eleazar, La prensa venezolana en el siglo XX. Caracas, Ediciones B, 2007, 218 pp.Páginas 201-203Carmen Rodríguez González“El nuevo orden mundial y el mundo islámico”, dossier de Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 65 (2007, 313 pp.Páginas 203-205Antonio Javier Martín CastellanosLewis Gaddis, John, El paisaje de la historia. Cómo los historiadores representan el pasado. Barcelona, Anagrama, 2004, 244 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánMalgat, Gérard, Max Aub y Francia o la esperanza traicionada. Sevilla, Renacimiento, 2007, 416 pp.Páginas 207-209José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaMearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen, El lobby israelí. Madrid, Taurus, 2007, 616 pp.Páginas 209-211Javier Lión BustilloMoradiellos García, Enrique, 1936: Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 211-212David Molina RabadánPrieto Borrego, Lucía; Barranquero Texeira, Encarnación, Población y Guerra Civil en Málaga: Caída, éxodo y refugio. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones-Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga, 2007, 348 pp.Páginas 212-214Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaQuirosa-Cheyrouze y Muñoz, Rafael (coord., Historia de la Transición en

  15. Amido no megagametófito de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: degradação durante a germinação e desenvolvimento do esporófito Starchy reserve of the megagametophyte of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: mobilization during germination and on the developing sporophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maris Rosado

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available O pinheiro brasileiro possui um diásporo de grandes dimensões, o pinhão, rico em reservas amiláceas. A mobilização dessas reservas pelo embrião foi quantificada em secções transversais do megagametófito, em cinco estágios de desenvolvimento da plântula, sob dois tratamentos, na luz e no escuro. Na luz, o consumo das reservas do megagametófito pela plântula é mais rápido do que no escuro e, existe uma tendência ao consumo do amido realizar-se primeiro na região do megagametófito próxima ao embrião.The parana pine has a very large dispore, the "pinhão", rich in starchy reserves. The mobilization of these reserves by the embryo was quantified in transversal sections of the megagametophyte, in five stages of seedling development, sampled in the light and in the darkness. The consuption of starch grains was in plantlets grown in light than those grown in darkness. There was a tendency to quicker use up of the the megagametophyte starch near to embryo.

  16. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval quality of the species, under conditions of culture. The larvae, were cultured, in a tank of 250 L with water at 20 psu, at a constant temperature (25° ± 1°C, controlled with a thermostat and with 100% refill every day. The diet consisted of microalgae (Nannochloris sp. and Isochrysis sp., rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplii of Artemia franciscana and formulated food. Five indicators were used, considering morphologic and behavior aspects: intestinal fill, midgut gland condition, gill development, swimming behavior and phototactic response. The indicators selected in the present work, were feasible of being used for the determination of the condition and quality of the larvae of C. caementarius, being able to make an effective follow-up and association with every condition of larval development, standardize desirable characteristics in the larvae and demonstrate verifiable results, using a protocol for culture and food supply. Moreover, it was possible to identify an extensive range of potential studies, based on the relationships that the morphology and the larval behavior support with the physiological capacities of the larvae in development.

  17. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  18. TITLE: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina. TÍTULO: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado y El burlador de Sevilla, tres comedias atribuidas a Tirso de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: "El condenado por desconfiado" and "La mujer por fuerza", both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic "Segunda parte" and "El burlador de Sevilla", edited under the name of Tirso in the volume "Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores" (about 1630. We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated it with several works by the two dramaturgians concerned by its attributions, Tirso and Claramonte, and also with several others, as reference group. We conclude that "La mujer por fuerza" is a work by Tirso, "El burlador de Sevilla" is a Claramonte’s work, and "El condenado por desconfiado" is also a work by Claramonte, perhaps with a collaboration from Mira de Amescua. RESUMEN: Planteamos tres problemas de atribución de obras autoría dudosa en el teatro del Siglo de Oro: "El condenado por desconfiado" y "La mujer por fuerza", editadas a nombre de Tirso en la problemática "Segunda parte", y "El burlador de Sevilla", editada a nombre de Tirso en el volumen de "Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores" (circa 1630. Aplicamos una metodología de análisis de metáforas y de léxico poco usual, y cotejamos con varias obras de los dos dramaturgos implicados en su atribución, Tirso y Claramonte, y varios autores más como grupo de referencia. Concluimos que "La mujer por fuerza" es obra de Tirso, "El burlador de Sevilla" es obra de Claramonte, y que "El condenado por desconfiado" es obra de Claramente, tal vez en colaboración con Mira de Amescua.

  19. Etnografía y sociología mapuche, una Bibliografía selectiva

    OpenAIRE

    Boccara, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Agusta, Felix José, 1991 (1910). Lecturas Araucanas. Temuco, Ed. Kushe. 1991 (1916). Diccionario Araucano. Temuco, Ed. Kushe. 1990 (1903). Gramática araucana. Temuco Editorial Seneca. Aravena, Andrea, 2000. «Identidad  indígena en los medios urbanos. Procesos de recomposición de la identidad étnica mapuche en la ciudad de Santiago», en  G. Boccara & S. Galindo, eds., Lógica mestiza en América. Temuco, Universidad de La Frontera: 165-199. 1995. «Desarrollo y procesos identitarios en el mundo i...

  20. Repelência de substâncias naturais e sintéticas aos mamíferos silvestres consumidores de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze em semeadura no campo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows

  1. AVALIAÇÃO TÉRMICA, REOLÓGICA E ESTRUTURAL DE BAGAÇO DE PINHÃO (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze ) TRATADO COM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O bagaço de pinhão, resíduo decorrente da extração do amido desta semente, tem características reológicas similares ao produto principal. Muitas modificações em amidos foram investigadas de várias origens botânicas. As modificações enzimáticas têm sido extensivamente estudadas devido ao seu potencial de formar produtos com o mínimo de desperdício. Esse estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar e modificar o bagaço de Pinhão obtido após a extração do amido, usando tratamento enzimático por 12,...

  2. Simulação das emissões atmosféricas sobre o município de Araucária com uso do modelo AERMOD Simulation of atmospheric emissions over Araucaria municipality using the AERMOD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo Barbon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o uso de um modelo computacional de dispersão de poluentes em meio atmosférico, modelo AERMOD, na modelagem da dispersão das emissões atmosféricas produzidas pelas principais indústrias do município de Araucária. Os dados estimados de emissões de poluentes na atmosfera referem-se às fontes estacionárias da refinaria Presidente Getúlio Vargas (REPAR e das principais indústrias que compõem o distrito industrial de Araucária. Não foram utilizados dados das fontes móveis por representarem uma pequena parcela da carga total de poluentes. Inicialmente, o modelo AERMOD foi avaliado pela comparação entre concentrações simuladas e concentrações observadas de óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx, óxidos de enxofre (SOx monóxido de carbono (CO e materiais particulados (MP na estação de amostragem de qualidade do ar existente na REPAR. Realizou-se uma análise de sensibilidade do modelo AERMOD em diferentes cenários de emissões, procurando avaliar a influência da variação dos parâmetros de entrada do modelo sobre as concentrações simuladas para a estação REPAR e para a região central do município de Araucária.The present paper aims to evaluate the use of the air quality model AERMOD to simulate the dispersion of atmospheric emissions produced by the main industries located in the Araucária municipality area. Pollutant emissions were estimated for both stationary sources in the President Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR and stationary sources in the main industries located at the industrial district of Araucária municipality. As the pollutant emissions from mobile sources are small in comparison to stationary sources, the simulations were performed using only emissions from the stationary sources. Initially, the AERMOD model was evaluated by comparing simulated concentrations and observed concentrations from the air quality station located inside the REPAR. The observed data concerns the following pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (MP. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of input data variations on the simulated concentrations for two air quality stations located at REPAR and downtown Araucária.

  3. Líneas para desarrollar un saber del derecho penal internacional de contención. En Molina, R. (Coord.). Lecciones de Derecho penal, procedimiento penal y política criminal. (pp. 99-141).

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Javier Botero

    2014-01-01

    El autor, luego de aludir a la paternidad y di­ferencias entre las locuciones derecho penal internacional e internacional penal (Völkerstra­frecht o Internacionales Strafrecht), y de indi­car que empleará el nombre de derecho penal Internacional (Völkerstrafrecht) para denotar lo que algunos llaman derecho internacional penal (Völkerstrafrecht o Internacionales Stra­frecht) procede, no sin antes hacer una breve historia en el ámbito colombiano del mismo, a diferenciar las nociones de poder pu...

  4. La interacción. Planificación-gestión para el desarrollo urbano local en los distritos consolidados del area metropolitana / caso: distrito de la Molina y San Isidro

    OpenAIRE

    Chilet Cama, Shirley Emperatriz

    2010-01-01

    El fenómeno de la globalización en los mercados internacionales ha generado un efecto doble e inverso: primero, de concentración de fuerzas productivas en determinadas zonas geográficas y segundo, de des-localización de bloques productivos hacia distintas regiones del mundo. La integración económica y los acuerdos comerciales como parte de los nuevos arreglos institucionales entre países han coadyuvado a dicho fenómeno. Como respuesta a estos dos efectos y a una nueva tendencia hacia la m...

  5. Los maestros Gilaberte, en el entorno de Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara), y su relación con José Martín de Aldehuela

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Martínez, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la actividad de una dinastía de maestros arquitectos del norte de Castilla, especialmente Manuel Gilaberte, que fue discípulo y colaborador de José Martín de Aldehuela, colaboración que ha permitido la atribución a éste de algunas obras, ya aclarada la autoría por la investigación documental. This manuscript presents the activity of a northern castillian dinasty of master architects, in particular Manuel Gilaberte, pupil and co-worker of José Martín ...

  6. Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995 "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone" : Paul J Crutzen, Mario J Molina and F Sherwood Rowland

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Prof. Paul J Crutzen presents "The stratospheric ozone hole : a man-caused chemical instability".The discovery of the spring time stratospheric ozone hole by scientists of the British Antarctic Survey, led by Joe Farman, was one of the greatest surprises in the history of the atmospheric sciences and global change studies. After intensive research efforts by many international scientific teams it has clearly been demonstrated that the observed rapid ozone depletions are due to catalytic reactions involving CIO radicals, more than 80571130f which are produced by the photochemical breakdown of the industrial chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. In this lecture I will present the course of events leading to the rapid ozone depletions. International agreements have been reached to forbid the production of the CFC gases. However, despite these measures, it will take almost 50 years before the ozone hole will have disappeared. I will also show that mankind has indeed been very lucky and that things could have been far w...

  7. La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: El condenado por desconfiado and La mujer por fuerza, both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic Segunda parte and El burlador de Sevilla, edited under the name of Tirso in the volume Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores (about 1630). We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated it with several wo...

  8. TITLE: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina. TÍTULO: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado y El burlador de Sevilla, tres comedias atribuidas a Tirso de Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT:We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: "El condenado por desconfiado" and "La mujer por fuerza", both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic "Segunda parte" and "El burlador de Sevilla", edited under the name of Tirso in the volume "Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores" (about 1630). We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated...

  9. Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Mario Molina has been selected to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the White House announced on 8 August. Molina, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995 for discovering how chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer, is a professor at the University of California, San Diego; director of the Mario Molina Center for Energy and Environment in Mexico City, Mexico; and a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

  10. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  11. Planetary Asteroid Defense Study: Assessing and Responding to the Natural Space Debris Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    1134-1135. 35 Ibid, 1134. 36 Ibid, 1134. 76 37 Kerry A. Emanuel, Kevin Speer, Richard Rotunno, Ramesh Srivastava and Mario Molina , Hyper canes: A...Speer, Richard Rotunno, Ramesh Srivastava and Mario Molina . Hypercanes: A Possible Link In Global Extinction Scenarios. Center for Meteorology and

  12. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Molina was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...

  13. Health Issues in the Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Ed.; Molina, Carlos W., Ed.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 6 parts. Part 1, "Latino Populations in the United States," includes: (1) "Latino Health Policy: Beyond Demographic Determinism" (Angelo Falcon, Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, and Carlos W. Molina); (2) "Latino Health Status" (Olivia Carter-Pokras and Ruth Enid Zambrana); and (3)…

  14. Changes in the reflectance of ex situ leaves: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flavio Jorge; Inoe, Mario Takao

    1992-04-01

    The main aspects of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and detached leaves are presented. An experiment with Eucalipto and Araucaria detached leaves is described, including the description of the methodologies utilized in the collection and storage of the reflectance.

  15. Base Exterior Architecture Plan: Naval Ocean Systems Center Hawaii Laboratory, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Common Name Acacia confusa Formosa Koa -Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island Pine -Calophyllum inophiium True Kamani Cassia glauca Kalamona Cassia...leucadendra Cajeput Tree Plumeria obtusa Singapore Plumteria -Plumeria spp. Puei Samanea saman Monkeypod Tree - Tabebuia pentaphylla Pink Tecoma Terminalia

  16. Variabilidad fenotípica de Nodilittorina en la Reserva de Paracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Romero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las observaciones realizadas en setiembre de 1999, en las proporciones fenotípicas de Nodilittorina peruviana y Nodilittorina araucana, en 7 orillas rocosas de la parte norte de la Reserva Nacional de Paracas. Los individuos fueron evaluados en relación a los caracteres de su conchilla, como son la pigmentación blanca zigzag en N. peruviana y la escultura espiral en N. peruviana y N. araucana. Se observo que existen diferencias significativas entre las orillas rocosas respecto a las proporciones mencionados. Estas diferencias podrían ser relacionadas con la heterogeneidad geológica y geográfica del área de estudio.

  17. Compte rendu de l’ouvrage de José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, Casas Viejas. Del crimen a la Esperanza. María Silva « Libertaria » y Miguel Pérez Cordón: dos vidas unidas por un ideal (1933-1939 Reseña del libro de José Luis Gutiérrez Molina, Casas Viejas. Del crimen a la Esperanza. María Silva « Libertaria » y Miguel Pérez Cordón: dos vidas unidas por un ideal (1933-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Brey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace más o menos una década, determinados sectores de la opinión p��blica española se preocupan por «recuperar la memoria histórica» de la guerra civil española o, mejor dicho, la de las víctimas olvidadas del bando «vencido», mientras que los herederos del otro bando evocan de vez en cuando las víctimas del «comunismo». Se han ido constituyendo asociaciones en distintos puntos del país para localizar los restos de las víctimas de la represión franquista en los meses de la guerra, para d...

  18. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Courtney Love "American Sweetheart", Haltya "Electric Help Elves", Beats and Styles "This Is... Beats and Styles", "Ennio Morricone Remixes vol. 2", Delta Goodrem "Innocent Eyes", Juana Molina "Segundo"

  19. Lisa maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Uued teosed sarjast "Maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramu": Tirso de Molina "Sevilla pilkaja ja kivist külaline" ja Pedro Calderon de la Barca "Suur Maailmateater" (Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2006)

  20. 75 FR 61573 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... blocked pursuant to the Order: 1. ALZATE SALAZAR, Luis Alfredo, c/o COINTERCOS S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o... 16689631 (Colombia) (individual) 3. BAEZA MOLINA, Carlos Alberto, c/o DERECHO INTEGRAL Y CIA. LTDA.,...

  1. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  2. Woody species richness and abundance in a reforestation of Pinus taeda L. and an Araucaria Forest in the Center - East Region of Paraná State, BrazilRiqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas em reflorestamento de Pinus taeda L. e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Centro - Leste do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oliveira Scolari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two sites (secondary forest and reforestation of Pinus taeda in the Ecological Park of Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. Six plots were distributed at each site with the aim of record species richness and abundance and search for correlations with to canopy cover, distance from the forest edge and thickness of litter layer, as well as to the dispersal syndrome and propagule size. We sampled 134 individuals belonging to 39 species. Litter did not affect richness and abundance of species at both sites, but richness was positively correlated with canopy cover and distance from the edge. The prevalent dispersion syndrome in both areas was zoochory and diaspores size did not differ between studied sites.Este estudo foi realizado em duas áreas distintas (floresta secundária e um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda no Parque Ecológico da Klabin S. A (Telêmaco Borba, PR, com seis parcelas em cada local. O objetivo foi averiguar a riqueza e abundância de espécies lenhosas, relacionando-as à cobertura do dossel, distância da borda e quantidade de serapilheira, bem como às síndromes de dispersão ocorrentes e ao tamanho dos propágulos. Foram amostrados 134 indivíduos, pertencentes a 39 espécies. A serapilheira não influenciou a riqueza e abundância das espécies em ambos locais, entretanto a riqueza se correlacionou positivamente com a cobertura do dossel e a distância da borda. A síndrome de dispersão predominante nas duas áreas foi a zoocoria, não ocorrendo diferenças no tamanho dos diásporos para os sítios estudados.

  3. Efeitos do estresse sobre componentes alternativos da cadeia respiratória e na transiçăo de permeabilidade em mitocôndrias de tubérculos de batata e caracterizaçăo de mitocôndrias de Araucaria angustifolia /

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, André Bellin

    2005-01-01

    Orientadora : Eva Gunilla Skare Carnieri Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Bioquímica. Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia e anexos

  4. Estrutura, diversidade e distribuição espacial da vegetação arbórea na Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Sistema Faxinal, Rebouças (PR / Structure, diversity and spatial distribution of trees in the Araucaria Forest in Faxinal System, Rebouças (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura, diversidade e distribuição espacial das espécies arbóreas presentes em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Sistema Faxinal no município de Rebouças (PR. O levantamento foi realizado no Faxinal do Salto onde foi instalada uma unidade amostral de 1 ha, a qual foi subdividida em 100 subparcelas de 100 m² cada. Foram mensurados no total 558 indivíduos com DAP≥10 cm, pertencentes a 27 espécies arbóreas, distribuídas em 21 gêneros e 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Salicaceae. O índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H’ foi de 2,25 nat.ind-1, indicando baixa diversidade florística. O mesmo ocorre para o índice de Equabilidade de Pielou que resultou em um valor relativamente baixo (J=0,68.Cinnamodendron dinisii e Curitiba prismatica foram às espécies que mais se destacaram na comunidade com 28,5% e 11,9%, respectivamente, do valor de importância. A análise da estrutura diamétrica da floresta seguiu o padrão das florestas inequiâneas, ou seja, apresentou distribuição exponencial na forma de “J” invertido. O Índice de Payandeh mostrou que a maioria das espécies (51,9% apresentaram comportamento não agregado. Verificou-se ainda que as práticas realizadas no Sistema Faxinal, como a agricultura de subsistência, o extrativismo e principalmente a pecuária em criadouros comunitários, causam a descaracterização da vegetação natural.AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the structure, diversity and spatial distribution of tree species present in the Araucarian Forest in Faxinal System in Rebouças city (PR. The survey was conducted in Faxinal do Salto, where it was installed a sampling unit of 1 ha, which was subdivided into 100 subplots of 100 m² each. It was measured 558 individual trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm, belonging to 27 tree species distributed among 21 genders and 17 families. The botanical families with highest species richness were Myrtaceae and Salicaceae. The Shannon’s diversity index was 2.25 nat.ind-1, indicating a low floristic diversity. The same occurred for Pielou’s equability index, which resulted a relative low value (J=0.68. Cinnamodendron dinisii and Curitiba prismatica were the highlighted species in the community with 28.5% and 11.9%, respectively, in importance value. The analysis of the forest diametric structure followed the pattern of natural forests, in other words, it presented exponential distribution in the form of an inverted “J”. The Payandeh´s Index indicated that most species (51.9% presented no aggregated behavior. It was also found that the practices carried out by Faxinal system, such as subsistence agriculture, extrativism and mainly animal husbandry in communitarian barns, cause the uncharacterization of the natural vegetation.

  5. Varela-Mato, V.; Cancela, J.M.; Ayan, C.; Molina, A.; Martín, V. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2728–2741

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]. In the article it is mentioned that “the study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers and also by the Ethics Committee of the University of Vigo.” However, it should read: “The study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers” only.

  6. EL HECHO RELIGIOSO Y LA AYUDA SOCIAL. ESTUDIOS SOBRE SU HISTORIA, EPISTEMOLOGÍA Y PRÁCTICA. BELÉN LORENTE MOLINA, EDITORA. CORPORACIÓN COLOMBIANA DE INVESTIGACIONES HUMANÍSTICAS-CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO DE ESTUDIOS SOCIALES, UNIVERSIDAD DE CÁDIZ. BOGOTÁ, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vladimir Zambrano

    2012-04-01

    y prácticas. También puede ser útil a aquellos investigadores que indagan sobre culturas profesionales o del trabajo. "Este libro -dice ella- es de interés para quienes busquen teóricas para la práctica de la acción social, y para aquellos que se preocupen por su relación con las tradiciones de ayuda, por su lugar en la historia, y por la necesidad de considerarlas para una epistemología de la acción" (p. XVII. El libro aborda el hecho religioso en forma académica, rigurosa y no confesional.

  7. Cressier Patrice, Fierro Maribel, Molina Luis (ed., Los Almohades : problemas y perspectivas, Madrid, Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, 2005 (Estudios árabes e islámicos : monografías, 11, 2 vol., 1 230 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Valérian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En réunissant les actes de trois séminaires organisés entre 2000 et 2002 à la Casa de Velázquez de Madrid sur les Almohades, ce volumineux ouvrage entend faire le point sur les « problèmes et perspectives » de l’histoire de ce qui fut à la fois un mouvement idéologique et religieux, une dynastie et un empire qui marquèrent profondément l’histoire du Maghreb médiéval. Un de ses mérites est de rassembler, autour de cette période charnière, historiens, philologues, archéologues, historiens de l’...

  8. SORIANO DÍAZ, Ramón; ALARCÓN CABRERA, Carlos; MORA MOLINA, Juan (Directores). Diccionario crítico de los derechos humanos. Huelva (España): Universidad Internacio-nal de Andalucia, Sede Iberoamericana, 2000. 315 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, José Geraldo de

    2009-01-01

    A disposição para o exame deste belo projeto, a edição de um dicionário crítico de direitos humanos, não advém apenas da concordância com as razões da iniciativa. De fato, estou de acordo com os diretores e coordenadores da edição, quanto aos motivos e à oportunidade da publicação da obra: “o interesse social que suscita esta classe de direitos pela relevância do bens jurídicos protegidos, o extraordinário desenvolvimento normativo e institucional, ao nível interno-estatal e internacional, na...

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of the family Araucariaceae based on the DNA sequences of eight genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nian; ZHU Yong; WEI ZongXian; CHEN Jie; WANG QingBiao; JIAN ShuGuang; ZHOU DangWei; SHI Jing; YANG Yong; ZHONG Yang

    2009-01-01

    Araucariaceae is one of the most primitive families of the living conifers,and its phylogenetic relationships and divergence times are critically important issues.The DNA sequences of 8 genes,i.e.,nuclear ribosomal 18S and 26S rRNA,chloroplast 16S rRNA,rbcL,mafK and rps4,and mitochondrial coxl and atp1,obtained from this study and GenBank were used for constructing the molecular phylogenetic trees of Araucariaceae,indicating that the phylogenetic relationships among the three genera of this family should be ((Wollemia,Agathis),Araucaria).On the basis of the fossil calibrations of Wollemia and the two tribes Araucaria and Eutacta of the genus Araucaria,the divergence time of Araucariaceae was estimated to be (308±53) million years ago,that is,the origin of the family was in the Late Carboniferous rather than Triassic as a traditional view.With the same gene combination,the divergence times of the genera Araucaria and Agathis were (246 ±47) and (61±5) Ma,respectively.Statistical analyses on the phylogenetic trees generated by using different genes and comparisons of thedivergence times estimated by using those genes suggested that the chloroplast mafK and rps4 genes are most suitable for investigating the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of the family Araucariaceae.

  10. Brazilian afforestation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nock, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    A review which includes analyses of: rates of forest destruction/afforestation; location of major afforestation projects; tree species used (in relation to relative importance; ages at thinning/final felling; m.a.i.); and coordination between afforestation and the forest products industry in Amazonia. Major tree species considered include Araucaria angustifolia, Pinus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Gmelina arborea and Paulownia spp. (Refs. 17)

  11. Drought avoidance and vulnerability in the Australian Araucariaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Heidi C; Brodribb, Tim J; Delzon, Sylvain; Baker, Patrick J

    2016-02-01

    The Araucariaceae is an iconic tree family. Once globally important, the Araucariaceae declined dramatically over the Cenozoic period. Increasing aridity is thought to be responsible for extinction and range contraction of Araucariaceae in Australia, yet little is known about how these trees respond to water stress. We examined the response to water stress of the recently discovered tree Wollemia nobilis Jones, W.G., Hill, K.D. & Allen, J.M. (Araucariaceae) and two closely related and widespread tree species, Araucaria bidwillii Hook. and Araucaria cunninghamii Mudie, and the island-endemic species, Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco. Leaf water potential in all Araucaria spp. remained remarkably unchanged during both dehydration and rehydration, indicating strong isohydry. The xylem tensions at which shoot and stem hydraulic conductances were reduced to 50% (P50shoot and P50stem) were closely correlated in all species. Among the four species, W. nobilis exhibited greater resistance to xylem hydraulic dysfunction during water stress (as indicated by P50shoot and P50stem). Unexpectedly, W. nobilis also experienced the highest levels of crown mortality in response to dehydration, suggesting that this was the most drought-sensitive species in this study. Our results highlight that single traits (e.g., P50) should not be used in isolation to predict drought survival. Further, we found no clear correlation between species' P50 and rainfall across their distributional range. Diversity in drought response among these closely related Araucariaceae species was surprisingly high, considering their reputation as a functionally conservative family.

  12. Cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of epoxide hydrolase-encoding cDNA sequences from yeasts belonging to the genera Rhodotorula and Rhodosporidium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Verdoes, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolase-encoding cDNA sequences were isolated from the basidiomycetous yeast species Rhodosporidium toruloides CBS 349, Rhodosporidium toruloides CBS 14 and Rhodotorula araucariae CBS 6031 in order to evaluate the molecular data and potential application of this type of enzymes. The deduce

  13. CONSOLIDACIÓN DEL ESTADO-NACIÓN Y LAS CONTRADICCIONES DE LA PERSPECTIVA INDIANISTA: GUALDA, CAILLOMA Y A ORILLAS DEL BÍO-BÍO

    OpenAIRE

    Láscar,Amado

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se analizan tres novelas de referente indígena (Cailloma, A orillas del Bío-Bío, Gualda) publicadas en la década del setenta del siglo XIX. Estas novelas utilizan los modelos de La araucana de Ercilla y el Cautiverio feliz de Núñez de Pineda como paradigmas heroico y evangelizador, respectivamente. Representan tiempos pre-republicanos, utilizando estrategias románticas en la escritura, mistificando la realidad mapuche para construir un pasado épico sintonizado con el momento ...

  14. El cronista don Joan de Castellanos: Segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available En el escrutinio que el cura y el barbero hicieron en la biblioteca del Ingenioso Hidalgo, se salvó del fuego La Araucana de Ercilla junto con La Austríada de Juan Rulfo y El Monserrate de Cristóbal de Virués. "Todos esos libros -dijo el cura- son los mejores que en verso heroico en lengua castellana están escritos, y pueden competir con los más famosos de Italia: guárdense como las más ricas prendas de poesía que tiene España". (1 Parte, cap. VI.

  15. La Parodia en Augusto Monterroso: una Revisión de la Conquista de América

    OpenAIRE

    Hecke, An Van

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article analyzes the dialogues that Augusto Monterroso establishes with the chroniclers of the 16th Century. The chronicles of the conquest of America appear as intertextual reference in three texts of Monterroso: in the story ?El eclipse?, in a fragment of the novel Lo demas es silencio, and in the essay ?El otro aleph?. In the first two texts the references are rather implicit, the third text, however, consists of a re-reading of La Araucana by Alonso de Ercilla. Pa...

  16. «Obra toda tejida de una admirable variedad de cosas»: the ekphrasis in «El Bernardo» of Balbuena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Zulaica Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ekphrasis has attracted the recent literary criticism as a key for poetic interpretation. We will check her particular presence in El Bernardo of Balbuena, noted by Frank Pierce, together with La Araucana and La Cristíada, as one of the three great Spanish epic poems. In this baroque poem, the ekphrasis will achieve the greater development in the genre becoming a major articulator of the text. Being a sample of a literary period where the action, the narrative progress, loses relevance in favor to other literary elements, as the descriptive.

  17. ANALYSES OF IMAGES OF LAGENARIA (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA) STANDL.) IN PAINTING AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE HISTORY OF INTRODUCTION AND CROP ARCHEOGENETIC Анализ изображения лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (molina) standl.) в живописи как источник информации для истории интродукции и археогенетики культуры

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-01-01

    Works of painters of past is the source of information of crop domestication, use in horticultural, species diversity. Lagenaria crop images in painting can also be a resource for determining the morphological changes of the crop in evolution

  18. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  19. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008): 150-4.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2009-01-01

    Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS) publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors...

  20. Fisica y vida cotidiana

    CERN Multimedia

    Méndez, R

    2002-01-01

    "Estaba harto de escuchar lo dificil que es ensenar fisica, interesar a los alumnos en gases, tiros parabolicos y campos magneticos. Por eso el profesor de Fisica de la Universidad de Murcia Rafael Garcia Molina decidio hace cinco anos dejar sin argumentos a sus colegas. Comenzo la busqueda de juguetes, regalos y objetos cotidianos para explicar la fisica" (1 page).

  1. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...

  2. Map showing principal coal beds of the Clearmont Quadrangle, Sheridan County, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    This map is a product of field mapping and of photogrammetric mapping using color aerial photographs at a scale of approximately 1:24,000 (Molina, 1983). These geologic investigations were part of a project to map the principal coal beds of large parts of the Powder River basin for national coal resource assessment.

  3. Coupling 2D Finite Element Models and Circuit Equations Using a Bottom-Up Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    EQUATIONS USING A BOTTOM-UP METHODOLOGY E. G6mezl, J. Roger-Folch2 , A. Gabald6nt and A. Molina’ ’Dpto. de Ingenieria Eldctrica. Universidad Polit...de Ingenieria Elictrica. ETSII. Universidad Politdcnica de Valencia. PO Box 22012, 46071. Valencia, Spain. E-mail: iroger adie.upv.es ABSTRACT The

  4. Comment on ``A reduction of order two for infinite-order Lagrangians''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault; Schäfer, Gerhard

    1988-02-01

    It is pointed out that the reduced two-particle Hamiltonian for the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics up to order c-4 was incorrectly calculated in the paper of Jaén, Llosa, and Molina. The correct expression is given, and shown to be equivalent (when e1/m1=e2/m2) to the Golubenkov-Smorodinskii Lagrangian.

  5. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  6. Reference: 19 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u12569131i Lopez-Molin... 410-8 12569131 2003 Feb Genes & development Chua Nam-Hai|Kinoshita Natsuko|Lopez-Molina Luis|Mongrand S辿bastien

  7. Conversando con... RAFAEL MONEO: el arquitecto y enseñante de arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Siles, Pedro Javier; Torres Barchino, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Interview with Rafael Moneo [ES] Entrevista con Rafael Moneo Molina Siles, PJ.; Torres Barchino, AM. (2014). Conversando con... RAFAEL MONEO: el arquitecto y enseñante de arquitectura. EGA. Revista de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. 19(24):36-49. doi:10.4995/ega.2014.3085. 36 49 19 24

  8. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  9. Commerce Raiding: Historical Case Studies, 1755-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    reproduced in Lucas Molina Franco and José María Manrique, Legion Condor: La historia olvidada (Valladolid, Sp.: Quirón, 2000), pp. 45–77. 34. For the...Condor: La historia olvidada. Valladolid, Sp.: Quirón, 2000. Frank, Willard C., Jr. “German Clandestine Submarine Warfare in the Spanish Civil War

  10. Programa de educación emocional y gestión del estrés en la Escuela Universitaria de Trabajo Social de Santiago de Compostela

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Piñeiro, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Màster en Educació Emocional i Benestar, Facultat de Pedagogia, Departament de Mètodes d’Investigació i Diagnòstic en Educació, Universitat de Barcelona, curs: 2012-2013, Tutor/Tutora: Mª Cruz Molina Garuz

  11. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  12. Multiperspectivism in the Novels of the Spanish Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2011-01-01

    stereotyp-opfattelsen af borgerkrigen som en konfrontation mellem det Gode og det Onde. De fire romaner er Javier Cercas' Soldados de Salamina (2001), Alberto Méndez' Los girasoles ciegos (2004), Antonio Muñoz Molina's La noche de los tiempos (2009) og Isaac Rosas Otra maldita novela sobre la guerra civil...

  13. Oportuna compilación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Fajardo Montaña

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema social agrario en Colombia. El pensamiento liberal en la solución del problema agrario. Hernán Toro Agudelo. Ediciones Tercer Mundo, Bogotá, 1984. 435 págs. Orión Agudelo Toro , compilador. Prólogo de Gerardo Molina.

  14. Organic carbon and iron modulate nitrification rates in mangrove swamps of Goa, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, K.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    , Publishers, San Diego, CA. 275p. Qasim, S.Z., Wafar, M.V.M.,1990. Marine resources in the tropics. Resource Management and Optimization 7,141–169. Rivera-Monroy, V.H., Day, J.D., Twilley, R.R., Vera-Herrera, F., Coronado-Molina 1995.Flux of nitrogen...

  15. Reference: 299 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 299 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16293760i Lipka Volker...t Riyaz|Brandt Wolfgang|Dittgen Jan|Landtag Jörn|Lipka Volker|Llorente Francisco|Molina Antonio|Parker Jane|

  16. Divulgación de la ciencia será prioridad para nuevo Ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología

    OpenAIRE

    Vindas Segura, Manrique

    2013-01-01

    El ingeniero Alejandro Cruz Molina, nuevo ministro de Ciencia y Tecnología, creará la Red de Comunicación de la Ciencia, la Tecnología y la Innovación (RedCyTec) mediante decreto ejecutivo para potenciar una mayor comunicación de la ciencia en el país.

  17. Secciones eficaces en un sistema hamiltoniano con tres grados de libertad /

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias (Física), presenta Wilhelm Pablo Karel Zapfe Zaldivar ; asesor Christof Jung Kohl, Luis Benet Fernández, Carlos Federico Bunge Molina. IV, 74 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias (Física) UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 2011

  18. Ord der forandrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rolle som kritisk og historisk bevidsthed. Værker af så forskellige forfattere som Durif, Tabucchi, Houellebecq, Molinas, Mertens og Antunes tager Sartres grundlæggende spørgsmål om litteraturens samfundsmæssige funktion op igen og bliver analyseret i antologien, der tager forholdet mellem litteratur og...

  19. The Civil-Military Gap in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Hernandez in USA, Colonel Arturo Molina studied in Mexico . After this period, civilians were presidents and had similar experiences: Napoleon...1 Peace Agreement January 16, 1992, Chapultepec Mexico , available from http://www. elsalvador.com /noticias/especiales/acuerdosdepaz 2002...from http://www.casapres.gob.sv/ presidentes ; Internet; accessed 04 December 2006. 3 Jennifer J. Deal and Don W. Prince, Developing Cultural

  20. Identificación de epítopes CD8+ en la proteína PFR1 de Leishmania Infantum y determinación de su inmunogenicidad como vacuna plasmídica

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Arroyo, Darién

    2011-01-01

    27 páginas, 11 figuras, 2 tablas. Tesina del Máster de Investigación y Avances en Inmunología Molecular y Celular. Línea de investigación: Modulación de la respuesta inmune. Tutora Académica: Dra. Ana Abadía Molina.

  1. La fractura política de México en Atempan

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Obra ressenyada: Neptalí RAMÍREZ REYES, La fractura política de México en Atempan, Puebla. Movimiento ciudadano y redes sociales. Puebla: CEPDH, 2012. El presente texto corresponde al prólogo del libro, realizado por el Dr. Jose Luis Molina (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona).

  2. Holocene environmental changes in the São Francisco de Paula region, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Bauermann, Soraia Girardi; Pereira Neves, Paulo César

    2001-11-01

    Holocene paleoenvironments have been interpreted from a radiocarbon dated pollen and charcoal record of the São Francisco de Paula region on the southern Brazilian highland. Today the region is characterized by pastureland and small patches of disturbed Araucaria forest. The region receives 2450 mm per annum. This is the highest precipitation rate in southern Brazil. Studied surface samples represent the modern pollen analog of the anthropogenic influenced vegetation. Pollen analytical studies of the 84 cm long core, collected from a small basin with clay, organic matter and peat deposits, show that pollen and spores of the lower core section (84 and 46 cm depth) have been almost destroyed. This period between ca. 7500 and 4000 14C yr BP was too dry for conservation of pollen and spores in the basin. Climate must have been markedly drier than today during early and mid Holocene times. After 4000 14C yr BP, preserved pollen grains reflect wetter conditions than before and indicate the predominance of campos (grassland) vegetation with small areas of Araucaria forest in the study region. Forest expansion is documented since 1060 14C yr BP and expansion of Araucaria angustifolia trees itself since 850 14C yr BP. During the last 1000 yr, rainfall must have been much more intensive with no or only short dry periods such as the modern climate. The results confirm the vegetational and climatic changes documented from the Araucaria forest region of Santa Catarina and Paraná State. Concentration and accumulation rates of carbonized particles are somewhat higher during the last 850 14C yr BP than before, indicating an increased fire frequency.

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DE VARIÁVEIS AMBIENTAIS SOBRE O PADRÃO ESTRUTURAL E FLORÍSTICO DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO, EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA EM LAGES, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-01-01

    to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  4. El cuento americano: Güeno-mapu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carvajal

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Helechos. Susurran como el abanico del pavo real. Ahí están. En grupos o hileras sobre la huella rojiza que va al caserío. Junto a la selva. Lejos, adentro, a donde solo llegan a ramonear los vahuales. En la traba de pellines, ulmos y araucarias, rosal silvestre y zarza levantada en altura de lianas y cañaveral.

  5. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PRINCIPALES ESPECIES ARBÓREAS EN EL PARQUE CRUCE CABALLERO Y SU SIMILITUD FLORISTICA CON AREAS DE ARGENTINA Y DE BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  6. A variabilidade espacial das famílias de Coleoptera (Insecta entre fragmentos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana (Bioma Araucária e plantação de Pinus elliottii Engelmann, no Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Spatial variability of Coleoptera (Insecta families between a Montane Ombrophilous Mixed Forest (Bioma Araucaria and Pinus elliottii Engelmann plantation fragments, in the Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Várias questões sobre a biodiversidade vêm sendo levantadas nas últimas décadas. Uma delas é o papel que as plantações florestais exóticas monoculturais desempenham na manutenção da fauna nativa, principalmente de insetos. Estudos têm demonstrado que os Coleoptera são sensíveis a variações florísticas e estruturais, em pequena escala espacial. Para analisar as possíveis diferenças na diversidade de Coleoptera entre um ambiente de floresta natural e uma plantação florestal exótica monocultural foi desenvolvido um inventário no Parque Ecológico Vivat Floresta, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná. Para tanto, durante 52 semanas (agosto de 2004 a julho de 2005, seis armadilhas malaise foram dispostas ao longo de um transecto através de dois ambientes adjacentes, com diferentes condições florísticas: três em fragmento da floresta natural (Floresta Ombrófila Mista e três na plantação de Pinus elliottii exótico. Neste primeiro estudo, as comunidades de Coleoptera foram analisadas com base na abundância e na riqueza das famílias. Foram coletados 12397 exemplares de 57 famílias. A abundância foi maior na floresta natural, decrescendo do interior desta para o interior da plantação de pinus. O ecótono - borda da floresta natural/borda da plantação de pinus - foi o mais rico em famílias. Como observado em inventários de outras localidades, os estudos apoiados em dados das famílias que se incluem nos primeiros 60% da abundância total de cada área, mostram os mesmos resultados quando são aplicados os dados de todas as famílias. Na plantação de pinus as famílias dominantes foram, pela ordem: Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Curculionidae, Nitidulidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae, Chrysomelidae; na floresta natural: Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Lampyridae, Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae.An important question for biodiversity is what is the impact of monocultures of exotic forest trees on native fauna, especially insects. Coleoptera have been shown to be sensitive to small-scale variations in forest floristic and structure. To test this idea, a comparison of families of Coleoptera was made between a natural forest and a monoculture of Pinus elliottii Engelmann at the Vivat Floresta Ecological Park, Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, in southern Brazil. A one-year inventory was carried out from August 2004 to July 2005 with three malaise traps in each forest type, to compare, in this first preliminary study, family richness and abundance. A total of 12,397 insects in 57 families were collected. Abundance was greatest in the natural forest, while family richness was greatest at the border of the two forest types. As commonly found, studies on comparative abundance composition of areas including only dominant families involved in the first 60% of total abundance in any given area show the same trends as studies that include total abundance of all the families. In the pine monoculture, the dominant families were, in order of abundance, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Curculionidae, Nitidulidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae and Chrysomelidae. In the natural forest, the order of dominance was Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Lampyridae, Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae.

  7. El influjo anglicano en el mundo mapuche (1895-1960: Charles Sadleir en los albores del liderazgo mapuche post-reduccional = A influência anglicana no mundo mapuche (1895-1960: Richard Sadleir no início do pós-reduccional liderança mapuche = The anglican influence on the mapuche ethnicity: Charles Sadleir in the dawn of mapuche’s post-reductional leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a importância histórica do pastor protestante Charles Sadleir no desenvolvimento inicial dos movimentos políticos assimilacionistas mapuche, primeira metade do século XX. Sua influência é exposta no despertar da consciência étnica mapuche, no desenvolvimento de liderança política, na presente conjuntura da luta de classes, no desenvolvimento de algumas leis indígenas e, finalmente, mostra o declínio político da Missão Araucana. Assim, contrariando a atual deficiência de estudos sobre o Protestantismo indígena. E, essa pesquisa reflete sobre a necessidade de estudos sobre o protestantismo indígena, que o abordem em sua influência política

  8. Factors de risc emergents en cardiopatia isquèmica. Paper dels marcadors d'oxidació lipídica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pérez, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    1. Gómez M, Valle V, Arós F, Sanz G, Sala J, Fiol M, Bruguera J, Elosua R, Molina L, Martí H, Covas MI, Rodríguez-Llorián A, Fitó M, Suárez-Pinilla MA, Amezaga R, Marrugat J. Ldl oxidada, lipoproteína(a) y otros factores de riesgo emergentes en el infarto agudo de miocardio (estudio Fortiam). Rev Esp Cardiol.2009; 62:373-82 (Impact Factor 2,746) (ISSN: 0300-8932) 2. Gómez M, Molina L, Bruguera J, Sala J, Masià R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Tomás M, Heredia S, Blanchart G, Gaixas S, Vila J, Fitó M; Ox...

  9. Factors de risc emergents en cardiopatia isquèmica. Paper dels marcadors d'oxidació lipídica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pérez, Miquel; Cladellas Capdevila, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    1. Gómez M, Valle V, Arós F, Sanz G, Sala J, Fiol M, Bruguera J, Elosua R, Molina L, Martí H, Covas MI, Rodríguez-Llorián A, Fitó M, Suárez-Pinilla MA, Amezaga R, Marrugat J. Ldl oxidada, lipoproteína(a) y otros factores de riesgo emergentes en el infarto agudo de miocardio (estudio Fortiam). Rev Esp Cardiol.2009; 62:373-82 (Impact Factor 2,746) (ISSN: 0300-8932) 2. Gómez M, Molina L, Bruguera J, Sala J, Masià R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Tomás M, Heredia S, Blanchart G, Gaixas S, Vila J, Fitó M; Oxidi...

  10. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  11. Biología de Delphastus quinculus (Gordon 1994) (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae) bajo diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Entomología Delphastus quinculus (Gordon, 1994) es un predador que ha sido reportado importante, para el control del complejo de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856). Para obtener información sobre algunos aspectos de su biología y el efecto de la temperatura en su desarrollo, se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones de laboratorio a seis1temperaturas constantes...

  12. Nuevas adiciones de bivalvos a la malacofauna marina peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro especies de moluscos bivalvos marinos, Nuculana (Jupiteria cuneata (Sowerby, 1833, Isognomon (Isognomón janus Carpenter, 1857, Ostrea conchaphila Carpenter, 1857 y Mysella (Rochefortia molinae Ramorino, 1968 se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano. Se incluye datos sobre la distribución geográfica y el hábitat de cada una de las especies.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  14. Una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Iragua Melichar, I. chola sp. n., de material procedente de la Zona Reservada de Tambopata, departamento de Madre de Dios, y de Chanchamayo, departamento de Junín, en Perú. El material tipo se encuentra depositado en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.

  15. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    requirements for this type product, creating the possibility of exporting them to the Western countries. The first Polish fiberoptic cables have already been... export policy." Brazilian Policy Buenos Aires MERCADO in Spanish 26 Sep 85 p 76 [Text] The Case of Brazil The program that Brazil’s then military...Bull; Liana Lew, the special projects manager for the TTI-Bradas-Burroughs consortium; Carlos Maria Molina from Micro Sistemas , and Jorge Chorny, an

  16. Latin America Report. No. 2738.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-14

    Acero Espinosa ; EL TIEMPO, 25 Jul 83) 23 Rodriguez Report to L.A. Economists Meeting Published (Roberto Molina; PRISMA LATINOAMERICANO, Jul 83...Fernandez, Jorge Ivan Hubner Gallo, Bernardo Larrain Vial, Gustavo Lorca Rojas , Gustavo Loyola Vasques, Fernando Maturana Erbetta, Mario Marchant Binder...CUNDINAMARCA Bogota EL TIEMPO in Spanish 25 Jul 83 p 10-D [Article by special correspondent German Acero Espinosa ] [Text] La Mesa, Cundinamarca—We

  17. Water depth selection during foraging and efficiency in prey capture by the egrets Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae) in an urban lagoon in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Seleção de profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e eficiência na captura de presas por Casmerodius albus e Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae) em uma lagoa urbana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno,Aline B.; Adriano R. Lagos; MARIA ALICE S. ALVES

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the water depth selection during foraging, the efficiency in prey capture, and the food items captured by Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Egretta thula (Molina, 1782). The work was conducted at an urban lagoon, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Four transects were made each month (two in the morning and two in the afternoon) for six months. When the birds were detected foraging, the water depth and the types of prey captured were recorded. There was...

  18. Translation methods and procedures applied to Fantastic Beasts and Where to find them and Quidditch Through the Ages by J. K. Rowling

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Velasco, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the analysis of the translation of two books originally written by J. K. Rowling. For this purpose, we have studied translation procedures and translation methods, as well as redundancy and cohesion. We have taken into account experts in translation, such as Newmark, Amparo Hurtado Albir, and Lucía Molina. The aim of this paper is to have a further approach to translation and consequently, understand the process involved in this subject. El presente trabajo se ...

  19. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, P. A.; L. D. Oman; Douglass, A.R.; E. L. Fleming; Frith, S. M.; M. M. Hurwitz; Kawa, S. R.; C. H. Jackman; N. A. Krotkov; Nash, E. R.; Nielsen, J E; S. Pawson; Stolarski, R. S.; G. J. M. Velders

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  20. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  1. CHITEC, Invovation Changes the World%CHITEC,Invovation Changes the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Platform to show Pablo Molina Petrovich,general manager architect of Architectural Office Association of Chile,is satisfied with what he has achieved by displaying a promotion booth for his newly-established China office at the 12th CHITEC."Our Beijing office was just established at the early January this year,so it's high time to promote ourselves to be more familiar with Chinese.China now is full of opportunities here," he said.

  2. Luces y sombras de la calidad de la democracia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcántara Sáez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.

  3. Niveles de Malondialdehido y Catalasa en tejidos de cobayos nativos de la altura

    OpenAIRE

    Torres M., César A.; Departamento Académico de Bioquímica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Perales S., María I.; Departamento Académico de Bioquímica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Zúñiga C., Haydée; Instituto Nacional de Biología Andina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Carranza A., Elizabeth; Departamento Académico de Bioquímica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), end product of lipid peroxydation, and activity of catalase, a protective enzyme, in heart , kidney, liver and lung of guinea pigs born and bred in the altilude (Cullhuay, 3642 m), and another from sea level (La Molina, 238 m), were determined, in order to establish whether there exist any differences, and better understand of the oxydative stress in high altitude natives. Tissue levels of MDA were assessed by the n-methy-l-phenylindol me...

  4. 编辑推荐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    摩卡站 With the success of their two restaurants, Mosto and Modo Urban Deli, chef Daniel Urdaneta, from Venezuela, and co- owner Alex Molina, from Columbia, are now embarking on a new concept for their cuisine empire. Moka Bros opened last month in Nali Patio, Sanlitun, and the partners' concept is for the eatery to be a casual spot tbr urban diners to relax and have access to clean, healthy and affordable food.

  5. United States Military-To-Military Contact with the People’s Liberation Army of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Martinez 1945-1948 General Salvador Castaneda Castro 1948-1950 Revolutionary Council of Government 1950-1956 Lt. Col Oscar Osorio 1956-1960 Colonel...Julio A. Rivera 1967-1972 General Fidel Sanchez Hernandez 1972-1977 Colonel Arturo Armando Molina 1977-1979 General Carlos Humberto Romero Table 2...remained in power until a new round of elections was held. Elections were carried out in 1945, and retired General Salvador Castaneda Castro won and

  6. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  7. El fantástico Hombre Bala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepa Merlo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de El Fantástico hombre bala, es hablar de una pequeña joya en todos los sentidos: una cuidada edición que la editorial El Páramo mima con ilustraciones de Alicia Gómez Molina, intercaladas entre los cuentos como si se tratara de una novela gráfica, introduciéndonos magistralmente en los veintisiete relatos asombrosos del libro.

  8. La reagrupación familiar en el ámbito municipal en España. Análisis comparado en región mediterrânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pastor Seller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En el artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación comparativa de la evolución del proceso de reagrupación familiar de extranjeros no comunitarios en España, la Región de Murcia y el municipio de Molina de Segura en el período 2007-2014. Se analiza la evolución de la reagrupación familiar, mediante el acceso a fuentes secundarias. Para caracterizar el perfil del reagrupante se realizan entrevistas estructuradas al universo de solicitantes de informe de adecuación de vivienda para reagrupación familiar en Molina de Segura. Se aplica un cuestionario a extranjeros no comunitarios para describir las tendencias en reagrupación familiar en Molina de Segura y para conocer los conflictos surgidos en las familias reagrupadas se llevan a cabo entrevistas en profundidad a actores expertos y estratégicos. Los resultados evidencian que los cambios normativos y la actual crisis económica inciden, entre otros factores, a los procesos de reagrupación familiar. En este contexto es necesario incrementar los recursos destinados a los Servicios de Bienestar local para favorecer la integración real de las personas inmigrantes y mantener los niveles de cohesión social.

  9. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  10. Regeneration patterns of a long-lived dominant conifer and the effects of logging in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre F.; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Longhi, Solon Jonas; Brena, Doádi Antônio

    2008-09-01

    The regeneration ecology of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. We evaluated the expectations that: (i) size distribution of populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a large conifer that dominates southern Brazil's mixed forests, is left-skewed in old-growth forests but right-skewed in logged forests, indicating chronic recruitment failure in the first kind of habitat as well as a recruitment pulse in the second; (ii) seedlings and juveniles are found under more open-canopy microsites than would be expected by chance; and (iii) reproductive females would be aggregated at the coarse spatial scales in which past massive recruitment events are expected to have occurred, and young plants would be spatially associated with females due to the prevalence of vertebrate and large-bird seed dispersers. Data were collected in the threatened mixed conifer-hardwood forests in southern Brazil in ten 1-ha plots and one 0.25-ha plot that was hit by a small tornado in 2003. Five of these plots corresponded to unlogged old-growth forests, three to forests where A. angustifolia was selectively logged ca. 60 years ago and two to forests selectively logged ca. 20 years ago. For the first time, ontogenetic life stages of this important conifer are identified and described. The first and second expectations were fulfilled, and the third was partially fulfilled, since seedlings and juveniles were hardly ever associated with reproductive females. These results confirm the generalization of the current conceptual model of emergent long-lived pioneer regeneration to Araucaria angustifolia and associate its regeneration niche to the occupation of large-scale disturbances with long return times.

  11. potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed of Araucaria angustifolia, “pinhão”, is becoming a alternative way of income for many families living at south and southeast of Brazil. The intensive attack on Paraná pine seeds by the wild fauna, that occur at newly-planted areas by direct sowing and at nursery of seedlings, is one of several adverses and distimulating factors to specie spreading. The objective of this work was to verify probable phytotoxics effects of some naturals and synthetics substances potentially repellentes to wild fauna, in Araucaria angustifolia seeds “in vitro”. The experiment was realized at Phytopatology and Plant Physiology Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State – Brazil, from june to december, 2004. The Paraná pine seeds, after preparation and treatment with vegetal and not vegetal substances, were sown in plastic trays with vermiculite substratum and put on cabin of growth with controlled temperature, relative humidity of air, humidity of substratum and photoperiods. It was adopted the randomized complete design with 15 treatments, with 10 seeds each treatment and with 4 repetitions. The tested substances separately or in mixtures were: extract of fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur and látex ink. The root emission, stem emission, length of main root and length of stem were evaluated 76 days after sowing and statisticaly analyzed. The analysis make possible to conclude that the tested extract do not have phytotoxic effect on seeds and that the substances tested “in vitro” can be used in field experiments, in repellence traits for Parana pine seeds consuming fauna. Keywords: effects fitotóxicos; pine seeds of Araucaria angustifolia; predação of seeds.

  12. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Brotto, Marcelo Leandro; Silva-Pereira, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL). The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  13. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  14. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  15. 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone inhibits seed germination of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Jacob C; Du, Lin; Joyner, P Matthew

    2014-04-25

    Biflavonoids have been isolated from a wide variety of plant species, but little is known about their native biological functions. Here we report a possible ecological role for biflavonoids by describing the isolation of the biflavonoid 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone (1) from Araucaria columnaris and its inhibitory effect on seed germination. Compound 1 was isolated from needles of a single A. columnaris specimen and inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa seeds in a culture-dish assay; it was also detected in soil samples under the canopy where reduced germination was observed, but not in a location away from the canopy where germination was uninhibited.

  16. Competição intergenotípica na análise de testes de progênie em essências florestais.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Leonardecz Neto

    2002-01-01

    No presente trabalho buscou-se introduzir o efeito da competição entre plantas nas análises dos testes de progênie/procedências em essências florestais, com o fim de identificar os seus efeitos e as distorções devidas à sua não observância. Para tanto, foram utilizados ensaios com níveis de precisão e mortalidades diferentes, de cinco espécies, a saber: Gallesia gorarema Vell. Moq., Eucaliptus grandis Hill ex Maider, Eucaliptus citridora Hook, Pinus elliottii Engl. var. elliottii e Araucaria ...

  17. .

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at adapting a DNA extraction protocol by Araucaria angustifolia leaves, and testing the informative capacity of RAPD markers for genetics diversity analysis in natural populations of this species. The extraction method was standardized by eight tested protocols and it was possible to Obtain good quality DNA for RAPD reactions. The OD260/0D280 ratio ranged from 1.7 to 2.0 in 80% of the samples, indicating that they had a low level of protein contamination. The RAPD markers...

  18. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Bianchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.

  19. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICO-ESTRUTURAL AO LONGO DE UM GRADIENTE DE BORDA EM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA ALTO-MONTANA EM SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Souza Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize the floristic and structure of the tree component in Upper Montane Araucaria Forest fragment and to evaluate the influence of the edge effects on tree species organization, structure, richness and diversity. For this, a total of 50, 10 x 20 m, permanent plots divided in five transects spaced, at least, 100 m from each other, were established in the a forest fragment, located in the municipality of Bom Jardim da Serra, SC. The trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and total height, identified and classified according to the regeneration guilds. The data were analyzed through the index of importance values (IVI, a NMDS analysis (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling, a generalized additive model and simple linear regressions. A total of 1,457 individuals, distributed in 29 families, 43 genera and 55 species were surveyed. The most relative important species was Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. There was no influence of edge effect on tree community organization, structure (average diameter, average height and density and guilds participation. However, values of diversity, richness and evenness were higher at edge areas. We conclude that part of the variation in values related to tree species diversity in the Upper Montane Araucaria Forest was determined by edge distance.

  20. Notas sobre Acaulospora bireticulata Rothwell & Trappe e primeiro registro de Acaulospora koskei Blask. para o Brasil Notes on Acaulospora bireticulata Rothwell & Trappe and first record of Acaulospora koskei Blask. from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tomio Goto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a distribuição de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs ainda é restrito e as variações morfológicas observadas em isolados de uma mesma espécie podem proporcionar subsídios adicionais para o entendimento dos caracteres usados na taxonomia do grupo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram implementar dados sobre a ocorrência de Acaulospora koskei Blaszk. e Acaulospora bireticulata Rothwell & Trappe encontradas em áreas de Floresta de Araucaria angustifolia em São Paulo, Brasil, bem como comparar a descrição dessas espécies com a de outras similares.Our knowledge of species distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF is still limited and morphological variations found in isolates of one species may provide additional insight for understanding the characters used in the taxonomy of this group. The aims of this work were to expand biogeographical data regarding Acaulospora koskei Blaszk. and Acaulospora bireticulata Rothwell & Trappe, both found in an Araucaria Forest in São Paulo state, Brazil, as well as to compare the descriptions of these species with those of other similar AMF.

  1. Comparison of phytosociological parameters among three strata of a fragment of ombrophylous mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies based on sampling have been very common in the last 20 years, however, they are rarely carried out using complete enumeration of trees (census. This research compare the phytossociological parameters between three different strata from a remnant of Ombrophylous Mixed Forest (OMF, which are: OMF Montana, Border OMF Montana and OMF Alluvial. The area of 13.71 was topographically divided in blocks of 50 x 50 meters for a better control of the 100% forest inventory (census. All trees with CBH (circumference measured at 1,30 m above ground ≥ 31,5 centimeters were measured, georeferencied, numbered, painted at DBH and identified at species level. In the strata OMF Montana the species with the highest Value of Coverage (VC was Araucaria angustifolia, with 30.6%, followed by Casearia sylvestris with 25.8%. In the Border OMF Montana the species that succeeded Araucaria angustifolia (29.0% was Gochnatia polymorpha with 27.2% of VC. The third strata, OMF Alluvial, presented as predominant species Schinus terebinthifolius (55,5%, followed by Sebastiania commersoniana (27,7%, both characteristics of alluvial environments. In the three strata there was prevalence of secondary pioneer species, proving that the area is in a secondary stage of ecological succession due to past exploratory process.

  2. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  3. АНАЛИЗ ИЗОБРАЖЕНИЯ ЛАГЕНАРИИ (LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA) STANDL.) В ЖИВОПИСИ КАК ИСТОЧНИК ИНФОРМАЦИИ ДЛЯ ИСТОРИИ ИНТРОДУКЦИИ И АРХЕОГЕНЕТИКИ КУЛЬТУРЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Цаценко, Людмила

    2013-01-01

    The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca) for food

  4. Simulación del secado de cebolla blanca (Allium cepa) por flujo de aire caliente y evaluación en la pérdida de su pungencia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Delgado, Luis Fernando

    1996-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos En el presente trabajo de investigación se desarrollaron dos metodologías matemáticas capaces de describir las curvas típicas del proceso de secado de alimentos: la metodología de Alvarez y Legues modificada, y la metodología de diferencias finitas. Estas metodologías fueron producto de un análisis físico y matemático del proceso difusivo no lineal del agua durante el secado, y fueron transcrit...

  5. Informe científico de investigador: Martino, Pablo Eduardo (2012-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Pablo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Durante este período de estudio, se publicaron, finalmente, las observaciones acerca de los estudios parasitológicos en nutrias salvajes capturadas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, describiendo las frecuencias moderadas de 18 especies de endoparásitos (Nematoda 82.0%, Protozoa 46.1%, Trematoda 33.3% y Cestoda 12.8%) (Note on the occurrence of parasites of the wild nutria (Myocastor coypus, Molina, 1782) Helminthologia, 49, 3: 164 – 168, 2012), así como también los resultados del perfil hemato...

  6. A Case of Expert-Novice Conversational Reflection During an Initial Education Practicum on the CLIL Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Urmeneta, Cristina; Evnitskaya, Natalia; Horrillo Godino, Zoraida

    2009-01-01

    III Colloquium on Semi-Immersion in Catalonia III Encuentro sobre Semi-Inmersión en Cataluña In nearly all pre-service teacher education programmes, the most common model of professionalization consists in providing student-teachers with opportunities to apply knowledge gained in a theoretical phase in a systematic, structured and supervised way (Molina Ruiz 2008) during the practicum period, in accordance with the principles of Technical Rationality (Schön 1983). Schön identifies gaps ...

  7. Purificação de saponinas de extratos de quilaia usando fracionamento em coluna de espuma

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Oazem de Oliveira da Costa

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: As saponinas de quilaia tem utilização como aditivos na indústria de alimentos e de fármacos principalmente como potencializadores de vacinas. A viabilidade técnica do uso de extratos contendo quillaja saponaria molina como princípio ativo na redução do teor de colesterol do óleo de manteiga já foi demonstrada em pesquisas na Faculdade de Engenharia Química e Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos na UNICAMP. Os extratos de quilaia disponíveis tem variado grau de purificação contendo ta...

  8. V Actas Congreso. Poder, poderes y empoderamiento… ¿Y el amor? ¡Ah, el amor!

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gómez, Alicia; Escrig Gil, Gemma; Forcada Martínez, Águeda

    2009-01-01

    ÍNDICE: Presentación,BEATRIZ MOLINA GABRIEL Y GALÁN. I. CONFERENCIAS. ¿Es la explotación sólo algo malo o… qué tipo de poder es el poder del amor?,ANNA JÓNASDÓTTIR. Una experiencia en el poder ,SOLEDAD MURILLO DE LA VEGA. II. MESAS REDONDAS. MESA 1. Sentimientos, educación, amor y sexo Del mito del amor romántico a la construcción de relaciones amorosas entre iguales: una mirada feminista ,NIEVES SIMÓN RODRÍGUEZ. El cuerpo en la educación afectivo-sexual ,MATILDE FO...

  9. La traducción y los textos bilingües (japonés-inglés) para estudiantes de japonés : análisis de las antologías de relatos cortos y de las revistas de idioma

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi, Shiho

    2013-01-01

    El treball estudia els dos tipus de textos bilingües japonès-anglès (llibres i revistes) que existeixen per a estudiants de japonès. La primera part analitza quatre antologies des de la perspectiva de la paratextualitat i de la teoria funcionalista de Christiane Nord (1997). A continuació, s'estudien les tècniques de traducció, a partir dels desenvolupaments teòrics d'Amparo Hurtado i Lucía Molina (2002), en el conte «The Third Night» de Natsume Sôseki. A la segona part s'investiguen dues rev...

  10. Predicción de la comprensión lectora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunciación QUINTERO GALLEGO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los numerosos estudios realizados en torno al análisis de los componentes básicos de la lectura, no parece haberse llegado aún, dada la complejidad del tema, a conclusiones definitivas; ya que la gran mayoría de las investigaciones empíricas y experimentales realizadas al respecto, se limitan a establecer la correlación entre los aspectos medidos por determinados tests y el rendimiento en lectura, siendo escasas, sin embargo, las destinadas a comprobar la estructura interna de los factores madurativos supuestamente implicados en el aprendizaje lector (Molina, 1983.

  11. La importancia de las ideologías de los partidos políticos en la propaganda electoral

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la importancia del marketirzgen la comunicación política visto como un hipercódigo: "Por hipercódigo entendemos un código que opera sobre otro, y sólo así, es decir, que se monta en otro y lo usa. Al hacerlo anula la potencialidad discursiva del último" (Molina y Vedia, 1999: 200). Considerado de esta forma, el hipercódigo del marketingirnpone su propia lógica al código político, se abandona la perspectiva política para buscar las aspiraciones y deseos de ...

  12. Pioneers in ozone research receive Nobel Prize in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded its 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry to three AGU members for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Only one other Nobel prize has ever been awarded in the realm of atmospheric research. The honorees are professors Paul Crutzen of the Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany; Mario Molina of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and F. Sherwood Rowland of the University of California, Irvine. The Academy credits the three with contributing to “our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences.”

  13. Reciclaje de lodos residuales de la industria del papel mediante lombricultura utilizando la especie “lombriz roja californiana” Eisenia foetida”

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Uribe, Raquel Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ciencias Ambientales El alto consumo y producción de papel, a través de sus diferentes presentaciones, genera grandes cantidades de lodos residuales en las plantas fabricantes ocasionando riesgos ambientales, si no se les da un manejo y aprovechamiento apropiado. Una alternativa de solución a este problema, es el reciclaje de estos lodos residuales para producir abono orgánico, a través de un proceso de lombricultura....

  14. Efecto de la aplicación directa e indirecta de azufre en los cultivos de cebolla y papa bajo condiciones de campo e invernadero.

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Peramas, Lilly Denise

    1999-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Suelos El trabajo se realizo a nivel de laboratorio en el Laboratorio de Fertilidad de Suelos de la UNALM y los experimentos de campo en el departamento de Arequipa en las localidades de Bajo Cural y Revuelta-Perdida-Vitor-Cailloma. En los experimentos de invernadero se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización con azufre en forma directa e indirecta en 26 tratamientos con 3 repeticiones; estos tratamientos se realizaron s...

  15. Interference management in LTE-based HetNets: a practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Font Bach, Oriol; Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Pascual Iserte, Antonio; Payaró Llisterri, Miquel; Blanco, Luis; López Bueno, David; Molina Pena, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Font-Bach, O., Bartzoudis N., Pascual-Iserte, A., Payaró M., Blanco L., López Bueno D., and Molina M. (2015) Interference management in LTE-based HetNets: a practical approach, Trans. Emerging Tel. Tech., 26, 195–215, doi: 10.1002/ett.2833.], which has been published in final form at [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ett.2833/epdf]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Con...

  16. Estudio de la deposición de catalizadores de hierro sobre las paredes de un reactor tubular para degradación de fármacos mediante procesos foto- fenton heterogéneos

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz Sánchez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2010/2011. Directores del Proyecto: Raúl Molina Gil y Yolanda Segura Urraca El presente proyecto se engloba dentro de una línea de investigación del grupo de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental de la URJC, dedicada al estudio de tratamientos avanzados para eliminar contaminantes emergentes en aguas residuales. Los fármacos constituyen un grupo de compuestos con gran peligro potencial cuando llegan al medio ...

  17. Fluctuación poblacional de los principales insectos fitófagos y sus enemigos naturales en el cultivo de alcachofa en el valle de Ica

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Gutierrez, Dina Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Manejo Integrado de Plagas El trabajo de investigación se desarrolló en el distrito de Santiago, departamento de Ica, en el cultivo de alcachofa cultivar “Lorca”, con el objetivo de determinar la fluctuación poblacional de los principales insectos fitófagos y sus enemigos naturales. Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) y Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) se presentaron en bajas poblaciones princ...

  18. O estudante endiabrado: representação do mito de Dom Juan em espronceda

    OpenAIRE

    Pandolfi, Maira Angélica [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a reflection on the representation of the literary myth of Dom Juan in the work El estudiante de Salamanca (1836-1840), by Joseph de Espronceda. It highlights the most significant aspects of their recreation donjuanesca, since the classic elements taken from the founding work of Tirso de Molina to Romantic Titan which characterizes Dom Félix de Montemar. O presente estudo faz uma reflexão sobre a representação do mito literário de Dom Juan na obra El estudiante de Sala...

  19. Comparación de las características físicas de las fibras de la llama ch´aku (Lama glama) y la alpaca Huacaya (Lama pacos) del centro experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Los objetivos fueron evaluar los efectos de especie y sexo sobre las características físicas de las fibras de llama Ch´aku y alpaca Huacaya de un año de edad, del Centro Experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno y determinar las correlaciones de las principales características. Las muestras de fibra se obtuvieron del C.E. Quimsachata del INIA, ubicada en distrito de Santa Lucia (Puno-Perú); y fueron a...

  20. Utilización de proteina de soya y carragenina en salchichas tipo Huacho con bajo tenor graso

    OpenAIRE

    Salvá Ruiz, Bettit Karim

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El presente trabajo de investigación consistió en determinar la influencia de la sustitución de grasa por la adición de hidrocoloides (proteina texturizada de soya, carragenina, concentrado funcional de soya), pellejo de cerdo y combinaciones de estas en las características de la salchicha tipo Huacho. Se emplearon concentraciones de 20, 30, 40 y 50% de proteína texturizada de soya, para reduci...

  1. Arquitectura doméstica en la Granada Moderna

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Rafael López Guzmán (coordinación científica); José Policarpo Cruz Cabrera, María Elena Díez Jorge, Esther Galera Mendoza, Amalia García Pedraza, Lourdes Gutiérrez Carrillo, Juan Manuel Martín García (investigadores); José Castillo Ruiz, Elisa Entrena Núñez, Gabriel Fernández Adarve, Miguel Ángel Sorroche Cuerva, Iván Ruiz Laguna, Alejandro Pérez Ordóñez, Aurora Molina Fajardo, Cristina Ruiz de la Fuente Serrano (colaboradores).

  2. RESEARCH UPDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1988-01-01

    The Importance of Product/Consumer Attributes In Consumer Buying Decisions, by S.M. Fletcher, T.T. Fu, A.V.A. Resurreccion; Supermarket Produce Demand and Shelf Space Effects, by John J. VanSickle, German Molina; Package Size Preference for Meat and Poultry Products As Related to Demographic Characteristics, by Tami J. Gundry, J. Richard Bacon, U.C. Toensmeyer, R. Dean Shippy; Merrimack College to Offer Certificate Program In Food Retail Management, by James J. Corbett; Changes During Freezin...

  3. Visualization data on the freezing process of micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Bogdan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The visualization data (8 movies presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Freezing and glass transitions upon cooling and warming and ice/freeze-concentration-solution morphology of emulsified aqueous citric acid” (A. Bogdan, M.J. Molina, H. Tenhu, 2016 [1]. The movies recorded in-situ with optical cryo-miscroscopy (OC-M demonstrate for the first time freezing processes that occur during the cooling and subsequent warming of emulsified micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid (CA drops. The movies are made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  4. Temporal evolution of adherents of the major religions in Mexico: Avrami model application-Kolgomorov solid training

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Mauricio González

    2013-01-01

    It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christianity in Mexico are similar to global.

  5. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds a...

  6. Orígenes de la Asociación Médica de Chile: una mirada crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Bustos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Los orígenes de la institucionalidad sanitaria en Chile y los intensos debates que se dieron al interior del gremio médico, constituyen el núcleo central del texto de Carlos Molina. El autor nos ofrece un análisis crítico sobre las contradicciones de una profesión a la que comenzaba a cuestionarse el papel social en una época de profundos cambios sociales y debacle económica. Los médicos, como una élite profesional e intelectual, no pudieron mantenerse al margen de las luchas políticas, y deb...

  7. Efecto de la aplicación de materia orgánica y enmienda cálcica sobre el contenido de boro en el suelo de la costa sur

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Suelos En el presente trabajo se determina la concentración de boro soluble luego del lavado del suelo; el efecto de la aplicación de materia orgánica y una enmienda cálcica sobre el contenido de boro disponible del suelo y de la planta y el efecto del boro presente en el agua de riego. Se concluye que por efecto del lavado inicial del suelo, se disminuyó la concentración de boro soluble de 61 a 20.9 ppm. La materia o...

  8. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  9. Evaluación de la calidad de servicio de centros deportivos privados. Influencia de la gestión en el bienestar de los usuarios

    OpenAIRE

    Molina García, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Titulo de tesis doctoral: Evaluación de la calidad de servicio de centros deportivos privados. Influencia de la gestión en el bienestar de los usuarios Presentada por: Dña. Nuria Molina García Dirigida por: Dr. D. Ferran Calabuig Moreno y Dr. D. Josep Crespo Hervàs TEMA: En tema o idea principal de este trabajo es conocer la realidad sobre la opinión de los usuarios de tres centros deportivos privados de la provincia de Alicante sobre dos temáticas principales, la calidad perci...

  10. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F.; Silva, G.; De Tapia, M; Hepp, R

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p). Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insecto...

  11. El mundo del libro : febrero de 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rodríguez Garavito

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta las reseñas de los siguientes títulos: REMANSOS DE LUZ- (Poemas. Por Amadeo Pérez Pérez-Medellín. Colombia. GRAGEAS PARA EL TEDIO- Crispín-Por Pedro Nel Duque-63 páginas. Bogotá, Colombia. CAMBIO DE LUNA-Cuentos-Por Eutiquio Leal- Bogotá, Colombia. JOSE EUSTASIO RIVERA- Por Luis Carlos Herrera Molina, S. J.-Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Bogotá. SECRETOS EN FUGA- Poesía-Por Luis Beltrán Guerrero-Caracas, Venezuela.

  12. On a Generalized $*$-Product for Copulas

    CERN Document Server

    Ruankong, Pongpol

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on a generalization of the *-product called $\\mathbf{C}$-product. This product, first introduced by Durante, Klement and Quesada-Molina, was used to characterize classes of compatible copulas. The $\\mathbf{C}$-product of copulas $A$ and $B$ is defined to be an integral of a function which involves the copulas $A$ and $B$ and the family of copulas $\\mathbf{C}$. However, measurability of the integrand in the definition is questionable. We will discuss this in details and attempt to re-define the product. Then we derive some properties of the re-defined product.

  13. Evaluación de la toxicidad a dosis repetidas (90 días) por vía oral del concentrado de proteína de pota (Dosidicus gigas), en ratas Sprague dawley

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El potencial tóxico de un concentrado de proteína de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) fue evaluado mediante el estudio de toxicidad de dosis repetidas a 90 días en ratas Sprague Dawley de ambos sexos. Los métodos empleados fueron los descritos por las normas OECD (1998). Se administró por vía oral la dosis de 500, 1000 y 2000 mg/kg/día durante 13 semanas. Se evaluaron los signos tóxicos y peso...

  14. Estudio Técnico Económico de las instalaciones (CT, BT y PCI) destinadas a una nave industrial destinada a la fabricación de muebles de madera, sita en el término municipal de Beneixama (Alicante).

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN MOLINA, JOSÉ LUIS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Design of facilities necessary power supply and fire protection of wooden furniture factory [ES] Diseño de las instalaciones necesarias de suministro de energía eléctrica y protección contra incendios de una fábrica de muebles de madera Juan Molina, JL. (2016). Estudio Técnico Económico de las instalaciones (CT, BT y PCI) destinadas a una nave industrial destinada a la fabricación de muebles de madera, sita en el término municipal de Beneixama (Alicante). http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  15. Comentario del libro: “Costa Rica. 1800-1850: El legado colonial y la génesis del capitalismo, de Iván Molina”

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundson K, Lowell

    2012-01-01

    IntroducciónEn éste, el cuarto de dieciseis volúmenes de la serie patrocianda por el Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, Molina intenta al menos resumir los resultados de una gran variedad de investigaciones históricas recientes. El autor se destaca tanto por una prosa atractiva, como por un enfoque que no se reduce al esquema "café-capitalismo-sociedad" característico de anteriores estudios suyos. Es más, si hay una sorpresa agradable en esta obra, está en e...

  16. The Ozone Hole -- a Mystery Reborn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hobe, M.; Grooß, J.; Müller, R.; Stroh, F.

    2007-12-01

    In 1985, Farman et al. discovered the near complete disappearance of the stratospheric ozone layer over Antarctica in spring. This 'Ozone Hole' took the atmospheric research community by surprise as it could not be explained by the known catalytic cycles removing ozone in the stratosphere. McElroy et al. (1986) and Molina and Molina (1987) seemed to have solved the enigma by proposing two new catalytic cycles -- the ClO-BrO-cycle and the ClO dimer cycle -- that could rapidly destroy ozone at cold temperatures and high zenith angles. Subsequent work describing the kinetics of these cycles as well as stratospheric observations of chlorine and bromine compounds supported their theory and led to atmospheric chemistry models reproducing observed ozone loss reasonably well. Today, more than 20 years after the discovery of the ozone hole and the ratification of the Montreal Protocol, a new laboratory study (Pope et al., 2007) -- suggesting much smaller absorption cross sections and hence photolysis rates of the ClO dimer -- seriously calls into question our understanding of how ozone is destroyed in the spring polar stratosphere. With the new cross sections, both the dimer cycle and the ClO-BrO-cycle run much slower, and observations of neither chlorine compounds nor ozone loss are reproduced by model simulations (von Hobe et al., 2007): the known catalytic cycles cannot cause an ozone hole. Obviously, this also calls into question our ability to predict future polar ozone depletion. In search for an explanation, we discuss possible shortcomings of the Pope et al. experiment that could lead to an underestimation of the dimer absorption and examine various new chemical processes for their likelihood to influence chlorine partitioning and cause significant ozone loss in the atmosphere and at the same time go undetected in laboratory based kinetic studies. A strategy is presented for designing the tests needed to unambiguously confirm or rule out proposed solutions to the

  17. Comentario del libro “Urnas de lo inesperado, Fraude electoral y lucha política en Costa Rica (1901 – 1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga Venutolo, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Introducción Este libro de Iván Molina y Fabrice Lehoucq representa un importante aporte a la historia política relegada a un segundo plano desde por lo menos la década de 1970, cuando la renovación de nuestra disciplina se orientó a la historia social y económica. En los últimos años se ha empezado a remozar la historia política utilizando novedosas estrategias teóricas y metodológicas que permiten analizar los procesos políticos desde la perspectiva cultural…

  18. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    OpenAIRE

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez; Stef de Haan; Alfredo Rodríguez-Delfín

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima) and Huancayo (Junín). Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Ad...

  19. Nuevas Orientaciones en Torno a la Atribucion de el Condenado Por Desconfiado

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez López-Vázquez,Alfredo

    1997-01-01

    El condenado por desconfiado es una obra que plantea muchos problemas de atribución a la autoría rutinaria de Tirso de Molina. Se han puesto otros nombres, y se han planteado diferentes métodos y y procedimientos para abordar el estudio de la atribución de esta obra. Se amplían aquí los argumentos expuestos en favor de la autoría de Andrés de Claramonte con un repaso al estado de la cuestión y varios análisis estadísticos sobre la frecuencia de las asonancias en los romances.

  20. Los sermones de Valdivia: distribución de lugares, didáctica y polémica en un testimonio del choque de dos culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosel, Ana Carina

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    En el presente trabajo se analiza un corpus de sermones jesuíticos del siglo XVII, destinados a la prédica entre las tribus araucanas en Chile. A través de marcas textuales, tales como el uso de los pronombres personales, los recursos retóricos, el discurso referido y demás manifestaciones de subjetividad, los textos construyen una posición privilegiada para el enunciador, quien se legitima como portador de la Verdad frente a una cultura y una religión diferentes, que se consideran falsas y pecaminosas. Estos textos exhiben un abanico de estrategias para imponer un modo de vida sobre otro y evidencian los prejuicios y las representaciones que sobre los indígenas manejaban entonces quienes debían incorporarlos a la Cristiandad. Los sermones de Valdivia constituyen un testimonio del desencuentro, la violencia (simbólica, en este caso y la expropiación cultural que produjo la Conquista.

  1. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DEL GÉNERO GAVILEA (ORCHIDACEAE, CHLORAEINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de los últimos estudios filogenéticos de Gavilea, se presenta una revisión taxonómica del género. Se propone una nueva combinación, Gavilea chica, siguiendo la circunscripción monofilética actual del género. Esta revisión incluye: 1 la historia del género, 2 una clave para las 17 especies de Gavilea, 3 descripciones e ilustraciones de la mayoría de las especies, 4 la actualización de la distribución geográfica de sus especies, incluyendo la ampliación de la distribución de G. platyantha y G. supralabellata en Río Negro y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, respectivamente, 5 observaciones nomenclaturales y 6 listas sinonímicas completas y actualizadas. Se designan cinco lectotipos (Asarca araucana, G. australis, A. patagonica, G. supralabellata, y G. wittei.

  2. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  3. Estimation of the soil temperature from the AVHRR-NOAA satellite data applying split window algorithms; Estimacion de la temperatura de suelo desde datos satelitales AVHRR-NOAA aplicando algoritmos de split window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.C.; Acevedo, P.S. [Depto. de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad de la Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Sobrino, J.A. [Dep. de Termodinamica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Morales, L.J. [Dep. de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Casilla 9845, Santiago (Chile)

    2006-07-01

    Four algorithms based on the technique of split-window, to estimate the land surface temperature starting from the data provided by the sensor Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer (AVHRR), on board the series of satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are carried out. These algorithms consider corrections for atmospheric characteristics and emissivity of the different surfaces of the land. Fourteen images AVHRR-NOAA corresponding to the months of October of 2003, and January of 2004 were used. Simultaneously, measurements of soil temperature in the Carillanca hydro-meteorological station were collected in the Region of La Araucana, Chile (38 deg 41 min S; 72 deg 25 min W). Of all the used algorithms, the best results correspond to the model proposed by Sobrino and Raussoni (2000), with a media and standard deviation corresponding to the difference among the temperature of floor measure in situ and the estimated for this algorithm, of -0.06 and 2.11 K, respectively. (Author)

  4. Twelve new Demospongiae (Porifera) from Chilean fjords, with remarks upon sponge-derived biogeographic compartments in the SE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Desqueyroux-Faúndez, Ruth; Carvalho, Mariana De Souza; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Willenz, Philippe

    2013-12-02

    This article reports on 12 new species originating from the Chilean fjords region, namely Clathria (Microciona) mytilifila sp. nov., Haliclona (Reniera) caduca sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) ciruela sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) copihuensis sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) verenae sp. nov., Latrunculia (L.) yepayek sp. nov., Myxilla (Burtonanchora) araucana sp. nov., Neopodospongia tupecomareni sp. nov., Oceanapia guaiteca sp. nov., Oceanapia spinisphaera sp. nov., Suberites cranium sp. nov. and Tethya melinka sp. nov. The material studied was collected between 5 and 30 m depth at latitudes comprised between 42º and 50ºS, and is part of a large collection of Chilean sponges gathered by an international team in a series of expeditions. Identification keys are provided for SE Pacific Suberites and Latrunculia, and the known species of Myxilla (Burtonanchora) and Neopodospongia. A trans-Pacific link to the New Zealand fauna was retrieved for the latter genus. Distribution ranges apparent from the materials studied here are judged too preliminary to allow any inference on biotic boundaries in the SE Pacific. A revision of earlier assertions about these biogeographic units and their boundaries concluded that very little support remains other than for existence of a Magellanic fauna. This is in part a consequence of revising the taxonomy of sponge species originally deemed to underpin these areas. Specifically, the former proposal of a Central to Southern Chile biogeographic unit (33-56ºS) has been markedly undone. 

  5. ombrófila mista montana no período entre 1979 e 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Budant Schaaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The floristic and structure alterations were studied in an Ombrophyllous Mixed Forest located in São João do Triunfo (Paraná State - Brazil. Nine plots of 1ha, first evaluated in 1979, were recovered and, measured in 2000. In 1979, all the trees with dbh ≥ 20 cm were identified and tagged, and they had their commercial height and diameter measured. In 2000, based on the same criteria described before, the trees which had not been counted in 1979 were considered as ingrowth, and the missing ones were considered mortality. In 1979, 2133 individuals, 51 species and 29 families were found and in the 2000 survey, 2202 individuals, 55 species and 31 families ware journal. In both surveys, the families Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Canellaceae were the most represented in terms of quantity of individuals. Although in both times more than 50 species were counted, in 1979 only 7 species (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porous, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora and Campomanesia xanthocarpa represented 80.4% of the individuals and, in 2000, the same 7 species plus Ocotea corymbosa covered 80.9% of the total number of individuals. Hovenia dulcis, exotic specie, based on the number of adult and regeneration individuals, became to be seen as a threat to the autocnons species. All the structural indicators which were analyzed showed that the community has become more mature during the studied period and that the Araucaria angustifolia increased its dominance. There was a sensible increase of the occupancy grade, indicated by the absolutely dominance that changes from 23.52 m2/ha in 1979, to 28.53 m2/ha, in 2000, an increase of 21.3%. These results indicate that this community is still in development, and has not yet found its equilibrium. It also demonstrates that the Araucaria dominance increased in this period, suggesting that this profile can even increase future in the

  6. 2 obras de Barba Corsini, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Corsini, F. J.

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available Chalet at Vallvidrera This is a beautiful house, specially adapted to the requirements of the owners (a couple with three children and servants. It has three storeys, facing the mountains. Since the location of this house is close to Barcelona, on the southwest slopes of the Tibidabo mountain, it has been selected by many Barcelona families as their permanent residence. Apartments building at La Molina This building in the Alpine style is well and flexibly adapted to the mountain slope. It has eleven storeys within four separate blocks at different levels, which, together with the internal fitting and design, make this a most exclusive and singular mountain hotel.Chalet en Vallvidrera Se trata de una bonita residencia, perfectamente adaptada a sus usuarios —un matrimonio con tres hijos y servicio—, distribuida en tres plantas y mirando hacia la montaña. Dada la proximidad a Barcelona del pequeño pueblo, situado en la ladera suroeste del Tibidabo, muchos barceloneses lo han elegido para residencia permanente. Edificio de apartamentos en La Molina Esta construcción, de un gran carácter alpino, se adapta flexiblemente al ritmo de la pendiente, con sus once plantas retrocediendo según lo imponen las características de la montaña y con cuatro cuerpos de diferentes alturas; todo lo cual, unido al tratamiento interior y a todas las comodidades de que se dispone, confieren al conjunto una categoría exclusiva y singular.

  7. DO PENSAR HISTÓRICO Á NEGAÇÃO DO PÓS-TURISMO: Ensaio crítico sobre Pós-Turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Santos Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente ensaio propõe uma análise crítica do livro O Pós-Turismo, do mexicano Sergio Molina. Inicialmente, destacamos os métodos funcionalista, estruturalista e do materialismo histórico como instrumentos capazes de interpretar a realidade turística, mostrando seus avanços e limites, para, em seguida, discutir o conceito de pós-modernidade e o surgimento do sufixo “pós”. Assim, poderemos iniciar a discussão em torno do pós-turismo e explicitar o método utilizado por Molina para criar tal conceito e demonstrar como o mesmo contribui para o empobrecimento científico e acadêmico da teoria do Turismo, evidenciando que tal conceito aplica-se como uma construção voltada para o mercado e não para o saber turístico. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Teoria do Turismo. Pós-Turismo. Funcionalismo. Neoliberalismo. 

  8. Abengalbón, o mouro amigo do Cid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Concepción Piñero Valverde

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Poema de Mio Cid apresenta um caso interessante de aliança e amizade pessoal entre diferentes grupos étnicos e religiosos, na Espanha medieval. Abengalbón, senhor mouro de Molina, é visto pelo poeta não somente como amigo generoso do Cid, mas anda como alguém que, graças à sua lealdade, deve ser lembrado com reverência, ao passo que alguns personagens cristãos são retratados como figuras mesquinhas e traiçoeiras. Também no Romancero e em outras obras da literatura espanhol medieval são apresentados casos de convivência amistosa entre cristão e mouros.El Poema de Mio Cid presenta un caso interesante de alianza y amistad personal entre distintos grupo étnicos y religiosos en la Espanha medieval. El poeta ve a Albengalbón, señor moro de Molina, no solo como un amigo generoso de El Cid, sino como alguien que, gracias a su lealtad, debe ser recordado con reverencia, mientras que muestra a algunos personajes cristianos como figuras mezquinas y traicioneras. Otros casos de convivencia armoniosa entre cristianos y moros se presentan en el Romancero y otras de la literatura española medieval.

  9. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  10. La relación entre carácter y destino en la modernidad a través del mito de las sirenas: de Homero a Kafka y Joyce / The Relationship Between Character and Destiny in Modernity Through the Siren's Myth: from Homer to Kafka and Joyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo de Camps Mora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la diferente articulación de la figura del héroe en la novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, Beltenebros (1989, y en su adaptación cinematográfica, realizada por Pilar Miró (1991. Teniendo en cuenta el contexto histórico, y un origen cervantino en esa figura, se analizan las diferencias entre la técnica de presentación en la novela, el fluir de la conciencia, y las acciones y gestos en la adaptación, en la que dos escenas de baile resaltan por su contenido simbólico y carácter intertextual, que podemos relacionar con la cultura de masas. / In this article I review the hero´s characterization in Beltenebros, by Antonio Muñoz Molina (1989, and its filmic adaptation by Pilar Miró (1991. I review the historical contexts and the literary influence in that figure. We find important differences in the kind of hero, the presentation as a ”fluid” consciousness in the novel, and the contrast with the acting and gestures in the adaptation, where we find two dancing scenes relevants by its symbolic content and the inclusion of mass culture.

  11. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  12. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids in Araucariaceae, a unique feature among seed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally admitted that seed plants (spermaphytes are unable to synthesize either arachidonic or eicosapentaenoic acids (AA and EPA, the classic essential fatty acids in animals. We give here chromatographic and spectrometric data showing that species from the primitive family Araucariaceae (gymnosperms are able to synthesize AA and/or EPA in their seeds and leaves. Agathis robusta, in particular, contains AA and EPA in small amounts in its seeds, with no D5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids (D5-UPIFA with 18 carbon atoms, whereas Araucaria spp. contain both AA and C18 D5-UPIFA. In both species, D5-UPIFA with 20 carbon atoms are present as in all other Coniferophytes. All metabolic intermediates necessary for the biosynthesis of AA and/or EPA have been characterized in Araucariaceae seeds. The relevance of these observations is discussed with regard to the phylogeny of Coniferophytes.

  13. Diagnóstico de la cuenca de río Frío, Arenal - Huetar Norte, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El diagnóstico de la cuenca de río Frío forma parte del proyecto Araucaria XXI "Unidos por el agua", el objetivo principal de este estudio es conseguir una visión general en 4 ámbitos: biofísico, social, económico y administrativo para conocer el estado actual de la zona y poder conocer las principales problemáticas para posteriormente realizar el Plan de Manejo. La cuenca del río Frío se localiza en el Área de Conservación Huetar- Norte y esta constituida principalmente por los cantones de G...

  14. Parâmetros fisiológicos e bioquímicos durante a embriogênese zigótica e somática de Auracaria angustifolia (BERT.) O. KUNTZE

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Neusa

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais. A embriogênese somática é uma técnica biotecnológica amplamente utilizada para propagação massal e conservação de diversas espécies de coníferas como é o caso da Araucaria angustifolia. Além disso, esta técnica se configura como um modelo referência para estudos da biologia do desenvolvimento in vitro. A principal limitação da embriogênese...

  15. The bioindicative potential evaluation of Tabebuia alba (Cham. Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, in urban atmospheric pollution

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    César Vinícius Carvalheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the existence of leaf anatomic characteristics in Tabebuia alba changed by air pollutants, which could be used as tool for a bioindication program. The quantification of mutagenic events on pollen grains also were measured. For this, median leaves and pre-anthesis flowers were collected from the adult plants from three places of Curitiba and one place in Araucaria, all nearby to the air monitoring stations. The comparison of the four study sites showed a reduction in leaf area, an increasing of stomatal density, subepidermic layer, epidermis in both faces and the amount of micronucleus. Also, there was reduction of chlorophyllian parenchymas at the site where there was the higher average for the ozone level. It was concluded that these modifications might be a consequence of the effect of troposferic pollution on T. alba plants. However, further studies with this species would be necessary to confirm its potential for bioindication.

  16. Genetic improvement of forest tree species

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    Teotônio Francisco Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forestry sector is considered one of the most developed in the world, being the base for important industrialsegments which use wood as raw material. Tree breeding has played an important role on improving the competitiveness ofBrazilian forestry-based companies, especially for its positive reflexes on increasing adaptation, forestry productivity and woodquality. In spite of the importance of other forest trees for the economy, such as Schizolobium, Araucaria, Populus and Hevea, themain genera under genetic improvement in the country are Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia and Tectona. They are used by industries likepulp and paper, siderurgy, tannin, chips for exportation and lumber, constituting an important source of revenues for the Brazilian’seconomy, besides their positive social and environmental impacts. This paper presents a generic approach to genetic improvementaspects of these four major genera currently undergoing breeding in Brazil.

  17. Estandarización de marcadores moleculares microsatélites para su uso en la industria forestal de Misiones, Argentina

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    Verónica Graciela Teza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Standarization of microsatellite molecular markers for Misiones (Argentina forest industry Resumen: Provincia de Misiones posee actualmente una actividad forestal en pujante crecimiento ubicándose entre las primeras del país. Este marco de desarrollo productivo permite predecir un ámbito de crecimiento favorecido por las nuevas condiciones del mercado internacional. Por otro lado a pesar del avance de la tecnología industrial, no se ha alcanzado el nivel de desarrollo biotecnológico óptimo que conjugue la calidad genética con características fenotípicas de excelencia en las especies maderables de mayor demanda en la Provincia basándose la selección en criterios netamente fenotípicos y en la experiencia del productor, sin contarse con métodos moleculares desarrollados en la región. Este trabajo presenta los resultados del Proyecto Federal de Innovación Productiva (PFIP Mi09 cuyo objetivo principal fue estandarizar y transferir al sector productivo un conjunto de marcadores moleculares microsatélites para ser aplicado al análisis de poblaciones y forestaciones de Araucaria angustifolia y Pinus taeda provenientes de la Provincia de Misiones (Argentina. Esto permitirá conocer el perfil genético de plantaciones y poblaciones de estas especies forestales, pudiendo aplicarse a la certificación de calidad en la producción forestal o a la selección de ejemplares de especies nativas. Palabras clave: biotecnología; forestaciones; Araucaria angustifolia; Pinus taeda; microsatélites. Abstract: Misiones Province currently has the first intensive forestry activity of Argentine. This framework of productive development allows predict an area of growth favored by the new conditions of the international market. On the other side despite the progress of industrial technology, has not been reached the optimal level of biotechnological development

  18. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  19. Gymnosperms from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil. I. Araucariaceae and Lindleycladus (incertae sedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kunzmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil conifers from the Early Cretaceous, most likely late Aptian, Crato Formation were studied. The excellent preservation of several of those fossils allowed detailed investigations of the leaf epidermis by light microscope (LM and by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Members of two conifer taxa were recognized: The Araucariaceae are represented by a female cone of cf. Araucaria spec. A juvenile cone (Araucariostrobus spec. and sterile foliage shoots of Brachyphyllum obesum might be attributed to the Araucariaceae as well. The morpho-genus Lindleycladus (incertae sedis is represented by foliage shoots. The occurrence of Lindleycladus is the first record of this extinct morpho-genus in the Southern Hemisphere. Anatomical features of these conifers are interpreted as adaptations to a warm seasonally dry climate. Taphonomic problems concerning these conifer remains are discussed. Fossile Koniferen aus der unterkretazischen, höchstwahrscheinlich oberaptischen Crato Formation wurden untersucht. Die ausgezeichnete Erhaltung einiger Exemplare gestattete die Analyse von Blattepidermen mittels Licht- und Rasterelektronen-mikroskop. Vertreter zweier Koniferentaxa wurden nachgewiesen: Araucariaceae kommen mit einem weiblichen Zapfen von cf. Araucaria spec. vor. Ein juveniler Zapfen (Araucariostrobus spec. und sterile Zweige mit der Beblätterung der Morpho-Species Brachyphyllum obesum werden unter Vorbehalt ebenfalls zu den Araucariaceae gestellt. Vegetative Organe der Morpho-Gattung Lindleycladus (incertae sedis sind ebenfalls erhalten. Das Vorkommen von Lindleycladus ist ein erster Nachweis dieser fossilen Morpho-Gattung in der Südhemisphäre. Anatomische Merkmale dieser Koniferen werden als Anpassungen an ein warmes, saisonal trockenes Klima gedeutet. Im Zusammenhang mit den Koniferenresten werden taphonomische Probleme diskutiert. doi:10.1002/mmng.20040070109

  20. Viabilidade do processamento de biscoitos com farinha de pinhão / Viability of cookie-processing with Paraná pine nut flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO pinhão é a semente do pinho ou pinheiro-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia de grande ocorrência no estado do Paraná. A farinha obtida é uma fonte de proteína, carboidratos e fibras e sua aplicação na indústria de alimentos poderia contribuir para melhorar o valor nutricional de vários produtos. Biscoito é o produto obtido pelo amassamento e cozimento de massa preparada com farinhas, amidos, fermentada ou não e outras substâncias alimentícias. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a elaboração de biscoito com farinha de pinhão. Foram preparadas três formulações, variando-se a adição da farinha de pinhão na formulação básica de biscoito. As amostras de biscoito com formulações de 0, 5, 10 e 20% foram submetidas a teste de aceitação. As três formulações foram bem aceitas, apresentando uma consistência semelhante ao padrão.AbstractThe seed from the evergreen species Paraná Pine (Araucaria angustifolia, which is found in Paraná State, is called “pinhão”. The “pinhão” flour is a source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber, so that its use in food industries may improve the nutritional value of several products. Cookies are made of a pastry prepared with flour, starch, with or without fermentation, and other ingredients. This research studied the production of biscuits with 5, 10 and 20% of “pinhão” flour. These three formulations were well accepted by subjects who participated in a tasting test and their texture was similar to standard cookies.

  1. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae in southern Brazil

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    MLT. Buschini

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA, the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus, the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape, and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae. Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56% was significantly higher than the female (38% and male (6% percentages.

  2. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages.

  3. Análise florística e estrutural de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, situado em Criúva, RS - Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Marques Rondon Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar a composição florística e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, localizado no município de Criúva, RS. Em oito parcelas de 10 x 100 m foram inventariados 673 indivíduos com DAP  5 cm, distribuídos em 37 espécies, pertencentes a 32 gêneros e 22 famílias. O valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 2,768. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de indivíduos amostrados são: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae e Rutaceae. O dossel dessa floresta é dominado pela Araucaria angustifolia e o sub-bosque por espécies das famílias Lauraceae e Myrtaceae. A densidade total encontrada foi de 841,25 indivíduos/ha, com DAP médio de 24,01 cm e altura média de 9,34 m. As cinco espécies que tiveram os maiores valores de importância, em ordem decrescente, foram: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana, Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Myrcia sp.. O fragmento apresenta uma considerável diversidade florística de espécies, apesar das perturbações sofridas no passado. Para que a vegetação atinja as características florísticas e estruturais próximas às da vegetação original é preciso evitar a presença de bovinos e eqüinos na área e explorações da floresta.

  4. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO E ANÁLISE AMBIENTAL DE UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA ALTO-MONTANA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PAINEL, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highland Araucaria Forest is a little-studied forest formation, occurring in altitudes above 1,000 m. The objectives of this study were to understand the structural and floristic patterns of the tree component of a remaining of this forest in the southern plateau region of Santa Catarina State and to determine the environmental variables that influence these patterns. The tree component survey and the environmental data collection were conducted in 50 plots of 200 m2. Within these plots, all living trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. In each plot, environmental variables related to soils physical and chemical traits, topography and canopy cover were collected. Phytosociological parameters and the diameter structure (whole tree community and tree populations with the importance value above 5 % were calculated. The floristic-structural similarities among plots were analyzed by NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and vectors of environmental variables (p < 0.05 were plotted a posteriori. A total of 50 tree species were identified, distributed in 33 genera and 20 families. The species with the highest VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze (17.32 %, Myrceugenia euosma (O. Berg D. Legrand (15.24 % and Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret (7.84 % . The diameter structure of the whole community and of the study populations (except Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. showed a distribution close to the “inverted J”. The NMDS analysis showed a higher percentage of clay in the plots with the highest density of Acca sellowiana and lowest percentage in the plots with high density of Dicksonia sellowiana, Inga lentiscifolia Benth. and Ocotea pulchella Mart. Plots with higher declivity had a higher density of Drimys brasiliensis Miers and those of lower declivity, higher elevation and greater canopy closure, had a higher occurrence of Drimys angustifolia Miers, Prunus myrtifolia (L

  5. Posición de los araucanos en un contexto asiático-europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis, María Antonia

    1999-01-01

    , japoneses y coreanos por un lado y europeos orientales y occidentales por el otro, mientras que el grupo buriat se separó a la mayor distancia, agrupándose en otro "subcluster". Con estos resultados se confirma la existencia de una mayor proximidad de araucanos con europeos que la esperada por el modelo clásico de migración transberingea; que la proximidad de los araucanos respecto de europeos no obedece a un modelo de mestizaje asiático-europeo como el producido con los filipinos y que la distancia entre araucanos y japoneses detectada no es exagerada, por cuanto si se hubiera comparado contra un grupo siberiano como los buriats, la separación asiático-araucana hubiera sido todavía mayor. La mongolización asiática del cuaternario seguida de una miscegenación holocénico temprana con poblaciones del substrato paleoindio americano, junto con procesos adaptativos al nuevo ambiente de caza-recolección, es la dinámica que mejor explica la formación de la estructura craneofacial araucana actual. Se adopta por consecuencia la acción conjunta de los procesos descriptos por las hipótesis de mongolización-adaptación y mongolización-miscegenación (Pucciarelli et al.,1999 para explicar la particular morfología craneofacial hallada en los araucanos de La Pampa.

  6. La transición de periferia a frontera: mendoza en el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gasc\\u00F3n

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la evolución de Mendoza en el siglo XVII permite diferenciar las características de un asentamiento en la periferia de aquellas características que corresponden a una sociedad de frontera. Fundada en 1561 en la periferia imperio español en América a principios del siglo XVII, Mendoza era una comunidad con escasa población, con reducido comercio y de lento desarrollo urbano; todas características de las colonias periféricas. A lo largo de la primera parte del siglo XVII, sin embargo, Mendoza se fue configurando como una sociedad de frontera. Las causas de este devenir frontera se relacionan con la revuelta araucana y con las consecuencias del establecimiento de la frontera geográfico-militar en el río Biobio. El trabajo comienza con una revisión de los términos frontera y periferia tal como se encuentran empleados en los análisis de algunos autores representativos de la historiografía sobre fronteras para las Américas. Luego se reconstruye la evolución de periferia a frontera en Mendoza; un proceso que comenzó varias décadas después de su fundación en 1561. Tal fundación no estuvo guiada por la necesidad de consolidar o de proteger una zona de frontera, de modo que no fue fundada ni como presidio ni como misión, que son las típicas instituciones de frontera y que encontramos en numerosas fronteras del imperio español, como ser en la Florida y en el norte de México. A fines del siglo XVI Mendoza fue fundada como uno de los tantos asentamientos que permitirían a los españoles seguir avanzando en la conquista y colonización de nuevos territorios. Sin embargo, la revuelta araucana de 1598-1599 provocó el quiebre de tal desenvolvimiento de la conquista porque truncó la esperanza de una futura expansión española hacia el sur. Más allá del fiasco militar de la derrota de Curalaba, la rebelión nativa obligó a la coronaa establecer un ejército profesional de alrededor de 2.000 hombres, cuya permanencia

  7. Pudor y representación: La raza mapuche, la desnudez y el disfraz Modesty and Representation: Mapuche Race, Nakedness and Disguise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Menard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo plantea un estudio sobre la función que ha tenido, sobre todo a principios del siglo XX, el problema del cuerpo, la sexualidad y la noción de pudor en la representación de la «raza» mapuche. Para ello se explorarán, primero, los vínculos entre la pornografía actual y la fotografía etnográfica. Segundo, el lugar que ocupaban el pudor y la sexualidad en los debates sobre el «verdadero carácter de la raza araucana». Por último, trataremos la relación entre la desnudez, la vestimenta y el disfraz en su relación con esta pregunta por la «verdad» de una representación etnográfica o fotográfica de la raza.The following article presents a study of the functions that the notions of body, sexuality and modesty, in the representation of the Mapuche «race», has had especially since the beginning of the twentieth century. The article will, first, explore the connections between contemporary pornography and ethnographic photography. Secondly, it will extend into the places that modesty and sexuality occupy in the debates about the «true character of the Araucanian race». Finally, it will treat the relation between nakedness, costume and disguise and their relation with the question of «truth» in an ethnographical or photographic representation of race.

  8. Generation of cloned and chimeric embryos/offspring using the new methods of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzyszowska, Maria; Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Bednarczyk, Marek; Samiec, Marcin; Smorag, Zdzisław; Waś, Bogusław; Guszkiewicz, Andrzej; Korwin-Kossakowski, Maciej; Górniewska, Maria; Szablisty, Ewa; Modliński, Jacek A; Łakota, Paweł; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Sechman, Andrzej; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Mika, Maria; Lisowski, Mirosław; Czekalski, Przemysław; Rzasa, Janusz; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes results of studies concerning: 1/ qualitative evaluation of pig nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning, 2/ developmental potency of sheep somatic cells to create chimera, 3/ efficient production of chicken chimera. The quality of nuclear donor cells is one of the most important factors to determine the efficiency of somatic cell cloning. Morphological criteria commonly used for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Therefore, different types of somatic cells being the source of genomic DNA in the cloning procedure were analyzed on apoptosis with the use of live-DNA or plasma membrane fluorescent markers. It has been found that morphological criteria are a sufficient selection factor for qualitative evaluation of nuclear donor cells to somatic cell cloning. Developmental potencies of sheep somatic cells in embryos and chimeric animals were studied using blastocyst complementation test. Fetal fibroblasts stained with vital fluorescent dye and microsurgically placed in morulae or blastocysts were later identified in embryos cultured in vitro. Transfer of Polish merino blastocysts harbouring Heatherhead fibroblasts to recipient ewes brought about normal births at term. Newly-born animals were of merino appearance with dark patches on their noses, near the mouth and on their clovens. This overt chimerism shows that fetal fibroblasts introduced to sheep morulae/blastocysts revealed full developmental plasticity. To achieve the efficient production of chicken chimeras, the blastodermal cells from embryos of the donor breeds, (Green-legged Partridgelike breed or GPxAraucana) were transferred into the embryos of the recipient breed (White Leghorn), and the effect of chimerism on the selected reproductive and physiological traits of recipients was examined. Using the model which allowed identification of the chimerism at many loci, it has been found that 93.9% of the examined birds

  9. Evaluación de la Actividad Nitrato Reductasa y Crecimiento Hidropónico de Lechuga (Lactuca Sativa L. ‘Crufia’) en Función de Cuatro Soluciones Nutritivas

    OpenAIRE

    Malca Soto, Flori; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    2013-01-01

    El experimento se realizó en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Lima – Perú; 2009-2010), con el objetivo de determinar los efectos de la aplicación de cuatro soluciones nutritivas (150, 200, 250 y 300 mg N/L) sobre los parámetros: nitrato reductasa, materia fresca y seca, diámetro de cabeza, número de hojas y área foliar en dos sistemas hidropónicos: raíz  flotante  y  usando  arena.  Se presentaron en las lechugas tratadas con 300 mg N/L, en raíz flotante y usando arena, los mayores ...

  10. La propuesta de un nuevo concepto de lo humano en El beso de la mujer araña

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    Jorge Ruiz Luna

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende demostrar que en la novela El beso de la mujer araña (1976, del argentino Manuel Puig, se muestra simbólicamente la desigual relación entre la mujer y el hombre en la androcéntrica sociedad latinoamericana contemporánea, y cómo esa relación de dominio que deshumaniza a ambos elementos, puede llegar a convertirse en una relación de igualdad. Los personajes centrales de la novela, Luis Molina y Valentín Arregui, prueban que el camino para esa nueva humanidad debe pasar por una educación liberadora y una práctica consecuente.

  11. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study

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    Rodrigo eQuian Quiroga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g. being attracted to saliency regions but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology give a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  12. Noether and Belinfante corrected types of currents for perturbations in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, A N

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of an arbitrary D-dimensional metric theory, perturbations are considered on arbitrary backgrounds, which, however, are solutions of the theory. Conserved currents for perturbations are presented following two known prescriptions: of the canonical Noether theorem and of the Belinfante symmetrization rule. On the basis of the generalized formulae, currents in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity for arbitrary types of perturbations on arbitrary curved backgrounds (not only vacuum) are constructed in the explicit covariant form. A more attention is paid to the energy-momentum tensors for perturbations as more important parts in the structure of the currents. To be tested the new expressions are used a) to present energy density for weak flat gravitational waves in D-dimensional EGB gravity; b) to present mass flux for the Maeda-Dadhich-Molina 3D radiating black holes of the Kaluza-Klein type in 6D EGB gravity.

  13. Antimonumentos: trabalho de memória e de resistência

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    Márcio Seligmann-Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este ensaio apresenta uma reflexão sobre o fenômeno dos "antimonumentos" que surgiram no final do século XX como uma forma de lidar, pelo viés das artes, com a violência de Estado, como nos casos do nazismo e das ditaduras latino-americanas. Este texto faz inicialmente uma retomada da mnemotécnica, ou seja, da antiga "arte da memória", que tem como seu pai mítico Simônides de Ceos, para em seguida apresentar a cena moderna da "arte da memória" sob a rubrica dos antimonumentos. O trabalho apresenta e discute obras de, entre outros artistas, Jochen Gerz, Horst Hoheisel, Andreas Knitz, Marcelo Brodsky e Fulvia Molina.

  14. 浅谈批评性话语分析的发展--读《语篇的批评性分析和媒体的批评性分析:挑战和缺点》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对Pedro Santander Molina 2009年发表在 Critical Discourse Studies 中的文章 Critical analysis of discourse and of the media: Chalenges and shortcoming (《语篇的批评性分析和媒体的批评性分析:挑战和缺点》)的分析,对批评性话语分析的挑战和缺点进行了探讨。阐述了这篇文章在理论上的突破,揭示了它对批评性话语分析学者的启示和帮助。

  15. Raceways-based production of algal crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisti, Yusuf [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Raceway ponds, or 'high-rate algal ponds', of various configurations have been used to treat wastewater since the 1950s. They are also known as Oswald ponds after their inventor W. J. Oswald. Large-scale outdoor culture of microalgae and cyanobacteria in raceways is well established (Terry and Raymond 1985; Oswald 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1989; Becker 1994; Lee 1997; Molina Grima 1999; Pulz 2001; Borowitzka 2005; Spolaore et al. 2006). Raceway culture is used commercially in the United States, Thailand, China, Israel and elsewhere, mostly to produce algae for relatively high-value applications. This chapter is focused on raceways typically used in the production of algal biomass and not in the treatment of wastewater. The engineering design, operation and performance characteristics of raceways are discussed. The biomass productivity of the raceways is assessed in relation to limits imposed by algal biology. The economics of algal oil production in raceways are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Socialismo y comunismo en la retaguardia valenciana, 1936-1939. De aliados a enemigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valero Gómez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Valencian province was one of the main political scenes in the conflict between socialism and communism, very important by its implications after the Spanish Civil War. The essential factors for this hard confrontation between these two political movements were: the founding, in October of 1936, of a communist peasant union, opposed to revolution and in conflict with the socialist one, that defended collectivization; the attack to Largo Caballero’s leadership by communists from the beginning of 1937; and the huge increase of the members of communist movement that questioned the socialist hegemony. The conflict started with achievements in favor of communist movement, but, finally, it culminated, in March of 1939, in the Casado’s coup d’état. In Valencia, this coup was supported by Manuel Molina Conejero, the Provincial Governor and the leader of the provincial socialism.

  17. Noether and Belinfante corrected types of currents for perturbations in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A N, E-mail: anpetrov@rol.ru [Relativistic Astrophysics Group, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii Pr., 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-07

    In the framework of an arbitrary D-dimensional metric theory, perturbations are considered on arbitrary backgrounds that are however solutions of the theory. Conserved currents for perturbations are presented following two known prescriptions: the canonical Noether theorem and the Belinfante symmetrization rule. Using generalized formulae, currents in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity for arbitrary types of perturbations on arbitrary curved backgrounds (not only vacuum) are constructed in an explicit covariant form. Special attention is paid to the energy-momentum tensors for perturbations which are an important part in the structure of the currents. We use the derived expressions for two applied calculations: (a) to present the energy density for weak flat gravitational waves in D-dimensional EGB gravity; (b) to construct the mass flux for the Maeda-Dadhich-Molina 3D radiating black holes of a Kaluza-Klein type in 6D EGB gravity. (paper)

  18. A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788 and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880 by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.

  19. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  20. Estimación de los principales parámetros reproductivos y productivos del Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 pecari de collar o sajino en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...

  1. El cultivo de marigold (Tagetes erecta l.) En el Perú: presente y futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez García, Eduardo Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Agrícola Con los objetivos de conocer, la biología y la evolución en el manejo agronómico del cultivo de “marigold” en el Perú y el mundo; el manejo postcosecha para la producción de harina y oleorresina; las ventajas y limitaciones del cultivo y su potencial futuro en el Perú, la rentabilidad en comparación con otros cultivos y la validación para el control de nemátodos; se realizó la presente investigació...

  2. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  3. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  4. Agustin de Betancourt’s Wind Machine for Draining Marshy Ground: Approach to Its Geometric Modeling with Autodesk Inventor Professional

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    José Ignacio Rojas-Sola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows the process followed in making the three-dimensional model and geometric documentation of a historical invention of the renowned Spanish engineer Agustin de Betancourt y Molina, which forms part of his rich legacy. Specifically, this was a wind machine for draining marshy ground, designed in 1789. The present research relies on the computer-aided design (CAD techniques using Autodesk Inventor Professional software, based on the scant information provided by the only two drawings of the machine, making it necessary to propose a number of dimensional and geometric hypotheses as well as a series of movement restrictions (degrees of freedom, to arrive at a consistent design. The results offer a functional design for this historic invention.

  5. Conformado macroscópico de óxidos metálicos para su aplicación en reactores solares de producción de hidrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    García Benito, Inés

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2010/2011. Directores del Proyecto: Juan Ángel Botas Echevarría y Raúl Molina Gil Colaborador: Carolina Herradón Hernández Esta memoria, recoge la labor realizada durante el Proyecto Fin de Carrera titulado ¿Conformado macroscópico de óxidos metálicos para su aplicación en reactores solares de producción de hidrógeno¿ que se engloba dentro de una de las líneas de investigación desarrollada por el Grupo...

  6. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

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    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Alonso de Molina’s Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements and the uses of plants -mainly corn- utilized in the agricultural labour, which was basic in the life of the Nahuas in Central Mexico. It has several tables with the data obtained from the historical sources which permit to understand the richness of this economic activity. This article is important for agricultural, ecological and historical studies and the information it presents is valuable.

  7. Fluctuations of Mediterranean outflow water circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz during MIS 5 to 7: Evidence from benthic foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotope records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.D.; Rai, A.K.; Tiwari, M.; Naidu, P.D.; Verma, K.; Chaturvedi, M.; Niyogi, A.; Pandey, D.

    Electronica, 4(1), 1-9. Hernández-Molina, F.J., Llave, E., Somoza, L., Fernández-Puga, M.C., Maestro, A., León, R., Medialdea, T., Barnolas, A., Garcia, M., Diaz del Rio, V., Fernández-Salas, L.M., Vázquez, J.T., Lobo, F., Alveirinho Dias, J.M., Rodero, J...., Stow, D.A.V., Garcia, M., Somoza, L., Vázquez, J.T., Lobo, F.J., Maestro, A., Diaz del Rio, V., León, R., Medialdea, T., Gardner, J., 2006. The contourite depositional system of the Gulf of Cadiz: a sedimentary model related to the bottom current...

  8. La importancia de las ideologías de los partidos políticos en la propaganda electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marina Aguirre Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la importancia del marketirzgen la comunicación política visto como un hipercódigo: "Por hipercódigo entendemos un código que opera sobre otro, y sólo así, es decir, que se monta en otro y lo usa. Al hacerlo anula la potencialidad discursiva del último" (Molina y Vedia, 1999: 200. Considerado de esta forma, el hipercódigo del marketingirnpone su propia lógica al código político, se abandona la perspectiva política para buscar las aspiraciones y deseos de segmentos, situados en el ámbito de la oferta y la demanda en un horizonte de maximización

  9. QS-21 Adjuvant: Laboratory-Scale Purification Method and Formulation Into Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Livia; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    QS-21, a saponin extracted from the tree Quillaja saponaria Molina, is a vaccine adjuvant which has been shown to elicit robust antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in a variety of preclinical and clinical studies [1]. Its purification from the natural source is a lengthy and difficult process. The commercially available saponin mixture Quil-A(®) is a fraction of the bark extract containing a variety of saponins, including QS-21. In order to facilitate access to QS-21 at laboratory-scale amounts, we propose here a method of purification of QS-21 starting from Quil-A(®). In addition, we describe a protocol to appropriately formulate QS-21 into cholesterol-containing, neutral liposomes which are known to decrease QS-21's hemolytic activity while retaining the adjuvant effect. Methods for the physicochemical characterization of purified QS-21 and of the QS-21/liposome formulations are also described.

  10. Integration of Communication Analysis and the OO-Method: Rules for the manual derivation of the Conceptual Model

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise information systems can be developed following a model-driven paradigm. This way, models that represent the organisational work practice are used to produce models that represent the information system. Current software development methods are starting to provide guidelines for the construction of conceptual models, taking as input requirements models. This paper proposes the integration of two methods: Communication Analysis (a communication-oriented requirements engineering method [Espa\\~na, Gonz\\'alez et al. 2009]) and the OO-Method (a model-driven object-oriented software development method [Pastor and Molina 2007]). For this purpose, a systematic technique for deriving OO-Method Conceptual Models from business process and requirements models is proposed. The business process specifications (which include message structures) are processed in order to obtain static and dynamic views of the computerised information system. Then, using the OLIVANOVA framework, software source code can be generated...

  11. Impacto económico del sector cerámico en San José de Cúcuta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar el impacto económico de las empresas del sector cerámico en la ciudad de San José Cúcuta (Colombia en el periodo 2008-2011. Se utilizó como instrumento un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a los empresarios del sector. Igualmente, se efectuaron entrevistas a directivos de organizaciones gremiales. El impacto económico se analizó siguiendo la metodología propuesta por Soto y Bergoeing (1998, Arbeláez y Sandoval (2006 y Molina, Coronado y Rivera (2008. Se concluye que este sector, en el periodo estudiado, presentó gran impacto económico, en particular en lo relativo al nivel de empleo, el aporte en impuestos al municipio, el consumo intermedio y el valor agregado.

  12. Methodology and Axiological Content of Values ​​Education Programs

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    Javier Paez Gallego

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Values education is a learning process that enhances the axiological development of people. From this point of view, the models proposed by Kohlberg (1976 and Molina (2012 provide the basis for planning education programs in values. In the present paper is reviewed historical evolution of the most important in the development of education programs in values theoretical and methodological models. To this end it has carried out a careful review of the relevant scientific literature databases (PsycINFO, Psicodoc, ERIC, EBSCO, Social Services and Abstract Web of Knowledge. The result allows comparisons between different theoretical models and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each of these points, as well as exposure of the main methodological elements involved in values education. Thus, they describe the properties and components of judgment for the selection of the values considering the recipients of educational action.

  13. Estudio hermenéutico de la izquierda colombiana como alternativa política de partido

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    Emma Doris López

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio hermenéutico parte de los argumentosplanteados en el seminario electivo de comportamientopolítico, en el Doctorado de Ciencias Políticas,orientado por el doctor José Enrique Molina.La interpretación política de la izquierda en Colombiaha incidido a través de la historia como una fuerzaque, a pesar de su fragmentación, hoy se está consolidandocomo una alternativa de partido que abarca el manejode los comportamientos electorales desde lo psicológicoy lo sociológico.Este artículo está fundamentado en Pérez (2006 y enlos planteamientos de Torcal y Mainwaring. Se trató deinterpretar la posición de la izquierda como política alternativapara el mejoramiento de los estados sociales enlos países de América Latina.Palabras clave: Hermenéutica, Política de izquierda,Comportamiento electoral. AbstractThis hermeneutic study of the arguments raised inthe seminar elective political behavior, the Ph.D. in PoliticalScience, guided by Dr. José Enrique Molina.The political interpretation of the left in Colombiahas affected through history as a power that, despite itsfragmentation, today is emerging as an alternative partythat covers the management of electoral behavior fromthe psychological and the sociological.This paper it is based on Pérez (2006 and approachesTorcal and Mainwaring. He tried to interpret the positionof the left as an alternative for improving social conditionsin Latin American politics.Keywords: Hermeneutics, Leftist politics, ElectoralbehaviorCómo

  14. Verdade e ficção nos «Diarios» de José María Arguedas

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    Rômulo Monte Alto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Após escrever El zorro de arriba y el zorro d abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor e antropólogo peruano, tentou se suicidar em sua sala na Universidad Agrária de la Molina, em Lima, 1969, como havia anunciado nas páginas que acabava de escrever; acabou falecendo três dias depois num hospital. Através da análise dos Diarios, contidos em seu último romance, queremos discutir o papel do diário na (reconstrução da trajetória pessoal do autor e na sua escolha como instrumento de anúncio de sua morte.Palavras-chave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografia.Resumen: Trás escribir El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor y antropólogo peruano, intentó suicidarse en su despacho en la Universidad Agraria de la Molina, en Lima, 1969, como había anunciado desde las páginas que acababa de escribir; tres dias después falleció en un hospital. A través del análisis de los Diarios presentes en su postrera novela buscamos discutir el papel del diario en la (reconstrucción de la trayectoria personal del autor y en su elección como instrumento de anuncio de su muerte.Palabras-clave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografía.Keywords: Peruvian literature; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biography.

  15. La democracia en el Perú: una terca voluntad

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    Carolina ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La construcción de la democracia en el Perú es una vieja tarea que se realiza, aunque imperceptiblemente, lenta y tercamente tanto en la cultura política de los nuevos ciudadanos como en la organización política de la sociedad. El presente artículo es un ensayo sobre la aventura democrática en el primer lustro del siglo XXI yendo a las últimas décadas del siglo XX en el Perú, en las que la institucionalidad democrática adquiere nueva legitimidad, para entender las dificultades que los actores políticos encuentran y que se deben tomar en cuenta para hablar de la calidad de la democracia, en la línea que el artículo de Levine y Molina (2007 nos propone.ABSTRACT: The construction of democracy in Peru is a long standing challenge that has advanced slowly and stubbornly, if imperceptibly at time, in both the political culture of the citizens and the political organization of society. This article analyzes the «democratic adventure» in Peru in the first years of the 21st century in the context of the last two decades of the 20th, when democratic institutionalization achieved a new level of legitimacy, to identify the challenges to democracy that political actors have confronted. These elements will help analyze the quality of democracy along the lines proposed in the work of Levine and Molina (2007.

  16. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (Tyto alba nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (Tyto alba è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a Prosopis caldenia. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  17. Revolución y contrarrevolución en el Caribe: España, Trujillo y Fidel Castro en 1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paz Sánchez, Manuel

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the Cuban Revolution it was found out that its own survival depended mostly on the dissemination of its message in the Caribbean area, and specially on the need to export its revolutionary experience to those territories which, as it was the case with the Dominican Republic, wished to get free from the last dictators in America, the most famous among the latter being Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. Spain's external position was peculiar in this regard. Within the general framework of its Latin American policy, aiming at the maintenance of diplomatic links in the area, Madrid endeavoured to keep good relationships both with Trujillo 's Dominican Republic and with revolutionary Cuba.

    La Revolución Cubana no tardó en descubrir que una de las claves fundamentales para su propia supervivencia, que estaba ligada, asimismo, a su ideario de insurrección continental era la expansión de su mensaje en la propia zona del Caribe y, en concreto, la necesidad de exportar sus prácticas insurgentes hacia aquellos territorios que, como la República Dominicana, estaban deseando liberarse del yugo de los últimos dictadores de América, entre los que alcanzaba la cúspide de la impopularidad Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. La posición exterior de España, en tales circunstancias, no dejaba de ser peculiar. En el contexto general de su política hacia América Latina que ansiaba mantener los vínculos diplomáticos, al margen de contingencias más o menos coyunturales, Madrid hizo todo lo posible por entenderse tanto con la República Dominicana del dictador Trujillo como con la Cuba revolucionaria del rebelde Castro.

  18. Avaliação da qualidade de solos sob diferentes coberturas florestais e de pastagem no sul de Minas Gerais Evaluation of soil quality under different forest covers and pasture in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No sul de Minas Gerais faz-se a substituição de florestas de araucária por pastagens ou extensos plantios de eucalipto. No entanto, poucos estudos relacionam, de forma ampla, os impactos nos atributos físicos, químicos, microbianos e visuais do solo causados por esta substituição. Com esse objetivo, selecionaram-se áreas com eucalipto, araucária implantada, mata nativa e pasto implantado em Delfim Moreira, MG, no verão de 2006, de onde se retiraram amostras deformadas e indeformadas de solo para análises químicas (pH, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, H + Al, SB, t, T, V, m e matéria orgânica, físicas (densidade do solo, densidade de partículas, índice de floculação, diâmetro médio geométrico, macro e microporosidade e microbianas (atividade microbiana, qCO2, C da biomassa microbiana, relação C da biomassa/C orgânico. Com atributos visuais ligados ao solo, às plantas e aos animais, elaborou-se um indicador da qualidade visual para cada ecossistema, que se destacou pela praticidade, simplicidade e sensibilidade na discriminação das diferentes coberturas vegetais. A grande maioria dos atributos físicos e microbianos mostrou-se eficiente nas avaliações da qualidade ambiental, que revelaram grande disparidade entre a pastagem e os demais ecossistemas, e alta similaridade entre o ecossistema eucalipto com sub-bosque desenvolvido e araucária implantada.Native forests have frequently been substituted by Eucalyptus or annual crops cultivation in Brazil. In southern Minas Gerais State the substitution of Araucaria angustifolia forests by agricultural systems or extensive Eucalyptus stands has also been observed. However, few studies are focused on the impacts of such land use changes on soil physical, chemical and microbial and visual aspect of soils. With this goal in mind, different ecosystems were selected, including introduced Eucalyptus and Araucaria and native forest and pasture in Delfim Moreira county, state of Minas Gerais

  19. Análise da rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras: o caso do Estado de São Paulo Economic profitability analysis of reforestation with native trees: the state of São Paulo's case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arimatéia Rabelo Machado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, analisou-se a rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras destinados à produção de toras, considerando como caso em estudo o Estado de São Paulo. Na revisão de literatura, constatou-se que poucos são os trabalhos publicados a respeito do reflorestamento com essências nativas e com um longo período de observação. Dentre esses trabalhos, destacou-se um, no qual os autores recomendaram três espécies florestais como viáveis para reflorestamentos comerciais: Centrolobium tomentosum (araruva, Balfourodendron riedelianum (pau-marfim e Araucaria angustifolia (pinheiro-brasileiro. Após recuperar as informações técnicas dos experimentos com essas essências nativas, realizou-se a análise de rentabilidade econômica de possíveis projetos, em condições deterministas e de risco. Concluiu-se que, do ponto de vista privado, os projetos de reflorestamento com essas essências nativas são viáveis economicamente. Diante desse cenário, sugerem-se novas linhas de pesquisa técnica capazes de gerar resultados que assegurem maior confiabilidade e ampliação na rentabilidade dos projetos de reflorestamento com essências nativas brasileiras.This paper analyzes the economic profitability of native-tree reforestation for the production of sawlogs. The projects evaluated are experimental rather than commercial and are located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. These experimental plots were reforested with the native tree species Centrolobium tomentosum ("araruva", Balforodendron riedelianum ("pau-marfim" and Araucaria angustifolia ("pinheiro-brasileiro", recommended for their economic value by a previous evaluation of long-term native-tree reforestation. Economic profitability analyses were made under both deterministic and risk conditions using data from the reforestation experiments. It was found that all the experiments would be profitable. This paper concludes with the suggestion

  20. O SUB-BOSQUE DE REFLORESTAMENTOS DE PINUS EM SÍTIOS DEGRADADOS DA REGIÃO DA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Franz H. Andrae

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o sub-bosque de 12 povoamentos de Pinus sp. e um de Araucaria angustifolia O.Ktze., crescendo em solos degradados pelo uso agrícola na chamada 4a Colônia do Rio Grande do Sul. A Araucaria foi semeada diretamente, um dos povoamentos de Pinus, de 10 anos, resultou de uma renovação natural, os demais provêm de plantios de 25 a 30 anos atrás. Em 575 parcelas de 25 m² cada, distribuídas sistematicamente nos povoamentos, foram levantados o estrato arbóreo e a vegetação inferior, classificada em estratos de 0,3 a 1,3 m e maior que 1,3 m; no estrato inferior a 0,3 m somente a renovação natural de Pinus foi contada. A vegetação interna dos povoamentos se compôs de 121 espécies lenhosas, incluindo espécies desde comuns até nobres, mas também ornamentais ou frutíferas nativas e exóticas. Um bom número de espécies, porém, ocorreu com poucos representantes. Além disso registrou-se a presença freqüente de espécies não-arbóreas como ervas, gramas, samambaias e cipós. O número de espécies e o grau de cobertura do sub-bosque não dependiam da densidade do estrato superior de pinheiros. A abundância e a freqüência das espécies não variavam significativamente entre parcelas do centro dos povoamentos e da faixa periférica. O padrão de distribuição espacial das plantas dentro dos povoamentos foi quantificado pelo Índice de Cox. O Índice de Shannon foi usado como medida da diversidade em espécies; pelo Índice de Sörensen foi estudada a semelhança dos povoamentos. Conclui-se que plantios de exóticas nessa região não somente podem ser de interesse para os agricultores pelo elevado potencial produtivo em madeira, como também significam manchas de inesperada biodiversidade numa paisagem degradada. A riqueza do sub-bosque possivelmente se deve á extensão reduzida desses povoamentos.

  1. Functional morphology of two Lepismium species (Rhipsalideae, Cactaceae Morfología funcional de dos especies de Lepismium (Rhipsalideae, Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Regina Torres-Boeger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of stem segments of 2 species of Lepismium (Cactaceae, which grow naturally in the Araucaria forest understory, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, are compared. The goal of this study was to identify morphological traits adapted to epiphytism and to the low light condition of the studied environment. Twenty-five segments of Lepismium cruciforme and L. lumbricoides were collected and various morphological and anatomical features were measured. Differences (p Se compara la morfología y la anatomía de los segmentos del tallo de 2 especies de Lepismium, que crecen naturalmente en el sotobosque del bosque de Araucaria, en el estado de Paraná. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar rasgos morfológicos de adaptación para el epifitismo y para condiciones de poca luz del ambiente estudiado. Se recolectaron 25 ejemplares de L. cruciforme y de L. lumbricoides y se midieron rasgos tanto morfológicos como anatómicos de los tallos. Se encontraron diferencias (p < 0.05 entre las especies considerando los valores promedio del volumen total, del área total fotosintética, del grosor de la epidermis y de la hipodermis, del área del esclerénquima / área transversal total de los segmentos del tallo y del área del parénquima / área transversal total, caracteres que se correlacionan a sus diferencias en forma. Las características xeromórficas encontradas en Lepismium, la mayor parte de ellas típicas de cactáceas de zonas áridas, han favorecido el desarrollo del hábito epifítico y la ocupación de bosques húmedos. Como epífitas, están sujetas a un cierto grado de escasez de agua, aunque no a las condiciones tan severas como la mayoría de las cactáceas terrestres. Los valores promedio para el grosor de la hipodermis, el contenido de agua, la cantidad de esclerénquima y las densidad estomática son más similares a las plantas mesomórficas, y se pueden correlacionar al epifitismo, demostrando que estas especies

  2. O cultivo da araucária para produção de pinhões como ferramenta para a conservação Plantation of Brazilian pine to nuts production as a conservation tool

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    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira da araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze teve grande importância econômica no Brasil, principalmente entre 1930 e 1970. O desmatamento ocasionou a redução drástica do tamanho populacional de araucária e atualmente ela integra a lista de espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de extinção. O objetivo dessa revisão foi apresentar o potencial de geração de renda do cultivo de araucária para produção de pinhões e a consequente conservação da espécie. Segundo o que se observou na literatura, o pinhão pode gerar mais renda que a madeira da araucária, quando são utilizadas técnicas de manejo adequadas. O cultivo da araucária com interesse econômico do pinhão é uma ferramenta eficaz para aumentar os plantios e diminuir a exploração das araucárias remanescentes. É necessário propor estratégias em parceria entre organizações de produtores e coletores, pesquisadores e órgãos governamentais brasileiros para desenvolver e aprimorar técnicas adequadas de manejo, processamento e comercialização do pinhão. The wood of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze had great economic importance in Brazil, mainly between 1930 to 1970. The deforestation caused a drastic reduction in population size of Brazilian pine and currently it integrates the list of Brazilian threatened species. The aim of thisreview was to present the potential of generating income from Brazilian pine plantation for pine nuts production and the consequent species conservation. According to the literature, pine nuts can generate more income than Brazilian pine wood, when used appropriate management techniques. The plantation with economic interest in pine nuts is an effective tool to increase planting and reduce exploitation of the Brazilian pine remaining. It is necessary to propose strategies in partnership among producer and collectors organizations, researchers and Brazilians government agencies to develop and improve

  3. Larvas de Coleoptera em ecossistemas de araucária no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, SP

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    Merlim Analy de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer as alterações na população de larvas de coleópteros do solo em diferentes ecossistemas de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Ktze: mata nativa bem preservada; mata introduzida em Latossolo Amarelo apresentando diversidade intermediária de outras espécies vegetais e mata introduzida em Cambissolo com baixa diversidade vegetal e ocorrência de fogo acidental, no município de Campos do Jordão, SP, visando à preservação desta espécie arbórea. As larvas foram coletadas em superfície amostral de 25 x 25cm, nas profundidades do solo de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30cm e na serapilheira. Foram coletadas dez amostras por ecossistema, nos meses de outubro de 2002 (período seco e março de 2003 (período chuvoso. Em relação à mata nativa, foram observadas alterações na densidade e na diversidade das larvas nos ecossistemas introduzidos em Latossolo Amarelo e em Cambissolo. As características químicas e físicas do solo, aliadas às condições climáticas, contribuíram para as alterações nesta comunidade.

  4. 5 Floristics and structure of a Mixed Rain Forest remnant on the Catarinense Plateau

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    Carine Klauberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the floristics and the structure of tree species in the Parque Municipal Natural of Lages, SC, a remnant of mixed rain forest located in southern Brazil. For this, we allocated four plots (40 x 40m and each plot was divided into 16 sub-plots of 10 x 10m. Trees with dbh ≥ 5cm and height ≥ 1.3m were mapped, tagged and measured. The individuals were identified and voucher material was deposited in the herbarium. A total of 46 species were sampled, distributed in 39 genera and 27 families. The richest families in number of species were Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Salicaceae and Sapindaceae. Seven species represented more than 60% of the total of individuals. The specific diversity was H’ = 3.05 nats.ind-1 (J’ = 0.81. The similarity among plots was 32 at 44%, indicating low similarity among plots. The spatial distribution of most of the species is classified as clumped, according to the Morisita index. This forest remains with a considerable richness and diversity with some endangered tree species such as Araucaria angustifolia and Dicksonia sellowiana. Due to its ecological importance for the local flora and fauna and the fragmentation process in the region, this remnant should be considered as a priority area for conservation.

  5. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  6. New species of dictyostelids from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C; Romeralo, Maria; Edwards, Sally M; Stephenson, Steven L; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    In late Jan and early Feb 2005 samples for isolation of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (dictyostelids) were collected in five different provinces and from six national parks (all located 39-55°S) in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Southern beech (Nothofagus) forests represented the primary vegetation type investigated, but some samples were obtained from Patagonian steppe, alpine meadows, Valdivian temperate rainforests and coniferous forests dominated by Araucaria, Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. Among the dictyostelids isolated from the samples we collected were seven species new to science. These species (Dictyostelium austroandinum, D. chordatum, D. fasciculoideum, D. gargantuum, D. leptosomopsis, D. valdivianum and Polysphondylium patagonicum) are described herein on the basis of both morphology and molecular (SSU rDNA) data. One of the new species, D. gargantuum, is one of the largest representatives of the group reported to date. Another unusual species, D. chordatum, produces long interwoven sorocarps that do not appear to respond to a spacing gas similar to the condition first noted in D. implicatum.

  7. First record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae from Brazil Primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Brasil

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.

  8. 南方主要绿化树种对重金属的积累特性%Trees' Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in the Soil of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜鹏; 陈金林; 黄全能; 王擎运; 赵好; 薛丹

    2007-01-01

    研究了南方主要绿化树种对重金属的积累特性,结果表明:同一树种中Pb、Cd、Hg、As的含量差异较大,相同元素在不同树种中的含量也存在一定差异,不同树种的重金属含量一般随环境污染程度的增加而升高,即从高至低依次为市区、近郊、远郊,市区树种中Pb、Cd、Hg、As的平均含量分别比远郊的增加62%、103%、187%、104%.垂枝榕(Ficus beniamina 'Exotica')、菩提树(F.religiosa)、凤凰木(Delonix regia)、南洋杉(Araucaria cunninghamii)分别对Pb、Cd、Hg、As的积累作用较大,宜用这些树木进行重金属污染的治理和修复,洋紫荆(Bauhinia variegata)、南洋杉、高山榕(F.altissima)、小叶榕(F.microcarpa)分别对Pb、Cd、Hg、As的抗性最小、即敏感性最强,可用于重金属污染的监测.

  9. Influence of Secondary Plant Metabolites on the Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis%植物提取物对苏云金芽孢杆菌杀虫活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏辉; 王前梁; 侯有明; 尤民生

    2003-01-01

    植物提取物对苏云金芽孢杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)的杀虫活性有不同程度的影响.试验结果表明,处理48 h后,花椒Zanthoxylum bungeanum、假连翘Duranta repens、南洋楹Albizia falcataria、羊蹄甲Bauhinia variegata、番石榴Psidium guajava、荷花玉兰Magnolia grandiflora的乙醇提取物对Bt的杀虫活性有显著增效作用;小蜡Ligustrum sinense、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、一品红Euphorbia pulcherrima、烟草Nicotiana tabacum、南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamii、繁缕Stellaria media、光叶子花Bougainvillea glabra、小飞蓬Conyza canadensis、地肤Kochia scoparia的乙醇提取物对Bt杀虫活性有显著拮抗作用;其他植物提取物则没有显著影响.

  10. Dieta de Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, Paraná, Brasil Diet of Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae on a Araucauria Pine Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, localizado no Distrito do Bugre, Município de Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo foi conhecer as espécies utilizadas na alimentação por Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 no decorrer de um ano. Foram registradas dez (N = 10 espécies na dieta dos serelepes, pertencentes a sete famílias botânicas. Os serelepes predaram sementes de três espécies e se alimentaram de três espécies exóticas, mostrando adaptabilidade a ambientes alterados.This study was conducted between February, 2002 and January, 2003 in a remnant of Araucaria Pine Forest located in the District of Bugre, Municipality of Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brazil. The goal of this study was to survey the species used as food items by Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 throughout a year. Ten (N = 10 species were recorded in the diet of these squirrels, belonging to seven plant families. Squirrels preyed on seeds of three plant species and fed on three exotic species, indicating good adaptability to disturbed habitats.

  11. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  12. TREE STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF AN AREA OF MIXED RAIN FOREST IN CAMPO BELO DO SUL, SC, BRAZIL

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    Silvio Formento

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the arboreal structure of a Mixed Rain Forest was assessed in the period 1992-2003. The area belongs to the “Florestal Gateados company”, located in Campo Belo do Su county, in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. The surwey was carried out in 16 sample units of 10 x 60 m (600 m², where all individuals with DAP > 10 cm Were registered, measured and identified. After the analysis, it could be concluded that: Lithraea brasiliensis was the most representative specie in the structure of the forest in both analised periods, and this was related to the high values of density, dominance, frequency, besides the distribution in all forest layers. The most important species, which increased their participation in the composition and structure were, Ocotea pulchella, Matayba elaeagnoides, Clethra scabra, Clethra uleana, Sebastiana commersoniana and Araucaria angustifolia; The species which decreased in their importância in the forest structure were, Myrsine coriacea Nectandra grandiflora Capsicodendron dinissi, Ilex theezans,Ilex dumosa and Xylosma ciliatifolium. The distribuition of the trees in the forest layers changed from increasing distribution in 1992 to uniformity in 2003, enhancing the increases in density of trees of the lower layer; the forest is in a successional process, indicated particularly by the dinamycs of the structure of the lower forest layers.

  13. Análise da distribuição espacial de biomassa e carbono arbóreo acima do solo em floresta ombrófila mista / Analysis of spatial distribution of biomass and carbon in trees above ground mixed ombrophilous forest

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    Lúcio de Paula Amaral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAnálises de biomassa e carbono estão em destaque hoje como serviços ambientais prestados por uma floresta. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a variabilidade espacial dessas variáveis em fragmento de Floresta Ombrofila Mista (FOM, utilizando krigagem ordinária. Os dados foram georreferenciados e obtidos em 45 unidades amostrais utilizadas em levantamento fitossociológico em 2007, numa área em General Carneiro (PR, com aplicação de equações alométricas ajustadas. As analises espaciais e elaboração de mapas foram realizadas no programa GS+R. Foi possível ajustar os semivariogramas, utilizando o modelo exponencial, obtendo-se forte dependencia espacial para as respectivas variáveis, resultando em mapas de isovalores. AbstractAnalyses of biomass and carbon are in focus today as the environmental services provided through a forest. This study aimed to characterize the spatial variability of these variables in fragment of Araucaria forest – MOF, using ordinary kriging. Data were obtained and georeferenced in 45 sampling units used in phytosociological survey in 2007 in an area in General Carneiro (PR, applying adjusted allometric equations. Spatial analyses and mapping were performed in the GS+R. It was possible to adjust the semivariograms using the exponential model, resulting in a strong spatial dependence for the respective variables, resulting in isovalue maps.

  14. Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

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    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

  15. 进口原木截获松皮双凸象的鉴定及其风险%Identification of the Pine Bark Weevil,Aesiotes notabilis Pascoe, intercepted from imported wood and its risk to China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶剑雄; 任立; 张润志

    2011-01-01

    A non - Chinese weevil which intercepted by Putian Entry - Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau within imported Pinus radiate logs from Australia was identified to the Pine Bark Weevil, Aesiotes notabilis Pascoe, belonging to Curculionidae, Coleoptera. Its morphological characters as well as Pinus and Araucaria host plants were presented. The Pine Bark Weevil larvae infest conifers underside barks and easily spread long distance by larvae ancl adults. The insect had potential impacts to conifers around south China. Here is the alert to strengthen ports' quarantine to prevent its introduction and damage to China.%本文提供了福建省莆田出入境检验检疫局从来自澳大利亚澳洲辐射松原木截获的松皮双凸象的形态鉴定特征,其寄主植物种类为多种松属和杉属植物,其幼虫在树皮下危害,成虫和幼虫均易随原木远距离传播扩散。松皮双凸象对我国南方针叶树构成一定威胁,对从澳大利亚进口的针叶树原木需加强检疫以防止其入侵危害。

  16. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

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    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  17. Level of social economic development of municipalities of Paraná

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    Douglas Paz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the level of development of municipalities in the state of Paraná, through factor analysis. To this end, an index of development for the 399 municipalities in the state was calculated , 21 variables were selected , which , after being rotated four factors converged to analysis , which together explained 84.70 % of the total variance of this variables . The results show that stood out positively in the first positions , the cities of Curitiba , Araucaria , São José dos Pinhais and Carambeí. Moreover, in the last positions were the municipalities of Nova Tebas, Mato Rico, Laranjal and Altamira do Paraná, among other small municipalities. In the first positions in the ranking, there was a relatively uniform spatial distribution of the various areas of the state, while in the latter settings, there was a tendency to concentrate around the center of the state. It was also possible to detect a trend towards larger cities occupy the top positions, as most developed cities in the state of Paraná.

  18. Avaliação estacional da deposição de serapilheira em uma floresta ombrófila mista localizada no sul do estado do Paraná

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    Afonso Filho Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the seasonal litter fall of a Mixed Araucaria Forest, in September 98, an experiment was installed at the UFPR’s experimental station in São João do Triunfo, Parana State. This station is divided in 30 blocks of 1 ha each. Twenty-seven litter collectors were installed in 3 blocks (9 sampling points per block . At every 45 days the litter were collected, always attempting to the end of the season. The collected material was conditioned in plastic bags, which were identified with the numbers of the collector and the block where it was installed. After air drying, the material was separated in three fractions (leaves , branches and miscellany and then, it was taken to dry kiln at 65ºC until reaching constant weight, in order to determine the dry weight of each litter fraction. The results obtained so far demonstrate that the spring season showed the greatest litter fall, followed by the winter, summer and autumn with the average values (in kg/ha of 2,433.31; 2,164.79; 1,799.71 and 1,399.00, respectively. The leaves fraction was the main component representing 57% of the total litter fall weight, followed by the branches fraction with 27% and miscellany with 16%.

  19. REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO APÓS A MORTALIDADE DE UM MACIÇO DE TAQUARA EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA EM LAGES - SC

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    Kristiana Fiorentin dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the floristic and structural descriptors of tree species natural regeneration in a forest sector with synchronized bamboo (Merostachys multiramea Hackel die-off (CT and an adjacent area with continuous canopy cover (ST in an araucaria forest fragment in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina state. A total of 14, 5x5m, plots (six plots in CT sector and eight in ST sector were allocated, where all tree species regenerative individual with circumference at breast height smaller than 15cm and height higher than 25cm was measured (diameter at soil level and identified. The richest families were: Myrtaceae (nine, Solanaceae (six and Aquifoliaceae (four. The Shannon Diversity Index in ST and CT sectors were respectively 2.73 and 2.31. The species with the highest importance values in CT sector were Solanum variabile, Piptocarpha angustifolia, Mimosa scabrella, Jacaranda puberula and Solanum pseudoquina. In ST sector, the species with highest importance values were Myrsine lorentziana, Casearia decandra, Cinnamodendron dinisii, Drimys brasiliensis and Ilex paraguariensis. The results showed that the synchronized bamboo die-off influenced the spatial variation in the floristic and structural descriptors of the tree species natural regeneration.

  20. ESPÉCIES EXÓTICAS INVASORAS ARBÓREAS NO PARQUE DA BARREIRINHA EM CURITIBA: REGISTRO E IMPLICAÇÕES

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    Erica Costa Mielke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe majority of the Conservation Units (CUs of Curitiba (Paraná state, Brazil are plagued by invasivealien tree species (IATs. However, no studies have been carried out to evaluate their impact or to determinethe appropriate management techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the participation of IATsand the implications and management of the most significant species causing major structural change inthe floristic-structural composition of ‘Barreirinha’ Park, a remnant of Araucaria Forest. Four plots wereevaluated in a total area of 1600 m² representing approximately 4% of the total area of the forest. A total of354 individual trees were sampled with a diameter of ≥ 15 cm, and for each species sampled, parameterswere calculated of the relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and the importance value. Itwas possible to identify 29 families, 43 genera and 57 species, three of which were IATs. The sustainabilityand integrity of this Conservation Unit can be threatened by the presence ofPittosporum undulatum(SweetPittosporum, the species with the greatest structural importance value, high density and frequency. Possiblemanagement strategies for thePittosporum undulatumspecies are presented.