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Sample records for arabidopsis renders transgenic

  1. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  2. Fluorescent Screening of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds without Germination1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Bravdo, Ben-Ami; Shoseyov, Oded

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a reliable method for the screening and selection of Arabidopsis transgenic seeds within minutes without germination. Expression of the Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase gene BGL1 in the plant's endoplasmic reticulum was used as a visual marker, together with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (MUGluc) as a substrate. Subsequent to incubation in a solution of MUGluc at room temperature for 2 to 15 min, transgenic seeds expressing BGL1 demonstrated a distinct fluorescent signal under UV light. Optimal screening conditions at room temperature were achieved between 75 and 450 μm MUGluc, at a pH of 2.5 to 5.0 and 2 to 5 min of incubation. No significant loss of viability was detected in transgenic seeds that were redried and stored for 45 d after incubation in MUGluc solution for 2 to 150 min. Transgenic plants expressing BGL1 displayed normal phenotypes relative to the wild type. Selection frequency was 3.1% ± 0.34% for the fluorescence selection method, while kanamycin resistant selection resulted in only 0.56% ± 0.13% using the same seed batch. This novel selection method is nondestructive, practical, and efficient, and eliminates the use of antibiotic genes. In addition, the procedure shortens the selection time from weeks to minutes. PMID:15208418

  3. Overexpression of Arabidopsis AnnAt8 Alleviates Abiotic Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deepanker; Ahmed, Israr; Shukla, Pawan; Boyidi, Prasanna; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress results in massive loss of crop productivity throughout the world. Because of our limited knowledge of the plant defense mechanisms, it is very difficult to exploit the plant genetic resources for manipulation of traits that could benefit multiple stress tolerance in plants. To achieve this, we need a deeper understanding of the plant gene regulatory mechanisms involved in stress responses. Understanding the roles of different members of plant gene families involved in different stress responses, would be a step in this direction. Arabidopsis, which served as a model system for the plant research, is also the most suitable system for the functional characterization of plant gene families. Annexin family in Arabidopsis also is one gene family which has not been fully explored. Eight annexin genes have been reported in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression studies of different Arabidopsis annexins revealed their differential regulation under various abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 (At5g12380), a member of this family has been shown to exhibit ~433 and ~175 fold increase in transcript levels under NaCl and dehydration stress respectively. To characterize Annexin8 (AnnAt8) further, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants constitutively expressing AnnAt8, which were evaluated under different abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher seed germination rates, better plant growth, and higher chlorophyll retention when compared to wild type plants under abiotic stress treatments. Under stress conditions transgenic plants showed comparatively higher levels of proline and lower levels of malondialdehyde compared to the wild-type plants. Real-Time PCR analyses revealed that the expression of several stress-regulated genes was altered in AnnAt8 over-expressing transgenic tobacco plants, and the enhanced tolerance exhibited by the transgenic plants can be correlated with altered expressions of

  4. Overexpression of several Arabidopsis histone genes increases agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transgene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenea, Gabriela N; Spantzel, Joerg; Lee, Lan-Ying; Zhu, Yanmin; Lin, Kui; Johnson, Susan J; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2009-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A-1 is important for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Mutation of HTA1, the gene encoding histone H2A-1, results in decreased T-DNA integration into the genome of Arabidopsis roots, whereas overexpression of HTA1 increases transformation frequency. To understand the mechanism by which HTA1 enhances transformation, we investigated the effects of overexpression of numerous Arabidopsis histones on transformation and transgene expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing cDNAs encoding histone H2A (HTA), histone H4 (HFO), and histone H3-11 (HTR11) displayed increased transformation susceptibility, whereas histone H2B (HTB) and most histone H3 (HTR) cDNAs did not increase transformation. A parallel increase in transient gene expression was observed when histone HTA, HFO, or HTR11 overexpression constructs were cotransfected with double- or single-stranded forms of a gusA gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. However, these cDNAs did not increase expression of a previously integrated transgene. We identified the N-terminal 39 amino acids of H2A-1 as sufficient to increase transient transgene expression in plants. After transfection, transgene DNA accumulates more rapidly in the presence of HTA1 than with a control construction. Our results suggest that certain histones enhance transgene expression, protect incoming transgene DNA during the initial stages of transformation, and subsequently increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  5. Overexpression of SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive)Genes Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Yang; Zhi-Zhong Chen; Xiao-Feng Zhoua; Hai-Bo Yin; Xia Li; Xiu-Fang Xin; Xu-Hui Hong; Jian-Kang Zhu; Zhizhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that decreases plant growth and productivity. Recently, it was reported that plants overexpressing AtNHX1 or SOS1 have significantly increased salt tolerance. To test whether overexpression of multiple genes can improve plant salt tolerance even more, we produced six different transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress AtNHX1, SOS3, AtNHXl + SOS3, SOS1, SOS2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 + SOS3. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence of high levels of the relevant gene transcripts in transgenic plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNHX1 alone did not present any significant increase in salt tolerance, contrary to earlier reports. We found that transgenic plants overexpressing SOS3 exhibit increased salt tolerance similar to plants overexpressing SOS1. Moreover, salt tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing AtNHXl + SOS3, 50S2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 +SOS3, respectively, appeared similar to the tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing either SOS1 or SOS3 alone.

  6. Terpenoid Metabolism in Wild-Type and Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Giri, A.P.; Deuerlein, S.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile components, such as terpenoids, are emitted from aerial parts of plants and play a major role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Analysis of the composition and emission pattern of volatiles in the model plant Arabidopsis showed that a range of volatile components are

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of Transgenic Miscanthus sinensis Plants Overexpressing Arabidopsis Phytochrome B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Jin Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochromes are dimeric pigment proteins with reversible photochromism between red and far-red light-absorbing forms. They are photoreceptors that regulate various aspects of plant growth and development and have been used for biotechnological applications to improve agricultural performance of crops. Miscanthus species have been suggested as one of the most promising energy crops. In this paper, Arabidopsis phytochrome B (PHYB gene was introduced into Miscanthus sinensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method that we developed recently, with the herbicide resistance gene (BAR as a selection marker. After putative transgenic plants were selected using the herbicide resistance assay, genomic integration of the transgene was confirmed by genomic PCR and Southern blot analysis, and transgene expression was validated by Northern blot analysis. Compared to nontransformed control plants, transgenic plants overexpressing PHYB showed phenotypes with increased phytochrome B function, which includes increased chlorophyll content, decreased plant height, and delayed flowering. Therefore, these results suggest that Arabidopsis phytochrome B is functional in M. sinensis and provide a method to develop Miscanthus varieties with enhanced agricultural performance using phytochromes.

  8. Arabidopsis DREB1B in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza increased tolerance to drought stress without stunting growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple stress response genes are controlled by transcription factors in a coordinated manner; therefore, these factors can be used for molecular plant breeding. CBF1/DREB1B, a known stress-inducible gene, was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza under the control of the CaMV35S or RD29A promoter. Under drought stress, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate were observed to be higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, O2(-) and H2O2 accumulation was observed to be lower in the transgenic lines. Additional analyses revealed that the AtDREB1B transgenic plants generally displayed lesser malondialdehyde (MDA) but higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities than the WT under drought stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell protection further verified that AtDREB1B could enhance tolerance to drought by activating different downstream DREB/CBF genes in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, no growth inhibition was detected in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants that expressed AtDREB1B driven by either the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Together, these results suggest that AtDREB1B is a good candidate gene for increasing drought tolerance in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27002402

  9. AtMYB12 regulates flavonoids accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Kong, Weili; Wong, Gary; Fu, Lifeng; Peng, Rihe; Li, Zhenjun; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tool for modulating flavonoid biosynthesis. The AtMYB12 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to regulate the expression of key enzyme genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, leading to the increased accumulation of flavonoids. In this study, the codon-optimized AtMYB12 gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AtMYB12 was localized to the nucleus. Its overexpression significantly increased accumulation of flavonoids and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that overexpression of AtMYB12 resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis, stress responses and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Further analyses under salt and drought stresses showed significant increases of ABA, proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. The results demonstrate the explicit role of AtMYB12 in conferring salt and drought tolerance by increasing the levels of flavonoids and ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. The AtMYB12 gene has the potential to be used to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:27033553

  10. Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Gang; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress. PMID:27191596

  11. DICER-LIKE2 plays a primary role in transitive silencing of transgenes in Arabidopsis.

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    Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa

    Full Text Available Dicer-like (DCL enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR-dependent pathway that uses the target RNA as substrate to generate secondary siRNAs. Here we report that Arabidopsis DCL2-but not DCL4-is required for transitivity in cell-autonomous, post-transcriptional silencing of transgenes. An insertion mutation in DCL2 blocked sense transgene-induced silencing and eliminated accumulation of the associated RDR-dependent siRNAs. In hairpin transgene-induced silencing, the dcl2 mutation likewise eliminated accumulation of secondary siRNAs and blocked transitive silencing, but did not block silencing mediated by primary siRNAs. Strikingly, in all cases, the dcl2 mutation eliminated accumulation of all secondary siRNAs, including those generated by other DCL enzymes. In contrast, mutations in DCL4 promoted a dramatic shift to transitive silencing in the case of the hairpin transgene and enhanced silencing induced by the sense transgene. Suppression of hairpin and sense transgene silencing by the P1/HC-Pro and P38 viral suppressors was associated with elimination of secondary siRNA accumulation, but the suppressors did not block processing of the stem of the hairpin transcript into primary siRNAs. Thus, these viral suppressors resemble the dcl2 mutation in their effects on siRNA biogenesis. We conclude that DCL2 plays an essential, as opposed to redundant, role in transitive silencing of transgenes and may play a more important role in silencing of viruses than currently thought.

  12. Functional characterization of aroA from Rhizobium leguminosarum with significant glyphosate tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, Bo; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate is the active component of the top-selling herbicide, the phytotoxicity of which is due to its inhibition of the shikimic acid pathway. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway. Glyphosate tolerance in plants can be achieved by the expression of a glyphosate-insensitive aroA gene (EPSPS). In this study, we used a PCR-based two-step DNA synthesis method to synthesize a new aroA gene (aroAR. leguminosarum) from Rhizobium leguminosarum. In vitro glyphosate sensitivity assays showed that aroAR. leguminosarum is glyphosate tolerant. The new gene was then expressed in E. coli and key kinetic values of the purified enzyme were determined. Furthermore, we transformed the aroA gene into Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. Transgenic Arabidopsis with the aroAR. leguminosarum gene was obtained to prove its potential use in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  13. Expression and detection of the FMDV VP1 transgene and expressed structural protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Lv, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhongwang

    2011-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of developing a new type of plantderived foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) oral vaccine, the plant seed-specific expression vector p7SBin438/VP1 carrying the VP1 gene of the FMDV strain O/China/99 was constructed and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. This strain was used for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana via the floral-dip method. The kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants were selected, and the VP1 gene and protein expressions were...

  14. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  15. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA. PMID:24609499

  16. Ascorbate peroxidase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cai, J; Yang, F X; Zhou, B; Zhou, L R

    2015-05-11

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a central role in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is a key enzyme in cellular H2O2 me-tabolism. It includes a family of isoenzymes with different character-istics, which are identified in many higher plants. In the present study, we isolated the APX gene from Jatropha curcas L, which is similar with other previously characterized APXs as revealed by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of JcAPX transcript significantly increased under NaCl stress. Subsequently, to elucidate the contribution of JcAPX to the protection against salt-induced oxi-dative stress, the expression construct p35S: JcAPX was created and transformed into Arabidopsis and transcribed. Under 150-mM NaCl stress, compared with wild type (WT), the overexpression of JcAPX in Arabidopsis increased the germination rate, the number of leaves, and the rosette area. In addition, the transgenic plants had longer roots, higher total chlorophyll content, higher total APX activity, and lower H2O2 content than the WT under NaCl stress conditions. These results suggested that higher APX activity in transgenic lines increases the salt tolerance by enhancing scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen spe-cies under NaCl stress conditions.

  17. Ascorbate peroxidase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cai, J; Yang, F X; Zhou, B; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a central role in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is a key enzyme in cellular H2O2 me-tabolism. It includes a family of isoenzymes with different character-istics, which are identified in many higher plants. In the present study, we isolated the APX gene from Jatropha curcas L, which is similar with other previously characterized APXs as revealed by alignment and phylogenetic analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of JcAPX transcript significantly increased under NaCl stress. Subsequently, to elucidate the contribution of JcAPX to the protection against salt-induced oxi-dative stress, the expression construct p35S: JcAPX was created and transformed into Arabidopsis and transcribed. Under 150-mM NaCl stress, compared with wild type (WT), the overexpression of JcAPX in Arabidopsis increased the germination rate, the number of leaves, and the rosette area. In addition, the transgenic plants had longer roots, higher total chlorophyll content, higher total APX activity, and lower H2O2 content than the WT under NaCl stress conditions. These results suggested that higher APX activity in transgenic lines increases the salt tolerance by enhancing scavenging capacity for reactive oxygen spe-cies under NaCl stress conditions. PMID:25966262

  18. An Arabidopsis mitochondrial uncoupling protein confers tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions.

  19. Soybean GmDREBL Increases Lipid Content in Seeds of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Lu, Xiang; Zhao, Fei-Yi; Li, Qing-Tian; Niu, Su-Ling; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    A DREB-type transcription factor gene GmDREBL has been characterized for its functions in oil accumulation in seeds. The gene is specifically expressed in soybean seeds. The GmDREBL is localized in nucleus and has transcriptional activation ability. Overexpression of GmDREBL increased the fatty acid content in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. GmDREBL can bind to the promoter region of WRI1 to activate its expression. Several other genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were also enhanced in the GmDREBL-transgenic plants. The GmDREBL can be up-regulated by GmABI3 and GmABI5. Additionally, overexpression of GmDREBL significantly promoted seed size in transgenic plants compared to that of WT plants. Expression of the DREBL is at higher level on the average in cultivated soybeans than that in wild soybeans. The promoter of the DREBL may have been subjected to selection during soybean domestication. Our results demonstrate that GmDREBL participates in the regulation of fatty acid accumulation by controlling the expression of WRI1 and its downstream genes, and manipulation of the gene may increase the oil contents in soybean plants. Our study provides novel insights into the function of DREB-type transcription factors in oil accumulation in addition to their roles in stress response. PMID:27694917

  20. Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

  1. Overexpression of a glycosyltransferase gene SrUGT74G1 from Stevia improved growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by catechin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are known as divergent branches of a common origin in Stevia. A UDP-glycosyltransferase encoded by SrUGT74G1 catalyses the conversion of steviolbioside into stevioside in Stevia rebaudiana leaves. In the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT74G1 cDNA from Stevia were developed to check the probability of stevioside biosynthesis in them. However, stevioside accumulation was not evident in transgenics. Also, the transgenic Arabidopsis showed no change in GA3 content on SrUGT74G1 overexpression. Surprisingly, significant accumulation of catechin was noticed in transgenics. The transgenics showed a considerable increase in shoot length, root length and rosette area. An increase in free radical scavenging activity of transgenics was noticed. Moreover, the seed yield of transgenics was also increased by 6-15% than control. Additionally, variation in trichome branching pattern on leaf surface of transgenics was observed. The trichome branching pattern was also validated by exogenous catechin exposure (10, 50, 100 ng ml(-1)) to control plants. Hence, present study reports the probable role of SrUGT74G1 from Stevia in catechin accumulation of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, detailed study in present perspective has revealed the role of Stevia SrUGT74G1 gene in trichome branching pattern, improved vegetative growth, scavenging potential and seed yield by catechin accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  2. The Miscanthus NAC transcription factor MlNAC9 enhances abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Pei, Shengqiang; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Qi; Jia, Chunlin; Lu, Ying; Hu, Ruibo; Zhou, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors are known to play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses in plants. Currently, little information regarding the functional roles of NAC genes in stress tolerance is available in Miscanthus lutarioriparius, a promising bioenergy plant for cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we carried out the functional characterization of MlNAC9 in abiotic stresses. MlNAC9 was shown to act as a nuclear localized transcription activator with the activation domain in its C-terminus. The overexpression of MlNAC9 in Arabidopsis conferred hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) at seed germination and root elongation stages. In addition, the overexpression of MlNAC9 led to increased seed germination rate and root growth under salt (NaCl) treatment. Meanwhile, the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MlNAC9 showed enhanced tolerance to drought and cold stresses. The expression of stress-responsive marker genes was significantly increased in MlNAC9 overexpression lines compared to that of WT under ABA, drought, salt, and cold stresses. Correspondingly, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower accumulated in MlNAC9 overexpression lines under drought and salt treatments. These results indicated that the overexpression of MlNAC9 improved the tolerance to abiotic stresses via an ABA-dependent pathway, and the enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants was mainly attributed to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes and the enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:27085481

  3. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. PMID:26876611

  4. Over-expression of an Arabidopsis δ-OAT gene enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liangqi; FAN Zhanmin; GUO Lei; LI Yongqing; ZHANG Wenjing; QU Li-Jia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    δ-OAT, ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, is the key enzyme involved in proline biosynthesis. In this study the Arabidopsisδ-OAT gene was transferred into rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica cv. Zhongzuo 321), whose successful integration was demonstrated by PCR and Southern blot analysis. The over-expression of the gene in transgenic rice was also confirmed. Biochemical analysis showed that, under salt or drought stress conditions, proline contents in the leaves and roots in transgenic rice plants were 5- to 15-fold of those in non-transgenic controls. Under stress conditions, germinating rate of transgenic lines is higher than that of controls. Although the growth of rice plants tested were more and more retarded with the increasing of NaCl concentration, the transgenic plants grow faster compared to the controls under the same stress condition. Meanwhile, the resistance to KCl and MgSO4 stresses was also found enhanced in transgenic rice. Furthermore, the over-expression ofδ-OAT also improved the yield of transgenic plants under stress conditions. The average yield per plant of transgenic lines increases about 12%-41% more than that of control lines under 0.1 mol/L NaCl stress. These data indicated that the over-expression of δ-OAT, with the accumulation of proline, resulted in the enhancement of salt and drought tolerance and an increase of rice yield, which is of significance in agriculture.

  5. Phytoremediation of the organic Xenobiotic simazine by p450-1a2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Ehab; Hegazy, Ahmad K; El-Sharnouby, Mohamed E; Abd Elsalam, Hassan E

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of human P450-transgenic plants for phytoremediation of pesticide contaminated soils was tested in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The transgenic P450 CYP1A2 gene Arabidopsis thaliana plants metabolize number of herbicides, insecticides and industrial chemicals. The P450 isozymes CYP1A2 expressed in A. thaliana were examined regarding the herbicide simazine (SIM). Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing CYP1A2 gene showed significant resistance to SIM supplemented either in plant growth medium or sprayed on foliar parts. The results showed that SIM produces harmful effect on both rosette diameter and primary root length of the wild type (WT) plants. In transgenic A. thaliana lines, the rosette diameter and primary root length were not affected by SIM concentrations used in this experiment. The results indicate that CYP1A2 can be used as a selectable marker for plant transformation, allowing efficient selection of transgenic lines in growth medium and/or in soil-grown plants. The transgenic A. thaliana plants exhibited a healthy growth using doses of up to 250 μmol SIM treatments, while the non-transgenic A. thaliana plants were severely damaged with doses above 50 μmol SIM treatments. The transgenic A. thaliana plants can be used as phytoremediator of environmental SIM contaminants. PMID:26771455

  6. Expression of Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 in transgenic sugarcane confers drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Melotto-Passarin, Danila Montewka; Barbosa, Mariana de Almeida; Santos, Flavio Dos; Gomez, Sergio Gregorio Perez; Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei; Lam, Eric; Carrer, Helaine

    2016-09-01

    The sustainability of global crop production is critically dependent on improving tolerance of crop plants to various types of environmental stress. Thus, identification of genes that confer stress tolerance in crops has become a top priority especially in view of expected changes in global climatic patterns. Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that can result in dramatic loss of crop productivity. In this work, we show that transgenic expression of a highly conserved cell death suppressor, Bax Inhibitor-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtBI-1), can confer increased tolerance of sugarcane plants to long-term (>20 days) water stress conditions. This robust trait is correlated with an increased tolerance of the transgenic sugarcane plants, especially in the roots, to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by the protein glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. Our findings suggest that suppression of ER stress in C4 grasses, which include important crops such as sorghum and maize, can be an effective means of conferring improved tolerance to long-term water deficit. This result could potentially lead to improved resilience and yield of major crops in the world. PMID:26872943

  7. Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Carrying a Peroxisomal Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene from Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Feng; SHI Wei-Ming; A. UEDA; T. TAKABE

    2008-01-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases (APX), localized in the cytosol, peroxisome, mitochondria, and chloroplasts of plant cells,catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water by using ascorbic acid as the specific electron donor. To determine the role of peroxisomal type ascorbate peroxidasc (pAPX), an antioxidant enzyme, in protection against salt-induced oxidative stress, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant carrying a pAPX gene (HvAPX1) from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was analyzed. The transgenic line pAPX3 was found to be more tolerant to salt stress than the wild type. Irrespective of salt stress, there were no significant differences in Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents and the ratio of K+ to Na+ between pAPX3 and the wild type. Clearly, the salt tolerance in pAPX3 was not due to the maintenance and reestablishment of cellular ion homeostasis. However, the degree of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (measured as the levels of malondialdehyde)accumulation under salt stress was higher in the wild type than in pAPX3. The mechanism of salt tolerance in transgenic pAPX3 can thus be explained by reduction of oxidative stress injury. Under all conditions tested, activities of superoxide,glutathionc reductase, and catalase were not significantly different between pAPX3 and the wild type. In contrast, the activity of APX was significantly higher in the transgcnic plant than in wild type under salt stress. These results suggested that in higher plants, HvAPX1 played an important role in salt tolerance and was a candidate gene for developing salt-tolerant crop plants.

  8. Overexpression of MuHSP70 gene from Macrotyloma uniflorum confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A 70-KD heat shock protein (HSP70) is one of the most conserved chaperones. It is involved in de novo protein folding and prevents the aggregation of unfolded proteins under lethal environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to characterise a MuHSP70 from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and elucidating its role in stress tolerance of plants. A MuHSP70 was cloned and characterised from a natural drought stress tolerant HPK4 variety of horsegram (M. uniflorum). For functional characterization, MuHSP70 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MuHSP70 was found to provide tolerance to the transgenic Arabidopsis against various stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity and oxidative stress. MuHSP70 transgenics were observed to maintain the shoot biomass, root length, relative water content, and chlorophyll content during exposure to multi-stresses relative to non-transgenic control. Transgenic lines have further shown the reduced levels of MDA, H2O2, and proteolytic activity. Together, these findings suggest that overexpression of MuHSP70 plays an important role in improving abiotic stress tolerance and could be a crucial candidate gene for exploration in crop improvement program. PMID:26694324

  9. The Mechanism of the Silencing of a Transgene, NCED3‐LUC, in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junsong

    2011-06-20

    The Arabidopsis thaliana NCED3‐LUC transgenic line was constructed by several groups to study the regulatory network of the NCED3 gene, the protein of which catalyzes the rate‐limiting step of ABA biosynthesis under drought. The transgenic luciferase gene is expressed when the plants encounter drought stress. Intriguingly, this transgenic luciferase gene is silenced after propagation for several generations. To determine the mechanism of this gene silencing, we used a forward genetics approach. The seeds of NCED3‐LUC (referred as the ‘wild type’) were mutagenized by ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS). One mutant line, denoted as #73, with recovered luciferase activity was selected for further study. Analysis of the methylation status by bisulfite sequencing revealed that the transgenic NCED3 promoter in the #73 mutant had less methylation than the wild type. Demethylation was also evident for the endogenous NCED3 promoter and retrotransposon AtSN1 in the #73 mutant. The phenotype of #73 mutant includes small size, rapid dehydration rate, altered morphology, and a thin epicuticular wax layer. By use of map‐based cloning, the region containing the mutated gene was delimited to a contig of two BAC clones, F11F19 and F9C22, on chromosome 2. Our results indicate that NCED3‐LUC gene silencing results from hypermethylation of its promoter region, but additional study is required to determine the exact position of the mutated gene and to fully understand the mechanism of NCED3‐LUC silencing. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank my committee chair, Professor Jian‐Kang Zhu, who is also the supervisor of my master’s thesis, for his guidance throughout the course of this research. I also would like to thank my committee members, Professor Liming Xiong and Professor Samir Hamdan, for their patience and support in reviewing my thesis. My appreciation also goes to Dr. Zhenyu Wang for taking time to teach me basic experimental skills and

  10. Differences in photosynthesis and terpene content in leaves and roots of wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch Roure, Josep-Salvador; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià Benet, Joan; Sardans i Galobart, Jordi; Owen, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the hypotheses that two different varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana show differences in physiology and terpene production. The two varieties of A. thaliana used in this study were wildtype (WT) and transgenic line (CoxIVFaNES I) genetically modified to emit nerolidol with linalool/nerolidol synthase (COX). Photosynthetic rate, electron transport rate, fluorescence, leaf volatile terpene contents and root volatile terpene contents were analyzed. For both types, we found coeluti...

  11. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  12. PPF1 May Suppress Plant Senescence via Activating TFL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Senescence, a sequence of biochemical and physiological events, constitutes the final stage of development In higher plants and is modulated by a variety of environmental factors and intemal factors. PPF1 possesses an important biological function in plant development by controlling the Ca2+ storage capacity within chloroplasts. Here we show that the expression of PPF1 might play a pivotal role in negatively regulating plant senescence as revealed by the regulation of overexpression and suppression of PPF1 on plant development. Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in the senescence-signaling pathway. Investigation of the senescence-related phenotypes in PPF1(-) tfl1-1 and PPF1(+) tfl1-1 double mutants confirmed and further highlighted the relation of PPF1 with TFL1 in tranegenic plants. The activation of TFL1 expression by PPF1 defines an important pathway possibly essential for the negative regulation of plant senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  13. Soybean GmPHD-type transcription regulators improve stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD played a major role in DNA binding. Using a protoplast assay system, we find that GmPHD1 to GmPHD5 had transcriptional suppression activity whereas GmPHD6 did not have. In yeast assay, the GmPHD6 can form homodimer and heterodimer with the other GmPHDs except GmPHD2. The N-terminal plus the variable regions but not the PHD-finger is required for the dimerization. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the GmPHD2 showed salt tolerance when compared with the wild type plants. This tolerance was likely achieved by diminishing the oxidative stress through regulation of downstream genes. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide important clues for soybean stress tolerance through manipulation of PHD-type transcription regulator.

  14. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A. L.; Daugherty, C. J.; Bihn, E. A.; Chapman, D. K.; Norwood, K. L.; Ferl, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of plants as integral components of life support systems remains a cornerstone of strategies for long-term human habitation of space and extraterrestrial colonization. Spaceflight experiments over the past few decades have refined the hardware required to grow plants in low-earth orbit and have illuminated fundamental issues regarding spaceflight effects on plant growth and development. Potential incipient hypoxia, resulting from the lack of convection-driven gas movement, has emerged as a possible major impact of microgravity. We developed transgenic Arabidopsis containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces the plant hypoxia response and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. The staining patterns resulting from a 5-d mission on the orbiter Columbia during mission STS-93 indicate that the Adh/GUS reporter gene was activated in roots during the flight. However, the patterns of expression were not identical to terrestrial control inductions. Moreover, although terrestrial hypoxia induces Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex, no apex staining was observed in the spaceflight plants. This indicates that either the normal hypoxia response signaling is impaired in spaceflight or that spaceflight inappropriately induces Adh/GUS activity for reasons other than hypoxia.

  15. A Sulfonylurea Herbicide Resistance Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana as a New Selectable Marker for Production of Fertile Transgenic Rice Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Hayashimoto, A; Murai, N

    1992-10-01

    A mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, csr1-1, isolated from sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana, was placed under control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S). Rice protoplasts were transformed with the 35S/ALS chimeric gene and regenerated into fertile transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The 35S/ALS gene was expressed effectively as demonstrated by northern blot hybridization analysis, and conferred to transformed calli at least 200-fold greater chlorsulfuron resistance than nontransformed control calli. Effective selection of 35S/ALS-transformed protoplasts was achieved at extremely low chlorsulfuron concentrations of 10 nm. The results demonstrated that the 35S/ALS gene is an alternative selectable marker for rice protoplast transformation and fertile transgenic rice production. The results also suggest that the mutant form of Arabidopsis ALS enzyme operates normally in rice cells. Thus, the mechanism of protein transport to chloroplast and ALS inhibition by chlorsulfuron is apparently conserved among plant species as diverse as Arabidopsis (dicotyledon) and rice (monocotyledon). PMID:16653044

  16. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  17. Two P5CS genes from common bean exhibiting different tolerance to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ji Bao Chen; Jian Wei Yang; Zhao Yuan Zhang; Xiao Fan Feng; Shu Min Wang

    2013-12-01

    Many plants accumulate proline in response to salt stress. -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline biosynthesis in plants. Plasmid DNA (pCHF3-PvP5CS1 and pCHF3-PvP5CS2) containing the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase gene for kanamycin resistance and Phaseolus vulgaris P5CS (PvP5CS1 and PvP5CS2) cDNA was introduced into Arabidopsis plants using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Southern blot, northern blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the foreign genes were integrated into Arabidopsis chromosomal DNA and expressed. Single-gene transformants were analysed in this study. Transgenic plants expressed higher levels of PvP5CS1 and PvP5CS2 transcripts under salt stress conditions than under normal conditions. When treated with 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl, the average proline content in leaves of transgenic plants was significantly higher $(P \\lt 0.01)$ than control plants. The average relative electrical conductivity (REC) of transgenic lines was significantly lower $(P \\lt 0.01)$ than control plants under salt stress condition. Biomass production of transgenic lines was significantly higher $(P \\lt 0.05)$ than control plants under 200 mM NaCl stress treatment. These results indicated that introducing PvP5CS1 and PvP5CS2 cDNA into transgenic Arabidopsis caused proline overproduction, increasing salt tolerance. Although the expression of PvP5CS1 in L4 lines and PvP5CS2 in S4 lines was the same under salt stress condition, the S4 lines accumulated 1.6 and 1.9 times more proline than the L4 lines under 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments, respectively. The REC of S4 plants was 0.5 (100 mM NaCl) and 0.6 times (200 mM NaCl) that of L4 plants. The biomass production of S4 plants was 1.6 times (200 mM NaCl) more than in L4 plants. Total P5CS enzyme activity of S4 was significantly higher than that of L4. These results implied that the PvP5CS2 protein had stronger capacity to catalyze proline synthesis than PvP5CS1 under salt

  18. A three-component gene expression system and its application for inducible flavonoid overproduction in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Feng

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression is a powerful tool to study and engineer genes whose overexpression could be detrimental for the host organisms. However, only limited systems have been adopted in plant biotechnology. We have developed an osmotically inducible system using three components of plant origin, RD29a (Responsive to Dehydration 29A promoter, CBF3 (C-repeat Binding Factor 3 transcription factor and cpl1-2 (CTD phosphatase-like 1 mutation. The osmotic stress responsible RD29a promoter contains the CBF3 binding sites and thus RD29A-CBF3 feedforward cassette enhances induction of RD29a promoter under stress. The cpl1-2 mutation in a host repressor CPL1 promotes stress responsible RD29a promoter expression. The efficacy of this system was tested using PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transgene, a model transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pathway in Arabidopsis. While transgenic plants with only one or two of three components did not reproducibly accumulate anthocyanin pigments above the control level, transgenic cpl1 plants containing homozygous RD29a-PAP1 and RD29a-CBF3 transgenes produced 30-fold higher level of total anthocyanins than control plants upon cold treatment. Growth retardation and phytochemical production of transgenic plants were minimum under normal conditions. The flavonoid profile in cold-induced transgenic plants was determined by LC/MS/MS, which resembled that of previously reported pap1-D plants but enriched for kaempferol derivatives. These results establish the functionality of the inducible three-component gene expression system in plant metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we show that PAP1 and environmental signals synergistically regulate the flavonoid pathway to produce a unique flavonoid blend that has not been produced by PAP1 overexpression or cold treatment alone.

  19. Pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold or drought treatment and functional verification through analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z T; Li, C; Shi, H; Wang, H; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CsICE1 is thought to be involved in hardiness resistance of tea plants. Using seedling cuttings of biennial Wuniuzao in this study, the pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold temperature (4°, -5°C), drought [20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000)], and plant hormone [200 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA), 1 mg/L brassinolide (BR)] treatment was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Additionally, stress resistance, such as the freezing resistance of CsICE1, was studied using Arabidopsis lines transformed with sense or anti-sense CsICE1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Our results showed that CsICE1 mRNA could be induced under -5°C, PEG, ABA, or BR treatment, although the pattern of expression differed for all treatments. Compared to wild type (WT) and anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines, sense lines displayed higher relative germination rates under salt and drought stress. After freezing treatment, the sense transgenic lines over-expressing CsICE1 showed a higher survival rate, increased levels of proline, and decreased levels of malonaldehyde. Conversely, compared with WT, anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines had lower proline levels and higher malonaldehyde levels under freezing conditions. Our study indicates that CsICE1 is an important anti-freezing gene and that over-expression of CsICE1 can improve cold resistance and enhance salt and drought tolerance of transgenic lines. PMID:26400357

  20. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. PMID:23956091

  1. Biomonitoring of Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Transgenic Arabidopsis Using the Mammalian Pregnane X Receptor System: A Role of Pectin in Pollutant Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Lieming; Gao, Chen; Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Yong; Lin, Weiqiang; Yang, Yanjun; Han, Ning; Bian, Hongwu; Zhu, Muyuan; Wang, Junhui

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR). In the transgenic Arabidopsis desig...

  2. The better growth phenotype of DvGS1-transgenic arabidopsis thaliana is attributed to the improved efficiency of nitrogen assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of the algal glutamine synthetase (GS gene DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher plant biomass and better growth phenotype. The purpose of this study was to recognize the biological mechanism for the growth improvement of DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis. A series of molecular and biochemical investigations related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the DvGS1-transgenic line was conducted. Analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE-related gene transcription and enzymatic activity revealed that the transcriptional level and enzymatic activity of the genes encoding GS, glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly upregulated, especially from leaf tissues of the DvGS1-transgenic line under two nitrate conditions. The DvGS1-transgenic line showed increased total nitrogen content and decreased carbon: nitrogen ratio compared to wild-type plants. Significant reduced concentrations of free nitrate, ammonium, sucrose, glucose and starch, together with higher concentrations of total amino acids, individual amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, methionine, soluble proteins and fructose in leaf tissues confirmed that the DvGS1-transgenic line demonstrated a higher efficiency of nitrogen assimilation, which subsequently affected carbon metabolism. These improved metabolisms of nitrogen and carbon conferred the DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis higher NUE, more biomass and better growth phenotype compared with the wild-type plants.

  3. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  4. Heterologous Expression of Two Jatropha Aquaporins Imparts Drought and Salt Tolerance and Improves Seed Viability in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kasim; Agarwal, Pallavi; Shanware, Arti; Sane, Vidhu Aniruddha

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7) and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils. PMID:26067295

  5. Successful expression of a novel bacterial gene for pinoresinol reductase and its effect on lignan biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayuki; Tsuji, Yukiko; Kusunose, Tatsuya; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kamimura, Naofumi; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Fukuhara, Yuki; Hara, Hirofumi; Sato-Izawa, Kanna; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji; Kajita, Shinya

    2014-10-01

    Pinoresinol reductase and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase play important roles in an early step of lignan biosynthesis in plants. The activities of both enzymes have also been detected in bacteria. In this study, pinZ, which was first isolated as a gene for bacterial pinoresinol reductase, was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Higher reductive activity toward pinoresinol was detected in the resultant transgenic plants but not in wild-type plant. Principal component analysis of data from untargeted metabolome analyses of stem, root, and leaf extracts of the wild-type and two independent transgenic lines indicate that pinZ expression caused dynamic metabolic changes in stems, but not in roots and leaves. The metabolome data also suggest that expression of pinZ influenced the metabolisms of lignan and glucosinolates but not so much of neolignans such as guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4'-feruloyl ethers. In-depth quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that amounts of pinoresinol and its glucoside form were markedly reduced in the transgenic plant, whereas the amounts of glucoside form of secoisolariciresinol in transgenic roots, leaves, and stems increased. The detected levels of lariciresinol in the transgenic plant following β-glucosidase treatment also tended to be higher than those in the wild-type plant. Our findings indicate that overexpression of pinZ induces change in lignan compositions and has a major effect not only on lignan biosynthesis but also on biosynthesis of other primary and secondary metabolites.

  6. Heterologous Expression of Two Jatropha Aquaporins Imparts Drought and Salt Tolerance and Improves Seed Viability in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Khan

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth and productivity of crops. Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that belong to the family of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, with members in animals, plants and microbes, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes thereby affecting water balance. In this study we characterized two aquaporin genes namely, plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP2;7 and tonoplast intrinsic protein TIP1;3 from Jatropha curcas that are localised to the plasma membrane and vacuole respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 under a constitutive promoter show improved germination under high salt and mannitol compared to control seeds. These transgenic plants also show increased root length under abiotic stress conditions compared to wild type Col-0 plants. Transgenic lines exposed to drought conditions by withholding water for 20 days, were able to withstand water stress and attained normal growth after re-watering unlike control plants which could not survive. Transgenic lines also had better seed yield than control under salt stress. Importantly, seed viability of transgenic plants grown under high salt concentration was 35%-45% compared to less than 5% for control seeds obtained from plants growing under salt stress. The effect of JcPIP2;7 and JcTIP1;3 on improving germination and seed viability in drought and salinity make these important candidates for genetic manipulation of plants for growth in saline soils.

  7. Use of the "gl1" Mutant and the "CA-rop2" Transgenic Plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in the Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of the "glabrous1 (g11)" mutant and constitutively active "(CA)-rop2" transgenic plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in teaching genetics laboratory for both high school and undergraduate students. The experiments provide students with F[subscript 1] and F[subscript 2] generations within a semester for genetic and…

  8. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  9. Two Groups of Thellungiella salsuginea RAVs Exhibit Distinct Responses and Sensitivity to Salt and ABA in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Yang

    Full Text Available Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1 transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the "gain-of-function" transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster

  10. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin Gibberellin Oxidases Alters Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Development of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Abeer; Lange, Theo; Niki, Tomoya; Koshioka, Masaji; Lange, Maria João Pimenta

    2006-01-01

    Immature pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds contain gibberellin (GA) oxidases with unique catalytic properties resulting in GAs of unknown function for plant growth and development. Overexpression of pumpkin GA 7-oxidase (CmGA7ox) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in seedlings with elongated roots, taller plants that flower earlier with only a little increase in bioactive GA4 levels compared to control plants. In the same way, overexpression of the pumpkin GA 3-oxidase1 (CmGA3ox1) resulted in a GA overdose phenotype with increased levels of endogenous GA4. This indicates that, in Arabidopsis, 7-oxidation and 3-oxidation are rate-limiting steps in GA plant hormone biosynthesis that control plant development. With an opposite effect, overexpression of pumpkin seed-specific GA 20-oxidase1 (CmGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarfed plants that flower late with reduced levels of GA4 and increased levels of physiological inactive GA17 and GA25 and unexpected GA34 levels. Severe dwarfed plants were obtained by overexpression of the pumpkin GA 2-oxidase1 (CmGA2ox1) in Arabidopsis. This dramatic change in phenotype was accompanied by a considerable decrease in the levels of bioactive GA4 and an increase in the corresponding inactivation product GA34 in comparison to control plants. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of four pumpkin GA oxidase-encoding genes to modulate the GA plant hormone pool and alter plant stature and development. PMID:16384902

  11. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiangbo [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Biomass-Energy Conversion, The Institute of Bioengineering and Technology, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 040100 (China); Xu, Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Ma, Mi, E-mail: mami@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2-10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2-3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  12. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors. PMID:27113714

  13. Expression of GhNAC2 from G. herbaceum, improves root growth and imparts tolerance to drought in transgenic cotton and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapati, Samatha; Naresh, Ram; Ranjan, Sanjay; Nigam, Deepti; Hans, Aradhana; Verma, Praveen C; Gadre, Rekha; Pathre, Uday V; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-04-26

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors.

  14. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27085597

  15. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:26555900

  16. TaSK5, an abiotic stress-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase from wheat, confers salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Nikolai Kirilov; Christova, Petya Koeva; Kato, Hideki; Liu, Yuelin; Sasaki, Kentaro; Imai, Ryozo

    2014-11-01

    A novel cold-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase, TaSK5, was isolated from winter wheat using a macroarray-based differential screening approach. TaSK5 showed high similarity to Arabidopsis subgroup I GSK3/shaggy-like kinases ASK-alpha, AtSK-gamma and ASK-epsilon. RNA gel blot analyses revealed TaSK5 induction by cold and NaCl treatments and to a lesser extent by drought treatment. TaSK5 functionally complemented the cold- and salt-sensitive phenotypes of a yeast GSK3/shaggy-like kinase mutant, △mck1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaSK5 cDNA showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the tolerance of the transgenic plants to freezing stress was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of abiotic stress-inducible genes were constitutively induced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaSK5 may function in a novel signal transduction pathway that appears to be unrelated to DREB1/CBF regulon and may involve crosstalk between abiotic and hormonal signals.

  17. Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

    2005-05-01

    In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:15609047

  18. PpCBF3 from Cold-Tolerant Kentucky Bluegrass Involved in Freezing Tolerance Associated with Up-Regulation of Cold-Related Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhuang

    Full Text Available Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding proteins (DREB/C-repeat (CRT Binding Factors (CBF have been identified as transcriptional activators during plant responses to cold stress. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological roles of a CBF gene isolated from a cold-tolerant perennial grass species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., which designated as PpCBF3, in regulating plant tolerance to freezing stress. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast with PpCBF3-eGFP fused protein showed that PpCBF3 was localized to the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpCBF3 was specifically induced by cold stress (4°C but not by drought stress [induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 solution (PEG-6000] or salt stress (150 mM NaCl. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PpCBF3 showed significant improvement in freezing (-20°C tolerance demonstrated by a lower percentage of chlorotic leaves, lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL and H2O2 and O2.- content, and higher chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency compared to the wild type. Relative mRNA expression level analysis by qRT-PCR indicated that the improved freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PpCBF3 was conferred by sustained activation of downstream cold responsive (COR genes. Other interesting phenotypic changes in the PpCBF3-transgenic Arabidopsis plants included late flowering and slow growth or 'dwarfism', both of which are desirable phenotypic traits for perennial turfgrasses. Therefore, PpCBF3 has potential to be used in genetic engineering for improvement of turfgrass freezing tolerance and other desirable traits.

  19. A highly efficient miPCR method for isolating FSTs from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gennady V. Pogorelko; Oksana V. Fursova

    2008-08-01

    The exact localization of an insertion in the genome of transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an integral part of most experiments aimed at studying these types of mutants. There are several methods for isolating unknown nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA which flank the borders of T-DNA integrated in the genome of plants. However, all the methods based on PCR have limitations which in some cases do not permit the desired objective to be achieved. We have developed a new technique for isolating flanking sequence tags (FSTs) via modified inverse PCR. This method is highly efficient and simple, but also retains the advantages of previously well-documented approaches.

  20. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  1. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  2. MzPIP2;1: An Aquaporin Involved in Radial Water Movement in Both Water Uptake and Transportation, Altered the Drought and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant.The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment.The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance.

  3. Arabidopsis and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases have decreased degree of polysaccharide acetylation and increased resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Fursova, Oksana; Sundaram, Raman M; Qi, Mingsheng; Whitham, Steven A; Bogdanove, Adam J; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2013-05-01

    The plant cell wall has many significant structural and physiological roles, but the contributions of the various components to these roles remain unclear. Modification of cell wall properties can affect key agronomic traits such as disease resistance and plant growth. The plant cell wall is composed of diverse polysaccharides often decorated with methyl, acetyl, and feruloyl groups linked to the sugar subunits. In this study, we examined the effect of perturbing cell wall acetylation by making transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) plants expressing hemicellulose- and pectin-specific fungal acetylesterases. All transgenic plants carried highly expressed active Aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases localized to the apoplast and had significant reduction of cell wall acetylation compared with wild-type plants. Partial deacetylation of polysaccharides caused compensatory up-regulation of three known acetyltransferases and increased polysaccharide accessibility to glycosyl hydrolases. Transgenic plants showed increased resistance to the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana but not to the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas oryzae. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of hemicellulose and pectin acetylation in plant defense against fungal pathogens.

  4. VirE1-Mediated Resistance to Crown Gall in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Jodi; Andrews, Sarah; Ream, Walt

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crown gall disease, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, remains a serious agricultural problem despite current biocontrol methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers single-stranded DNA (T-strands) into plant cells along with several virulence proteins, including a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (VirE2). In plant cells, T-strands are protected from nucleases and targeted to the nucleus by VirE2, which is essential for efficient transmission (transfer and integration) of T-strands. VirE1 is the secretory chaperone for VirE2; it prevents VirE2 from forming aggregates and from binding the T-strands in bacterial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that sufficient quantities of VirE1 expressed in plant cells might block T-DNA transmission by preventing VirE2 from binding T-strands. Here we show that root explants from Arabidopsis thaliana plants that expressed virE1 formed 3.5-fold fewer tumors than roots from plants without virE1. Also, this resistance was specific for VirE2-mediated Agrobacterium transformation. Plants that have been genetically altered to resist crown gall may prove more effective than biological control. PMID:18944210

  5. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set.

  6. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046

  7. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

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    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  9. A maize calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, ZmCPK4, positively regulated abscisic acid signaling and enhanced drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dequan

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play essential roles in calcium-mediated signal transductions in plant response to abiotic stress. Several members have been identified to be regulators for plants response to abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we isolated a subgroup I CDPK gene, ZmCPK4, from maize. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the ZmCPK4 transcripts were induced by various stresses and signal molecules. Transient and stable expression of the ZmCPK4-GFP fusion proteins revealed ZmCPK4 localized to the membrane. Moreover, overexpression of ZmCPK4 in the transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movement. The transgenic plants also enhanced drought stress tolerance. Taken together, the results suggest that ZmCPK4 might be involved in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure in response to drought stress. PMID:23911729

  10. Enhanced expression of EsWAX1 improves drought tolerance with increased accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Drought can activate several stress responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, accumulation of cuticular wax and ascorbic acid (AsA), which have been correlated with improvement of drought tolerance. In this study, a novel MYB gene, designed as EsWAX1, was isolated and characterized from Eutrema salsugineum. EsWAX1 contained a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of 1068 bp, which encoding 355 amino acids. Transcript levels of EsWAX1 were quickly inducible by drought stress and ABA treatment, indicating that EsWAX1 may act as a positive regulator in response to drought stress. Ectopic expression of EsWAX1 increased accumulation of cuticular wax via modulating the expression of several wax-related genes, such as CER1, KCS2 and KCR1. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed higher densities of wax crystalline structures on the adaxial surfaces of leaves in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In addition, the expression of several AsA biosynthetic genes (VTC1, GLDH and MIOX4) was significantly up-regulated in EsWAX1-overexpressing lines and these transgenic plants have approximately 23-27% more total AsA content than WT plants. However, the high-level expression of EsWAX1 severely disrupted plant normal growth and development. To reduce negative effects of EsWAX1 over-expression on plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EsWAX1 driven by the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Our data indicated the RD29A::EsWAX1 transgenic plants had greater tolerance to drought stress than wild-type plants. Taken together, the EsWAX1 gene is a potential regulator that may be utilized to improve plant drought tolerance by genetic manipulation.

  11. pMAA-Red: a new pPZP-derived vector for fast visual screening of transgenic Arabidopsis plants at the seed stage

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    Ali Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of transgenic plants, either for the overproduction of the protein of interest, for promoter: reporter lines, or for the downregulation of genes is an important prerequisite in modern plant research but is also very time-consuming. Results We have produced additions to the pPZP family of vectors. Vector pPZP500 (derived from pPZP200 is devoid of NotI sites and vector pPZP600 (derived from pPZP500 contains a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene. Vector pMAA-Red contains a Pdf2.1: DsRed marker and a CaMV:: GUS cassette within the T-DNA and is useful for the production of promoter: GUS lines and overexpression lines. The Pdf2.1 promoter is expressed in seeds and syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachti in Arabidopsis roots. Transgenic seeds show red fluorescence which can be used for selection and the fluorescence level is indicative of the expression level of the transgene. The advantage is that plants can be grown on soil and that expression of the marker can be directly screened at the seed stage which saves time and resources. Due to the expression of the Pdf2.1: DsRed marker in syncytia, the vector is especially useful for the expression of a gene of interest in syncytia. Conclusions The vector pMAA-Red allows for fast and easy production of transgenic Arabidopsis plants with a strong expression level of the gene of interest.

  12. Hormonally regulated overexpression of Arabidopsis WUS and conifer LEC1 (CHAP3A) in transgenic white spruce: implications for somatic embryo development and somatic seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Pelletier, Gervais; Overton, Catherine; Stewart, Don; Rutledge, Robert G

    2010-07-01

    Adult conifers are still recalcitrant in clonal propagation despite significant advances in forest tree biotechnology. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants older than mature zygotic embryos is either difficult or impossible to achieve. To investigate if ectopic expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of the embryogenic process would induce somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca (white spruce) somatic plants, we used the LEAFY-COTYLEDON1 homolog cloned from Picea mariana, CHAP3A, and Arabidopsis thaliana WUS to transform embryonal mass of P. glauca. Ectopic gene expression was induced by 17-beta-estradiol during stages of somatic embryogenesis (early embryogenesis and late embryogenesis) and somatic seedling growth in the transgenics. Of the two transcription factors, only WUS produced severe phenotypes by disrupting the development of somatic embryos on the maturation medium and inhibiting germination. However, none of the transgenes induced ectopic somatic embryogenesis even in the presence of plant growth regulators. Absolute quantitative PCR confirmed the expression of both CHAP3A and WUS in transgenic embryonal mass and in all parts of somatic seedlings. A high expression of the transgenes did not influence expression profiles of any of the ten other transcription factors tested, some of which have been known to be involved in the process of embryogenesis. Implications of these results for further work are discussed. PMID:20424847

  13. T cell receptor (TCR-transgenic CD8 lymphocytes rendered insensitive to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling mediate superior tumor regression in an animal model of adoptive cell therapy

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    Quatromoni Jon G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor antigen-reactive T cells must enter into an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, continue to produce cytokine and deliver apoptotic death signals to affect tumor regression. Many tumors produce transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, which inhibits T cell activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. In a murine model of adoptive cell therapy, we demonstrate that transgenic Pmel-1 CD8 T cells, rendered insensitive to TGFβ by transduction with a TGFβ dominant negative receptor II (DN, were more effective in mediating regression of established B16 melanoma. Smaller numbers of DN Pmel-1 T cells effectively mediated tumor regression and retained the ability to produce interferon-γ in the tumor microenvironment. These results support efforts to incorporate this DN receptor in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy for cancer.

  14. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. PMID:27323080

  15. Ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-binding factor from the nightshade plant Solanum lycopersicoides, confers freezing and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

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    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available The C-repeat (CRT/dehydration-responsive element (DRE binding factor (CBF/DREB1 transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1 was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193-228 (SsCBF1(193-228. The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions.

  16. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

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    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  17. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

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    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  18. A maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, ZmMKK1, positively regulated the salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2014-07-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction modules in animals, plants and yeast. MAPK cascades are complicated networks and play vital roles in signal transduction pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a maize MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, was characterized. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 transcripts were induced by diverse stresses and ABA signal molecule in maize root. Further study showed that the ZmMKK1-overexpressing Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. However, seed germination, post-germination growth and stomatal aperture analysis demonstrated that ZmMKK1 overexpression was sensitive to ABA in transgenic Arabidopsis. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that the overexpression of ZmMKK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of ROS scavenging enzyme- and ABA-related genes, such as POD, CAT, RAB18 and RD29A under salt and drought conditions. In addition, heterologous overexpression of ZmMKK1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improved the tolerance to salt and drought stresses. These results suggested that ZmMKK1 might act as an ABA- and ROS-dependent protein kinase in positive modulation of salt and drought tolerance. Most importantly, ZmMKK1 interacted with ZmMEKK1 as evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assay, redeeming a deficiency of MAPK interaction partners in maize. PMID:24974327

  19. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

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    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  20. Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-04-15

    The transcript expression of a gene SrUGT85C2 has been documented for direct relation with steviol glycoside content in Stevia plant. Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are divergent branches of methyl erythritol-4 phosphate (MEP) pathway. So, SrUGT85C2 might be an influencing gibberellin content. Hence in the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT85C2 cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana was developed to check its effect on gibberellin accumulation and related plant growth parameters. The developed transgenics showed a noteworthy decrease of 78-83% in GA3 content. Moreover, the transgenics showed a gibberellin deficient phenotype comprising stunted hypocotyl length, reduced shoot growth and a significant fall in relative water content. Transgenics also showed 17-37 and 64-76% reduction in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, respectively. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments could be responsible for the noticed significant decrease in plant biomass. Like steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis also occurs from the precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of MEP pathway in the plastids. The observed downregulated expression of genes encoding MEP pathway enzymes geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CDPS), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), chlorophyll synthetase and chlorophyll a oxygenase in transgenics overexpressing SrUGT85C2 might be responsible for the reduction in gibberellins as well as chlorophyll. This study has documented for the first time the regulatory role of SrUGT85C2 in the biosynthesis of steviol glycoside, gibberellins and chlorophyll.

  1. Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-04-15

    The transcript expression of a gene SrUGT85C2 has been documented for direct relation with steviol glycoside content in Stevia plant. Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are divergent branches of methyl erythritol-4 phosphate (MEP) pathway. So, SrUGT85C2 might be an influencing gibberellin content. Hence in the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT85C2 cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana was developed to check its effect on gibberellin accumulation and related plant growth parameters. The developed transgenics showed a noteworthy decrease of 78-83% in GA3 content. Moreover, the transgenics showed a gibberellin deficient phenotype comprising stunted hypocotyl length, reduced shoot growth and a significant fall in relative water content. Transgenics also showed 17-37 and 64-76% reduction in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, respectively. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments could be responsible for the noticed significant decrease in plant biomass. Like steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis also occurs from the precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of MEP pathway in the plastids. The observed downregulated expression of genes encoding MEP pathway enzymes geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CDPS), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), chlorophyll synthetase and chlorophyll a oxygenase in transgenics overexpressing SrUGT85C2 might be responsible for the reduction in gibberellins as well as chlorophyll. This study has documented for the first time the regulatory role of SrUGT85C2 in the biosynthesis of steviol glycoside, gibberellins and chlorophyll. PMID:24518812

  2. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24334123

  3. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

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    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  4. Overexpression of SpCBL6, a calcineurin B-like protein of Stipa purpurea, enhanced cold tolerance and reduced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

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    Zhou, Yanli; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Supriyo, Basak; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize SpCBL6 (GenBank accession number: KT780442) from Stipa purpurea and elucidate the function of this protein in abiotic stress. The full-length cDNA of SpCBL6 was isolated from S. purpurea by rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Laser confocal microscopy was used to analyze the subcellular localization of SpCBL6. The constructs of 35S:GFP-SpCBL6 was used to transform wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants (ecotype Columbia-0) with the floral dip method. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and ion leakage was performed to investigate the role of SpCBL6 in abiotic stress. The open reading frame of SpCBL6 contains 681 bp nucleotides and encodes a 227-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SpCBL6 showed the highest similarity with rice OsCBL6. SpCBL6 transcripts were induced by freezing and drought treatments. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpCBL6 was located in membrane of protoplast. Overexpression of SpCBL6 in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to cold treatment, but less tolerant to drought, compared with the plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the drought stress marker genes were inhibited in transgenic plants, whereas the cold stress marker genes were enhanced. Further analysis showed that SpCBL6-overexpressing plants showed enhanced water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and reduced ion leakage compared with the wild-type after cold treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that SpCBL6, a new member of the CBL gene family isolated from S. purpurea, enhances cold tolerance and reduces drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27393148

  5. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Yuange Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6 is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5 were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  6. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange Wang; Huaihua Liu; Qingguo Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5) were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  7. Combination of the ALCR/alcA ethanol switch and GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap system enables spatial and temporal control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Van Loock, Bram; Liao, Mingjun; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-07-01

    The experimental control of gene expression in specific tissues or cells at defined time points is a useful tool for the analysis of gene function. GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines can be used to selectively express genes in specific tissues or cells, and an ethanol-inducible system can help to control the time of expression. In this study, the combination of the two methods allowed the successful regulation of gene expression in both time and space. For this purpose, a binary vector, 962-UAS::GUS, was constructed in which the ALCR activator and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were placed under the control of upstream activator sequence (UAS) elements and the alcA response element, respectively. Three different GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis were transformed, resulting in transgenic plants in which GUS activity was detected only on ethanol induction and exclusively in the predicted tissues of the enhancer trap lines. As a library of different enhancer trap lines with distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP) patterns exist, transformation with a similar vector, in which GUS is replaced by another gene, would enable the control of the time and place of transgene expression. We have constructed two vectors for easy cloning of the gene of interest, one with a polylinker site and one that is compatible with the GATEWAY vector conversion system. The method can be extended to other species when enhancer trap lines become available.

  8. Drought and salt tolerance enhancement of transgenic Arabidopsis by overexpression of the vacuolar pyrophosphatase 1 (EVP1) gene from Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, M C; Baltierra, F; Leon, G; Krauskopf, E

    2013-12-01

    Vacuolar solute accumulation has been shown to be a mechanism by which plants are capable of increasing drought and salt tolerance. The exposure of plants to NaCl induces H+ transport into the vacuole by specialized pumps. One of them corresponds to the vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase, which generates a H+ gradient across the vacuolar membrane. In our laboratory we isolated the first cDNA sequence of a vacuolar pyrophosphatase type I (EVP1) from Eucalyptus globulus. Using real-time PCR we confirmed that EVP1 participates in Eucalyptus plants' response to drought and salt stress through an ABA independent pathway. Additionally, the overexpression of EVP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in an enhancement of drought and salt tolerance. Interestingly we established that the transgenic plants had a higher number of root hairs, which may have a positive effect on the plant's response to drought and salt stress. These results suggest that EVP1 plays an active role in abiotic stress tolerance in E. globulus, and that it may be potentially used to enhance drought and stress tolerance of plants.

  9. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  10. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:27152457

  11. Soybean GmMYB76,GmMYB92,and GmMYB177 genes confer stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liao; Hong-Feng Zou; Hui-Wen Wang; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma; Jin-Song Zhang; Shou-Yi Chen

    2008-01-01

    MYB-type transcription factors contain the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain of approximately 50 amino acids and are involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant growth,development,metabolism and stress responses.From soybean plants,we identified 156 GmMYB genes using our previously obtained 206 MYB unigenes,and 48 were found to have full-length open-reading frames.Expressions of all these identified genes were examined,and we found that expressions of 43 genes were changed upon treatment with ABA,salt,drought and/or cold stress.Three GmMYB genes,GmMYB76,GmMYB92 and GmMYB177,were chosen for further analysis.Using the yeast assay system,GmMYB76 and GmMYB92 were found to have transactivation activity and can form homodimers.GmMYBI77 did not appear to have transactivation activity but can form heterodimers with GmMYB76.Yeast onehybrid assay revealed that all the three GmMYBs could bind to cis-elements TAT AAC GGT TTT TT and CCG GAA AAAAGG AT,but with different affinity,and GmMYB92 could also bind to TCT CAC CTA CC.The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmMYB76 or GmMYB177 showed better performance than the GmMYB92-transgenic plants in salt and freezing tolerance.However,these transgenic plants exhibited reduced sensitivity to ABA treatment at germination stage in comparison with the wild-type plants.The three GmMYB genes differentially affected a subset of stress-responsive genes in addition to their regulation of a common subset of stress-responsive genes.These results indicate that the three GmMYB genes may play differential roles in stress tolerance,possibly through regulation of stress-responsive genes.

  12. The Reaumuria trigyna leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (RtLDOX) gene complements anthocyanidin synthesis and increases the salt tolerance potential of a transgenic Arabidopsis LDOX mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huirong; Du, Chao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Linlin; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-09-01

    Reaumuria trigyna is a typical, native desert halophyte that grows under extreme conditions in Inner Mongolia. In a previous transcriptomic profiling analysis, flavonoid pathway-related genes in R. trigyna showed significant differences in transcript abundance under salt stress. Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, EC 1.14.11.19) is one of three dioxygenases in the flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of anthocyanidins from leucoanthocyanidins. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of R. trigyna LDOX (RtLDOX), and found RtLDOX recombinant protein was able to replace flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H, EC 1.14.11.9), another dioxygenase in the flavonoid pathway, to convert naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in vitro. R. trigyna LDOX can complement the Arabidopsis LDOX mutant transparent testa11 (tt11-11), which has reduced proanthocyanin (PA) and anthocyanin levels in seeds, to accumulate these two compounds. Thus, RtLDOX acts as a multifunctional dioxygenase to effect the synthesis of PA and anthocyanins and can perform F3H dioxygenase activities in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The RtLDOX promoter harbored many cis-acting elements that might be recognized and bound by transcription factors related to stress response. RtLDOX expression was strongly increased under salt stress, and RtLDOX transgenic Arabidopsis mutant under NaCl stress accumulated the content of flavonoids leading to an increased antioxidant activities and plant biomass. These results suggest that RtLDOX as a multifunctional dioxygenase in flavonoid biosynthesis involves in enhancing plant response to NaCl stress. PMID:27219053

  13. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration ofa transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eFurukawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g. errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork and exogenous sources (e.g. ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals. Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ, much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1 displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2, both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.

  14. Practical Parallel Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the growing demands for speed and quality in rendering computer graphics images requires new techniques. Practical parallel rendering provides one of the most practical solutions. This book addresses the basic issues of rendering within a parallel or distributed computing environment, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of multiprocessor machines and networked render farms for graphics rendering. Case studies of working applications demonstrate, in detail, practical ways of dealing with complex issues involved in parallel processing.

  15. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a β-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wu Liang; You, Jiang Feng; Bian, Ming Di; Qin, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Ryan, Peter R; Yang, Zhen Ming

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al sensitive), were selected to study shorter term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower β-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of 12 genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a β-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full-length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total β-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth.

  16. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS1 from Dunaliella viridis and investigation of the impact on expression of DvGS1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Wang, Peipei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    A novel glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS1 showing highest amino acid sequence identity of 78 % with the other homologous GS proteins from green algae, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DvGS1 occupied an independent phylogenetic position which was different with the GSs from higher plants, animals and microbes. Functional complement in E. coli mutant confirmed that the DvGS1 encoded functional GS enzyme. Real-time PCR analysis of DvGS1 in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation revealed that the mRNA level of DvGS1 was positively up-regulated in 12 h. The DvGS1 levels at the points of 12 and 24 h were separately twofold and fourfold of the level before nitrogen starvation. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS1 in higher plants, the transgenic study of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out. Phenotype identification demonstrated that all three transgenic lines of T3 generation showed obviously enhanced root length (26 %), fresh weight (22-46 % at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (26 %), leaf size (29 %) and silique number (30 %) compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Biochemical analysis confirmed that all three transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content, soluble protein concentration, total amino acid content and the leaf GS activity than the wild type plants. The free NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) concentration in fresh leaves of three transgenic lines were reduced by 17-26 % and 14-15 % separately (at two concentrations of nitrate supplies) compared with those of the wild types. All the results indicated that over-expression of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis significantly results in the improvement of growth phenotype and the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24307252

  17. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants. PMID:27486844

  18. A Novel Role for Banana MaASR in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiguang; Miao, Hongxia; Yu, Xiaomeng; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jingyi; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) protein is a plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional factor involved in fruit ripening and the abiotic stress response. To date, there have been no studies on the role of ASR genes in delayed flowering time. Here, we found that the ASR from banana, designated as MaASR, was preferentially expressed in the banana female flowers from the eighth, fourth, and first cluster of the inflorescence. MaASR transgenic lines (L14 and L38) had a clear delayed-flowering phenotype. The number of rosette leaves, sepals, and pedicel trichomes in L14 and L38 was greater than in the wild type (WT) under long day (LD) conditions. The period of buds, mid-flowers, and full bloom of L14 and L38 appeared later than the WT. cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that overexpression of MaASR delays flowering through reduced expression of several genes, including photoperiod pathway genes, vernalization pathway genes, gibberellic acid pathway genes, and floral integrator genes, under short days (SD) for 28 d (from vegetative to reproductive transition stage); however, the expression of the autonomous pathway genes was not affected. This study provides the first evidence of a role for ASR genes in delayed flowering time in plants. PMID:27486844

  19. Co-overexpressing a plasma membrane and a vacuolar membrane sodium/proton antiporter significantly improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane bound sodium/proton (Sodium/Hydrogen) antiporter that transports sodium into the vacuole and exports hydrogen into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane bound sodium/hydrogen antiporter that exports sodium to the ex...

  20. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  1. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  2. Colour Rendering Index and colour rendering of LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Dangol, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand CIE (Commission Internationale del Eclairage) Colour Rendering Index (CRI) and its deficiencies. Another aim was to find out limitation of CIE CRI for LEDs. Finally, current works on colour rendering of LEDs was examined in the study. CIE (Commission Internationale del Eclairage) Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is the only internationally recognized colour rendering metric. This metric expresses the colour rendering properties of light sources bas...

  3. Overexpression of Two PsnAP1 Genes from Populus simonii × P. nigra Causes Early Flowering in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Tangchun; Li, Shuang; Zang, Lina; Dai, Lijuan; Yang, Chuanping; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, AP1 is a floral meristem identity gene and plays an important role in floral organ development. In this study, PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra), which are the orthologs of AP1 in Arabidopsis, by sequence analysis. Northern blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 exhibited high expression level in early inflorescence development of poplar. Subcellular localization showed the PsnAP1-1 a...

  4. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  5. Comparative proteomics and metallomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissues: evaluation of the selenium addition in transgenic and nontransgenic plants using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and laser ablation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Bruna C M; Barbosa, Herbert S; Pessôa, Gustavo S; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Gonçalves, Danieli C; Ramos, Carlos H I; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2014-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate some differential protein species in transgenic (T) and nontransgenic (NT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants after their cultivation in the presence or absence of sodium selenite. The transgenic line was obtained through insertion of CaMV 35S controlling nptII gene. Comparative proteomics through 2D-DIGE is carried out in four different groups (NT × T; NT × Se-NT (where Se is selenium); Se-NT × Se-T, and T × Se-T). Although no differential proteins are achieved in the T × Se-T group, for the others, 68 differential proteins (by applying a regulation factor ≥1.5) are achieved, and 27 of them accurately characterized by ESI-MS/MS. These proteins are classified into metabolism, energy, signal transduction, disease/defense categories, and some of them are involved in the glycolysis pathway-Photosystems I and II and ROS combat. Additionally, laser ablation imaging is used for evaluating the Se and sulfur distribution in leaves of different groups, corroborating some results obtained and related to proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the genetic modification also confers to the plant resistance to oxidative stress.

  6. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  7. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  8. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  9. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  10. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest Their Role in Abiotic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Khurana, Jitendra P; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22, and OsHOX24. These genes were highly up-regulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/T)ATTG) and AH2 (CAAT(C/G)ATTG). Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27242831

  11. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  12. Constitutive over-expression of rice ClpD1 protein enhances tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Grover, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) perform the important role of removing protein aggregates from cells, which can otherwise prove to be highly toxic. ClpD system is a two-component protease complex composed of a regulatory ATPase module ClpD and a proteolytic component ClpP. Under desiccation stress condition, rice ClpD1 (OsClpD1) gene encoding for the regulatory subunit, was represented by four variant transcripts differing mainly in the expanse of their N-terminal amino acids. These transcripts were expressed in a differential manner in response to salt, mannitol and polyethylene glycol stresses in rice. Purified OsClpD1.3 protein exhibited intrinsic chaperone activity, shown using citrate synthase as substrate. Arabidopsis (Col-0) plants over-expressing OsClpD1.3 open reading frame downstream to CaMV35S promoter (ClpD1.3 plants) showed higher tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses as compared to wild type plants. ClpD1.3 seedlings also showed enhanced growth during the early stages of seed germination under unstressed, control conditions. The free proline levels and starch breakdown activities were higher in the ClpD1.3 seedlings as compared to the wild type Arabidopsis seedlings. It thus emerges that increasing the potential of ClpD1 chaperoning activity may be of advantage in protection against abiotic stresses. PMID:27457985

  13. A novel Glycine soja tonoplast intrinsic protein gene responds to abiotic stress and depresses salt and dehydration tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiao-Li; Chen, Lian-Jiang; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-07-15

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a subfamily of the aquaporin (AQP), also known as major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and regulates water movement across vacuolar membranes. Some reports have implied that TIP genes are associated with plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses that cause water loss, such as drought and high salinity. In our previous work, we found that an expressed sequence tag (EST) representing a TIP gene in our Glycine soja EST library was inducible by abiotic stresses. This TIP was subsequently isolated from G. soja with cDNA library screening, EST assembly and PCR, and named as GsTIP2;1. The expression patterns of GsTIP2;1 in G. soja under low temperature, salt and dehydration stress were different in leaves and roots. Though GsTIP2;1 is a stress-induced gene, overexpression of GsTIP2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stress, but did not affect seedling growth under cold or favorable conditions. Higher dehydration speed was detected in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GsTIP2;1, implying GsTIP2;1 might mediate stress sensitivity by enhancing water loss in the plant. Such a result is not identical to previous reports, providing some new information about the relationship between TIP and plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  14. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  15. A rice LSD1-like-type ZFP gene OsLOL5 enhances saline-alkaline tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, yeast and rice

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, QJ; Ma, HY; Wang, ZJ; Wang, ZY; Bu, QY; Liu, SK

    2016-01-01

    Background Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play an important role in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. However, little is known about the function of LSD1-like-type ZFP in saline-alkaline (SA) stress resistance of rice. In this study, OsLOL5 (GenBank No. AJ620677), containing two LSD1-like-type C2C2 domains, was isolated and analyzed its protection roles in transgenic plants and yeast. OsLOL5 was located in the nucleus as evidenced by the bombardment of onion epidermal cells. Results ...

  16. pMAA-Red: a new pPZP-derived vector for fast visual screening of transgenic Arabidopsis plants at the seed stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Muhammad; Shah Kausar; Bohlmann Holger

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The production of transgenic plants, either for the overproduction of the protein of interest, for promoter: reporter lines, or for the downregulation of genes is an important prerequisite in modern plant research but is also very time-consuming. Results We have produced additions to the pPZP family of vectors. Vector pPZP500 (derived from pPZP200) is devoid of NotI sites and vector pPZP600 (derived from pPZP500) contains a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene. Vector pMAA-...

  17. Characterization of the Ubiquitin E2 Enzyme Variant Gene Family in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Pei Wen; On-Sun Lau; Xing-Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitin E2 enzyme variant (UEV) proteins are similar to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) in both sequence and structure, but the lack of a catalytic cysteine residue renders them incapable of forming a thiolester linkage with ubiquitin. While the functional roles of several UEVs have been defined in yeast and animal systems, Arabidopsis COP10, a photomorphogenesis repressor, is the only UEV characterized in plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the eight Arabidopsis UEV genes belong to three subfamilies.The expression of those genes is supported by either the presence of ESTs or RT-PCR analysis. We also characterized the other members of the COP10 subfamily, UEV2. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the UEV2 transcripts can be detected in most organs of Arabidopsis. Analysis of UEV2::GUS transgenic lines also showed its ubiquitous expression in nearly all the developmental stages of Arabidopsis.Transient expression analysis indicated that the sGFP-UEV2 fusion protein can localize to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. A T-DNA insertion mutant, uev2-1, which abolished the transcription of UEV2, displays no visible phenotype. Further, the cop10-4 uev2-1 double mutant exhibits the same phenotype as the cop10-4mutant in darkness. UEV2 is therefore not functionally redundant with COP10.

  18. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. PMID:26081041

  19. Water deficits and heat shock effects on photosynthesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana constitutively expressing ABP9, a bZIP transcription factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xia; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jiang, Dong;

    2008-01-01

    transport rate (ETR) in 5P2 plants were depressed under optimal growth conditions (control) in relation to WT, they were enhanced under HS and HSWD. These results indicate that ABP9 transgenic plants are less susceptible to stress than the WT. In addition, the increased ABA contents in both WT and 5P2...... plants in response to WD and/or HS stresses suggest that declines in A and gs might have been due to ABA-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, compared with WT, 5P2 plants exhibited higher ABA content, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), Chl a/b, NPQ, and lower Chl/carotenoid ratios. Finally......The effects of water deficits (WD), heat shock (HS), and both (HSWD) on photosynthetic carbon- and light-use efficiencies together with leaf ABA content, pigment composition and expressions of stress- and light harvesting-responsive genes were investigated in ABP9 [ABA-responsive-element (ABRE...

  20. Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, Jo; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Dykes, Jason; Boukhelifa, Nadia; Slingsby, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These

  1. phbA基因对拟南芥质体转化及花粉表型分析%Genetic Transformation of phbA Gene into Arabidopsis thaliana Plastid and Pollen Phenotype of Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正安; 丁玉梅; 吴兴恩; 迟淑娟; 何雍琴; 张应华

    2011-01-01

    采用来源于产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes eutrophus)的PHB合成酶基因phbA,经PCR扩增后,将验证正确的phbA插入到烟草质体表达载体pBio3-GFP中,取代载体中的gfp,形成prrn-phbA-aadA-TpsbA-ter表达盒,得到质体表达载体pCTHBA,通过基因枪介导,用包裹有质粒pCTHBA的金粉子弹轰击拟南芥无菌苗叶片,经壮观霉素筛选后获得拟南芥抗性植株12株;PCR验证初步表明,phbA已整合进拟南芥的质体基因组中;对转基因拟南芥植株的花器官表型和花粉显微观察表明,phbA基因在拟南芥中得到表达,显现出雄性不育的性状.%The most effective method in hybrid breeding is that many male sterility lines have been exploited for the production of F1 hybrid seeds.Based on the previously reported sequences of phbA gene, cloned from (Alcaligenes eutrophus) coding β-ketothiolase, we amplified phbA gene from plastid pBHR68 by PCR.After sequencing, digesting and ligasing, we substituted phbA gene for gfp gene in plastid vector pBio3-GFP,thus constructed plastid transformation vector pCTHBA that carries the expression cassette of prrn-phbA-aadA-TpsbA-ter.Then the vector was transformed into plastid of Arabidopsis thaliana using PDS-1000/He biolistic particle delivering system.We totally obtained 12 transgenic plants.The further PCR analysis fundamentally indicated that the phbA gene was intergrated into the plastid genome of A.thaliana.All 12 transgenic plants performed the male-sterile phenotype with 11 plants were lacking stamens and 1 plant failed to produce viable pollen by phenotype examination and microscopy scanning.

  2. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  3. TaNAC1 acts as a negative regulator of stripe rust resistance in wheat, enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae, and promotes lateral root development in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengtao; Lin, Ruiming; Feng, Jing; Chen, Wanquan; Qiu, Dewen; Xu, Shichang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) constitute a large family and play important roles in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses, but only some of them have been investigated for effects on disease reaction in cereal crops. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in plant tissues. In this study, TaNAC1, encoding a new member of the NAC1 subgroup, was cloned from bread wheat and characterized. It is a TF localized in the cell nucleus, and contains an activation domain in its C-terminal. TaNAC1 was strongly expressed in wheat roots and was involved in responses to infection by the obligate pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and defense-related hormone treatments such as salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and ethylene. Knockdown of TaNAC1 with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) enhanced stripe rust resistance. TaNAC1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants gave enhanced susceptibility, attenuated systemic-acquired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and promoted lateral root development. Jasmonic acid-signaling pathway genes PDF1.2 and ORA59 were constitutively expressed in transgenic plants. TaNAC1 overexpression suppressed the expression levels of resistance-related genes PR1 and PR2 involved in SA signaling and AtWRKY70, which functions as a connection node between the JA- and SA-signaling pathways. Collectively, TaNAC1 is a novel NAC member of the NAC1 subgroup, negatively regulates plant disease resistance, and may modulate plant JA- and SA-signaling defense cascades.

  4. TaNAC1 acts as a negative regulator of stripe rust resistance in wheat, enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae, and promotes lateral root development in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific NAC transcription factors constitute a large family and play important roles in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses, but only some of them have been investigated for effects on disease reaction in cereal crops. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in plant tissues. In this study, TaNAC1, encoding a new member of the NAC1 subgroup, was cloned from bread wheat and characterized. It is a transcription factor localized in the cell nucleus, and contains an activation domain in its C-terminal. TaNAC1 was strongly expressed in wheat roots and was involved in responses to infection by the obligate pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and defense-related hormone treatments such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethylene. Knockdown of TaNAC1 with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS enhanced stripe rust resistance. TaNAC1-overexpression in Arabidopsis plants gave enhanced susceptibility, attenuated systemic-acquired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and promoted lateral root development. Jasmonic acid-signaling pathway genes PDF1.2 and ORA59 were constitutively expressed in transgenic plants. TaNAC1 overexpression suppressed the expression levels of resistance-related genes PR1 and PR2 involved in SA signaling and AtWRKY70, which functions as a connection node between the JA- and SA-signaling pathways. Collectively, TaNAC1 is a novel NAC member of the NAC1 subgroup, negatively regulates plant disease resistance, and may modulate plant JA- and SA-signaling defense cascades.

  5. 拟南芥转or基因突变体转录组及表型分析%TRANSCRIPTOME AND PHENOTYPE ANALYSES OF or GENE TRANSGENIC ARABIDOPSIS MUTANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门潇; 孙天虎; 杨永华

    2012-01-01

    构建了拟南芥orange(or)过表达突变体和相应的对照组,通过比较它们在色素含量、转录组、表型等方面的变化,发现or在绿色组织(拟南芥叶子、茎等)中也能起到提高类胡萝卜素含量的作用,且突变体类胡萝卜素合成途径的基因转录水平没有显著变化,但是很多防卫胁迫相关基因转录水平上调,说明突变体中存在胁迫环境.对不同生长条件下突变体幼苗下胚轴的测量等表明or突变体对光尤其是蓝光变得十分敏感.本研究分析比较了or在不同组织中的效应,为or应用于改良作物类胡萝卜素含量的基因工程和进一步揭示or的作用机制提供了参考.%It is known that orange(or) gene mutation leads to increased carotenoids content in plants.To elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved,Arabidopsis plants with over-expressed or and vector-only control were generated.Pigment content,transcriptome profile and mutant phenotypes were investigated.It was found that or was functional in green tissues,such as leaves and stems,although less functional than in non-green tissues.No major changes in transcription pattern were found for genes involved in carotenoids biosynthesis,but resistance-related genes,such as ZAT,were up-regulated,implying stressed environment in or mutants.Hypocotyl length measurements under different light conditions suggested that the or mutant became sensitive to light especially to blue light.Carotenoids enhancement of or in different plant tissues was analyzed,providing a reference for genetic engineering using or to improve nutritional status of crops,and for future work to uncover or regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Exposure render: an interactive photo-realistic volume rendering framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kroes

    Full Text Available The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR by integrating a number of visually plausible but often effect-specific rendering techniques, for instance modeling of light occlusion and depth of field. Besides yielding more attractive renderings, especially the more realistic lighting has a positive effect on perceptual tasks. Although these new rendering techniques yield impressive results, they exhibit limitations in terms of their exibility and their performance. Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT, coupled with physically based light transport, is the de-facto standard for synthesizing highly realistic images in the graphics domain, although usually not from volumetric data. Due to the stochastic sampling of MCRT algorithms, numerous effects can be achieved in a relatively straight-forward fashion. For this reason, we have developed a practical framework that applies MCRT techniques also to direct volume rendering (DVR. With this work, we demonstrate that a host of realistic effects, including physically based lighting, can be simulated in a generic and flexible fashion, leading to interactive DVR with improved realism. In the hope that this improved approach to DVR will see more use in practice, we have made available our framework under a permissive open source license.

  7. Remote rendering for ultrascale data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization is to address the upcoming petascale visualization challenges. As we move to petascale computation, we are seeing a trend not only in the growth but also in the consolidation of computing resources. As the distances between user and petascale visualization resources grow, the expected performance of the network degrades, especially with respect to latency. In this paper we will explore a technique for remote visualization that leverages unstructured lumigraph rendering. This technique will provide an interactive rendering experience regardless of the network performance to the remote visualization resource. The unstructured lumigraph rendering can also replace many of the other level-of-detail techniques currently used that have problems that are exasperated by petascale data

  8. Exposure Render: An Interactive Photo-Realistic Volume Rendering Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, T.; Post, F.H.; Botha, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The field of volume visualization has undergone rapid development during the past years, both due to advances in suitable computing hardware and due to the increasing availability of large volume datasets. Recent work has focused on increasing the visual realism in Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) by i

  9. Transgen kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  10. Tight interconnection and multi-level control of Arabidopsis MYB44 in MAPK cascade signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persak, Helene; Pitzschke, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress poses a huge, ever-increasing problem to plants and agriculture. The dissection of signalling pathways mediating stress tolerance is a prerequisite to develop more resistant plant species. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signalling modules. In Arabidopsis, the MAPK MPK3 and its upstream regulator MAPK kinase MKK4 initiate the adaptation response to numerous abiotic and biotic stresses. Yet, molecular steps directly linked with MKK4-MPK3 activation are largely unknown. Starting with a yeast-two-hybrid screen for interacting partners of MKK4, we identified a transcription factor, MYB44. MYB44 is controlled at multiple levels by and strongly inter-connected with MAPK signalling. As we had shown earlier, stress-induced expression of the MYB44 gene is regulated by a MPK3-targeted bZIP transcription factor VIP1. At the protein level, MYB44 interacts with MPK3 in vivo. MYB44 is phosphorylated by MPK3 in vitro at a single residue, Ser145. Although replacement of Ser145 by a non-phosphorylatable (S145A) or phosphomimetic (S145D) residue did not alter MYB44 subcellular localisation, dimerization behaviour nor DNA-binding characteristics, abiotic stress tolerance tests in stable transgenic Arabidopsis plants clearly related S145 phosphorylation to MYB44 function: Compared to Arabidopsis wild type plants, MYB44 overexpressing lines exhibit an enhanced tolerance to osmotic stress and are slightly more sensitive to abscisic acid. Interestingly, overexpression of the S145A variant revealed that impaired phosphorylation does not render the MYB44 protein non-functional. Instead, S145A lines are highly sensitive to abiotic stress, and thereby remarkably similar to mpk3-deficient plants. Its in vivo interaction with the nuclear sub-pools of both MPK3 and MKK4 renders MYB44 the first plant transcription factor to have a second function as putative MAPK cascade scaffolding protein.

  11. 结缕草CBF基因的同源克隆及其转基因拟南芥的抗寒性验证%Cloning of Zoysiagrass CBF Gene and Validation of Cold Tolerance in Trans-genic Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯勋伟; 才宏伟

    2014-01-01

    结缕草是优良的暖季型草坪草之一,主要用于亚热带和热带地区的草坪种植。抗冷性是结缕草栽培范围的限制因子。本研究以日本最北部原产的结缕草品系为材料,根据其他植物的已知的抗寒基因 CBF 序列,通过同源克隆的方法获得结缕草中相对应的同源基因ZjCBF;根据和其他已报告的CBF序列的比对结果,确定ZjCBF基因属于CBF转录因子家族基因中CBF1型基因。利用半定量PCR和实时定量PCR分析该基因在寒冷条件下的表达情况,发现ZjCBF基因受冷胁迫的诱导,在4℃处理6 h时表达量最高。在此基础上,本研究构建了该基因的过表达载体,并将其转化到拟南芥中,通过低温冷处理实验发现,不论是否经过冷驯化,转 ZjCBF 基因植株由于 ZjCBF 的过量表达均比野生型植株抗寒性强。%Zoysiagrass is recognized as an excellent warm-season turfgrass and mainly used in subtropical and tropical regions. Cold stress is a major constraint factor for the cultivation of zoysiagrass. In this study, according to the sequences of cold tolerance gene CBF had been reported in other plant species, we cloned the corresponding homologous of the ZjCBF gene by homology cloning method in Zoysia japonica using a material originated from the most northern area of Japan. Based on the alignment re-sults compared with other reported CBF genes, we found the ZjCBF gene belongs to the CBF1 familiy. By semi-quantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression level of the ZjCBF gene in the cold condition and found that ZjCBF was induced by cold stress, and the ZjCBF expression reached peak at six hours post 4°C treatment. In addition, we also con-structed ZjCBF over expression vector and generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants, with better cold tolerance than the wild-type, whether through cold acclimation or not.

  12. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  13. 拟南芥AMP1基因RNAi表达载体的构建及转基因株系的抗旱性分析%Construction of RNAi Vector for Arabidopsis AMP1 and Functional Analysis of the Transgenic Plants in Drought Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游丽娟; 李祥; 金尚卉; 刘萍; 衣艳君; 董春海; 刘家尧

    2015-01-01

    The RNAi vector for Arabidopsis AMP1 (pK7GWIWG2-AMP1) was constructed by Gateway gene cloning, and transgenic plants were obtained. Drought resistance and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity of the transgenic plants were examined in this study. Under mannitol treatment, the increase of seed germination and enhanced seedling root growth were observed in the transgenic plants of AMP1. In further, the decrease level of malondialdehyde (MDA) but increase of proline (Pro) was detected in the transgenic lines. As expected, higher activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in the AMP1 transgenic plants compared to the wild type. These results suggested that the down-regulation of AMP1 gene expression signiif-cantly improveed drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. In addition, it was found that the ABA sensitivity and the seed germination rate of AMP1 RNAi transgenic lines were lower than that of wild-type plants, and the leaf stomatal aperture of the transgenic plants was smaller than control plants. By analyzing the expression of ABA responsive genes, we found that the AREB1 gene was up-regulated in the transgenic lines under normal growth condition. These observations provide new evidence supporting the conclusion that plant drought toler-ance could be enhanced when the expression of AMP1 is down-regulated in transgenic plants.%利用Gateway克隆技术构建AMP1基因的RNAi表达载体pK7GWIWG2-AMP1转化拟南芥,获得AMP1下调表达的转基因株系,以拟南芥野生型为对照,研究AMP1基因在干旱胁迫中的作用。结果表明,甘露醇模拟干旱能提高RNAi株系的萌发率,增加相对根长,表现出了一定的干旱耐受性;丙二醛(MDA)、脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的测定结果可以看出,与野生型相比, RNAi株系的MDA含量降低, Pro含量升高和POD、SOD酶活性增强;外源ABA可抑制RNAi株系种子萌发,减小

  14. Hardware Accelerated Point Rendering of Isosurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    and that the advantage of rendering points as opposed to triangles increases with the size and complexity of the volumes. To gauge the visual quality of future hardware accelerated point rendering schemes, we have implemented a software based point rendering method and compare the quality to both MC and our OpenGL based...

  15. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  16. Homologous electron transport components fail to increase fatty acid hydroxylation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2a3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Wayne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid (HFA present in castor (Ricinus communis seeds, is an important industrial commodity used in products ranging from inks and paints to polymers and fuels. However, due to the deadly toxin ricin and allergens also present in castor, it would be advantageous to produce ricinoleic acid in a different agricultural crop. Unfortunately, repeated efforts at heterologous expression of the castor fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH12 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have produced only 17-19% HFA in the seed triacylglycerols (TAG, whereas castor seeds accumulate up to 90% ricinoleic acid in the endosperm TAG. RcFAH12 requires an electron supply from NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR1 and cytochrome b5 (Cb5 to synthesize ricinoleic acid. Previously, our laboratory found a mutation in the Arabidopsis CBR1 gene, cbr1-1, that caused an 85% decrease in HFA levels in the RcFAH12 Arabidopsis line. These results raise the possibility that electron supply to the heterologous RcFAH12 may limit the production of HFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that by heterologously expressing RcCb5, the reductant supply to RcFAH12 would be improved and lead to increased HFA accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. Contrary to this proposal, heterologous expression of the top three RcCb5 candidates did not increase HFA accumulation. Furthermore, coexpression of RcCBR1 and RcCb5 in RcFAH12 Arabidopsis also did not increase in HFA levels compared to the parental lines. These results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis electron transfer system is supplying sufficient reductant to RcFAH12 and that there must be other bottlenecks limiting the accumulation of HFA.

  17. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  18. Overexpression of Vacuole H+-ATPase E Subunit Gene SiVHA-Efrom Foxtail Millet Enhances Salt Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana%过表达谷子液泡H+-ATPase E亚基基因在拟南芥中的耐盐性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯露; 钟理; 陈丹丹; 马有志; 徐兆师; 李连城; 周永斌; 陈明; 张小红

    2015-01-01

    were significantly longer as well as fresh weight and survival rate were significantly higher in transgenic lines than in wild type plant under salt treatment. Compared with wild type plant, trans-genic plant reduced the content of Na+and increased the relative water content inside cells. In addition, the results of germination experiment used ABA showed thatSiVHA-E transgenicArabidopsis was more sensitive to ABA than wild type plant during post-germination. In short, overexpressingSiVHA-Ein transgenicArabidopsis lines enhances salt tolerance, which might be relates to positive regulation of ABA signaling pathway or reduction of Na+ accumulation and water loss in transgenic plants.

  19. Cluster parallel rendering based on encoded mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ai-hong; XIONG Hua; PENG Hao-yu; LIU Zhen; SHI Jiao-ying

    2006-01-01

    Use of compressed mesh in parallel rendering architecture is still an unexplored area, the main challenge of which is to partition and sort the encoded mesh in compression-domain. This paper presents a mesh compression scheme PRMC (Parallel Rendering based Mesh Compression) supplying encoded meshes that can be partitioned and sorted in parallel rendering system even in encoded-domain. First, we segment the mesh into submeshes and clip the submeshes' boundary into Runs, and then piecewise compress the submeshes and Runs respectively. With the help of several auxiliary index tables, compressed submeshes and Runs can serve as rendering primitives in parallel rendering system. Based on PRMC, we design and implement a parallel rendering architecture. Compared with uncompressed representation, experimental results showed that PRMC meshes applied in cluster parallel rendering system can dramatically reduce the communication requirement.

  20. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  1. Transgenic evaluation of activated mutant alleles of SOS2 reveals a critical requirement for its kinase activity and C-terminal regulatory domain for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Kang; Quintero-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Pardo-Prieto, Jose Manuel; Qiu, Quansheng; Schumaker, Karen Sue; Ohta, Masaru; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yan

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides a method of increasing salt tolerance in a plant by overexpressing a gene encoding a mutant SOS2 protein in at least one cell type in the plant. The present invention also provides for transgenic plants expressing the mutant SOS2 proteins.

  2. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  3. Image Based Rendering under Varying Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengfeng (王城峰); Hu Zhanyi

    2003-01-01

    A new approach for photorealistic rendering of a class of objects at arbitrary illumination is presented. The approach of the authors relies entirely on image based rendering techniques. A scheme is utilized for re-illumination of objects based on linear combination of low dimensional image representations. The minimum rendering condition of technique of the authors is three sample images under varying illumination of a reference object and a single input image of an interested object. Important properties of this approach are its simplicity, robustness and speediness. Experimental results validate the proposed rendering approach.

  4. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  5. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann;

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front thro...

  6. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  7. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  8. Overexpression of lycopene ε-cyclase gene from lycium chinense confers tolerance to chilling stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Zhaodi; Wu, Jiang; Josine, Tchouopou Lontchi; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-15

    Lutein plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage and eliminating ROS to render normal physiological function of cells. As a rate-limiting step for lutein synthesis in plants, lycopene ε-cyclase catalyzes lycopene to δ-carotene. We cloned a lycopene ε-cyclase gene (Lcε-LYC) from Lycium chinense (L. chinense), a deciduous woody perennial halophyte growing in various environmental conditions. The Lcε-LYC gene has an ORF of 1569bp encoding a protein of 522 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence of Lcε-LYC gene has higher homology with LycEs in other plants, such as Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum tuberosum. When L. chinense was exposed to chilling stress, relative expression of Lcε-LYC increased. To study the protective role of Lcε-LYC against chilling stress, we overexpressed the Lcε-LYC gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lcε-LYC overexpression led to an increase of lutein accumulation in transgenic A. thaliana, and the content of lutein decreased when transgenics were under cold conditions. In addition, the transgenic plants under chilling stress displayed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and less H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) than the control. Moreover, the photosynthesis rate, photosystem II activity (Fv/fm), and Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also increased in the transgenetic plants. On the whole, overexpression of Lcε-LYC ameliorates photoinhibition and photooxidation, and decreases the sensitivity of photosynthesis to chilling stress in transgenic plants. PMID:26526130

  9. Visibility-Aware Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai-Ho Mak; Yingcai Wu; Ming-Yuen Chan; Huamin Qu

    2011-01-01

    Direct volume rendering (DVR) is a powerful visualization technique which allows users to effectively explore and study volumetric datasets. Different transparency settings can be flexibly assigned to different structures such that some valuable information can be revealed in direct volume rendered images (DVRIs). However, end-users often feel that some risks are always associated with DVR because they do not know whether any important information is missing from the transparent regions of DVRIs. In this paper, we investigate how to semi-automatically generate a set of DVRIs and also an animation which can reveal information missed in the original DVRIs and meanwhile satisfy some image quality criteria such as coherence. A complete framework is developed to tackle various problems related to the generation and quality evaluation of visibility-aware DVRIs and animations. Our technique can reduce the risk of using direct volume rendering and thus boost the confidence of users in volume rendering systems.

  10. Composed Scattering Model for Direct Volume Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 石教英

    1996-01-01

    Based on the equation of transfer in transport theory of optical physics,a new volume rendering model,called composed scattering model(CSM),is presented.In calculating the scattering term of the equation,it is decomposed into volume scattering intensity and surface scattering intensity,and they are composed with the boundary detection operator as the weight function.This proposed model differs from the most current volume rendering models in the aspect that in CSM segmentation and illumination intensity calculation are taken as two coherent parts while in existing models they are regarded as two separate ones.This model has been applied to the direct volume rendering of 3D data sets obtained by CT and MRI.The resultant images show not only rich details but also clear boundary surfaces.CSM is demonstrated to be an accurate volume rendering model suitable for CT and MRI data sets.

  11. ARC Code TI: SLAB Spatial Audio Renderer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SLAB is a software-based, real-time virtual acoustic environment rendering system being developed as a tool for the study of spatial hearing. SLAB is designed to...

  12. Layered Textures for Image-Based Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    en-Cheng Wang; ui-Yu Li; in Zheng; n-Hua Wu

    2004-01-01

    An extension to texture mapping is given in this paper for improving the efficiency of image-based rendering. For a depth image with an orthogonal displacement at each pixel, it is decomposed by the displacement into a series of layered textures (LTs) with each one having the same displacement for all its texels. Meanwhile,some texels of the layered textures are interpolated for obtaining a continuous 3D approximation of the model represented in the depth image. Thus, the plane-to-plane texture mapping can be used to map these layered textures to produce novel views and the advantages can be obtained as follows: accelerating the rendering speed,supporting the 3D surface details and view motion parallax, and avoiding the expensive task of hole-filling in the rendering stage. Experimental results show the new method can produce high-quality images and run faster than many famous image-based rendering techniques.

  13. A hybrid rendering algorithm for textile objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MingMin; PAN ZhiGeng; SHI JiaoYing; WANG Peng; MI QingFeng

    2009-01-01

    Although realistic texile rendering has been widely used in virtual garment and try-on systems,a robust method to simulate textile with a realistic appearance and high fidelity Is yet to be established.We propose to use a novel hybrid geometric-and image-based rendering (GIBR) method to achieve photo realistic representation of textile products.The image-based technique,with its radiance synthesis algorithm,enables us to recover the reflectance properties of textile in an environment photo,and thus can render the appearance of textile material.The geometry-based technique,with its traditional illumination model of assigning illumination parameters extracted from the original scene (such as radiance and chroma dispatch),makes it possible to interactively manipulate 3D virtual objects in the "real" environment.Our realistic textile rendering method has advantages over the traditional ones in its easiness to implement and its wide range of applications.

  14. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  15. Human GLTP and mutant forms of ACD11 suppress cell death in the Arabidopsis acd11 mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; McKinney, Lea V; Pike, Helen;

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis acd11 mutant exhibits runaway, programmed cell death due to the loss of a putative sphingosine transfer protein (ACD11) with homology to mammalian GLTP. We demonstrate that transgenic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of human GLTP partially suppressed the phenotype of the acd11 ...

  16. Rendering and Compositing Infrastructure Improvements to VisIt for Insitu Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, Burlen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ruebel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Compared to posthoc rendering, insitu rendering often generates larger numbers of images, as a result rendering performance and scalability are critical in the insitu setting. In this work we present improvements to VisIt's rendering and compositing infrastructure that deliver increased performance and scalability in both posthoc and insitu settings. We added the capability for alpha blend compositing and use it with ordered compositing when datasets have disjoint block domain decomposition to optimize the rendering of transparent geometry. We also made improvements that increase overall efficiency by reducing communication and data movement and have addressed a number of performance issues. We structured our code to take advantage of SIMD parallelization and use threads to overlap communication and compositing. We tested our improvements on a 20 core workstation using 8 cores to render geometry generated from a $256^3$ cosmology dataset and on a Cray XC31 using 512 cores to render geometry generated from a $2000^2 \\times 800$ plasma dataset. Our results show that ordered compositing provides a speed up of up to $4 \\times$ over the current sort first strategy. The other improvements resulted in modest speed up with one notable exception where we achieve up to $40 \\times$ speed up of rendering and compositing of opaque geometry when both opaque and transparent geometry are rendered together. We also investigated the use of depth peeling, but found that the implementation provided by VTK is substantially slower,both with and without GPU acceleration, than a local camera order sort.

  17. Brain Image Representation and Rendering: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Raza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain image representation and rendering processes are basically used for evaluation, development and investigation consent experimental examination and formation of brain images of a variety of modalities that includes the major brain types like MEG, EEG, PET, MRI, CT or microscopy. So, there is a need to conduct a study to review the existing work in this area. This paper provides a review of different existing techniques and methods regarding the brain image representation and rendering. Image Rendering is the method of generating an image by means of a model, through computer programs. The basic purpose of brain image representation and rendering processes is to analyze the brain images precisely in order to effectively diagnose and examine the diseases and problems. The basic objective of this study is to evaluate and discuss different techniques and approaches proposed in order to handle different brain imaging types. The paper provides a short overview of different methods, in the form of advantages and limitations, presented in the prospect of brain image representation and rendering along with their sub categories proposed by different authors.

  18. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  19. Adaptive Rendering Based on Visual Acuity Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of adaptable rendering for interaction in Virtual Environment(VE) through different visual acuity equations is proposed. An acuity factor equation of luminance vision is first given. Secondly, five equations which calculate the visual acuity through visual acuity factors are presented, and adaptive rendering strategy based on different visual acuity equations is given. The VE system may select one of them on the basis of the host's load, hereby select LOD for each model which would be rendered. A coarser LOD is selected where the visual acuity is lower, and a better LOD is used where it is higher. This method is tested through experiments and the experimental results show that it is effective.

  20. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  1. Volume Rendering for Curvilinear and Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Williams, P; Silva, C; Cook, R

    2003-03-05

    We discuss two volume rendering methods developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first, cell projection, renders the polygons in the projection of each cell. It requires a global visibility sort in order to composite the cells in back to front order, and we discuss several different algorithms for this sort. The second method uses regularly spaced slice planes perpendicular to the X, Y, or Z axes, which slice the cells into polygons. Both methods are supplemented with anti-aliasing techniques to deal with small cells that might fall between pixel samples or slice planes, and both have been parallelized.

  2. Valaisukartat reaaliaikaisessa renderöinnissä

    OpenAIRE

    Ylimäki, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Tässä toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä toteutettiin reaaliaikaisen ympäristön valaisu valaisukarttoja hyödyntäen. Tavoitteena oli tutkia, mitä kaikkea on otettava huomioon, kun renderöidään valaisukartoitus reaaliaikaiseen pelimoottoriin, joka tässä opinnäytetyössä on Unity. Ohjelmat, joita opinnäytetyössä käytettiin, olivat Autodesk 3ds Max mallintamiseen ja renderöintiin, Adobe Photoshop valaisukarttojen jälkikäsittelyyn ja Unity reaaliaikaisen sovelluksen toteuttamiseen. Opinnäytetyö...

  3. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  4. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  5. GPU Pro 5 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In GPU Pro5: Advanced Rendering Techniques, section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Marius Bjorge have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book covers rendering, lighting, effects in image space, mobile devices, 3D engine design, and compute. It explores rasterization of liquids, ray tracing of art assets that would otherwise be used in a rasterized engine, physically based area lights, volumetric light

  6. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  7. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e.g....

  8. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  9. A Polygon Rendering Method with Precomputed Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial data contain a lot of points. The points consist of geographic coordinates. Representing the spatial data requires many calculating the geographic coordinates. Calculations of the coordinates take much time and reduce the performance. In order to enhance the performance of rendering the spatial data, performance enhancement for rendering the polygon which are in spatial data is needed. In this paper, we present that improving the performance of rendering for polygon by utilizing the scanline algorithm. The scanline algorithm has been widely used for rendering graphics systems. It fills inside of a given polygon. In order to filling the polygon, it requires some calculations and tables for storing the variables. Calculating and sorting the variables reduce the performance. We propose a method which precomputes the variables used by the scanline algorithm. By using proposed method, it can reduce the processed time. Proposed technique can be utilized to zoom in and out the map. We implement the proposed method and perform the experiment with Tiger/Line spatial data. We compare the processing time between scanline algorithm and proposed method.

  10. Haptic rendering for dental training system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DangXiao; ZHANG YuRu; WANG Yong; L(U) PeiJun; ZHOU RenGe; ZHOU WanLin

    2009-01-01

    Immersion and Interaction are two key features of virtual reality systems,which are especially important for medical applications.Based on the requirement of motor skill training in dental surgery,haptic rendering method based on triangle model is investigated in this paper.Multi-rate haptic rendering architecture is proposed to solve the contradiction between fidelity and efficiency requirements.Realtime collision detection algorithm based on spatial partition and time coherence is utilized to enable fast contact determination.Proxy-based collision response algorithm is proposed to compute surface contact point.Cutting force model based on piecewise contact transition model is proposed for dental drilling simulation during tooth preparation.Velocity-driven levels of detail hapUc rendering algorithm is proposed to maintain high update rate for complex scenes with a large number of triangles.Hapticvisual collocated dental training prototype is established using half-mirror solution.Typical dental operations have been realized Including dental caries exploration,detection of boundary within dental crose-section plane,and dental drilling during tooth preparation.The haptic rendering method is a fundamental technology to improve Immersion and interaction of virtual reality training systems,which is useful not only in dental training,but also in other surgical training systems.

  11. Rendering Caustics on Non-Lambertian Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Wann

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for rendering caustics on non-Lambertian surfaces. The method is based on an extension of the photon map which removes previous restrictions limiting the usage to Lambertian surfaces. We add information about the incoming direction to the photons and this allow...

  12. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  13. Shapes and textures for rendering coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Wyvill, G. (Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand))

    1990-10-18

    A growth algorithm has been developed to build coral shapes out of a tree of spheres. A volume density defined by the spheres is contoured to give a soft object.'' The resulting contour surfaces are rendered by ray tracing, using a generalized volume texture to produce shading and bump mapped'' normal perturbations. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  14. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  15. Remote interactive direct volume rendering of AMR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreylos, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Bethel, E. Wes; Shalf, John M.; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2002-03-28

    We describe a framework for direct volume rendering of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) data that operates directly on the hierarchical grid structure, without the need to resample data onto a single, uniform rectilinear grid. The framework can be used for a range of renderers optimized for particular hardware architectures: a hardware-assisted renderer for single-processor graphics workstations, and a massively parallel software-only renderer for supercomputers. It is also possible to use the framework for distributed rendering servers. By exploiting the multiresolution structure of AMR data, the hardware-assisted renderers can render large AMR data sets at interactive rates, even if the data is stored remotely.

  16. Anti-Aliased Rendering of Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Qin; Eihachiro Nakamae; Wei Hua; Yasuo Nagai; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    Water surface is one of the most important components of landscape scenes. When rendering spacious far from the viewpoint. This is because water surface consists of stochastic water waves which are usually modeled by periodic bump mapping. The incident rays on the water surface are actually scattered by the bumped waves,pattern, we estimate this solid angle of reflected rays and trace these rays. An image-based accelerating method is adopted so that the contribution of each reflected ray can be quickly obtained without elaborate intersection calculation. We also demonstrate anti-aliased shadows of sunlight and skylight on the water surface. Both the rendered images and animations show excellent effects on the water surface of a reservoir.

  17. 3D Rendering - Techniques and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Walia; Vishal Verma

    2010-01-01

    Computer generated images and animations are getting more and more common. They are used in many different contexts such as movies,mobiles, medical visualization, architectural visualization and CAD. Advanced ways of describing surface and light source properties are important to ensure that artists are able to create realistic and stylish looking images. Even when using advanced rendering algorithms such as ray tracing, time required for shading may contribute towards a large part of the ima...

  18. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    OpenAIRE

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-01-01

    The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P

  19. HAL1 mediate salt adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The yeast HAL1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with vacuum infiltration under the control of CaMV 35S promoter.Thirty-three individual kanamycin resistant plants were obtained from 75,000 seeds.Southern blotting analysis indicated that HAL1 gene had been integrated into all of the transgenic plants' genomes.The copy number of HAL1 gene in transgenic plants was mostly 1 to 3 by Southern analysis.Phenotypes of transgenic plants have no differences with wild type plants.Several samples of transformants were self-pollinated,and progenies from transformed and non-transformed plants(controls)were evaluated for salt tolerance and gene expression.Measurement of concentrations of intracellular K+ and Na+ showed that transgenic lines were able to retain less Na+ than that of the control under salt stress.Results from different tests indicated the expression of HAL1 gene promotes a higher level of salt tolerance in vivo in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  20. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P<0.05 in 2005 and 2008. Among the groups of essential defects of organization there were following: disturbance of transportation rules, lack of dispensary care, shortcomings in keeping medical documentation.

  1. GPU PRO 3 Advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    GPU Pro3, the third volume in the GPU Pro book series, offers practical tips and techniques for creating real-time graphics that are useful to beginners and seasoned game and graphics programmers alike. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again brought together a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced GPU programming. With contributions by more than 50 experts, GPU Pro3: Advanced Rendering Techniques covers battle-tested tips and tricks for creating interesting geometry, realistic sha

  2. Haptic rendering foundations, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scienti

  3. GPU Pro 4 advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    GPU Pro4: Advanced Rendering Techniques presents ready-to-use ideas and procedures that can help solve many of your day-to-day graphics programming challenges. Focusing on interactive media and games, the book covers up-to-date methods producing real-time graphics. Section editors Wolfgang Engel, Christopher Oat, Carsten Dachsbacher, Michal Valient, Wessam Bahnassi, and Sebastien St-Laurent have once again assembled a high-quality collection of cutting-edge techniques for advanced graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Divided into six sections, the book begins with discussions on the abi

  4. Rendering of 3D Dynamic Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the rendering of dynamic 3D virtual environments which can be integrated in the development of videogames. It includes methods to manage sounds and particle effects, paged static geometries, the support of a physics engine and various input systems. It has been designed with a modular structure to allow future expansions. We exploited some open-source state-of-the-art components such as OGRE, PhysX, ParticleUniverse, etc.; all of them have been properly integrated to obtain peculiar physical and environmental effects. The stand-alone version of the application is fully compatible with Direct3D and OpenGL APIs and adopts OpenAL APIs to manage audio cards. Concluding, we devised a showcase demo which reproduces a dynamic 3D environment, including some particular effects: the alternation of day and night infuencing the lighting of the scene, the rendering of terrain, water and vegetation, the reproduction of sounds and atmospheric agents.

  5. A Multiresolution Image Cache for Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-27

    The authors discuss the techniques and implementation details of the shared-memory image caching system for volume visualization and iso-surface rendering. One of the goals of the system is to decouple image generation from image display. This is done by maintaining a set of impostors for interactive display while the production of the impostor imagery is performed by a set of parallel, background processes. The system introduces a caching basis that is free of the gap/overlap artifacts of earlier caching techniques. instead of placing impostors at fixed, pre-defined positions in world space, the technique is to adaptively place impostors relative to the camera viewpoint. The positions translate with the camera but stay aligned to the data; i.e., the positions translate, but do not rotate, with the camera. The viewing transformation is factored into a translation transformation and a rotation transformation. The impostor imagery is generated using just the translation transformation and visible impostors are displayed using just the rotation transformation. Displayed image quality is improved by increasing the number of impostors and the frequency that impostors are re-rendering is improved by decreasing the number of impostors.

  6. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  7. Glutathione Dynamics in Arabidopsis Seed Development and Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Sumugat, Mae Rose S.

    2004-01-01

    Seed desiccation and germination have great potential for oxidative stress. Glutathione, one of the most abundant antioxidants in plant cells, is a crucial to the plant's defense mechanisms. To better understand glutathione's responses during these two stages, we examined its dynamics in wildtype Arabidopsis seeds and in a transgenic line containing an antisense glutathione reductase2 (anGR2) cDNA insert. Seeds from the two genotypes were compared morphologically. Glutathione levels in maturi...

  8. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  9. Constructing And Rendering Vectorised Photographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Willis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of representing captured images in the continuous mathematical space more usually associated with certain forms of drawn ('vector' images. Such an image is resolution-independent so can be used as a master for varying resolution-specific formats. We briefly describe the main features of a vectorising codec for photographic images, whose significance is that drawing programs can access images and image components as first-class vector objects. This paper focuses on the problem of rendering from the isochromic contour form of a vectorised image and demonstrates a new fill algorithm which could also be used in drawing generally. The fill method is described in terms of level set diffusion equations for clarity. Finally we show that image warping is both simplified and enhanced in the vector form and that we can demonstrate real histogram equalisation with genuinely rectangular histograms straightforwardly.

  10. Multidimensional fluorescence microscopy of multiple organelles in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Andrea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolation of green fluorescent protein (GFP and the development of spectral variants over the past decade have begun to reveal the dynamic nature of protein trafficking and organelle motility. In planta analyses of this dynamic process have typically been limited to only two organelles or proteins at a time in only a few cell types. Results We generated a transgenic Arabidopsis plant that contains four spectrally different fluorescent proteins. Nuclei, plastids, mitochondria and plasma membranes were genetically tagged with cyan, red, yellow and green fluorescent proteins, respectively. In addition, methods to track nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts and quantify the interaction between these organelles at a submicron resolution were developed. These analyzes revealed that N-ethylmaleimide disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial but not nuclear-plastids interactions in root epidermal cells of live Arabidopsis seedlings. Conclusion We developed a tool and associated methods for analyzing the complex dynamic of organelle-organelle interactions in real time in planta. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis (Kaleidocell is available through Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center.

  11. Can transgenic rice cause ecological risks through transgene escape?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Alien transgene escape from genetically engineered rice to non-transgenic varieties or close wild relatives (including weedy rice) may lead to unpredictable ecological risks. However, for transgene escape to occur three conditions need to be met: (i) spatially, transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterparts or wild relatives should have sympatric distributions; (ii) temporally, the flowering time of transgenic rice and the non-transgenic varieties or wild relatives should overlap; and (iii) biologically, transgenic rice and its wild relative species should have such a sufficiently close relationship that their interspecific hybrids can have normal generative reproduction. This paper presents research data on the geographic distribution, flowering habits, interspecific hybridization, and gene flow of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its closely related wild relatives containing the AA genome. The objective is to estimate the possibility of transgene escape to non-transgenic rice varieties and wild relatives of rice, which may result in unpredictable ecological risks.

  12. Rendering with mental ray and 3ds Max

    CERN Document Server

    van der Steen, Joep

    2009-01-01

    Create stunning renders of your 3ds Max models in mental ray with this concise guide. Learn all of the essential concepts such as indirect illumination, materials, render options, shaders, and lighting. Rendering with mental ray and 3ds Max, Second Edition is now revised to cover Autodesk Revit and special effects. The companion website includes all of the necessary project files from inside the book. *Render beautiful scenes with 3ds Max and the powerful mental ray application*Covers all aspects of rendering including materials, lighting, shaders, indirec

  13. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  14. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  15. Efficient and Effective Volume Visualization with Enhanced Isosurface Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fei; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Compared with full volume rendering, isosurface rendering has several well recognized advantages in efficiency and accuracy. However, standard isosurface rendering has some limitations in effectiveness. First, it uses a monotone colored approach and can only visualize the geometry features of an isosurface. The lack of the capability to illustrate the material property and the internal structures behind an isosurface has been a big limitation of this method in applications. Another limitation of isosurface rendering is the difficulty to reveal physically meaningful structures, which are hidden in one or multiple isosurfaces. As such, the application requirements of extract and recombine structures of interest can not be implemented effectively with isosurface rendering. In this work, we develop an enhanced isosurface rendering technique to improve the effectiveness while maintaining the performance efficiency of the standard isosurface rendering. First, an isosurface color enhancement method is proposed to il...

  16. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  17. Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Rong eZhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA in oilseeds has been one of the key metabolic engineering targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ω3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from endogenous -linolenic acid (ALA, we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG and phospholipid (PL lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1ω9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified, and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provides insights into where DHA accumulated and composed with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds.

  18. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  19. Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovy, A.G.; Angenent, G.C.; Dons, H.J.M.; Altvorst, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana etr1-1 allele, capable of conferring ethylene insensitivity in a heterologous host, was introduced into transgenic carnation plants. This gene was expressed under control of either its own promoter, the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the flower-specific petunia FBP1 promo

  20. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significantly shorter and fresh weights and plant heights were significantly higher than those in the WT line. A transcriptomics study using digital gene expression profiling (DGE) was performed in transgenic and WT Arabidopsis. One hundred and thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified. In transgenic Arabidopsis, three critical regulators of JA biosynthesis were up-regulated and JA levels were slightly increased. Three important repressors of the ABA-responsive pathway were up-regulated, indicating that ABA signal transduction may be suppressed. One CML and two WRKY TFs involved in Ca(2+)-responsive pathways were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway may have been triggered. In conclusion, we show that PevD1 is involved in regulating several plant endogenous signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks to enhance resistance and promote growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:27489497

  1. Profilin Plays a Role in Cell Elongation, Cell Shape Maintenance, and Flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, S.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ishimaru, Y.;

    2000-01-01

    carrying a 35S-PFN-1 or 35S-antisense PFN-1 transgene. Etiolated seedlings underexpressing PFN (PFN-U) displayed an overall dwarf phenotype with short hypocotyls whose lengths were 20% to 25% that of wild type (WT) at low temperatures. Light-grown PFN-U plants were smaller in stature and flowered early......Profilin (PFN) is an ubiquitous, low-M-r, actin-binding protein involved in the organization of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotes including higher plants. PFNs are encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis. We have analyzed in vivo functions of Arabidopsis PFN by generating transgenic plants...... expressed in the vascular bundles of cotyledons and leaves. Our results show that Arabidopsis PFNs play a role in cell elongation, cell shape maintenance, polarized growth of root hair, and unexpectedly, in determination of flowering time....

  2. Functional analysis of the Hikeshi-like protein and its interaction with HSP70 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shinya; Ohama, Naohiko; Mizoi, Junya [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko, E-mail: akys@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • HKL, a Hikeshi homologous gene is identified in Arabidopsis. • HKL interacts with two HSP70 isoforms and regulates the subcellular localization of HSC70-1. • The two HSP70 translocate into nucleus in response to heat stress. • Overexpression of HKL confers thermotolerance in transgenic plants. - Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) refold damaged proteins and are an essential component of the heat shock response. Previously, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) has been reported to translocate into the nucleus in a heat-dependent manner in many organisms. In humans, the heat-induced translocation of HSP70 requires the nuclear carrier protein Hikeshi. In the Arabidopsis genome, only one gene encodes a protein with high homology to Hikeshi, and we named this homolog Hikeshi-like (HKL) protein. In this study, we show that two Arabidopsis HSP70 isoforms accumulate in the nucleus in response to heat shock and that HKL interacts with these HSP70s. Our histochemical analysis revealed that HKL is predominantly expressed in meristematic tissues, suggesting the potential importance of HKL during cell division in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that HKL regulates HSP70 localization, and HKL overexpression conferred thermotolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that HKL plays a positive role in the thermotolerance of Arabidopsis plants and cooperatively interacts with HSP70.

  3. Fast combinative volume rendering by indexed data structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文武; 王文成; 吴恩华

    2001-01-01

    It is beneficial to study the interesting contents in a data set by combining and rendering variouscontents of the data. In this regard, an indexed data structure is proposed to facilitate the reorganization of data so that the contents of the data can be combined conveniently and only the selected contents in the data are processed for rendering. Based on the structure, the cells of different contents can be queued up easily so that the volume rendering can be conducted more accurately and quickly. Experimental results show that the indexed data structure is very efficient in improving combinative volume rendering.

  4. Beyond the Renderer: Software Architecture for Parallel Graphics and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    As numerous implementations have demonstrated, software-based parallel rendering is an effective way to obtain the needed computational power for a variety of challenging applications in computer graphics and scientific visualization. To fully realize their potential, however, parallel renderers need to be integrated into a complete environment for generating, manipulating, and delivering visual data. We examine the structure and components of such an environment, including the programming and user interfaces, rendering engines, and image delivery systems. We consider some of the constraints imposed by real-world applications and discuss the problems and issues involved in bringing parallel rendering out of the lab and into production.

  5. Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Bossin, H.C.; Mukabana, W.R.; Robinson, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission an

  6. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  7. Thermodynamic and structural properties of tuber starches from transgenic potato plants grown in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasserman, L.A.; Sergeev, A.I.; Vasil'Ev, V.G.; Plashchina, I.G.; Aksenova, N.P.; Konstantinova, T.N.; Golyanovskaya, S.A.; Sergeeva, Lidia; Romanov, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Potato plants harboring Phytochrome B (PHYB) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana or rol genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used to study the effect of transgene expression on structure and properties of starch in tubers. Thermodynamic characteristics of starch (melting temperature, enthalpy of m

  8. 18 CFR 1308.17 - Failure to render timely decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to render timely decision. 1308.17 Section 1308.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES Contracting Officers § 1308.17 Failure to render timely decision. Any failure...

  9. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaishnavi, I.; Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Gao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Non-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type synchronizat

  10. 7 CFR 54.15 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54.15... Service § 54.15 Advance information concerning service rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  11. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  12. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    system to degrade lignin. An important step in this degradation is cleavage of the most abundant lignin linkage type, β-aryl ether. It is cleaved in a three step reaction catalyzed by a dehydrogenase, a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione lyase. Due to the nature of the enzymatic reactions...... of the cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure...... be degraded by LigDFG, which can presumably cause loosening of the lignin-ferulate-polysaccharide matrix. In a xylanase hydrolysis of Brachypodium transgenic stems, the release of arabinose and xylose was increased compared to wild type. The data presented demonstrate that introduction of lignin degrading...

  13. Research of global illumination algorithms rendering in glossy scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shuangxue; ZHANG Qiang; ZHOU Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In computer graphic (CG), illumination rendering generated realistic effect at virtual scene is amazing. Not only plausible lighting effect is to show the relative position between of the objects, but also to reflect the material of visual appearance of the vir- tual objects. The diffuse-scene rendering reflectance credibility has gradually matured. Global illumination rendering method for the glossy material is still a challenge for the CG research. Because of the shiny materials is highly energy reflection between the com- plex light paths. Whether we trace glossy reflection paths, or use of one-reflection or multi-reflection approximate above complex il- lumination transmission is a difficult working. This paper we gather some commonly used global illumination algorithms recently year and its extension glossy scene improvements. And we introduce the limitation of classical algorithms rendering glossy scene and some extended solution. Finally, we will summarize the illumination rendering for specular scene, there are still some open prob- lems.

  14. A Volume Rendering Algorithm for Sequential 2D Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering of 3D data sets composed of sequential 2D medical images has become an important branch in image processing and computer graphics.To help physicians fully understand deep-seated human organs and focuses(e.g.a tumour)as 3D structures.in this paper,we present a modified volume rendering algorithm to render volumetric data,Using this method.the projection images of structures of interest from different viewing directions can be obtained satisfactorily.By rotating the light source and the observer eyepoint,this method avoids rotates the whole volumetric data in main memory and thus reduces computational complexity and rendering time.Experiments on CT images suggest that the proposed method is useful and efficient for rendering 3D data sets.

  15. Effects of display rendering on HDR image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerman, Emin; Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Banterle, Francesco; Dufaux, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) displays use local backlight modulation to produce both high brightness levels and large contrast ratios. Thus, the display rendering algorithm and its parameters may greatly affect HDR visual experience. In this paper, we analyze the impact of display rendering on perceived quality for a specific display (SIM2 HDR47) and for a popular application scenario, i.e., HDR image compression. To this end, we assess whether significant differences exist between subjective quality of compressed images, when these are displayed using either the built-in rendering of the display, or a rendering algorithm developed by ourselves. As a second contribution of this paper, we investigate whether the possibility to estimate the true pixel-wise luminance emitted by the display, offered by our rendering approach, can improve the performance of HDR objective quality metrics that require true pixel-wise luminance as input.

  16. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  17. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  18. Transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, L M

    2000-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is one of the major successes of biotechnology. Animal cells are required to synthesize proteins with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Transgenic animals are being used for this purpose. Milk, egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma and silk worm cocoon from transgenic animals are candidates to be the source of recombinant proteins at an industrial scale. Although the first recombinant protein produced by transgenic animals is expected to be in the market in 2000, a certain number of technical problems remain to be solved before the various systems are optimized. Although the generation of transgenic farm animals has become recently easier mainly with the technique of animal cloning using transfected somatic cells as nuclear donor, this point remains a limitation as far as cost is concerned. Numerous experiments carried out for the last 15 years have shown that the expression of the transgene is predictable only to a limited extent. This is clearly due to the fact that the expression vectors are not constructed in an appropriate manner. This undoubtedly comes from the fact that all the signals contained in genes have not yet been identified. Gene constructions thus result sometime in poorly functional expression vectors. One possibility consists in using long genomic DNA fragments contained in YAC or BAC vectors. The other relies on the identification of the major important elements required to obtain a satisfactory transgene expression. These elements include essentially gene insulators, chromatin openers, matrix attached regions, enhancers and introns. A certain number of proteins having complex structures (formed by several subunits, being glycosylated, cleaved, carboxylated...) have been obtained at levels sufficient for an industrial exploitation. In other cases, the mammary cellular machinery seems insufficient to promote all the post-translational modifications. The addition of genes coding for enzymes

  19. Overexpression of Nelumbo nucifera metallothioneins 2a and 3 enhances seed germination vigor in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich and metal-binding proteins which are involved in metal homeostasis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Although plant MTs have been intensively studied, their roles in seeds remain to be clearly established. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and their roles in seed germination vigor. The transcripts of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 were highly expressed in developing and germinating sacred lotus seeds, and were dramatically up-regulated in response to high salinity, oxidative stresses and heavy metals. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that NnMT2a-YFP and NnMT3-YFP were localized in cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing NnMT2a and NnMT3 displayed improved resistance to accelerated aging (AA) treatment, indicating their significant roles in seed germination vigor. These transgenic seeds also exhibited higher superoxide dismutase activity compared to wild-type seeds after AA treatment. In addition, we showed that NnMT2a and NnMT3 conferred improved germination ability to NaCl and methyl viologen on transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Taken together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of NnMT2a and NnMT3 in Arabidopsis significantly enhances seed germination vigor after AA treatment and under abiotic stresses.

  20. Post-transcriptional gene silencing signal could move rapidly and bidirectionally in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; JIANG Shiling; WANG Youqun; LIU Guoqin

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), one of the newly found ways for post-transcriptional gene silencing, has been widely used to investigate gene functions through transgenic methods for introducing an RNA silencing signal into plants. In the present study, we constructed a dexamethazone (DEX)-inducible RNAi binary vector harboring a specific sequence fragment (168-bp) homologous to KatB and KatC, two kinesin isoform genes of Arabidopsis, which were proved to result in the post-transcriptional gene silencing of KatB and KatC in DEX-induced transgenic plants. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis on transgenic homozygous Arabidopsis (termed as RNAi-type plants) showed that DEX inducement causes KatB and KatC mRNA degradation. With a simplified method, Arabidopsis grafting was effectively performed between RNAi-type and wild-type lines. The target gene mRNA levels were tested based on semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our results demonstrateed that DEX-induced gene silencing signals could result in a reduction in KatB and KatC mRNA in the wild-type rootstocks or scions, indicating that silencing signals of RNAi could be transmitted bidirectionally across the graft junction whether RNAi-plants were scions or stocks. In contrast to the previously reported results on grafted tobacco, the transmission of post- transcriptional gene silencing signals caused by RNAi in grafted Arabidopsis is more effective than that in tobacco.

  1. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads Jonas Birkbak; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent...

  2. Transgenic sugar beet tolerant to imidazolinone obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet is highly sensitive to imidazolinone herbicides thus rotational restrictions exist. In order to develop imidazolinone tolerant sugar beets als gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding acetolactate synthase with S653N mutation was used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugar beet plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic seedlings using vacuum-infiltration. The efficiency of genetic transformation was 5.8%. RT-PCR analysis of obtained plants revealed accumulation of specific als transcript. The resistance to imidazolinone was proved for developed transgenic sugar beet plants in vitro and in greenhouse conditions after spraying with imazethapyr (Pursuit, BASF).

  3. Hardware Assisted Fast Volume Rendering with Boundary Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童欣; 唐泽圣

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,a new volume rendering method with boundary enhancement is presented.The boundary is extracted and represented by surfaces explicitly,Then,using 3D texture mapping and graphics acceleation hardware,the volume data can be rendered with controllable boundary shading effect almost in real time.Test shows that this method is 4-5 times faster than the previous methods.Moreover,it can also be extended to render the surfaces and the volumetric data together interactively.

  4. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  5. Efficient and high-throughput vector construction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoichi; Dansako, Tomoko; Yano, Kentaro; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2008-02-01

    We established a large-scale, high-throughput protocol to construct Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cell lines, each of which carries a single transgene, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We took advantage of RIKEN Arabidopsis full-length (RAFL) cDNA clones and the Gateway cloning system for high-throughput preparation of binary vectors carrying individual full-length cDNA sequences. Throughout all cloning steps, multiple-well plates were used to treat 96 samples simultaneously in a high-throughput manner. The optimal conditions for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of 96 independent binary vector constructs were established to obtain transgenic cell lines efficiently. We evaluated the protocol by generating transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cell lines carrying individual 96 metabolism-related RAFL cDNA fragments, and showed that the protocol was useful for high-throughput and large-scale production of gain-of-function lines for functional genomics.

  6. Selection of Arabidopsis mutants overexpressing genes driven by the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, D.A.M. van der; Schuyer, M.; Pinas, J.E.; Zaal, B.J. van der; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants were isolated that contained a T-DNA construct in which the promoter of an auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from tobacco was fused to the kanamycin resistance (nptII) as well as to the β-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. Subsequently, seeds were tr

  7. Molecular screening tools to study Arabidopsis transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eWehner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs, which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF Open Reading Frame (ORF collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publi-cally available GATEWAY® compatible ORF collections. (1 The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2 A high-throughput microtiter plate based Protoplast Trans Activation (PTA system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta.

  8. Foggy Scene Rendering Based on Transmission Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering of foggy scene is important in game development and virtual reality. Traditional methods have many parameters to control or require a long time to compute, and they are usually limited to depicting a homogeneous fog without considering the foggy scene with heterogeneous fog. In this paper, a new rendering method based on transmission map estimation is proposed. We first generate perlin noise image as the density distribution texture of heterogeneous fog. Then we estimate the transmission map using the Markov random field (MRF model and the bilateral filter. Finally, virtual foggy scene is realistically rendered with the generated perlin noise image and the transmission map according to the atmospheric scattering model. Experimental results show that the rendered results of our approach are quite satisfactory.

  9. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D eros

  10. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  11. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  12. Interactive Depth-of-Field Rendering with Secondary Rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Fu Xie; Xin Sun; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method to trace secondary rays in depth-of-field (DOF) rendering,which significantly enhances realism.Till now,the effects by secondary rays have been little addressed in real-time/interactive DOF rendering,because secondary rays have less coherence than primary rays,making them very difficult to handle.We propose novel measures to cluster secondary rays,and take a virtual viewpoint to construct a layered image-based representation for the objects that would be intersected by a cluster of secondary rays respectively.Therefore,we can exploit coherence of secondary rays in the clusters to speed up tracing secondary rays in DOF rendering.Results show that we can interactively achieve DOF rendering effects with reflections or refractions on a commodity graphics card.

  13. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  14. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya ( Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qinguyi; Thimmapuram, Jyothi

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3 draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angio...

  15. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angi...

  16. Transgenics in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  17. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  18. Planet Rendering Using Online High-Resolution Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Östergaard, Johan

    2008-01-01

    A large amount of image datasets are publicly available online through the web map service standard. The contents of the datasets span from satellite imagery of the earth and other planets of our solar system to various scientific data. This thesis presents an implementation of a planet renderer streaming high resolution image and height data from online datasets. The planet renderer uses a level of detail technique based on nodes connected by a quad tree data structure. The level of detail i...

  19. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  20. EMF1, a novel protein involved in the control of shoot architecture and flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, D.; Chen, L.; Moon, Y.-H.;

    2001-01-01

    shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class......Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform...

  1. Light Space Cascaded Shadow Maps Algorithm for Real Time Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Liang; Shang Ma; Li-Xia Cen; Zhuo Yu

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its generality and efficiency, Cascaded Shadow Maps (CSMs) has an important role in real-time shadow rendering in large scale and complex virtual environments. However, CSMs suffers from redundant rendering problem --objects are rendered undesirably to different shadow map textures when view direction and light direction are not perpendicular. In this paper, we present a light space cascaded shadow maps algorithm. The algorithm splits a scene into non-intersecting layers in light space, and generates one shadow map for each layer through irregular frustum clipping and scene organization, ensuring that any shadow sample point never appears in multiple shadow maps. A succinct shadow determination method is given to choose the optimal shadow map when rendering scenes. We also combine the algorithm with stable cascaded shadow maps and soft shadow algorithm to avoid shadow flicking and produce soft shadows. The results show that the algorithm effectively improves the efficiency and shadow quality of CSMs by avoiding redundant rendering, and can produce high-quality shadow rendering in large scale dynamic environments with real-time performance.

  2. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  3. Over-Expression of ScMnSOD, a SOD Gene Derived from Jojoba, Improve Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-fei; ZHANG Gen-fa; SUN Wei-min; LI Ze-qin; BAI Rui-xue; LI Jing-xiao; SHI Zi-han; GENG Hong-wei; ZHENG Ying; ZHANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is mainly distributed in desert, and the molecular mechanisms of jojoba in response to abiotic stress still remain elusive. In this paper, we cloned and characterized a SOD gene from jojoba named as ScMnSOD, and introduced into Arabidopsis to investigate its functions of responding to drought stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed an improvement in drought tolerance. Moreover, under a water deifcit condition, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines compared to the WT. Furthermore, the ScMnSOD promoter was cloned to the 5´-upstream of GUS coding region in a binary vector, and introduced into Arabidopsis. And results showed that ScMnSOD expression can be induced by drought, salt, ABA, and low temperature. In conclusion, ScMnSOD plays an important role in drought tolerance which is, at least partially, attributed to its role in ROS detoxiifcation.

  4. Constitutive production of nitric oxide leads to enhanced drought stress resistance and extensive transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in plant responses to many environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that constitutively express rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) were described recently. In this study, it is reported that the nNOS transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed high levels of osmolytes and increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Transcriptomic analysis identified 601 or 510 genes that were differentially expressed as a consequence of drought stress or nNOS transformation, respectively. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis, redox, stress, and phytohormone and secondary metabolism were greatly affected by the nNOS transgene. Several CBF genes and members of zinc finger gene families, which are known to regulate transcription in the stress response, were changed by the nNOS transgene. Genes regulated by both the nNOS transgene and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were compared and identified, including those for two ABA receptors (AtPYL4 and AtPYL5). Moreover, overexpression of AtPYL4 and AtPYL5 enhanced drought resistance, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte levels. These observations increase our understanding of the role of NO in drought stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:24868034

  5. Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Young Jang; Kyung Jin Kwak; Hunseung Kang

    2008-01-01

    Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucurnis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild.type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions.

  6. Overexpression of OsWRKY72 gene interferes in the abscisic acid signal and auxin transport pathway of Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Song Yu; Chen Ligang; Zhang Liping; Yu Diqiu

    2010-09-01

    Through activating specific transcriptional programmes, plants can launch resistance mechanisms to stressful environments and acquire a new equilibrium between development and defence. To screen the rice WRKY transcription factor which functions in abiotic stress tolerance and modulates the abscisic acid (ABA) response, we generated a whole array of 35S-OsWRKY transgenic Arabidopsis. In this study, we report that 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis, whose seed germination was retarded under normal conditions, emerged more sensitive to mannitol, NaCl, ABA stresses and sugar starvation than vector plants. Meanwhile, 35S-OsWRKY72 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed early flowering, reduced apical dominance, lost high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation response, and enhanced gravitropism response, which were similar to the auxin-related gene mutants aux1, axr1 and bud1. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of three auxin-related genes AUX1, AXR1 and BUD1 were significantly altered in rosette leaves and inflorescences of 35S-OsWRKY72 plants compared with control Arabidopsis, and two ABA-related genes ABA2 and ABI4 were induced in 35S-OsWRKY72 seedlings. In addition, northern blot analysis indicated that, in rice, OsWRKY72 was inducible by polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaCl, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), ABA and 42°C, similar to its orthologue AtWRKY75 in Arabidopsis, implying that these two WRKY genes might be required for multiple physiological processes in their plants. Together, these results suggest that OsWRKY72 interferes in the signal cross-talk between the ABA signal and auxin transport pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  7. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  8. Leaf Downward Curvature and Delayed Flowering Caused by AtLH Overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHao; YULin; TANGXiang-Rong; SHENRui-Juan; HEYu-Ke

    2004-01-01

    AtLHgene of Arabidopsis is a BcpLH(leafy head) homolog of Chinese cabbage, which encodes a double-stranded RNA-binding protein related to the curvature of folding leaf leading to the formation of leafy head. In order to elucidate the regulatory function of AtLH in the development of leaf curvature, we made a construct of 35S::AtLHand transformed it to Arabidopsis. In transgenic plants for sense-AtLH, transcripts of AtLH gene were increased significantly in leaves and flowers, giving rise to the AtLH-overexpressed plants in which the rosette leaves curved downward or outward in a manner of enhanced epinastic growth. Compared with normal plants, bolting and flowering time of the transgenic plants was significantly delayed. Moreover, the apical dominance of transgenic plants was weaker in vegetative shoots since more axillary shoots emerged from axil of rosette leaves, while stronger in flowering shoots because fewer cauline inflorescences were observed on the main inflorescence. In other aspects, these transgenic plants exhibited an increase in root-stimulating response to IAA and decrease in root-inhibitory reaction on ABA. It indicates that overexpression of AtLH causes downward curvature of transgenic plants.

  9. Osmotic stress-regulated the expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO YuChen; GUO JingGong; LIU ErTao; LI Kun; DAI Jie; WANG PengCheng; CHEN Jia; SONG ChunPeng

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (ATGPX3) in response to osmotic stress was analyzed in Arabidopsis using ATGPX3 promoter-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic plants. High levels of GUS expression were detected under osmotic stress in ATGPX3 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. Compared with the wild type, the growth and development of ATGPX3 mutants (atgpx3-1) were more sensitive to mannitol. In addition, the expression of RD29A, ABI1, ABI2 and RbohD in atgpx3-1 was induced by ABA stress. These results suggest that ATGPX3 might be involved in the signal transduction of osmotic stress.

  10. Cryopreservation of Xenopus transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Daniel R; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Xenopus laevis has been widely used for molecular, cellular, and developmental studies. With the development of the sperm-mediated transgenic method, it is now possible to study gene function during vertebrate development by using this popular model. On the other hand, like other animal species, it is labor intensive, and the maintenance of transgenic lines is expensive. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using sperm-cryopreservation as a means to preserve transgenic frog lines. We demonstrated that cryopreserved sperms are viable but not fertile under our in vitro fertilization (IVF) conditions. However, by microinjecting cryopreserved sperm nuclei, we successfully regenerated a transgenic line carrying a double promoter transgene construct, where the marker gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the gamma-crystallin gene promoter and a gene of interest, encoding a fusion protein of GFP with the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3-GFP), is driven by a heat shock-inducible promoter. We demonstrated the functional transmission of the ST3-GFP transgene by analyzing the phenotype of the F1 animals after heat-shock to induce its expression. Our method thus provides an inexpensive means to preserve transgenic frog lines and a convenient way for distribution of transgenic lines. Furthermore, the ease with which to microinject nuclei compared to the technically demanding transgenesis procedure with variable outcome should facilitate more laboratories to use transgenic Xenopus laevis for functional studies in vivo. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 67: 65-69, 2004. PMID:14648875

  11. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  12. The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Unsworth, J.B.; Harris, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s. Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide re

  13. Ethical issues in transgenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, R; Morrey, J D

    2000-01-01

    The arguments of critics and concerns of the public on generating transgenic cloned animals are analyzed for the absence or presence of logical structure. Critics' arguments are symbolically compared with "genetic trespassing," "genetic speeding," or "going the wrong way," and responses are provided to these arguments. Scientists will be empowered to participate in the public discussion and to engage the critics on these issues as they consider thoughtful, plausible responses to their concerns. Temporary moratoriums are recognized as a plausible approach to dealing with possible concerns of new scientific advancements.

  14. Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Luz; Scholl, Randy; Holomuzki, Nicholas; Crist, Deborah; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Growing healthy plants is essential for the advancement of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) research. Over the last 20 years, the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) has collected and developed a series of best-practice protocols, some of which are presented in this chapter. Arabidopsis can be grown in a variety of locations, growth media, and environmental conditions. Most laboratory accessions and their mutant or transgenic derivatives flower after 4-5 weeks and set seeds after 7-8 weeks, under standard growth conditions (soil, long day, 23 ºC). Some mutant genotypes, natural accessions, and Arabidopsis relatives require strict control of growth conditions best provided by growth rooms, chambers, or incubators. Other lines can be grown in less-controlled greenhouse settings. Although the majority of lines can be grown in soil, certain experimental purposes require utilization of sterile solid or liquid growth media. These include the selection of primary transformants, identification of homozygous lethal individuals in a segregating population, or bulking of a large amount of plant material. The importance of controlling, observing, and recording growth conditions is emphasized and appropriate equipment required to perform monitoring of these conditions is listed. Proper conditions for seed harvesting and preservation, as well as seed quality control, are also described. Plant transformation and genetic crosses, two of the methods that revolutionized Arabidopsis genetics, are introduced as well.

  15. Cloning of an ovule specific promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana and expression of beta-glucuronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, Vikrant; Verma, Anju; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Priyanka; Ramesh, B; Kumar, P Ananda

    2008-04-01

    Tissue specific expression of transgenes in plant species has several advantages over constitutive expression. Identification of ovule specific promoters would be useful in genetic engineering of plants with a variety of desirable traits such as genetically engineered parthenocarpy, female sterile plants or seedless fruits. Relative inaccessibility and difficulty in harvesting adequate amounts of tissue at known developmental stages has impeded the progress in cloning of promoters involved in ovule development. In the present study an ovule specific promoter was cloned from Arabidopsis AGL11 gene and used to express GUS (beta-glucuronidase) gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. Histochemical staining of GUS appeared in the center of young ovary (ovules), but no detectable GUS activity was observed in vegetative plant tissues, sepals, petals and androecium. AGL11 gene promoter can be useful to modify the developmental path of plants by expressing either plant hormones or lethal genes for agronomic purpose. PMID:18512328

  16. Universal Rendering Mechanism Supporting Dual-Mode Presentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏; 杨文军; 王克宏

    2003-01-01

    XML is a standard for the exchange of business data that is completely platform and vendor neutral. Because XML data comes in many forms, one of the most important technologies needed for XML applications is the ability to convert the data into visible renderings. This paper focuses on the rendering of XML/XSL documents into a readable and printable format by means of a platform-independent process that enables high-quality printing of the product. This paper introduces the core components in the data rendering engine, the X2P server and different levels of object abstraction. The design pattern and the complete formatting and representation of the XSL stylesheet into different types of output formats in the X2P server are also given. The results show that the X2P sever simultaneously constructs the formatting object tree and the area tree in a very efficient design that saves execution time and memory.

  17. Virtual try-on through image-based rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswiesner, Stefan; Straka, Matthias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Virtual try-on applications have become popular because they allow users to watch themselves wearing different clothes without the effort of changing them physically. This helps users to make quick buying decisions and, thus, improves the sales efficiency of retailers. Previous solutions usually involve motion capture, 3D reconstruction or modeling, which are time consuming and not robust for all body poses. Our method avoids these steps by combining image-based renderings of the user and previously recorded garments. It transfers the appearance of a garment recorded from one user to another by matching input and recorded frames, image-based visual hull rendering, and online registration methods. Using images of real garments allows for a realistic rendering quality with high performance. It is suitable for a wide range of clothes and complex appearances, allows arbitrary viewing angles, and requires only little manual input. Our system is particularly useful for virtual try-on applications as well as interactive games.

  18. Clustered deep shadow maps for integrated polyhedral and volume rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Bornik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-accelerated approach for shadow computation in scenes containing both complex volumetric objects and polyhedral models. Our system is the first hardware accelerated complete implementation of deep shadow maps, which unifies the computation of volumetric and geometric shadows. Up to now such unified computation was limited to software-only rendering . Previous hardware accelerated techniques can handle only geometric or only volumetric scenes - both resulting in the loss of important properties of the original concept. Our approach supports interactive rendering of polyhedrally bounded volumetric objects on the GPU based on ray casting. The ray casting can be conveniently used for both the shadow map computation and the rendering. We show how anti-aliased high-quality shadows are feasible in scenes composed of multiple overlapping translucent objects, and how sparse scenes can be handled efficiently using clustered deep shadow maps. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H.

    2013-01-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fu...

  20. Ectopic Expression of an Activated RAC in Arabidopsis Disrupts Membrane CyclingD⃞V⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Daria; Lavy, Meirav; Efrat, Yael; Efroni, Idan; Bracha-Drori, Keren; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Sadot, Einat; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate the actin cytoskeleton, exocytosis, endocytosis, and other signaling cascades. Rhos are subdivided into four subfamilies designated Rho, Racs, Cdc42, and a plant-specific group designated RACs/Rops. This research demonstrates that ectopic expression of a constitutive active Arabidopsis RAC, AtRAC10, disrupts actin cytoskeleton organization and membrane cycling. We created transgenic plants expressing either wild-type or constitutive active AtRAC10 fused to the green fluor...

  1. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  2. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  3. Arabidopsis Hormone Database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi-yu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Linchuan; Yu, Xiangchun; Li, Hongjiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Cao, Guangyu; Bai, Mingyi; Wang, Xingchun; Jiang, Caifu; Lu, Haibin; Hou, Xianhui; Qu, Lijia; Wang, Zhiyong; Zuo, Jianru; Fu, Xiangdong; Su, Zhen; Li, Songgang; Guo, Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones are small organic molecules that influence almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Genetic and molecular studies have revealed a large number of genes that are involved in responses to numerous plant hormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and brassinosteroid. Here, we develop an Arabidopsis hormone database, which aims to provide a systematic and comprehensive view of genes participating in plant hormonal regulation, as well as morphological phenotypes controlled by plant hormones. Based on data from mutant studies, transgenic analysis and gene ontology (GO) annotation, we have identified a total of 1026 genes in the Arabidopsis genome that participate in plant hormone functions. Meanwhile, a phenotype ontology is developed to precisely describe myriad hormone-regulated morphological processes with standardized vocabularies. A web interface (http://ahd.cbi.pku.edu.cn) would allow users to quickly get access to information about these hormone-related genes, including sequences, functional category, mutant information, phenotypic description, microarray data and linked publications. Several applications of this database in studying plant hormonal regulation and hormone cross-talk will be presented and discussed. PMID:19015126

  4. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION) gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice. Taken together, our results showed that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive peptide hormone gene, and it regulates shoot apical

  5. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  6. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108, which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  7. Arabidopsis in Wageningen

    OpenAIRE

    Koornneef, M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant species that in the past 25 years has developed into the major model species in plant biology research. This was due to its properties such as short generation time, its small genome and its easiness to be transformed. Wageningen University has played an important role in the development of this model, based on interdisciplinary collaborations using genetics as a major tool to investigate aspects of physiology, development, plant-microbe interactions and evol...

  8. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  9. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  10. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  11. 17 CFR 256.457 - Services rendered to associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.457 Section 256.457 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.457 Services rendered to...

  12. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Interacting with Stroke-Based Rendering on a Wall Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubert, Jens; Hanckock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tse, Edward; Isenberg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    We introduce two new interaction techniques for creating and interacting with non-photorealistic images using stroke-based rendering. We provide bimanual control of a large interactive canvas through both remote pointing and direct touch. Remote pointing allows people to sit and interact at a distan

  14. Fast Rendering of Realistic Virtual Character in Game Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is made up of multiple translucent layers and rendering of skin appearance usually acquire complex modeling and massive calculation. In some practical applications such as 3D game development, we not only approximate the realistic looking skin but also develop efficient method to implement easily for meeting needs of real-time rendering. In this study, we solve the problem of wrap lighting and introduce a surface details approximation method to give realistic rendering of virtual character. Our method considers that different thicknesses of geometry on the skin surface can result in different scattering degree of incident light and so pre-calculate the diffuse falloff into a look-up texture. Also, we notice that scattering is strongly color dependent and small bumps are common on the skin surface and so pre-soften the finer details on the skin surface according to the R/G/B channel. At last, we linearly interpolate the diffuse lighting with different scattering degree from the look-up texture sampled with the curvature and NdotL. Experiment results show that the proposed approach yields realistic virtual character and obtains high frames per second in real-time rendering.

  15. Real-Time Rendering of Teeth with No Preprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Jensen, Peter Dahl Ejby;

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for real-time rendering of teeth with no need for computational or artistic preprocessing. Teeth constitute a translucent material consisting of several layers; a highly scattering material (dentine) beneath a semitransparent layer (enamel) with a transparent coating (saliv...

  16. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  17. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning service... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR 53.17 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 53.17... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.17 Advance information... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  19. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  20. Ectopically expressed sweet pepper ferredoxin PFLP enhances disease resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum affected by harpin and protease-mediated hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, Mang-Jye; Louh, Guan-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Feng, Teng-Yung; Huang, Hsiang-En

    2014-12-01

    Plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) is a photosynthesis-type ferredoxin (Fd) found in sweet pepper. It contains an iron-sulphur cluster that receives and delivers electrons between enzymes involved in many fundamental metabolic processes. It has been demonstrated that transgenic plants overexpressing PFLP show a high resistance to many bacterial pathogens, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this investigation, the PFLP gene was transferred into Arabidopsis and its defective derivatives, such as npr1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1) and eds1 (enhanced disease susceptibility 1) mutants and NAHG-transgenic plants. These transgenic plants were then infected with the soft-rot bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora, ECC) to investigate the mechanism behind PFLP-mediated resistance. The results revealed that, instead of showing soft-rot symptoms, ECC activated hypersensitive response (HR)-associated events, such as the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), electrical conductivity leakage and expression of the HR marker genes (ATHSR2 and ATHSR3) in PFLP-transgenic Arabidopsis. This PFLP-mediated resistance could be abolished by inhibitors, such as diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 1-l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)-butane (E64) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), but not by myriocin and fumonisin. The PFLP-transgenic plants were resistant to ECC, but not to its harpin mutant strain ECCAC5082. In the npr1 mutant and NAHG-transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the eds1 mutant, overexpression of the PFLP gene increased resistance to ECC. Based on these results, we suggest that transgenic Arabidopsis contains high levels of ectopic PFLP; this may lead to the recognition of the harpin and to the activation of the HR and other resistance mechanisms, and is dependent on the protease-mediated pathway.

  1. COMPARISON TRANSGENIC AND NON-TRANSGENIC MILK QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chrenek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic founder rabbits carrying a gene construct consisting of a 2.5 kb murine whey acidic protein promoter (mWAP, 7.2 kb of the human clotting factor VIII (hFVIII cDNA and 4.6 kb of 3’ flanking sequences of mWAP gene were crossed for five generations. Transgenic females showed high level of recombinant hFVIII (rhFVIII mRNA expression in biopsed mammary gland tissues. The presence of the mWAP-hFVIII transgene in rabbit genome and secretion of rhFVIII into milk of transgenic females (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5 generation did not have any adverse phenotypic effect on milk quality.

  2. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  3. Visualization of site-specific recombination catalyzed by a recombinase from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, H; Nishihama, R; Kudo, M; Machida, Y; Machida, C

    1995-06-25

    Excision of a DNA segment can occur in Arabidopsis thaliana by reciprocal recombination between two specific recombination sites (RSs) when the recombinase gene (R) from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is expressed in the plant. To monitor recombination events, we generated several lines of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that carried a cryptic beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene which was designed in such a way that expression of the reporter gene could be induced by R gene-mediated recombination. We also made several transgenic lines with an R gene linked to the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. Each transgenic line carrying the cryptic reporter gene was crossed with each line carrying the R gene. Activity of GUS in F1 and F2 progeny was examined histochemically and recombination between two RSs was analyzed by Southern blotting and the polymerase chain reaction. In seedlings and plantlets of F1 progeny and most of the F2 progeny, a variety of patterns of activity of GUS, including sectorial chimerism in leaves, was observed. A small percentage of F2 individuals exhibited GUS activity in the entire plant. This pattern of expression was ascribed to germinal recombination in the F1 generation on the basis of an analysis of DNA structure by Southern blotting. These results indicate that R gene-mediated recombination can be induced in both somatic and germ cells of A. thaliana by cross-pollination of parental transgenic lines.

  4. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  5. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  6. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.;

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...... be expected in the transgenic lines relative to the wild type. In practice the reductions achieved were highly variable both between lines and within a given line on different occasions when the plants were grown. Possible reasons for this variability are discussed with reference to current models of gene...... silencing. The metabolite profiles of the transgenic lines were examined for unintended effects of the modification. An apparently major effect on the glucosinolate composition was shown to result from an unusual genetic variation in the ecotype and not from the modification. The modification did produce...

  7. Overexpressing GSH1 and AsPCS1 simultaneously increases the tolerance and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiangbo; Dai, Xiaojing; Xu, Wenzhong; Ma, Mi

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this study was to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and GSH1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) are the main binding peptides involved in chelating heavy metal ions in plants and other living organisms. Single-gene transgenic lines had higher tolerance to and accumulated more Cd and As than wild-type. Compared to single-gene transgenic lines, dual-gene transformants exhibited significantly higher tolerance to and accumulated more Cd and As. One of the dual-gene transgenic lines, PG1, accumulated twice the amount of Cd as single-gene transgenic lines. Simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and GSH1 led to elevated total PC production in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results indicate that such a stacking of modified genes is capable of increasing Cd and As tolerance and accumulation in transgenic lines, and represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  8. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller Madlen; Massalski Carolin; Kurth Thomas; Steinebrunner Iris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase)-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate st...

  9. Functional analysis of water stress-responsive soybean GmNAC003 and GmNAC004 transcription factors in lateral root development in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truyen N Quach

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC transcription factors have been found to promote lateral root number through the auxin signaling pathway. In the present study, the role of water stress-inducible soybean GmNAC003 and GmNAC004 genes in the enhancement of lateral root development under water deficit conditions was investigated. Both genes were highly expressed in roots, leaves and flowers of soybean and were strongly induced by water stress and moderately induced by a treatment with abscisic acid (ABA. They showed a slight response to treatment with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmNAC004 showed an increase in lateral root number and length under non-stress conditions and maintained higher lateral root number and length under mild water stress conditions compared to the wild-type (WT, while the transgenic plants overexpressing GmNAC003 did not show any response. However, LR development of GmNAC004 transgenic Arabidopsis plants was not enhanced in the water-stressed compared to the well-watered treatment. In the treatment with ABA, LR density of the GmNAC004 transgenic Arabidopsis was less suppressed than that of the WT, suggesting that GmNAC004 counteracts ABA-induced inhibition of lateral root development. In the treatment with 2,4-D, lateral root density was enhanced in both GmNAC004 transgenic Arabidopsis and WT plants but the promotion was higher in the transgenic plants. Conversely, in the treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA, lateral root density was inhibited and there was no difference in the phenotype of the GmNAC004 transgenic Arabidopsis and WT plants, indicating that auxin is required for the action of GmNAC004. Transcript analysis for a number of known auxin and ABA related genes showed that GmNAC004's role may suppress ABA signaling but promote auxin signaling to increase lateral root development in the Arabidopsis heterologous system.

  10. Realistic Haptic Rendering of Interacting Deformable Objects in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Duriez, Christian; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and s...

  11. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  12. Color Rendering Plasmonic Aluminum Substrates with Angular Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duempelmann, Luc; Casari, Daniele; Luu-Dinh, Angélique; Gallinet, Benjamin; Novotny, Lukas

    2015-12-22

    We fabricate and characterize large-area plasmonic substrates that feature asymmetric periodic nanostructures made of aluminum. Strong coupling between localized and propagating plasmon resonances leads to characteristic Fano line shapes with tunable spectral positions and widths. Distinctive colors spanning the entire visible spectrum are generated by tuning the system parameters, such as the period and the length of the aluminum structures. Moreover, the asymmetry of the aluminum structures gives rise to a strong symmetry broken color rendering effect, for which colors are observed only from one side of the surface normal. Using a combination of immersed laser interference lithography and nanoimprint lithography, our color rendering structures can be fabricated on areas many inches in size. We foresee applications in anticounterfeiting, photovoltaics, sensing, displays, and optical security. PMID:26498131

  13. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    played at student's location is required at teacher's site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering. Directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured and spatial properties of the sound field created by a xylophone as a distributed sound......BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...... source were analyzed. Xylophone recordings were performed using different microphone configurations: one and two-channel recording setups are implemented. Recordings were carried out in standard listening room and in an anechoic chamber. Differences between anechoic and reverberant xylophone sound...

  14. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  15. Navigating in Virtual Environments with 360o Omnidirectional Rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Ardouin, Jérôme; Lécuyer, Anatole; Marchal, Maud; Marchand, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Typical field-of-view (fov) of visual feedback in virtual reality applications is generally limited. In some cases, e.g. in videogames, the provided fov can be artificially increased, using simple perspective projection methods. In this paper, we design and evaluate different visualization techniques, inspired by the cartography domain, for navigating in virtual environments (VE) with a 360° horizontal fov of the scene. We have conducted an evaluation of different methods compared to a render...

  16. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  17. Effects of transgenic soybean on growth and phosphorus acquisition in mixed culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianna Xie; Jia Zhou; Xiurong Wang; Hong Liao

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase gene AtPAP15 (OXp) or the soybean expansin gene GmEXPB2 (OXe) can improve phosphorous (P) efficiency in pure culture by increasing Apase secretion or changing root morphology. In this study, soybean‐soybean mixed cultures were employed to il uminate P acquisition among plants in mixed stands of transgenic and wild‐type soybean. Our results showed that transgenic soybean plants were much more competitive, and had greater growth and P uptake than wild‐type soybean in mixed culture in both low P calcareous and acid soils. Furthermore, OXe plants had an advantage in calcareous soils when mixed with OXp, whereas the latter performed much better in acid soils. In soybean‐maize mixed culture, transgenic soybean had no impact on maize growth compared to controls in both acid and calcareous soils with different P conditions. As for soybean in mixed culture, OXp plants had no significant advantages regardless of P availability or soil type, while P efficiency improved in OXe in calcareous soils compared to controls. These results imply that physiological traits could be easily affected by the mixed maize. Transgenic soybean plants with enhanced root traits had more competitive advantages than those with improved root physiology in mixed culture.

  18. Production of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants with Enhanced Stress Tolerances by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guan-ting; CHEN Jin-qing; HU Zhang-hua; LANG Chun-xiu; CHEN Xiao-yun; WANG Fu-lin; JIN Wei; XIA Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve stress tolerances of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying plasmid pCMD containing stress tolerance-related CBF1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was used to transform mature seeds-derived embryogenic calli of four cultivars. A total of 112 transgenic plants were regenerated from 32 independent lines and verified by histochemical detection of GUS activity, PCR assay and Southern hybridization analysis. The transformation frequency ranged from 0.92 to 2.87% with apparent differences among the cultivars. Stress tolerances of transgenic plants were enhanced, which was shown by the facts that transgenic plants had distinct growth superiority and significantly higher survival rate than non-transformed ones under high salinity and high osmosis stresses,and that relative electronic conductivity of in vitro leaves treated with low and high temperatures, dehydration and high salinity stresses was 25-30% lower in transgenic plants than in control plants. In addition, it was observed that growth of transgenic plants was inhibited due to constitutive overexpression of CBF1 gene under normal environmental conditions.

  19. Heterologous expression in transgenic mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhosh P K; Yu hua Deng; Weidong Gu; Xiaoguang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue virus afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Control of such pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. The failure of these conventional approaches due to emergence of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need of novel and efficacious control strategies to combat these diseases. Genetic modification(GM) of mosquito vectors to impair their ability to be infected and transmit pathogens has emerged as a new strategy to reduce transmission of many vector-borne diseases and deliver public health gains. Several advances in developing transgenic mosquitoes unable to transmit pathogens have gained support, some of them attempt to manipulate the naturally occurring endogenous refractory mechanisms, while others initiate the identification of an exogenous foreign gene which disrupt the pathogen development in insect vectors. Heterologous expression of transgenes under a native or heterologous promoter is important for the screening and effecting of the transgenic mosquitoes. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this transgenic approach. This review examines these two aspects and describes the basic research work that has been accomplished towards understanding the complex relation between the parasite and its vector and focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to vector-borne disease transmission.

  20. Real-time rendering of optical effects using spatial convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1998-03-01

    Simulation of special effects such as: defocus effect, depth-of-field effect, raindrops or water film falling on the windshield, may be very useful in visual simulators and in all computer graphics applications that need realistic images of outdoor scenery. Those effects are especially important in rendering poor visibility conditions in flight and driving simulators, but can also be applied, for example, in composing computer graphics and video sequences- -i.e. in Augmented Reality systems. This paper proposes a new approach to the rendering of those optical effects by iterative adaptive filtering using spatial convolution. The advantage of this solution is that the adaptive convolution can be done in real-time by existing hardware. Optical effects mentioned above can be introduced into the image computed using conventional camera model by applying to the intensity of each pixel the convolution filter having an appropriate point spread function. The algorithms described in this paper can be easily implemented int the visualization pipeline--the final effect may be obtained by iterative filtering using a single hardware convolution filter or with the pipeline composed of identical 3 X 3 filters placed as the stages of this pipeline. Another advantage of the proposed solution is that the extension based on proposed algorithm can be added to the existing rendering systems as a final stage of the visualization pipeline.

  1. Informatics in radiology: Render: an online searchable radiology study repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pragya A; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Schultz, Thomas J; Graham, Steven A; Dreyer, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    Radiology departments are a rich source of information in the form of digital radiology reports and images obtained in patients with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. A free text radiology report and image search application known as Render was created to allow users to find pertinent cases for a variety of purposes. Render is a radiology report and image repository that pools researchable information derived from multiple systems in near real time with use of (a) Health Level 7 links for radiology information system data, (b) periodic file transfers from the picture archiving and communication system, and (c) the results of natural language processing (NLP) analysis. Users can perform more structured and detailed searches with this application by combining different imaging and patient characteristics such as examination number; patient age, gender, and medical record number; and imaging modality. Use of NLP analysis allows a more effective search for reports with positive findings, resulting in the retrieval of more cases and terms having greater relevance. From the retrieved results, users can save images, bookmark examinations, and navigate to an external search engine such as Google. Render has applications in the fields of radiology education, research, and clinical decision support. PMID:19564253

  2. Partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of renders with organic binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal M; Bollmann, Ulla E; Bester, Kai

    2016-01-01

    , the partition of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render with organic binder was investigated. The partition constants of carbendazim, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, cybutryn (irgarol), octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and tebuconazole towards minerals typically used in renders, e.g. barite...... with render-water distribution constants of two artificially made renders showed that the distribution constants can be estimated based on partition constants of compounds for individual components of the render....

  3. Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase expression in arabidopsis. Regulation in response to development and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell-Lelong, D.A.; Cusumano, J.C.; Meyer, K.; Chapple, C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Cinnamate-r-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first Cyt P450-dependent monooxygenase of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study the expression of this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, a C4H cDNA clone from the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database was identified and used to isolate its corresponding genomic clone. The entire C4H coding sequence plus 2.9 kb of its promoter were isolated on a 5.4-kb HindIII fragment of this cosmid. Inspection of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of a number of putative regulatory motifs previously identified in the promoters of other phenylpropanoid pathway genes. The expression of C4H was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization analysis and in transgenic Arabidopsis carrying a C4H-{beta}-glucuronidase transcriptional fusion. C4H message accumulation was light-dependent, but was detectable even in dark-grown seedlings. Consistent with these data, C4H mRNA was accumulated to light-grown levels in etiolated det1-1 mutant seedlings. C4H is widely expressed in various Arabidopsis tissues, particularly in roots and cells undergoing lignification. The C4H-driven {beta}-glucuronidase expression accurately reflected the tissue-specificity and wound-inducibility of the C4H promoter indicated by RNA blot hybridization analysis. A modest increase in C4H expression was observed in the tt8 mutant of Arabidopsis. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories. PMID:17875476

  5. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories.

  6. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  7. Biodegradation of atrazine in transgenic plants expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase (atzA) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Samac, Deborah A; Shapir, Nir; Wackett, Lawrence P; Vance, Carroll P; Olszewski, Neil E; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the USA. Atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA), the first enzyme in a six-step pathway leading to the mineralization of atrazine in Gram-negative soil bacteria, catalyses the hydrolytic dechlorination and detoxification of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine. In this study, we investigated the potential use of transgenic plants expressing atzA to take up, dechlorinate and detoxify atrazine. Alfalfa, Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco were transformed with a modified bacterial atzA gene, p-atzA, under the control of the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. All transgenic plant species actively expressed p-atzA and grew over a wide range of atrazine concentrations. Thin layer chromatography analyses indicated that in planta expression of p-atzA resulted in the production of hydroxyatrazine. Hydroponically grown transgenic tobacco and alfalfa dechlorinated atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in leaves, stems and roots. Moreover, p-atzA was found to be useful as a conditional-positive selection system to isolate alfalfa and Arabidopsis transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our work suggests that the in planta expression of p-atzA may be useful for the development of plants for the phytoremediation of atrazine-contaminated soils and soil water, and as a marker gene to select for the integration of exogenous DNA into the plant genome. PMID:17173634

  8. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Shipp, Jessie; Hamilton, George A; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Keebaugh, Michael; Hill, Hansina; Dutta, Arnab; Zhuo, Xiaoding; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hutchings, James; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Shock, Everett; Hartnett, Hilairy E

    2013-03-01

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3-67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. PMID:23262070

  9. A Sweetpotato Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene, IbGGPS, Increases Carotenoid Content and Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato highly produces carotenoids in storage roots. In this study, a cDNA encoding geranylgeranyl phyrophosphate synthase (GGPS, named IbGGPS, was isolated from sweetpotato storage roots. Green fluorescent protein (GFP was fused to the C-terminus of IbGGPS to obtain an IbGGPS-GFP fusion protein that was transiently expressed in both epidermal cells of onion and leaves of tobacco. Confocal microscopic analysis determined that the IbGGPS-GFP protein was localized to specific areas of the plasma membrane of onion and chloroplasts in tobacco leaves. The coding region of IbGGPS was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain transgenic plants. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed a significant increase of total carotenoids in transgenic plants. The seeds of transgenic and wild-type plants were germinated on an agar medium supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG. Transgenic seedlings grew significantly longer roots than wild-type ones did. Further enzymatic analysis showed an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD in transgenic seedlings. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced in transgenics. qRT-PCR analysis showed altered expressions of several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic plants. These data results indicate that IbGGPS is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in sweetpotato storage roots and likely associated with tolerance to osmotic stress.

  10. TRANSGENIC PLANTS RESISTANT TO INSECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kereša

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors are secondary metabolites present in all plants and it seems that their major role is protection of plants against attacks of animals, insects and microorganisms. One of the family of proteinase inhibitors are squash inhibitors of serine proteinases purified from seeds belonging to genera Cucurbita, Cucumis and Momordica. Squash inhibitors consist of 29-32 amino acid residues and are considered to be the smallest inhibitors of the serine proteinases known. Because of shortness, genes for these inhibitors could be synthesised and modified at different ways. Modifications could lead to changes in inhibitor activity. Tobacco as a model plant was transformed with 12 different genes of squash inhibitors. Stable integration of transgenes in putative transgenic plants was determined by PCR analysis using genomic DNA and primers that anneal to promoter and terminator region. The first step of proteinase inhibitor gene expression in transgenic plants was revealed by RT-PCR analysis. In entomological tests where larvae were fed with leaves, influence of transgenic T0 plants, as well as non-transgenic control plants on retardation of larval growth of S. littoralis was examined. Results of entomological tests showed that it is possible to express squash proteinase inhibitors in plants at level that significantly reduces S. littoralis larval growth.

  11. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium tumefacience with an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma, and enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fu-ming; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen to many crops and is especially damaging to rape in China. As a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (ColO) was transformed by spraying Agrobacterium tumefacience with Trichoderma endochitinase gene ThEn-42 at initial bud stage. Eleven seedlings (corresponding to about 0.22 percent transformation) exhibited resistance to hygromycin. The DNA fragment unique to endochitinase ( ThEn-42 ) was amplified by Arabidopsis leaf-PCR or genomic DNA PCR. Unfertile, dwarf and normal phenotypes appeared in the T1 generation. In addition, an enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum was observed. The mortality percentage (7.7% to 33.3%) in transgenic plants was significantly lower than in non-transgenic plants (86. 7%) 10 days after inoculation with the pathogen.

  12. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalem, Sid'Ali; Kourgli, Assia

    2016-06-01

    The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  13. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    , and tebuconazole towards minerals were studied. A mixture of biocides listed above was used to estimate partitioning constants between water and five different minerals, commonly used as fillers in renders: barite, calcium carbonate, kaolinite, mica and talc. The resulting Kd values for all minerals analysed were...... compared. The partitioning constants for calcium carbonate varied between 0.1 (isoproturon) and 1.1 (iodocarb) and 84.6 (dichlorooctylisothiazolinone), respectively. The results for barite, kaolinite and mica were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high partitioning constants for one mineral...

  14. Practical rendering and computation with Direct3D 11

    CERN Document Server

    Zink, Jason; Hoxley, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Practical Rendering and Computation with Direct3D 11 packs in documentation and in-depth coverage of basic and high-level concepts related to using Direct 3D 11 and is a top pick for any serious programming collection. … perfect for a wide range of users. Any interested in computation and multicore models will find this packed with examples and technical applications.-Midwest Book Review, October 2011The authors have generously provided us with an optimal blend of concepts and philosophy, illustrative figures to clarify the more difficult points, and source code fragments to make the ideas con

  15. Software System for Vocal Rendering of Printed Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a software system architecture developed to render the printed documents in a vocal form. On the other hand, in the paper are described the software solutions that exist as software components and are necessary for documents processing as well as for multimedia device controlling used by the system. The usefulness of this system is for people with visual disabilities that can access the contents of documents without that they be printed in Braille system or to exist in an audio form.

  16. A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling.

  17. Distributed virtual reality system based on hybrid rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A distributed virtual reality system is presented based on a hybrid rendering scheme. This system first predicts the camera position of the next key frame in real-time according to the tendency of the current camera movement. The predicted key frame is then generated using a geometry-based algorithm. Finally, a real-time backward image warping algorithm is employed to create a smooth transition between the two adjacent key frames. Since the ren dering procedure can be divided into two independent steps, this system can be efficiently implemented in distributed mode.

  18. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  19. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  20. Arabidopsis CPR5 Independently Regulates Seed Germination and Postgermination Arrest of Development through LOX Pathway and ABA Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Guilan Gao; Shengchun Zhang; Chengfeng Wang; Xiang Yang; Yaqin Wang; Xiaojun Su; Jinju Du; Chengwei Yang

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the lipoxygenases (LOXs) pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downst...

  1. Plant hemoglobin gene expression adjusts Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas synringae and Botrytis cinerea though scavenging of nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Hebelstrup, Kim; Cristescu, Simona;

    2011-01-01

    NO has earlier been shown to influence ethylene production during Pseudomonas syringae elicited hypersensitive response in tobacco. In this work Arabidopsis plants with silencing or null mutation of hemoglobin genes (glb1 and glb2) and transgenic lines over-expressing Glb1 and Glb2 demonstrated a...... causal link between NO generation, hemoglobin-dependent NO scavenging, the production of ethylene and resistance to Botrytis or Pseudomonas....

  2. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defense pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds...... of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin......, camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...

  3. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  4. Dynamic rendering of the heterogeneous cell response to anticancer treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Falcetta

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative response to anticancer treatment is the result of concurrent responses in all cell cycle phases, extending over several cell generations, whose complexity is not captured by current methods. In the proposed experimental/computational approach, the contemporary use of time-lapse live cell microscopy and flow cytometric data supported the computer rendering of the proliferative process through the cell cycle and subsequent generations during/after treatment. The effects of treatments were modelled with modules describing the functional activity of the main pathways causing arrest, repair and cell death in each phase. A framework modelling environment was created, enabling us to apply different types of modules in each phase and test models at the complexity level justified by the available data. We challenged the method with time-course measures taken in parallel with flow cytometry and time-lapse live cell microscopy in X-ray-treated human ovarian cancer cells, spanning a wide range of doses. The most suitable model of the treatment, including the dose-response of each effect, was progressively built, combining modules with a rational strategy and fitting simultaneously all data of different doses and platforms. The final model gave for the first time the complete rendering in silico of the cycling process following X-ray exposure, providing separate and quantitative measures of the dose-dependence of G1, S and G2M checkpoint activities in subsequent generations, reconciling known effects of ionizing radiations and new insights in a unique scenario.

  5. Haptic Rendering in Interactive Applications Developed with Commodity Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kup-Sze Choi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Availability of commodity physics engines such as PhysX’s nVidia has significantly reduced the effort required for developing interactive applications concerning the simulation of the physical world. However, it becomes a problem when force feedback is needed since the addition of haptic rendering into these applications is non-trivial. The issues include the high haptic update rate and the inaccessibility of force data in the physics engine. In the paper, we tackle the first issue by mediating the update-rate disparity between haptic rendering and other processes by data buffering, and the second issue by calculating the force feedback indirectly using the engine’s collision geometry data. The major benefit of these techniques is that they enable a homogeneous development environment where the same engine can be used for both the physics and haptic simulation. Furthermore, integration of force feedback into physics-engine based applications would not introduce significant changes into developer’s codebase. The proposed techniques have potential to streamline the development of demanding applications such as virtual surgical simulation and immersive computer gaming.

  6. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  7. Fast polyhedral cell sorting for interactive rendering of unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combra, J; Klosowski, J T; Max, N; Silva, C T; Williams, P L

    1998-10-30

    Direct volume rendering based on projective methods works by projecting, in visibility order, the polyhedral cells of a mesh onto the image plane, and incrementally compositing the cell's color and opacity into the final image. Crucial to this method is the computation of a visibility ordering of the cells. If the mesh is ''well-behaved'' (acyclic and convex), then the MPVO method of Williams provides a very fast sorting algorithm; however, this method only computes an approximate ordering in general datasets, resulting in visual artifacts when rendered. A recent method of Silva et al. removed the assumption that the mesh is convex, by means of a sweep algorithm used in conjunction with the MPVO method; their algorithm is substantially faster than previous exact methods for general meshes. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call BSP-XMPVO, which is based on a fast and simple way of using binary space partitions on the boundary elements of the mesh to augment the ordering produced by MPVO. Our results are shown to be orders of magnitude better than previous exact methods of sorting cells.

  8. Isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis biotin carboxylase gene and its promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X; Shorrosh, B S; Ohlrogge, J B

    1997-11-01

    In the plastids of most plants, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 6.4.1.2) is a multisubunit complex consisting of biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin-carboxyl carrier protien (BCCP), and carboxytransferase (alpha-CT, beta-CT) subunits. To better understand the regulation of this enzyme, we have isolated and sequenced a BC genomic clone from Arabidopsis and partially characterized its promoter. Fifteen introns were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature BC protein is highly conserved between Arabidopsis and tobacco (92.6% identity). BC expression was evaluated using northern blots and BC/GUS fusion constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis. GUS activity in the BC/GUS transgenics as well as transcript level of the native gene were both found to be higher in silique and flower than in root and leaf. Analysis of tobacco suspension cells transformed with truncated BC promoter/GUS gene fusions indicated the region from -140 to +147 contained necessary promoter elements which supported basal gene expression. A positive regulatory region was found to be located between -2100 and -140, whereas a negative element was possibly located in the first intron. In addition, several conserved regulatory elements were identified in the BC promoter. Surprisingly, although BC is a low-abundance protein, the expression of BC/GUS fusion constructs was similar to 35S/GUS constructs.

  9. Ectopic expression of a hyacinth AGL6 homolog caused earlier flowering and homeotic conversion in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MADS-box genes are involved in floral organ development. Here we report that an AGL6(Agamous-like 6)-like MADS-box gene, HoAGL6, was isolated from Hyacinthus orientalis L. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that HoAGL6 transcript was detected in inflorescence buds, tepals, carpels and ovules, but not in stamina, leaves or scales. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing HoAGL6 exhibited novel phenotypes of significantly reduced plant size, extremely early flowering, and losing inflorescence indeterminacy. In addition, wide homeotic conversion of sepals, petals, and leaves into carpel-like or ovary structures, and disappearance or number reduction of stamens in 35S::HoAGL6 Arabidopsis plants were also observed. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expressions of flowering time gene SOC1 and flower meristem identity gene LFY were significantly up-regulated in 35S::HoAGL6 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the expression levels of floral organ identity genes AG and SEP1 in leaves were also elevated. These results indicated that HoAGL6 was involved in the regulation of flower transition and flower organ formation.

  10. C4 protein of Beet severe curly top virus is a pathomorphogenetic factor in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Buckley, Kenneth J; Park, Jong-Bum; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Giun; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith R

    2010-12-01

    The Curtovirus C4 protein is required for symptom development during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing C4 from either Beet curly top virus or Beet severe curly top virus produced phenotypes that were similar to symptoms seen during infection with wild-type viruses. The pseudosymptoms caused by C4 protein alone were novel to transgenic Arabidopsis and included bumpy trichomes, severe enations, disorientation of vascular bundles and stomata, swelling, callus-like structure formation, and twisted siliques. C4 induced abnormal cell division and altered cell fate in a variety of tissues depending on the C4 expression level. C4 protein expression increased the expression levels of cell-cycle-related genes CYCs, CDKs and PCNA, and suppressed ICK1 and the retinoblastoma-related gene RBR1, resulting in activation of host cell division. These results suggest that the Curtovirus C4 proteins are involved actively in host cell-cycle regulation to recruit host factors for virus replication and symptom development. PMID:20960205

  11. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. The wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activities in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ikram; Ebel, Chantal; Belgaroui, Nibras; Ghorbel, Mouna; Amara, Imène; Hanin, Moez

    2016-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are important negative regulators in the MAPK signaling pathways, which play crucial roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. We have previously shown that the heterologous expression of a durum wheat MKP, TMKP1, results in increased tolerance to salt stress in yeast but its particular contribution in salt stress tolerance in plants was not investigated. Here, TMKP1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and physiological changes were assessed in transgenic plants exposed to stress conditions. Under salt stress and especially LiCl, the TMKP1 overexpressors displayed higher germination rates in comparison to wild type plants. The enhancement of salt stress tolerance was accompanied by increased antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxydases. Such increases in antioxidant activities were concomitant with lower malondialdehyde, superoxide anion O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide levels in the TMKP1 transgenic seedlings. Moreover, we provide evidence that, in contrast to the Arabidopsis ortholog AtMKP1, TMKP1 acts as a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance via its ectopic expression in the Arabidopsis mkp1 mutant. PMID:26927025

  13. Arabidopsis LOS5 Gene Enhances Chilling and Salt Stress Tolerance in Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-ying; DUAN Liu-sheng; ZHANG Jia-chang; MI Guo-quan; ZHANG Xiao-lan; ZHANG Zhen-xian; REN Hua-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses that restrict cucumber growth and production, breeding materials with multiple abiotic resistance are in greatly need. Here we investigated the effect of introducing the LOS5 gene, a key regulator of ABA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, under the stress-responsive RD29A promoter into cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. S516). We found that T1 RD29A-LOS5 transgenic lines have enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stresses. Specifically, transgenic lines exhibited dwarf phenotypes with reduced leaf number, shorter internode, decreased length of the biggest leaf, fewer female flowers, shorter fruit neck and lower vitamin C (Vc). The increased cold tolerance can be reflected from the significantly decreased cold index, the reduced electrolyte leakage index and the MDA content upon cold treatment as compared to those in the control. This may result from the accumulation of internal ABA, soluble sugars and proline, and the enhanced activities of protective enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in the transgenic lines. Under salt treatment, the transgenic lines exhibited increased germination index, vigor index, more lateral roots and increased root fresh weight. Moreover, RD29A-LOS5 transgenic plants displayed quicker responses in salt stress than that in low-temperature stress.

  14. Arabidopsis SOI33/AtENT8 Gene Encodes a Putative Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter That Is Involved in Cytokinin Transport In Planta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang SUN; Naoya HIROSE; Xingchun WANG; Pei WEN; Li XUE; Hitoshi SAKAKIBARA; Jianru ZUO

    2005-01-01

    The plant phytohormone cytokinin plays an important role in many facets of plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation. Recent studies have shed significant light into the mechanisms of cytokinin metabolism and signaling. However, little is known about how the hormone is transported in planta, although it has been proposed that the hormone is presumably transported in nucleoside-conjugated forms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of cytokinin transport ers in Arabidopsis. We previously reported that a gain-of-function mutation in the PGA22/AtIPT8 gene caused overproduction of cytokinins in planta. In an effort to screen for suppressor of pga22/atipt8 (soi) mutants, we identified a mutant soi33-1. Molecular and genetic analyses indicated that SOI33 encodes a putative equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT), previously designated as AtENT8. Members of this small gene family are presumed to be involved in the transport of nucleosides in eukaryotic cells. Under conditions of nitrogen starvation, loss-of-function mutations in SOI33/AtENT8 or in a related gene AtENT3 cause a reduced sensitivity to the nucleoside-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR) and trans zeatin riboside (tZR), but display a normal response to the free base-type cytokinins isopentenyladenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Conversely, overexpression of SOI33/AtENT8 renders transgenic plants hyper sensitive to iPR but not to iP. An in planta measurement experiment indicated that uptake efficiency of 3H labeled iPR was reduced more than 40% in soi33 and atent3 mutants. However, a mutation inAtENT1 had no substantial effect on the cytokinin response and iPR uptake efficiency. Our results suggest that SOI33/ AtENT8 and AtENT3 are involved in the transport of nucleoside-type cytokinins in Arabidopsis.

  15. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  16. Screening of tissue-specific genes and promoters in tomato by comparing genome wide expression profiles of Arabidopsis orthologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chan Ju; Lee, Ha Yeon; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Bok-Sim; Kim, Jungeun; Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Hyun A; Yi, So Young; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-07-01

    Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development.

  17. Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Qayyum RAO; Muhammad IRFAN; Zafar SALEEM; Idrees Ahmad NASIR; Sheikh RIAZUDDIN; Tayyab HUSNAIN

    2011-01-01

    The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence.Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations,both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression ofArabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgeniccotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism,decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size.

  18. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Pedro; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; LAGUNA, Ricardo; FERNÁNDEZ-GONZALEZ, Raúl; SANJUANBENITO, Belén Pintado; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-...

  19. Morphological pyramids in multiresolution MIP rendering of large volume data : Survey and new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    We survey and extend nonlinear signal decompositions based on morphological pyramids, and their application to multiresolution maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering with progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The structure of the resulting multiresolution rendering algorith

  20. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  1. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  2. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  3. Enhanced flux through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Cairó, Albert; Botella-Pavía, Patricia; Besumbes, Oscar; Campos, Narciso; Boronat, Albert; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway synthesizes the precursors for an astonishing diversity of plastid isoprenoids, including the major photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls and carotenoids. Since the identification of the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phoshate (DXP) synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), they both were proposed as potential control points. Increased DXS activity has been shown to up-regulate the production of plastid isoprenoids in all systems tested, but the relative contribution of DXR to the supply of isoprenoid precursors is less clear. In this work, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with altered DXS and DXR enzyme levels, as estimated from their resistance to clomazone and fosmidomycin, respectively. The down-regulation of DXR resulted in variegation, reduced pigmentation and defects in chloroplast development, whereas DXR-overexpressing lines showed an increased accumulation of MEP- derived plastid isoprenoids such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and taxadiene in transgenic plants engineered to produce this non-native isoprenoid. Changes in DXR levels in transgenic plants did not result in changes in DXS gene expression or enzyme accumulation, confirming that the observed effects on plastid isoprenoid levels in DXR-overexpressing lines were not an indirect consequence of altering DXS levels. The results indicate that the biosynthesis of MEP (the first committed intermediate of the pathway) limits the production of downstream isoprenoids in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, supporting a role for DXR in the control of the metabolic flux through the MEP pathway.

  4. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  5. Introduction of AtNHX1 into beet improved salt-tolerance of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Aifang; Zhao Shilan; Yin Xiaoyan; Gao Feng; Zhang Juren

    2006-01-01

    AtNHX1 gene encoding the Na+/H+ antiport on the vacuole membrane of Arabidopsis was transferred into small bud tips of 1-3mm in length derived from immature inflorescence cultures of six genotypes of beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ) by the infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and transgenic plants with improved salt-tolerance were obtained. When transgenic plants at 5-leaf stage were potted in sand and irrigated with solutions containing a range of concentrations of NaCl (171-513mM), they showed minor symptoms of damage from salinity and better tolerance than the controls. There were considerable discrepancies of salt-tolerance between transgenic plants originated from the same genotype and also between different genotypes. After vernalization, bolting transgenic plants were enveloped with two layers of gauzes for self-pollination. T1 seedlings tolerant to 342-427mM NaCl were obtained respectively. These results revealed that it was feasible to improve salt-tolerance of beets by the introduction of AtNHX1 gene into cultured bud cells.

  6. Evidences for involvement of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses to Verticillium toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing JIANG; Ling Wen FAN; Wei Hua WU

    2005-01-01

    Although there were reports suggesting the involvement of endogenous cAMP in plant defense signaling cascades,there is no direct evidence supporting this notion yet and the detailed mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we have used pathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Arabidopsis plants as a model system of plant-microb interaction to demonstrate the function of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses. Both V. dahliae inoculation and Verticillium toxins injection induced typical "wilt" symptoms in Arabidopsis seedlings. When either 8-Br-AMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) or salicylic acid (SA) was applied to Arabidopsis, the plants became resistant to V. dahliae toxins. However, addition of 8-Br-AMP did not increase the resistance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants deficient in SA to the toxins, suggesting that cAMP might act upstream of SA in plant defense signaling pathway.Indeed, 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly stimulated the endogenous SA level in plants, whereas DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase dramatically reduced toxin-induced SA increase. Both the endogenous cAMP and SA increased significantly in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with toxins. Furthermore, transcription level of pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene (PR1) was strongly induced by both 8-Br-cAMP and the toxin treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that endogenous cAMP is involved in plant defense responses against Verticilliumsecreted toxins by regulating the production of the known signal SA in plant defense pathway.

  7. Volume rendering: application in static field conformal radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, J. Daniel; Camp, Jon J.; Robb, Richard A.

    1992-09-01

    Lesions in the head which are large or irregularly shaped present challenges for radiosurgical treatment by linear accelerator or other radiosurgery modalities. To treat these lesions we are developing static field, conformal stereotactic radiosurgery. In this procedure seven to eleven megavoltage x-ray beams are aimed at the target volume. Each beam is designed from the beam's-eye view, and has its own unique geometry: gantry angle, table angle, and shape which conforms to the projected cross-section of the target. A difficulty with this and other 3- D treatment plans is the visualization of the treatment geometry and proposed treatment plan. Is the target volume geometrically covered by the arrangement of beams, and is the dose distribution adequate? To answer these questions we have been investigating the use of ANALYZETM volume rendering to display the target anatomy and the resultant dose distribution.

  8. Efficient Unbiased Rendering using Enlightened Local Path Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Wang

    , such as the location of the light sources or cameras, or the re flection models at each point. In this work we explore new methods of importance sampling paths. Our idea is to analyze the scene before rendering and compute various statistics that we use to improve importance sampling. The first of these are adjoint......Most global illumination algorithms today solve the light transport problem using Monte Carlo ray tracing. These algorithms are capable of producing photo-realistic imagery and in addition have few limitations with respect to the kind of input (geometry, re flection models, etc.) they support....... The downside to using these algorithms is that they can be slow to converge. Due to the nature of Monte Carlo methods, the results are random variables subject to variance. This manifests itself as noise in the images, which can only be reduced by generating more samples. The reason these methods are slow...

  9. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Jens Blauert's research up through the late 60ties and later, pioneered the field of binaural technology and auditory virtual environments. He mastered the measurement of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) before the term was introduced, and his methods were standard for decades. While most......, helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  10. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  11. Technologies Render Views of Earth for Virtual Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On a December night in 1995, 159 passengers and crewmembers died when American Airlines Flight 965 flew into the side of a mountain while in route to Cali, Colombia. A key factor in the tragedy: The pilots had lost situational awareness in the dark, unfamiliar terrain. They had no idea the plane was approaching a mountain until the ground proximity warning system sounded an alarm only seconds before impact. The accident was of the kind most common at the time CFIT, or controlled flight into terrain says Trey Arthur, research aerospace engineer in the Crew Systems and Aviation Operations Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center. In situations such as bad weather, fog, or nighttime flights, pilots would rely on airspeed, altitude, and other readings to get an accurate sense of location. Miscalculations and rapidly changing conditions could contribute to a fully functioning, in-control airplane flying into the ground. To improve aviation safety by enhancing pilots situational awareness even in poor visibility, NASA began exploring the possibilities of synthetic vision creating a graphical display of the outside terrain on a screen inside the cockpit. How do you display a mountain in the cockpit? You have to have a graphics-powered computer, a terrain database you can render, and an accurate navigation solution, says Arthur. In the mid-1990s, developing GPS technology offered a means for determining an aircraft s position in space with high accuracy, Arthur explains. As the necessary technologies to enable synthetic vision emerged, NASA turned to an industry partner to develop the terrain graphical engine and database for creating the virtual rendering of the outside environment.

  12. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee

  13. [Regulation pattern of the FRUITFULL (FUL) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tingting; Xie, Hua; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2010-11-01

    FRUITFULL (FUL) is an MADS box gene that functions early in controlling flowering time, meristem identity and cauline leaf morphology and later in carpel and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to clarify the regulation of FUL expression the upstream regulatory region, -2148 bp - +96 bp and the first intron of the FUL gene were cloned, and vectors with a series of deletion of FUL promoter, and the ones fused with the first intron were constructed. Vectors harboring the fusion of cis-acting elements with the constitutive promoters of TUBULIN and ACTIN were also constructed. Beta-Glucuronidase activity assays of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed that two cis-elements were involved in the repression of FUL expression, with one of the two being probably the binding site of the transcriptional factor AP1. And the two CArG boxes played a important role in FUL initiation particularly. Furthermore, the first intron of FUL was shown to participate in the development of carpel and stamen as an enhancer.

  14. Quantitative PCR for detection of the OT-1 transgene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispe Nicholas I

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic TCR mice are often used experimentally as a source of T cells of a defined specificity. One of the most widely used transgenic TCR models is the OT-1 transgenic mouse in which the CD8+ T cells express a TCR specific for the SIINFEKL peptide of ovalbumin presented on kb. Although OT-1 CD8+ can be used in a variety of different experimental settings, we principally employ adoptive transfer and peptide-driven expansion of OT-1 cells in order to explore the distribution and fate of these antigen-specific OT-1 T cells. We set out to develop a quantitative PCR assay for OT-1 cells in order to assess the distribution of OT-1 CD8+ T cells in tissues that are either intrinsically difficult to dissociate for flow cytometric analysis or rendered incompatible with flow cytometric analysis through freezing or fixation. Results We show excellent correlation between flow cytometric assessment of OT-1 cells and OT-1 signal by qPCR assays in cell dilutions as well as in in vivo adoptive transfer experiments. We also demonstrate that qPCR can be performed from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. In addition, the non-quantitative PCR using the OT-1-specific primers without the real-time probe is a valuable tool for OT-1 genotyping, obviating the need for peripheral blood collection and subsequent flow cytometric analysis. Conclusion An OT-1 specific qPCR assay has been developed to quantify adoptively transferred OT-1 cells. OT-1 qPCR to determine cell signal is a valuable adjunct to the standard flow cytometric analysis of OT-1 cell number, particularly in experimental settings where tissue disaggregation is not desirable or in tissues which are not readily disassociated

  15. Two Arabidopsis ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunits (APL1 and APL2) are catalytic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M

    2008-09-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (alpha(2)beta(2)) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1-APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta. PMID:18614708

  16. Two Arabidopsis ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Large Subunits (APL1 and APL2) Are Catalytic1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglia, Tiziana; Kuhn, Misty L.; Ruiz, Ma Teresa; Ribeiro-Pedro, Marina; Valverde, Federico; Ballicora, Miguel A.; Preiss, Jack; Romero, José M.

    2008-01-01

    ADP-glucose (Glc) pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in starch biosynthesis. Higher plant ADP-Glc PPase is a heterotetramer (α2β2) consisting of two small and two large subunits. There is increasing evidence that suggests that catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzyme from higher plants result from the synergy of both types of subunits. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), two genes encode small subunits (APS1 and APS2) and four large subunits (APL1–APL4). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, APL1 and APL2, besides their regulatory role, have catalytic activity. Heterotetramers formed by combinations of a noncatalytic APS1 and the four large subunits showed that APL1 and APL2 exhibited ADP-Glc PPase activity with distinctive sensitivities to the allosteric activator (3-phosphoglycerate). Mutation of the Glc-1-P binding site of Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum) isoforms confirmed these observations. To determine the relevance of these activities in planta, a T-DNA mutant of APS1 (aps1) was characterized. aps1 is starchless, lacks ADP-Glc PPase activity, APS1 mRNA, and APS1 protein, and is late flowering in long days. Transgenic lines of the aps1 mutant, expressing an inactivated form of APS1, recovered the wild-type phenotype, indicating that APL1 and APL2 have catalytic activity and may contribute to ADP-Glc synthesis in planta. PMID:18614708

  17. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Fengjuan, E-mail: jfj.5566@163.com; Qi, Shengdong, E-mail: zisexanwu@163.com; Li, Hui, E-mail: 332453593@qq.com; Liu, Pu, E-mail: banbaokezhan@163.com; Li, Pengcheng, E-mail: lpcsdau@163.com; Wu, Changai, E-mail: cawu@sdau.edu.cn; Zheng, Chengchao, E-mail: cczheng@sdau.edu.cn; Huang, Jinguang, E-mail: jghuang@sdau.edu.cn

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  18. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  19. In vivo imaging of the tonoplast intrinsic protein family in Arabidopsis roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khonsari Roman H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs are widely used as markers for vacuolar compartments in higher plants. Ten TIP isoforms are encoded by the Arabidopsis genome. For several isoforms, the tissue and cell specific pattern of expression are not known. Results We generated fluorescent protein fusions to the genomic sequences of all members of the Arabidopsis TIP family whose expression is predicted to occur in root tissues (TIP1;1 and 1;2; TIP2;1, 2;2 and 2;3; TIP4;1 and expressed these fusions, both individually and in selected pairwise combinations, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Analysis by confocal microscopy revealed that TIP distribution varied between different cell layers within the root axis, with extensive co-expression of some TIPs and more restricted expression patterns for other isoforms. TIP isoforms whose expression overlapped appeared to localise to the tonoplast of the central vacuole, vacuolar bulbs and smaller, uncharacterised structures. Conclusion We have produced a comprehensive atlas of TIP expression in Arabidopsis roots, which reveals novel expression patterns for not previously studied TIPs.

  20. Long-distance phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Petersen, B L; Olsen, C E; Schulz, A; Halkier, B A

    2001-09-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites found mainly in the order Capparales, which includes a large number of economically important Brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis. In the present study, several lines of evidence are provided for phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis. When radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (p-OHBG) and sucrose were co-applied to the tip of detached leaves, both tracers were collected in the phloem exudates at the petioles. Long-distance transport of [(14)C]p-OHBG was investigated in wild-type and transgenic 35S::CYP79A1 plants, synthesizing high amounts of p-OHBG, which is not a natural constituent of wild-type Arabidopsis. In both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, radiolabeled p-OHBG was rapidly transported from the application site into the whole plant and intact p-OHBG was recovered from different tissues. The pattern of distribution of the radioactivity corresponded to that expected for transport of photoassimilates such as sucrose, and was consistent with translocation in phloem following the source-sink relationship. Radiolabeled p-OHBG was shown to accumulate in the seeds of wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, where p-OHBG had been either exogenously applied or endogenously synthesized from Tyr in the leaves. p-OHBG was found in phloem exudates collected from cut petioles of leaves from both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants. Phloem exudates were shown to contain intact glucosinolates, and not desulphoglucosinolates, as the transport form. It is concluded that intact glucosinolates are readily loaded into and transported by the phloem. PMID:11553747

  1. Plantacyanin plays a role in reproduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Kim, Sun Tae; Lord, Elizabeth M

    2005-06-01

    Plantacyanins belong to the phytocyanin family of blue copper proteins. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, only one gene encodes plantacyanin. The T-DNA-tagged mutant is a knockdown mutant that shows no visible phenotype. We used both promoter-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and immunolocalization to show that Arabidopsis plantacyanin is expressed most highly in the inflorescence and, specifically, in the transmitting tract of the pistil. Protein levels show a steep gradient in expression from the stigma into the style and ovary. Overexpression plants were generated using cauliflower mosaic virus 35S, and protein levels in the pistil were examined as well as the pollination process. Seed set in these plants is highly reduced mainly due to a lack of anther dehiscence, which is caused by degeneration of the endothecium. Callose deposits occur on the pollen walls in plants that overexpress plantacyanin, and a small percentage of these pollen grains germinate in the closed anthers. When wild-type pollen was used on the overexpression stigma, seed set was still decreased compared to the control pollinations. We detected an increase in plantacyanin levels in the overexpression pistil, including the transmitting tract. Guidance of the wild-type pollen tube on the overexpression stigma is disrupted as evidenced by the growth behavior of pollen tubes after they penetrate the papillar cell. Normally, pollen tubes travel down the papilla cell and into the style. Wild-type pollen tubes on the overexpression stigma made numerous turns around the papilla cell before growing toward the style. In some rare cases, pollen tubes circled up the papilla cell away from the style and were arrested there. We propose that when plantacyanin levels in the stigma are increased, pollen tube guidance into the style is disrupted.

  2. The Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins affect NPR1 differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike eHermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1 is the central regulator of the pathogen defense reaction systemic acquired resistance (SAR. NPR1 acts by sensing the SAR signal molecule salicylic acid (SA to induce expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes. Mechanistically, NPR1 is the core of a transcription complex interacting with TGA transcription factors and NIM1 INTERACTING (NIMIN proteins. Arabidopsis NIMIN1 has been shown to suppress NPR1 activity in transgenic plants. The Arabidopsis NIMIN family comprises four structurally related, yet distinct members. Here, we show that NIMIN1, NIMIN2 and NIMIN3 are expressed differentially, and that the encoded proteins affect expression of the SAR marker PR-1 differentially. NIMIN3 is expressed constitutively at a low level, but NIMIN2 and NIMIN1 are both responsive to SA. While NIMIN2 is an immediate early SA-induced and NPR1-independent gene, NIMIN1 is activated after NIMIN2, but clearly before PR-1. Notably, NIMIN1, like PR-1, depends on NPR1. In a transient assay system, NIMIN3 suppresses SA-induced PR-1 expression, albeit to a lesser extent than NIMIN1, whereas NIMIN2 does not negatively affect PR-1 gene activation. Furthermore, although binding to the same domain in the C-terminus, NIMIN1 and NIMIN2 interact differentially with NPR1, thus providing a molecular basis for their opposing effects on NPR1. Together, our data suggest that the Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins are regulators of the SAR response. We propose that NIMINs act in a strictly consecutive and SA-regulated manner on the SA sensor protein NPR1, enabling NPR1 to monitor progressing threat by pathogens and to promote appropriate defense gene activation at distinct stages of SAR. In this scenario, the defense gene PR-1 is repressed at the onset of SAR by SA-induced, yet instable NIMIN1.

  3. Philosophical Reflection on Risks of Transgenic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolu WANG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to analyze risks of transgenic technology. [Method] Discussions on risks of transgenic technologies were conducted from per- spective of philosophy. [Result] Mechanistic philosophy and reductionism are causes of reflection on risks of transgenic technology. Considering transgene is an artificial choice taking place of natural choice, it is inevitable for risks of transgenic technolo- gy to be found, in addition, social system constitutes the root for out-of-control of transgenic technology, hence, mechanism risk is the primary cause of transgenic risks. [Conclusion] It is inescapable for science view to be changed from arbitrary and lopsided to reflective and comprehensive and for technology view to be changed from exterminative and genesic to protective and symbiotic.

  4. An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are peptides that function in heavy-metal chelation and detoxification in plants and fungi. A recent study showed that PCs have the ability to undergo long-distance transport in a root-to-shoot direction in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether long-distance transport of PCs can occur in the opposite direction, from shoots to roots, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) PC synthase (TaPCS1) gene was expressed under the control of a shoot-specific promoter (CAB2) in an Arabidopsis PC-deficient mutant, cad1-3 (CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3). Analyses demonstrated that TaPCS1 is expressed only in shoots and that CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 lines complement the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic metal sensitivity of cad1-3 shoots. CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants exhibited higher Cd accumulation in roots and lower Cd accumulation in shoots compared to wild type. Fluorescence HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry analyses directly detected PC2 in the roots of CAB2:TaPCS1/cad1-3 but not in cad1-3 controls, suggesting that PC2 is transported over long distances in the shoot-to-root direction. In addition, wild-type shoot tissues were grafted onto PC synthase cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double loss-of-function mutant root tissues. An Arabidopsis grafting technique for mature plants was modified to obtain an 84% success rate, significantly greater than a previous rate of approximately 11%. Fluorescence HPLC-mass spectrometry showed the presence of PC2, PC3, and PC4 in the root tissue of grafts between wild-type shoots and cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double-mutant roots, demonstrating that PCs are transported over long distances from shoots to roots in Arabidopsis.

  5. Overexpression of the Rap2.4f transcriptional factor in Arabidopsis promotes leaf senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Senescence is a complex and highly regulated process. Leaf senescence is influenced by endogenous developmental and external environmental signals. In this work, we found that expression of an Ap2/DREB-type transcription factor gene, Arabidopsis Rap2.4f (At4g28140), was upregulated by salt, mannitol, and dark treatments. Constitutively overexpressing Rap2.4f under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter led to an increased chlorophyll degradation rate and upregulation of many senescence-associated genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Our results show that Rap2.4f is a positive regulator of senescence, promoting both developmental and dark-induced leaf senescence.

  6. Enhanced transformation of TNT by Arabidopsis plants expressing an old yellow enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT is released in nature from manufacturing or demilitarization facilities, as well as after the firing or detonation of munitions or leakage from explosive remnants of war. Environmental contamination by TNT is associated with human health risks, necessitating the development of cost-effective remediation techniques. The lack of affordable and effective cleanup technologies for explosives contamination requires the development of better processes. In this study, we present a system for TNT phytoremediation by overexpressing the old yellow enzyme (OYE3 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting transgenic Arabidopsis plants demonstrated significantly enhanced TNT tolerances and a strikingly higher capacity to remove TNT from their media. The current work indicates that S. cerevisiae OYE3 overexpression in Arabidopsis is an efficient method for the phytoremoval and degradation of TNT. Our findings have the potential to provide a suitable remediation strategy for sites contaminated by TNT.

  7. Auxin distribution and transport during embryogenesis and seed germi-nation of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin distribution during embryogenesis and seed germination were studied with transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GUS gene driven by a synthetic DR5 promoter, an auxin responsive promoter. The results showed that GUS activity is higher in ends of hypophysis and cotyledon primordia of heart-, torpedo- and cotyledon-stage embryos, leaf tip area, lateral root primordia, root apex and cotyledon of young seedlings.And GUS accumulated in root apex of the seedlings grown on auxin transport inhibitor containing media.All these suggested that above-mentioned part of the organs and tissues have a higher level of auxin, and auxin polar transport inhibitor could cause the accumulation of auxin in root apex. And auxin transport inhibitor also resulted in aberration of Arabidopsis leaf pattern formation, root gravitropism and elongation.

  8. Calcium dynamics in root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana visualized with selective plane illumination microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Costa

    Full Text Available Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM is an imaging technique particularly suited for long term in-vivo analysis of transparent specimens, able to visualize small organs or entire organisms, at cellular and eventually even subcellular resolution. Here we report the application of SPIM in Calcium imaging based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the genetically encoded-FRET-based Ca(2+ probe Cameleon, in the cytosol or nucleus, were used to demonstrate that SPIM enables ratiometric fluorescence imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution, both at tissue and single cell level. The SPIM-FRET technique enabled us to follow nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis root tip cells, deep inside the organ, in response to different stimuli. A relevant physiological phenomenon, namely Ca(2+ signal percolation, predicted in previous studies, has been directly visualized.

  9. Reduced Triacylglycerol Mobilization during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Arabidopsis Containing Nutritionally Important Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pushkar; Callahan, Damien L.; Singh, Surinder P.; Petrie, James R.; Zhou, Xue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    There are now several examples of plant species engineered to synthesize and accumulate nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids in their seed triacylglycerols (TAG). The utilization of TAG in germinating seeds of such transgenic plants was unknown. In this study, we examined the TAG utilization efficiency during seed germination in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds containing several examples of these fatty acids. Seed TAG species with native fatty acids had higher utilization rate than the TAG species containing transgenically produced polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, quantification of the fatty acid components remaining in the total TAG after early stages of seed germination revealed that the undigested TAGs tended to contain elevated levels of the engineered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). LC-MS analysis further revealed asymmetrical mobilization rates for the individual TAG species. TAGs which contained multiple PUFA fatty acids were mobilized slower than the species containing single PUFA. The mobilized engineered fatty acids were used in de novo membrane lipid synthesis during seedling development.

  10. Constitutive expression of OsIAA9 affects starch granules accumulation and root gravitropic response in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA genes are early auxin response genes ecoding short-lived transcriptional repressors, which regulate auxin signaling in plants by interplay with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. Most of the Aux/IAA proteins contain four different domains, namely Domain I, Domain II, Domain III and Domain IV. So far all Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes identified in both Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants with mutations in Domain II of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins, suggest that Aux/IAA proteins in both Arabidopsis and rice are largely functional redundantly, and they may have conserved functions. We report here the functional characterization of a rice Aux/IAA gene, OsIAA9. RT-PCR results showed that expression of OsIAA9 was induced by exogenously applied auxin, suggesting that OsIAA9 is an auxin response gene. Bioinformatic analysis showed that OsIAA9 has a repressor motif in Domain I, a degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. By generating transgenic plants expressing GFP-OsIAA9 and examining florescence in the transgenic plants, we found that OsIAA9 is localized in the nucleus. When transfected into protoplasts isolated from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis, OsIAA9 repressed reporter gene expression, and the repression was partially released by exogenously IAA. These results suggest that OsIAA9 is a canonical Aux/IAA protein. Protoplast transfection assays showed that OsIAA9 interacted ARF5, but not ARF6, 7, 8 and 19. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing OsIAA9 have increased number of lateral roots, and reduced gravitropic response. Further analysis showed that OsIAA9 transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated fewer granules in their root tips and the distribution of granules was also affected. Taken together, our study showed that OsIAA9 is a transcriptional repressor, and it regulates

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L;

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Ethylene-induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihui Hou; Lanxiang Wang; Jing Liu; Lixia Hou; Xin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a newly-discovered signaling molecule in plants and has caused increasing attention in recent years,but its function in stomatal movement is unclear.In plants,H2S is synthesized via cysteine degradation catalyzed by D-/L-cysteine desulfhydrase (D-/L-CDes).AtD-/L-CDes::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.plants were generated and used to investigate gene expression patterns,and results showed that AtD-/L-CDes can be expressed in guard cells.We also determined the subcellular localization of AtD-/L-CDes using transgenic plants of AtD-/L-CDes::GFP,and the results showed that AtD-CDes and AtL-CDes are located in the chloroplast and in the cytoplasm,respectively.The transcript levels of AtD-CDes and AtL-CDes were affected by the chemicals that cause stomatal closure.Among these factors,ACC,a precursor of ethylene,has the most significant effect,which indicates that the H2S generated from D-/L-CDes may play an important role in ethylene-induced stomatal closure.Meanwhile,H2S synthetic inhibitors significantly inhibited ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.Ethylene treatment caused an increase of H2S production and of AtD-/L-CDes activity in Arabidopsis leaves.AtD-/L-CDes over-expressing plants exhibited enhanced induction of stomatal closure compared to the wild-type after ethylene treatment; however,the effect was not observed in the Atd-cdes and Atl-cdes mutants.In conclusion,our results suggest that the D-/L-CDes-generated H2S is involved in the regulation of ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Map-based cloning of a gene controlling Omega-3 fatty acid desaturation in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arondel, V.; Lemieux, B.; Hwang, I. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1992-11-20

    A gene from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes an omega-3 desaturase was cloned on the basis of the genetic map position of a mutation affecting membrane and storage lipid fatty acid composition. Yeast artificial chromosomes covering the genetic locus were identified and used to probe a seed complementary DNA library. A complementary DNA clone for the desaturase was identified and introduced into roots of both wild-type and mutant plants by Ti plasmid-mediated transformation. Transgenic tissues of both mutant and wild-type plants had significantly increased amounts of the fatty acid produced by this desaturase. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tabs.

  14. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-06-21

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eugenol levels and up to 22-fold eugenol glycoside levels in leaves of transgenic aspen plants. The overexpression of PhEGS alone resulted in a subtle increase in either eugenol or eugenol glycosides, and the overexpression of both PhCFAT and PhEGS resulted in significant increases in the levels of both eugenol and eugenol glycosides which were nonetheless lower than the increases seen with overexpression of PhCFAT alone. On the other hand, overexpression of PhCFAT in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco did not cause any synthesis of eugenol. These results indicate that aspen leaves, but not Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, have a partially active pathway to eugenol that is limited by the level of CFAT activity and thus the flux of this pathway can be increased by the introduction of a single heterologous gene.

  15. Evaluation of four phloem-specific promoters in vegetative tissues of transgenic citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M; Ananthakrishnan, G; Jaromin, M K; Brlansky, R H; Grosser, J W

    2012-01-01

    'Mexican' lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was transformed with constructs that contained chimeric promoter-gus gene fusions of phloem-specific rolC promoter of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose-H(+) symporter (AtSUC2) gene promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter and sucrose synthase l (RSs1) gene promoter of Oryza sativa (rice). Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis revealed vascular-specific expression of the GUS protein in citrus. The RTBV promoter was the most efficient promoter in this study while the RSs1 promoter could drive low levels of gus gene expression in citrus. These results were further validated by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting. Southern blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration, which ranged from a single insertion to four copies per genome. The use of phloem-specific promoters in citrus will allow targeted transgene expression of antibacterial constructs designed to battle huanglongbing disease (HLB or citrus greening disease), associated with a phloem-limited Gram-negative bacterium.

  16. Two domain-disrupted hda6 alleles have opposite epigenetic effects on transgenes and some endogenous targets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ShouDong

    2015-12-15

    HDA6 is a RPD3-like histone deacetylase. In Arabidopsis, it mediates transgene and some endogenous target transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) via histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. Here, we characterized two hda6 mutant alleles that were recovered as second-site suppressors of the DNA demethylation mutant ros1–1. Although both alleles derepressed 35S::NPTII and RD29A::LUC in the ros1–1 background, they had distinct effects on the expression of these two transgenes. In accordance to expression profiles of two transgenes, the alleles have distinct opposite methylation profiles on two reporter gene promoters. Furthermore, both alleles could interact in vitro and in vivo with the DNA methyltransferase1 with differential interactive strength and patterns. Although these alleles accumulated different levels of repressive/active histone marks, DNA methylation but not histone modifications in the two transgene promoters was found to correlate with the level of derepression of the reporter genes between the two had6 alleles. Our study reveals that mutations in different domains of HDA6 convey different epigenetic status that in turn controls the expression of the transgenes as well as some endogenous loci.

  17. Does ploidy level directly control cell size? Counterevidence from Arabidopsis genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tsukaya

    Full Text Available Ploidy level affects cell size in many organisms, and ploidy-dependent cell enlargement has been used to breed many useful organisms. However, how polyploidy affects cell size remains unknown. Previous studies have explored changes in transcriptome data caused by polyploidy, but have not been successful. The most naïve theory explaining ploidy-dependent cell enlargement is that increases in gene copy number increase the amount of protein, which in turn increases the cell volume. This hypothesis can be evaluated by examining whether any strains, mutants, or transgenics show the same cell size before and after a tetraploidization event. I performed this experiment by tetraploidizing various mutants and transgenics of Arabidopsis thaliana, which show a wide range in cell size, and found that the ploidy-dependent increase in cell volume is genetically regulated. This result is not in agreement with the theory described above.

  18. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Laguna, Ricardo; Fernández-Gonzalez, Raúl; Sanjuanbenito, Belén Pintado; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  19. Differentiation renders susceptibility to excitotoxicity in HT22 neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minchao He; Jun Liu; Shaowu Cheng; Yigang Xing; William Z Suo

    2013-01-01

    HT22 is an immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line that does not express cholinergic and glutamate receptors like mature hippocampal neurons in vivo. This in part prevents its use as a model for mature hippocampal neurons in memory-related studies. We now report that HT22 cells were appropriately induced to differentiate and possess properties similar to those of mature hippocampal neurons in vivo, such as becoming more glutamate-receptive and excitatory. Results showed that sensitivity of HT22 cells to glutamate-induced toxicity changed dramatically when comparing undifferentiated with differentiated cells, with the half-effective concentration for differentiated cells reducing approximately two orders of magnitude. Moreover, glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated cells, but not undifferentiated cells, was inhibited by the N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine. Evidently, differentiated HT22 cells expressed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while undifferentiated cells did not. Our experimental findings indicated that differentiation is important for immortalized cell lines to render post-mitotic neuronal properties, and that differentiated HT22 neurons represent a better model of hippocampal neurons than undifferentiated cells.

  20. VITRAIL: Acquisition, Modeling, and Rendering of Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, Niranjan; Baboulaz, Loic; Prandoni, Paolo; Trumpler, Stefan; Wolf, Sophie; Vetterli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Stained glass windows are designed to reveal their powerful artistry under diverse and time-varying lighting conditions; virtual relighting of stained glass, therefore, represents an exceptional tool for the appreciation of this age old art form. However, as opposed to most other artifacts, stained glass windows are extremely difficult if not impossible to analyze using controlled illumination because of their size and position. In this paper, we present novel methods built upon image based priors to perform virtual relighting of stained glass artwork by acquiring the actual light transport properties of a given artifact. In a preprocessing step, we build a material-dependent dictionary for light transport by studying the scattering properties of glass samples in a laboratory setup. We can now use the dictionary to recover a light transport matrix in two ways: under controlled illuminations the dictionary constitutes a sparsifying basis for a compressive sensing acquisition, while in the case of uncontrolled illuminations the dictionary is used to perform sparse regularization. The proposed basis preserves volume impurities and we show that the retrieved light transport matrix is heterogeneous, as in the case of real world objects. We present the rendering results of several stained glass artifacts, including the Rose Window of the Cathedral of Lausanne, digitized using the presented methods. PMID:27416590

  1. Usefulness of volume rendering stereo-movie in neurosurgical craniotomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the advancements in MR technology combined with the development of the multi-channel coil have resulted in substantially shortened inspection times. In addition, rapid improvement in functional performance in the workstation has produced a more simplified imaging-making process. Consequently, graphical images of intra-cranial lesions can be easily created. For example, the use of three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo (3D-SPGR) volume rendering (VR) after injection of a contrast medium is applied clinically as a preoperative reference image. Recently, improvements in 3D-SPGR VR high-resolution have enabled accurate surface images of the brain to be obtained. We used stereo-imaging created by weighted maximum intensity projection (Weighted MIP) to determine the skin incision line. Furthermore, the stereo imaging technique utilizing 3D-SPGR VR was actually used in cases presented here. The techniques we report here seemed to be very useful in the pre-operative simulation of neurosurgical craniotomy. (author)

  2. Defining the Functional Network of Epigenetic Regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongyuan Luo; Brittany G.Durgin; Naohide Watanabe; Eric Lam

    2009-01-01

    Development of ChiP-chip and ChlP-seq technologies has allowed genome-wide high-resolution profiling of chromatin-associated marks and binding sites for epigenetic regulators.However,signals for directing epigenetic modi fiers to their target sites are not understood.In this paper,we tested the hypothesis that genome location can affect the involvement of epigenetic regulators using Chromatin Charting (CC) Lines,which have an identical transgene construct inserted at different locations in the Arabidopsis genome.Four CC lines that showed evidence for epigenetic silencing of the luciferase reporter gene were transformed with RNAi vectors individually targeting epigenetic regulators LHP1,MOM1,CMT3,DRD1,DRM2,SUVH2,CLF,and HD1.Involvement of a particular epigenetic regulator in silencing the transgene locus in a CC line was determined by significant alterations in luciferase expression after suppression of the regulator's expression.Our results suggest that the targeting of epigenetic regulators can be influenced by genome location as well as sequence context.In addition,the relative importance of an epigenetic regulator can be influenced by tissue identity.We also report a novel approach to predict interactions between epigenetic regulators through clustering analysis of the regulators using alterations in gene expression of putative downstream targets,including endogenous loci and transgenes,in epigenetic mutants or RNAi lines.Our data support the existence of a complex and dynamic network of epigenetic regulators that serves to coordinate and control global gene expression in higher plants.

  3. Expression of a Carrot 36 kD Antifreeze Protein Gene Improves Cold Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) enable organisms to survive under cold conditions, and have great potential in improving cold tolerance of cold-sensitive plants. In order to determine whether expression of the carrot 36 kD antifreeze protein gene confers improved cold-resistant properties to plant tissues, we tried to obtain transgenic tobacco plants which expressed the antifreeze protein. Cold, salt, and drought induced promoter Prd29A was cloned using PCR from Arabidopsis. Two plant expression vectors based on pBI121 were constructed with CaMV35S:AFP and Prd29A:AFP. Tobacco plantlets were transformed by Agrobacterium-medicated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting demonstrated that the carrot 36 kD afp gene was successfully integrated into the genomes of transformed plantlets. The expression of the afp gene in transgenic plants led to improved tolerance to cold stress.However, the use of the strong constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter to drive expression of afp also resulted in growth retardation under normal growing conditions. In contrast, the expression of afp driven by the stress-inducible Prd29A promoter from Arabidopsis gave rise to minimal effects on plant growth while providing an increased tolerance to cold stress condition (2℃). The results demonstrated the prospect of using Prd29A-AFP transgenic plants in cold-stressed conditions that will in turn benefit agriculture.

  4. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2008-02-01

    Agriculture productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. In the present work, transgenic buckwheat plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, were regenerated after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These plants were able to grow, flower and accumulate more rutin in the presence of 200 mmol/l sodium chloride. Moreover, the content of important nutrients in buckwheat was not affected by the high salinity of the soil. These results demonstrated the potential value of these transgenic plants for agriculture use in saline soil.

  5. Exploiting Natural Variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana . This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  6. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Molenaar; J.J.B. Keurentjes

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of g

  7. A transgenic approach to controlling wheat seed dormancy level by using Triticeae DOG1-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Mori, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka

    2014-08-01

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait: low levels can cause premature germination, while too much can inhibit uniform germination. As an approach to controlling the seed dormancy level in crops, we used Triticeae DOG1-like genes as transgenes. DOG1 is an Arabidopsis gene that underlies natural variation in seed dormancy. We previously showed that although their sequence similarities to DOG1 were low, some cereal DOG1-like genes enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, we introduced two DOG1-like genes, TaDOG1L4 from wheat and HvDOG1L1 from barley, individually into the wheat cultivar Fielder. Their overexpression under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter enhanced the seed dormancy level while leaving other traits unchanged. TaDOG1L4 was more effective than HvDOG1L1, which accords with the previously revealed difference in the effectiveness of these two genes in Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Knockdown of endogenous TaDOG1L4 in Fielder using double-strand RNA interference decreased the seed dormancy level by several tens of percent. This result indicates that some degree of seed dormancy inherent in wheat is imparted by DOG1-like genes. PMID:24752830

  8. Overexpression of OsRAA1 promotes flowering and hypocotyls elongation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JinLan; CHONG Kang; XU YunYuan

    2009-01-01

    Previously,OsRAA1,an AtFPF1 homologue gene,was found to play an important role in modulating rice root development.In the current study,OsRAA1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis,and the transgenic plants showed early flowering and elongated hypocotyl phenotypes as compared with the wild-type under white-light conditions.The hypocotyls of transgenic lines were twice as long as those of wild-type plants under red-light conditions but were indistinguishable from those of the wild-type under blue and far-red light and darkness.In addition,the phenotypes of AtFPF1 transgenic lines were similar to those of OsRAA1 transgenic lines.These results suggested that OsRAA1/AtFPF1 protein is involved in regulating flowering time and plays an important role in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation under continuous red light.The functions were preserved during the evolution.

  9. Integration mechanisms of transgenes and population fitness of GH transgenic fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first batch of transgenic fish was produced. Five stable germ-line transmitted growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish lines have been generated. This paper reviews the mechanisms of integration and gene targeting of the transgene, as well as the viability, reproduction and transgenic approaches for the reproductive containment of GH-transgenic fish. Further, we propose that it should be necessary to do the following studies, in particularly, of the breeding of transgenic fish: to assess the fitness of transgenic fish in an aqueous environment with a large space and a complex structure; and to develop a controllable on-off strategy of reproduction in transgenic fish.

  10. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  11. Performance Assessment of Three Rendering Engines in 3D Computer Graphics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žan Vidmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the determination of testing conditions and visual and numerical evaluation of renderings made with three different rendering engines in Maya software, which is widely used for educational and computer art purposes. In the theoretical part the overview of light phenomena and their simulation in virtual space is presented. This is followed by a detailed presentation of the main rendering methods and the results and limitations of their applications to 3D objects. At the end of the theoretical part the importance of a proper testing scene and especially the role of Cornell box are explained. In the experimental part the terms and conditions as well as hardware and software used for the research are presented. This is followed by a description of the procedures, where we focused on the rendering quality and time, which enabled the comparison of settings of different render engines and determination of conditions for further rendering of testing scenes. The experimental part continued with rendering a variety of simple virtual scenes including Cornell box and virtual object with different materials and colours. Apart from visual evaluation, which was the starting point for comparison of renderings, a procedure for numerical estimation and colour deviations of renderings using the selected regions of interest in the final images is presented.

  12. Overexpression of the IbMYB1 gene in an orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar produces a dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato with improved antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Cha Young; Lee, Joon Seol; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-type protein IbMYB1 is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, we demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression stimulated anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis. Here, we generated dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato plants that accumulated high levels of both anthocyanins and carotenoids in a single sweet potato storage root. An orange-fleshed cultivar with high carotenoid levels was transformed with the IbMYB1 gene under the control of either the storage root-specific sporamin 1 (SPO1) promoter or the oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase anionic 2 (SWPA2) promoter. The SPO1-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher anthocyanin levels in storage roots than empty vector control (EV) or SWPA2-MYB plants, but carotenoid content was unchanged. SWPA2-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher levels of both anthocyanin and carotenoids than EV plants. Analysis of hydrolyzed anthocyanin extracts indicated that cyanidin and peonidin predominated in both overexpression lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression in both IbMYB1 transgenic lines strongly induced the upregulation of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes varied between transgenic lines. Increased anthocyanin levels in transgenic plants also promoted the elevation of proanthocyanidin and total phenolic levels in fresh storage roots. Consequently, all IbMYB1 transgenic plants displayed much higher antioxidant activities than EV plants. In field cultivations, storage root yields varied between the transgenic lines. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of IbMYB1 is a highly promising strategy for the generation of transgenic plants with enhanced antioxidant capacity. PMID:25220246

  13. Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) induces drought and salt tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum plants (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought and salinity are global problems. In Pakistan these problems are increasing to an alarming situation due to low rain-fall and bad agricultural practices. Salt and drought stress shows a high degree of similarity with respect to physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic effects. This is due to the fact that sub-lethal salt-stress condition is ultimately an osmotic effect which is apparently similar to that brought in by water deficit. Genetic engineering allows the re-introduction of plant genes into their genomes by increasing their expression level. Plant vacuoles play a central role in cellular mechanisms of adaptation to salinity and drought stresses. In principle, increased vacuolar solute accumulation should have a positive impact in the adaptation of plants to salinity and drought. The active transport of the solutes depends on the proton gradients established by proton pumps. We have over expressed Arabidopsis gene AVP1 (Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar pyro phosphatase H/sup +/ pump) to increase drought/salt tolerance in tobacco. The AVP1 ORF with a tandem repeat of 358 promoter was cloned in pPZP212 vector and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was performed. Transgenic plants were selected on plant nutrient agar medium supplemented with 50 mg/liter kanamycin. Transgenic plants were confirmed for transfer of genes by AVP1 and nptll gene specific PCR and Southern hybridization. AVP1 transgenic plants were screened for salt tolerance by providing NaCl solution in addition to nutrient solution. AVP1 transgenic plants showed tolerance up to 300 mM NaCl as compared to control which died ten days after 200 mM NaCl. Sodium and potassium were measured in salt treated and control plants. Results showed that sodium ion uptake in the salt treated transgenic plants was four times more as compared to wild type. This remarkable increase in Na/sup +/ ion uptake indicates that AVP1 vacuole proton pumps are actively involved in the transport of Na

  14. Soybean salt tolerance 1 (GmST1 reduces ROS production, enhances ABA sensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin eRen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative RT-PCR analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.

  15. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  16. Improvements in the transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana C24 leaf-discs by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, P J

    1996-01-01

    We report here an efficient Arabidopsis leafdisc transformation protocol yielding an average transformation frequency of 1.6 transgenic shoots per leaf explant 4 weeks after the bacterial infection period. Subsequent cultivation in vitro is such that a high percentage (85-90%) of the primary tran...... harboring an activator T-DNA construct in a gene tagging approach to isolate genes involved in morphogenesis and auxin signal transduction....

  17. Cross-resistance to short residual sulfonylurea herbicides in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, J M; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N; Miki, B L

    1989-10-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with a mutant gene (csr1-1) coding for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from a chlorsulfuron resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line GH50 (GW Haughn et al. [1988] Mol Gen Genet 211: 266-271; GW Haughn, C Somerville [1986] Mol Gen Genet 204: 430-434), were selected directly on 80 micrograms per liter (225 nanomolar) chlorsulfuron. The expression of csr-1 in two separate transgenic lines CHL-1 and CHL-2 was confirmed by biochemical and genetic analyses. The AHAS activity of GH50 and the equivalent component of AHAS activity in CHL-2 was resistant to three short residual sulfonylurea herbicides, DPX-M6316, DPX-A7881, and DPX-L5300, in addition to chlorsulfuron but not to the sulfonylurea CGA 131'036. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones AC 263, 499, AC 252, 214, and AC 243,997 was not observed. Parallel observations were made on the inhibition of seedling growth in soil or on culture medium. The relevance of these findings for the application of transgenic plants in agriculture is discussed. PMID:16667071

  18. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  19. Phosphorylation of an ERF transcription factor by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 regulates plant defense gene induction and fungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Juan; He, Yunxia; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Mordorski, Breanne; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or MPKs), play critical roles in plant disease resistance by regulating multiple defense responses. Previously, we characterized the regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY33 transcription factor. Here, we report another substrate of MPK3/MPK6, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ERF6), in regulating Arabidopsis defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Phosphorylation of ERF6 by MPK3/MPK6 in either the gain-of-function transgenic plants or in response to B. cinerea infection increases ERF6 protein stability in vivo. Phospho-mimicking ERF6 is able to constitutively activate defense-related genes, especially those related to fungal resistance, including PDF1.1 and PDF1.2, and confers enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. By contrast, expression of ERF6-EAR, in which ERF6 was fused to the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, strongly suppresses B. cinerea-induced defense gene expression, leading to hypersusceptibility of the ERF6-EAR transgenic plants to B. cinerea. Different from ERF1, the regulation and function of ERF6 in defensin gene activation is independent of ethylene. Based on these data, we conclude that ERF6, another substrate of MPK3 and MPK6, plays important roles downstream of the MPK3/MPK6 cascade in regulating plant defense against fungal pathogens.

  20. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  1. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  2. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development. PMID:26711633

  3. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  4. Positron emission tomography : measurement of transgene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vaalburg, W

    2002-01-01

    Noninvasive and repetitive imaging of transgene expression can play a pivotal role in the development of gene therapy strategies, as it offers investigators a means to determine the effectiveness of their gene transfection protocols. In the last decade, imaging of transgene expression using positron

  5. A Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z B; Zhang, W J; Gong, X D; Zhang, Q; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in protecting plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, a novel Cu/Zn-SOD gene (JcCu/Zn-SOD) was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that JcCu/Zn-SOD is constitutively expressed in different tissues of J. curcas and induced under NaCl treatment. To characterize the function of this gene with respect to salt tolerance, the construct p35S:JcCu/Zn-SOD was developed and transformed into Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type, transgenic plants over-expressing JcCu/Zn-SOD showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress during germination, seedling establishment, and growth in terms of longer root, larger rosette area, and a larger number of leaves in addition to higher SOD activity levels under NaCl stress. In addition, over-expression of JcCu/Zn-SOD resulted in lower monodialdehyde content in transgenic Arabidopsis compared to wild-type plants under the same NaCl stress. Therefore, JcCu/Zn-SOD can increase a plant salt stress tolerance potentially by reducing oxidant injury. PMID:25867355

  6. A Non-canonical Transferred DNA Insertion at the BRI 1 Locus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhao; Yan Zhu; Mathieu Erhardt; Ying Ruan; Wen-Hui Shen

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used in transgenic plant englnserlng and has been proven to be a powerful tool for insertional mutagenesis of the plant genome.The transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterlum is Integrated into the plant genome through illegitimate recombination between the T-DNA and the plant DNA.Contrasting to the canonical insertion,here we report on a locus showing a complex mutation associated with T-DNA insertion at the BRI 1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.We obtained a mutant line,named salade for its phenotype of dwarf stature and proliferating rosette,Molecular charactedzation of this mutant revealed that in addition to T-DNA a non.T.DNA-Iocalized transposon from bacteda was inserted in the Arabidopsis genome and that a region of more than 11.5 kb of the Arebidopsis genome was deleted at the insertion site.The deleted region contains the brassinosteroid receptor gene BRI 1 and the transcdption factor gene WRKY13.Our finding reveals non-canonical T-DNA insertion,implicating horizontal gene transfer and cautioning the use of T-DNA as mutagen in transgenic research.

  7. Identification of Novel Components of the Unfolded Protein Response in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Amir; Henríquez-Valencia, Carlos; Gómez-Páez, Marcela; Medina, Joaquín; Orellana, Ariel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Zouhar, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Unfavorable environmental and developmental conditions may cause disturbances in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are recognized and counteracted by components of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signaling pathways. The early cellular responses include transcriptional changes to increase the folding and processing capacity of the ER. In this study, we systematically screened a collection of inducible transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a library of transcription factors for resistance toward UPR-inducing chemicals. We identified 23 candidate genes that may function as novel regulators of the UPR and of which only three genes (bZIP10, TBF1, and NF-YB3) were previously associated with the UPR. The putative role of identified candidate genes in the UPR signaling is supported by favorable expression patterns in both developmental and stress transcriptional analyses. We demonstrated that WRKY75 is a genuine regulator of the ER-stress cellular responses as its expression was found to be directly responding to ER stress-inducing chemicals. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing WRKY75 showed resistance toward salt stress, connecting abiotic and ER-stress responses. PMID:27242851

  8. Diurnal Regulation of the Brassinosteroid-Biosynthetic CPD Gene in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Castle, Julie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Bishop, Gerard J.; Nagy, Ferenc; Szekeres, Miklós

    2006-01-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are essential for normal photomorphogenesis. However, the mechanism by which light controls physiological functions via BRs is not well understood. Using transgenic plants carrying promoter-luciferase reporter gene fusions, we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the BR-biosynthetic CPD and CYP85A2 genes are under diurnal regulation. The complex diurnal expression profile of CPD is determined by dual, light-dependent, and circadian control. The severely decreased expression level of CPD in phytochrome-deficient background and the red light-specific induction in wild-type plants suggest that light regulation of CPD is primarily mediated by phytochrome signaling. The diurnal rhythmicity of CPD expression is maintained in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 transgenic seedlings, indicating that its transcriptional control is independent of hormonal feedback regulation. Diurnal changes in the expression of CPD and CYP85A2 are accompanied by changes of the endogenous BR content during the day, leading to brassinolide accumulation at the middle of the light phase. We also show that CPD expression is repressed in extended darkness in a BR feedback-dependent manner. In the dark the level of the bioactive hormone did not increase; therefore, our data strongly suggest that light also influences the sensitivity of plants to BRs. PMID:16531479

  9. Diurnal regulation of the brassinosteroid-biosynthetic CPD gene in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Castle, Julie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Bishop, Gerard J; Nagy, Ferenc; Szekeres, Miklós

    2006-05-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are essential for normal photomorphogenesis. However, the mechanism by which light controls physiological functions via BRs is not well understood. Using transgenic plants carrying promoter-luciferase reporter gene fusions, we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the BR-biosynthetic CPD and CYP85A2 genes are under diurnal regulation. The complex diurnal expression profile of CPD is determined by dual, light-dependent, and circadian control. The severely decreased expression level of CPD in phytochrome-deficient background and the red light-specific induction in wild-type plants suggest that light regulation of CPD is primarily mediated by phytochrome signaling. The diurnal rhythmicity of CPD expression is maintained in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 transgenic seedlings, indicating that its transcriptional control is independent of hormonal feedback regulation. Diurnal changes in the expression of CPD and CYP85A2 are accompanied by changes of the endogenous BR content during the day, leading to brassinolide accumulation at the middle of the light phase. We also show that CPD expression is repressed in extended darkness in a BR feedback-dependent manner. In the dark the level of the bioactive hormone did not increase; therefore, our data strongly suggest that light also influences the sensitivity of plants to BRs.

  10. Ectopic expression of a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor in guard cells confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Fen; Liang, Ke; Yin, Dong-Mei; Ni, Di-An; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-12-01

    There are several hypotheses that explain stomatal behavior. These include the concept of osmoregulation mediated by potassium and its counterions malate and chlorine and the more recent starch-sugar hypothesis. We have previously reported that the activity of the sucrose cleavage enzyme, vacuolar invertase (VIN), is significantly higher in guard cells than in other leaf epidermal cells and its activity is correlated with stomatal aperture. Here, we examined whether VIN indeed controls stomatal movement under normal and drought conditions by transforming Arabidopsis with a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor homolog (Nt-inhh) under the control of an abscisic acid-sensitive and guard cell-specific promoter (AtRab18). The data obtained showed that guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis plants had lower VIN activity, stomatal aperture and conductance than that of wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic plants also displayed higher drought tolerance than wild-type plants. The data indicate that VIN is a promising target for manipulating stomatal function to increase drought tolerance. PMID:26899912

  11. Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Rothstein, Steven J; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nitrogen in the form of ammonium is assimilated into asparagine via multiple steps involving glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in Arabidopsis. The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine is released by asparagine aminotransferase (AsnAT) for use in the biosynthesis of amino acids. Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in vegetative and senescence organs. A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine aminotransferase encoded by a single gene. The aim of this study is to highlight the structure of the genes and encoded enzyme proteins involved in asparagine metabolic pathways; the regulation and role of different isogenes; and kinetic and physiological properties of encoded enzymes in different tissues and developmental stages. PMID:26628609

  12. Ectopic expression of R3 MYB transcription factor gene OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis, but not rice, affects trichome and root hair formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaijie; Tian, Hainan; Hu, Qingnan; Guo, Hongyan; Yang, Li; Cai, Ling; Wang, Xutong; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex activates the homeodomain protein gene GLABRA2 (GL2), leading to the promotion of trichome formation and inhibition of root hair formation. The same MBW complex also activates single-repeat R3 MYB genes. R3 MYBs in turn, play a negative feedback role by competing with R2R3 MYB proteins for binding bHLH proteins, thus blocking the formation of the MBW complex. By BLASTing the rice (Oryza sativa) protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), we found that there are two genes in rice genome encoding R3 MYB transcription factors, namely Oryza sativa TRICHOMELESS1 (OsTCL1) and OsTCL2. Expressing OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis inhibited trichome formation and promoted root hair formation, and OsTCL1 interacted with GL3 when tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Consistent with these observations, expression levels of GL2, R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene GLABRA1 (GL1) and several R3 MYB genes were greatly reduced, indicating that OsTCL1 is functional R3 MYB. However, trichome and root hair formation in transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsTCL1 remained largely unchanged, and elevated expression of OsGL2 was observed in the transgenic rice plants, indicating that rice may use different mechanisms to regulate trichome formation. PMID:26758286

  13. 49 CFR Schedule F to Subpart B of... - Affiliate Revenue Data for Services Rendered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affiliate Revenue Data for Services Rendered F... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. F Schedule F to Subpart B of Part 1139—Affiliate Revenue Data for Services Rendered () Greyhound Lines, Inc. () Trailways combined () All...

  14. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for...

  15. Approaching the exa-scale: a real-world evaluation of rendering extremely large data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lo, Li - Ta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browniee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Chuck [UNIV OF UTAH

    2010-10-15

    Extremely large scale analysis is becoming increasingly important as supercomputers and their simulations move from petascale to exascale. The lack of dedicated hardware acceleration for rendering on today's supercomputing platforms motivates our detailed evaluation of the possibility of interactive rendering on the supercomputer. In order to facilitate our understanding of rendering on the supercomputing platform, we focus on scalability of rendering algorithms and architecture envisioned for exascale datasets. To understand tradeoffs for dealing with extremely large datasets, we compare three different rendering algorithms for large polygonal data: software based ray tracing, software based rasterization and hardware accelerated rasterization. We present a case study of strong and weak scaling of rendering extremely large data on both GPU and CPU based parallel supercomputers using Para View, a parallel visualization tool. Wc use three different data sets: two synthetic and one from a scientific application. At an extreme scale, algorithmic rendering choices make a difference and should be considered while approaching exascale computing, visualization, and analysis. We find software based ray-tracing offers a viable approach for scalable rendering of the projected future massive data sizes.

  16. 29 CFR 784.151 - Operations performed after product is rendered nonperishable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations performed after product is rendered... Operations performed after product is rendered nonperishable. As indicated in § 784.138, after the character of the aquatic products as taken from nature has been altered by the performance of the...

  17. Hardware-accelerated Point Generation and Rendering of Point-based Impostors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for generating points from triangle models. The method is fast and lends itself well to implementation using graphics hardware. The triangle to point conversion is done by rendering the models, and the rendering may be performed procedurally or by a black box API...

  18. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, Michel A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet-based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in

  19. Establishment of multiple shoot clumps from maize(Zea mays L.) and regeneration of herbicide-resistant transgenic plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guosheng(李国圣); ZHANG; Qingwei(张卿伟); ZHANG; Juren(张举仁); BI; Yuping(毕玉平); SHAN; Lei(单雷)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of quick, efficient and season-free inducing embryoid and multiple shoot clumps system from shoot tip meristems that derived from elite inbreds of maize was established. The herbicide-resistant gene als(coding Acetolactate synthase) isolated from a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred to tissue pieces of maize multiple shoot clumps by microprojectile bombardment. Herbicide-resistant tissue and regenerants were obtained through selections with herbicide chlorsulfuron. PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization indicated that gene als has been transferred to some regenerants. The test of spraying chlorsulfuron displayed that the transgenic plantlets and R1 plants had favorable herbicide-resistant trait. We have established a new genotype-free system of maize which could rapidly and efficiently produce large quantities of transgenic plantlets.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay,; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide impor...

  1. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or meristems stay active throughout plant-life. Specification of stem cells occurs very early during development of the emrbyo and they are maintained during later stages. The Arabidopsis embryo is a hig...

  2. Ectopic expression of soybean GmKNT1 in Arabidopsis results in altered leaf morphology and flower identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Da Ha; Zongming Xie; Chunmei Wang; Huiwen Wang; Wanke Zhang; Jinsong Zhang; Shouyi Chen

    2008-01-01

    Plant morphology is specified by leaves and flowers, and the shoot apical meristem (SAM) defines the architecture of plant leaves and flowers. Here, we reported the characterization of a soybean KNOX gene GmKNT1, which was highly homologous to Arabidopsis STM. The GmKNT1 was strongly expressed in roots, flowers and developing seeds. Its expression could be induced by IAA, ABA and JA, but inhibited by GA or cytokinin. Staining of the transgenic plants overexpressing GmKNT1-GUS fusion protein revealed that the GmKNT1 was mainly expressed at lobe region, SAM of young leaves, sepal and carpel, not in seed and mature leaves. Scanning electron micros- copy (SEM) disclosed multiple changes in morphology of the epidermal cells and stigma. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpress- ing the GmKNT1 showed small and lobed leaves, shortened internodes and small clustered inflorescence. The lobed leaves might result from the function of the meristems located at the boundary of the leaf. Compared with wild type plants, transgenic plants had higher ex- pression of the SAM-related genes including the CUP, WUS, CUC1, KNAT2 and KNAT6. These results indicated that the GmKNT1 could affect multiple aspects of plant growth and development by regulation of downstream genes expression.

  3. Kip-related protein 3 is required for control of endoreduplication in the shoot apical meristem and leaves of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Eun; Okushima, Yoko; Nam, Jaesung; Umeda, Masaaki; Kim, Gyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The cell cycle plays an important role in the development and adaptation of multicellular organisms; specifically, it allows them to optimally adjust their architecture in response to environmental changes. Kip-related proteins (KRPs) are important negative regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which positively control the cell cycle during plant development. The Arabidopsis genome possesses seven KRP genes with low sequence similarity and distinct expression patterns; however, why Arabidopsis needs seven KRP genes and how these genes function in cell cycle regulation are unknown. Here, we focused on the characterization of KRP3, which was found to have unique functions in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaves. KRP3 protein was localized to the SAM, including the ground meristem and vascular tissues in the ground part of the SAM and cotyledons. In addition, KRP3 protein was stabilized when treated with MG132, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, indicating that the protein may be regulated by 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation. KRP3-overexpressing (KRP3 OE) transgenic plants showed reduced organ size, serrated leaves, and reduced fertility. Interestingly, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in the size of the SAM with alterations in cell arrangement. In addition, compared to the wild type, the KRP3 OE transgenic plants had a higher DNA ploidy level in the SAM and leaves. Taken together, our data suggest that KRP3 plays important regulatory roles in the cell cycle and endoreduplication in the SAM and leaves. PMID:23314608

  4. Constitutive activation of AtMEK5, a MAPK kinase, induces salicylic acid-independent cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongxia; WANG Ying; ZHOU Tianhong; SUN Yujing; LIU Guoqin; REN Dongtao

    2004-01-01

    AtMEK5DD is an active mutant of AtMEK5, a MAP kinase kinase in Arabidopsis. Induction of AtMEK5DD expression in transgenic plants leads to activation of 44 and 48 kD MAPKs and causes a rapid cell death. To compare the cell death induced by the expression of AtMEK5DD with the HR-cell death induced by avirulence pathogen infection, we analyzed the activation of downstream MAP Kinase and induction of PR genes expression in permanent transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In-gel kinase activity assay revealed that the infection of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 harboring Avr Rpt2 gene also lead to activation of 44 and 48 kD MAPKs. PAL, PR1 and PR5 were strongly induced in plants undergoing HR-cell death caused by the infection of P. Syringae DC3000, while only the expression of PR5 was strongly induced in transgenic plants expressing AtMEK5DD protein. NahG protein in AtMEK5DD×NahG plants cannot suppress the cell death induced by AtMEK5DD. And AtMEK5DD protein expressed AtMEK5DD×NahG plants showed no significant change in salicylic acid (SA)level.All these suggest that the cell death induced by the activation of AtMEK5 is salicylic acid-independent.

  5. Expression of aberrant forms of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 stimulates parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Marc; Hooper, Lauren C; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio Carlyle Macedo; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Koltunow, Anna M

    2007-10-01

    Fruit initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is generally repressed until fertilization occurs. However, mutations in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) uncouple fruit initiation from fertilization, resulting in the formation of seedless, parthenocarpic fruit. Here we induced parthenocarpy in wild-type Arabidopsis by introducing either the mutant genomic (g) Atarf8-4 sequence or gAtARF8:beta-glucuronidase translational fusion constructs by plant transformation. Silencing of endogenous AtARF8 transcription was not observed, indicating that the introduced, aberrant ARF8 transcripts were compromising the function of endogenous ARF8 and/or associated factors involved in suppressing fruit initiation. To analyze the role of ARF8 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) we initially emasculated 23 tomato cultivars to test for background parthenocarpy. Surprisingly, all had a predisposition to initiate fertilization-independent fruit growth. Expression of gAtarf8-4 in transgenic tomato ('Monalbo') resulted in a significant increase in the number and size of parthenocarpic fruit. Isolation of tomato ARF8 cDNA indicated significant sequence conservation with AtARF8. SlARF8 may therefore control tomato fruit initiation in a similar manner as AtARF8 does in Arabidopsis. Two SlARF8 cDNAs differing in size by 5 bp were found, both arising from the same gene. The smaller cDNA is a splice variant and is also present in Arabidopsis. We propose that low endogenous levels of the splice variant products might interfere with efficient formation/function of a complex repressing fruit initiation, thereby providing an explanation for the observed ovary expansion in tomato and also Arabidopsis after emasculation. Increasing the levels of aberrant Atarf8-4 transcripts may further destabilize formation/function of the complex in a dosage-dependent manner enhancing tomato parthenocarpic fruit initiation frequency and size and mimicking the parthenocarpic dehiscent silique phenotype found in

  6. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Bouchard, Ann Marie

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  7. Sisätilan renderöinnin optimointi animaatiota varten 3ds Max -ohjelmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Ketonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on esitellä 3ds Max -ohjelman eri renderöintimoottorien ominaisuuksia niiden tehokkaan hyödyntämisen ja optimoinnin näkökulmasta. Työ käsittelee aluksi 3ds Maxin yleisiä renderöintiin liittyviä asioita, kuten renderöintimoottorien ominaisuuksia. Tämän jälkeen työ perehtyy renderöinnin optimointiin vaikuttaviin osa-alueisiin, kuten valaistukseen, materiaaleihin sekä renderöintiasetuksiin. Lähteinä on käytetty kirjoja sekä internet-sivuja jotka käsittelev...

  8. A synthetic antimicrobial peptide BTD-S expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana confers enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Shen, Hao; Wang, Ming; Fan, Kai; Bibi, Noreen; Ni, Mi; Yuan, Shuna; Wang, Xuede

    2016-08-01

    BTD-S is a synthetic non-cyclic θ-defensin derivative which was previously designed in our laboratory based on baboon θ-defensins (BTDs). It shows robust antimicrobial activity against economically important phytopathogen, Verticillium dahliae. Here, we deduced the coding nucleotide sequence of BTD-S and introduced the gene into wild-type (ecotype Columbia-0) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Results demonstrated that BTD-S-transgenic lines displayed in bioassays inhibitory effects on the growth of V. dahliae in vivo and in vitro. Based on symptom severity, enhanced resistance was found in a survey of BTD-S-transgenic lines. Besides, crude protein extracts from root tissues of BTD-S-transformed plants significantly restricted the growth of fungal hyphae and the germination of conidia. Also, fungal biomass over time determined by real-time PCR demonstrated the overgrowth of V. dahliae in wild-type plants 2-3 weeks after inoculation, while almost no fungal DNA was detected in aerial tissues of their transgenic progenitors. The result suggested that fungus failed to invade and progress acropetally up to establish a systemic infection in BTD-S-transgenic plants. Moreover, the assessment of basal defense responses was performed in the leaves of WT and BTD-S-transgenic plants. The mitigated oxidative stress and low antioxidase level in BTD-S-transgenic plants revealed that BTD-S acts via permeabilizing target microbial membranes, which is in a category different from hypersensitive response-dependent defense. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BTD-S is a promising gene to be explored for transgenic engineering for plant protection against Verticillium wilt.

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  10. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  11. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  12. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengjuan; Qi, Shengdong; Li, Hui; Liu, Pu; Li, Pengcheng; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao; Huang, Jinguang

    2014-11-28

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis. PMID:25450686

  13. Expression of human ARGONAUTE 2 inhibits endogenous microRNA activity in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira eDeveson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant and animal microRNA (miRNA pathways share many analogous components, the ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins being foremost among them. We sought to ascertain the degree of functional conservation shared by Homo sapiens ARGONAUTE 2 (HsAGO2 and Arabidopsis thaliana ARGONAUTE 1 (AtAGO1, which are the predominant AGO family members involved with miRNA activity in their respective species. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing HsAGO2 were indistinguishable from counterparts over-expressing AtAGO1, each group exhibiting the morphological and molecular hallmarks of miRNA-pathway loss-of-function alleles. However, unlike AtAGO1, HsAGO2 was unable to rescue the ago1-27 allele. We conclude that, despite the evolutionary gulf between them, HsAGO2 is likely capable of interacting with some component/s of the Arabidopsis miRNA pathway, thereby perturbing its operation, although differences have arisen such that HsAGO2 alone is insufficient to confer efficient silencing of miRNA targets in planta.

  14. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hui Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA, mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW, dry weight (DW, seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance.

  15. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua-Wen; Tian, Xiao-Hai; Ma, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhi-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA), mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW), dry weight (DW), seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance. PMID:23455470

  16. Target of Rapamycin Is a Key Player for Auxin Signaling Transduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kexuan; Yu, Lihua; Zheng, Xianzhe; Zhang, Kang; Wang, Wanjing; Dong, Pan; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2016-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR), a master sensor for growth factors and nutrition availability in eukaryotic species, is a specific target protein of rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibits TOR kinase activity viaFK506 binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12) in all examined heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms. In Arabidopsis, several independent studies have shown that AtFKBP12 is non-functional under aerobic condition, but one study suggests that AtFKBP12 is functional during anaerobic growth. However, the functions of AtFKBP12 have never been examined in parallel under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions so far. To this end, we cloned the FKBP12 gene of humans, yeast, and Arabidopsis, respectively. Transgenic plants were generated, and pharmacological examinations were performed in parallel with Arabidopsis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. ScFKBP12 conferred plants with the strongest sensitivity to rapamycin, followed by HsFKBP12, whereas AtFKBP12 failed to generate rapamycin sensitivity under aerobic condition. Upon submergence, yeast and human FKBP12 can significantly block cotyledon greening while Arabidopsis FKBP12 only retards plant growth in the presence of rapamycin, suggesting that hypoxia stress could partially restore the functions of AtFKBP12 to bridge the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. To further determine if communication between TOR and auxin signaling exists in plants, yeast FKBP12 was introduced into DR5::GUS homozygous plants. The transgenic plants DR5/BP12 were then treated with rapamycin or KU63794 (a new inhibitor of TOR). GUS staining showed that the auxin content of root tips decreased compared to the control. DR5/BP12 plants lost sensitivity to auxin after treatment with rapamycin. Auxin-defective phenotypes, including short primary roots, fewer lateral roots, and loss of gravitropism, occurred in DR5/BP12 plants when seedlings were treated with rapamycin+KU63794. This indicated that the combination of rapamycin and KU63794 can significantly

  17. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  18. Small RNA-directed epigenetic natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian Zhai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in epigenetics has revealed mechanisms that can heritably regulate gene function independent of genetic alterations. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of epigenetics in evolution. This is due in part to scant data on epigenetic variation among natural populations. In plants, small interfering RNA (siRNA is involved in both the initiation and maintenance of gene silencing by directing DNA methylation and/or histone methylation. Here, we report that, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a cluster of approximately 24 nt siRNAs found at high levels in the ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler could direct DNA methylation and heterochromatinization at a hAT element adjacent to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, a major repressor of flowering, whereas the same hAT element in ecotype Columbia (Col with almost identical DNA sequence, generates a set of low abundance siRNAs that do not direct these activities. We have called this hAT element MPF for Methylated region near Promoter of FLC, although de novo methylation triggered by an inverted repeat transgene at this region in Col does not alter its FLC expression. DNA methylation of the Ler allele MPF is dependent on genes in known silencing pathways, and such methylation is transmissible to Col by genetic crosses, although with varying degrees of penetrance. A genome-wide comparison of Ler and Col small RNAs identified at least 68 loci matched by a significant level of approximately 24 nt siRNAs present specifically in Ler but not Col, where nearly half of the loci are related to repeat or TE sequences. Methylation analysis revealed that 88% of the examined loci (37 out of 42 were specifically methylated in Ler but not Col, suggesting that small RNA can direct epigenetic differences between two closely related Arabidopsis ecotypes.

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240730 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240730 J043030K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-11 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288052 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288052 J075151I09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 6e-14 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-22 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241119 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241119 J065094C22 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 2e-13 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243149 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243149 J100032I21 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 7e-12 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241581 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241581 J065181K09 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 4e-15 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287479 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287479 J043023O14 At2g32440.1 68415.m03963 ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase, putati...ve / cytochrome P450, putative identical to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase / cytochrome P450 CYP88A (GI:1302...1856) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to ent-kaurenoic acid hydroxylase [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:13021853 1e-17 ...

  6. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR RLK) genetic…

  7. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  8. An International Bioinformatics Infrastructure to Underpin the Arabidopsis Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The future bioinformatics needs of the Arabidopsis community as well as those of other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources were discussed at a pair of recent meetings held by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC) and the North American Arabidopsis Steering C...

  9. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  10. Cloning of a Vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase Gene from the Halophyte Suaeda corniculata whose Heterologous Overexpression Improves Salt,Saline-alkali and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Liu; Ying Wang; Nan Wana; Yuan-Yuan Dong; Xiu-Duo Fan; Xiu-Ming Liu; Jing Yang

    2011-01-01

    Salt,saline-alkali conditions,and drought are major environmental factors limiting plant growth and productivity.The vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) is an electrogenic proton pump that translocates protons into vacuoles in plant cells.Expression of V-H+-PPase increases in plants under a number of abiotic stresses,and is thought to have an important role in adaptation to abiotic stress.In this work,we report the isolation and characterization of the gene,ScVP,encoding a vacuolar inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase) from the halophyte,Suaeda corniculata.Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that ScVP was induced in roots,stems and leaves under treatment with salt,saline-alkali and drought.Compared with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis,transgenic plants overexpressing ScVP accumulated more Na+ in leaves and roots,and showed increased tolerance to high salinity,saline-alkali and drought stresses.The germination percentage of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was higher than that of WT seeds under the abiotic stresses.The root length of transgenic plants under salt stress was longer than that of WT plants.Furthermore,the rate of water loss during drought stress was higher in WT than in transgenic plants.Collectively,these results indicate that ScVP plays an important role in plant tolerance to salt,saline-alkali and drought stress.

  11. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  12. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  13. Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich - a simpler Arabidopsis protoplast isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplasts isolated from leaves are useful materials in plant research. One application, the transient expression of recombinant genes using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts (TEAMP, is currently commonly used for studies of subcellular protein localization, promoter activity, and in vivo protein-protein interactions. This method requires cutting leaves into very thin slivers to collect mesophyll cell protoplasts, a procedure that often causes cell damage, may yield only a few good protoplasts, and is time consuming. In addition, this protoplast isolation method normally requires a large number of leaves derived from plants grown specifically under low-light conditions, which may be a concern when material availability is limited such as with mutant plants, or in large scale experiments. Results In this report, we present a new procedure that we call the Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich. This is a simple and fast mesophyll protoplast isolation method. Two kinds of tape (Time tape adhered to the upper epidermis and 3 M Magic tape to the lower epidermis are used to make a "Tape-Arabidopsis Sandwich". The Time tape supports the top side of the leaf during manipulation, while tearing off the 3 M Magic tape allows easy removal of the lower epidermal layer and exposes mesophyll cells to cell wall digesting enzymes when the leaf is later incubated in an enzyme solution. The protoplasts released into solution are collected and washed for further use. For TEAMP, plasmids carrying a gene expression cassette for a fluorescent protein can be successfully delivered into protoplasts isolated from mature leaves grown under optimal conditions. Alternatively, these protoplasts may be used for bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to investigate protein-protein interactions in vivo, or for Western blot analysis. A significant advantage of this protocol over the current method is that it allows the generation of protoplasts in less than 1 hr

  14. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  15. Generation of red fluorescent protein transgenic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kang, Jung Taek; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Teoan; Kwon, Mo Sun; Koo, Bon Chul; Ra, Jeong Chan; Kim, Dae Yong; Ko, CheMyong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2009-05-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) share many common genetic diseases with humans and development of disease models using a transgenic approach has long been awaited. However, due to the technical difficulty in obtaining fertilizable eggs and the unavailability of embryonic stem cells, no transgenic dog has been generated. Canine fetal fibroblasts were stably transfected with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene-expressing construct using retrovirus gene delivery method. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was then employed to replace the nucleus of an oocyte with the nucleus of the RFP-fibroblasts. Using this approach, we produced the first generation of transgenic dogs with four female and two male expressing RFP.

  16. Insertion DNA Accelerates Meiotic Interchromosomal Recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ding-Hong; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yang, Si-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide insertions/deletions are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and the resulting hemizygous (unpaired) DNA has significant, heritable effects on adjacent DNA. However, little is known about the genetic behavior of insertion DNA. Here, we describe a binary transgenic system to study the behavior of insertion DNA during meiosis. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated to carry two different defective reporter genes on nonhomologous chromosomes, designated as "recipient" and "donor" lines. Double hemizygous plants (harboring unpaired DNA) were produced by crossing between the recipient and the donor, and double homozygous lines (harboring paired DNA) via self-pollination. The transfer of the donor's unmutated sequence to the recipient generated a functional β-glucuronidase gene, which could be visualized by histochemical staining and corroborated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. More than 673 million seedlings were screened, and the results showed that meiotic ectopic recombination in the hemizygous lines occurred at a frequency  >6.49-fold higher than that in the homozygous lines. Gene conversion might have been exclusively or predominantly responsible for the gene correction events. The direct measurement of ectopic recombination events provided evidence that an insertion, in the absence of an allelic counterpart, could scan the entire genome for homologous counterparts with which to pair. Furthermore, the unpaired (hemizygous) architectures could accelerate ectopic recombination between itself and interchromosomal counterparts. We suggest that the ectopic recombination accelerated by hemizygous architectures may be a general mechanism for interchromosomal recombination through ubiquitously dispersed repeat sequences in plants, ultimately contributing to genetic renovation and eukaryotic evolution. PMID:27189569

  17. MicroRNA (miR396) negatively regulates expression of ceramidase-like genes in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Liu; Diqiu Yu

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide (nt), endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for direct cleavage or translational repression in plants. In Arabidopsis, miR396 is encoded by two different loci (MIR396a and M1R396b) and sequence analysis suggests it may target three ceramidase-like genes (Atceramidase-like 1, Atceramidase-like 2 and Atceramidase-like 3). To demonstrate the biological function of miR396, we inserted the synthetic precursors, MIR396a or MIR396b, under the control of the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, into a plant transformation vector (pOCA30) and transformed the con-structs into Arabidopsis. The promoter increased miR396 levels by more than 2-fold, indicating appropriate maturation of the synthetic precursor MIR396a or MIR396b transcript in transgenic plants. Microarray analysis showed that the transcript levels of two ceramidase-like genes (Atceramidase-like 1, Atceramidase-like 2) were decreased by more than 2-fold and lactosylceramide 4-α-galactosyltransferase increased by more than 2-fold in transgenic plants compared with the empty vector-transformed plants. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA levels of the two ceramidase-like genes were significantly reduced in transgenic plants. These results indicated that miR396 probably plays a crucial role in the ceramide metabolism pathway by negatively regulating the expression of ceramidase-like genes in Arabidopsis.

  18. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  19. The diagnostic contribution of CT volumetric rendering techniques in routine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) volumetric rendering techniques such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), minimum intensity projection (MinIP), shaded surface display (SSD), volume rendering (VR), and virtual endoscopy (VE) provide added diagnostic capabilities. The diagnostic value of such reconstruction techniques is well documented in literature. These techniques permit the exploration of fine anatomical detail that would be difficult to evaluate using axial reconstructions alone. Although these techniques are now widely available, many radiologists are either unfamiliar with them or do not fully utilize their potential in daily clinical practice. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the most common CT volumetric rendering techniques and their practical use in everyday diagnostics

  20. A CACHE DESIGN METHOD FOR SPATIAL INFORMATION VISUALIZATION IN 3D REAL-TIME RENDERING ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, X.; Xiong, H; Zheng, X

    2012-01-01

    A well-designed cache system has positive impacts on the 3D real-time rendering engine. As the amount of visualization data getting larger, the effects become more obvious. They are the base of the 3D real-time rendering engine to smoothly browsing through the data, which is out of the core memory, or from the internet. In this article, a new kind of caches which are based on multi threads and large file are introduced. The memory cache consists of three parts, the rendering cache, t...

  1. Arsenic and mercury tolerance and cadmium sensitivity in Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine sulfhydryl-rich peptide thiols are believed to play important roles in the detoxification of many heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in plants. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) catalyzes the synthesis of the dipeptidethiol gamma-glu-cys (gamma-EC), the first step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). Arabidopsis thaliana, engineered to express the bacterial gamma-ECS gene under control of a strong constitutive actin regulatory sequence (A2), expressed gamma-ECS at levels approaching 0.1% of total protein. In response to arsenic, mercury, and cadmium stresses, the levels of gamma-EC and its derivatives, glutathione (GSH) and PCs, were increased in the A2::ECS transgenic plants to three- to 20-fold higher concentrations than the increases that occurred in wild-type (WT). Compared to cadmium and mercury treatments, arsenic treatment most significantly increased levels of gamma-EC and PCs in both the A2::ECS transgenic and WT plants. The A2::ECS transgenic plants were highly resistant to arsenic and weakly resistant to mercury. Although exposure to cadmium produced three- to fivefold increases in levels of gamma-EC-related peptides in the A2::ECS lines, these plants were significantly more sensitive to Cd(II) than WT and trace levels of Cd(II) blocked resistance to arsenic and mercury. A few possible mechanisms for gamma-ECS-enhanced arsenic and mercury resistance and cadmium hypersensitivity are discussed.

  2. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene confers drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5 in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L. exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2 content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

  3. Arsenic Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana Expressing an Algal Arsenite Methyltransferase Gene Increases Arsenic Phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Lv, Yanling; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Wenwen; Rosen, Barry P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in soil can lead to elevated transfer of As to the food chain. One potential mitigation strategy is to genetically engineer plants to enable them to transform inorganic As to methylated and volatile As species. In this study, we genetically engineered two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana with the arsenite (As(III)) S-adenosylmethyltransferase (arsM) gene from the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The transgenic A. thaliana plants gained a strong ability to methylate As, converting most of the inorganic As into dimethylarsenate [DMA(V)] in the shoots. Small amounts of volatile As were detected from the transgenic plants. However, the transgenic plants became more sensitive to As(III) in the medium, suggesting that DMA(V) is more phytotoxic than inorganic As. The study demonstrates a negative consequence of engineered As methylation in plants and points to a need for arsM genes with a strong ability to methylate As to volatile species. PMID:26998776

  4. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  5. Development and evaluation of a Gal4-mediated LUC/GFP/GUS enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuke Jon J; Fitzsimmons Karen C; Engineer Cawas B; Dotson Stan B; Kranz Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Gal4 enhancer trap systems driving expression of LacZ and GFP reporters have been characterized and widely used in Drosophila. However, a Gal4 enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis has not been described in the primary literature. In Drosophila, the reporters possess a Gal4 upstream activation sequence (UAS) as five repeats (5XUAS) and lines that express Gal4 from tissue specific enhancers have also been used for the ectopic expression of any transgene (driven by a 5XUAS). W...

  6. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  7. Elongator Plays a Positive Role in Exogenous NAD-Induced Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanfu; Ding, Yezhang; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chenggang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular NAD is emerging as an important signal molecule in animal cells, but its role in plants has not been well-established. Although it has been shown that exogenous NAD(+) activates defense responses in Arabidopsis, components in the exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense pathway remain to be fully discovered. In a genetic screen for mutants insensitive to exogenous NAD(+) (ien), we isolated a mutant named ien2. Map-based cloning revealed that IEN2 encodes ELONGATA3 (ELO3)/AtELP3, a subunit of the Arabidopsis Elongator complex, which functions in multiple biological processes, including histone modification, DNA (de)methylation, and transfer RNA modification. Mutations in the ELO3/AtELP3 gene compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326, and transgenic expression of the coding region of ELO3/AtELP3 in elo3/Atelp3 restores NAD(+) responsiveness to the mutant plants, demonstrating that ELO3/AtELP3 is required for exogenous NAD(+)-induced defense responses. Furthermore, mutations in genes encoding the other five Arabidopsis Elongator subunits (ELO2/AtELP1, AtELP2, ELO1/AtELP4, AtELP5, and AtELP6) also compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced PR gene expression and resistance to P. syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. These results indicate that the Elongator complex functions as a whole in exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:26926998

  8. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). DON inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and acts as a virule...

  9. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  10. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  11. Hybrid Rendering Architecture for Realtime and Photorealistic Simulation of Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastijan; Bihlmaier, Andreas; Irgenfried, Stephan; Wörn, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining realtime and non-realtime (photorealistic) rendering with open source software. Realtime rendering provides sufficient realism and is a good choice for most simulation and regression testing purposes in robot-assisted surgery. However, for proper end-to-end testing of the system, some computer vision algorithms require high fidelity images that capture more minute details of the real scene. One of the central practical obstacles to combining both worlds in a uniform way is creating models that are suitable for both kinds of rendering paradigms. We build a modeling pipeline using open source tools that builds on established, open standards for data exchange. The result is demonstrated through a unified model of the medical OpenHELP phantom used in the Gazebo robotics simulator, which can at the same time be rendered with more visual fidelity in the Cycles raytracer. PMID:27046586

  12. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TerraBlocksTM 3D terrain data format and terrain-block-rendering methodology provides an enabling basis for successful commercial deployment of...

  13. Flight-appropriate 3D Terrain-rendering Toolkit for Synthetic Vision Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics proposes an SBIR Phase I R/R&D effort to develop a key 3D terrain-rendering technology that provides the basis for successful commercial deployment...

  14. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  15. Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering for the dignosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Bing; LI Tie-lin; ZHANG Jian-min; DUAN Chuan-zhi; WANG Qiu-jing; ZAO Qing-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the importance of 3D-CTA with volume rendering for the diagnosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Axial source images were obtained by helical CT scanning and reconstruction of 3D-CTA images was done by volume rendering technique in conjunction with multiplanar reformation. Results: In the past one year,there were 10 patients diagnosed as having multiple intracranial aneurysms by 3D-CTA and altogether 24 aneurysms were visualized,including 10 small aneurysms(≤5mm.Three dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering demonstrated aneurysms very well and provided useful information concerning the site,shape,size and spatial relationship with the surrounding vessels and bone anatomy. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering is a quick,reliable,and relatively noninvasive method for diagnosing multiple intracranial aneurysms.It delineates detailed aneurysmal morphology,and provides useful information for planning microsurgical approaches.

  16. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  17. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  18. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  19. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species.

  20. [Genetic transformation of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) with AtNHX1 gene and regeneration of salt-tolerant transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast Na+ /H+ antiporter gene, AtNHX1, was transferred into buckwheat by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic buckwheat plants were regenerated and selected on MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0mg/L 6-BA, 1.0mg/L KT, 0.lmg/L IAA, 50mg/L kanamycin and 500mg/L carbenicillin. 426 seedlings from 36 resistant calli originated from 864 explants (transformed about at 4.17 percentage) exhibited resistance to kanamycin. The transformants were confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and Northern blotting analysis. After stress treatment for 6 weeks with 200mmol/L NaCl, transgenic plants survived, while wild-type plants did not. After 3 days of stress treatment through different concentrations of NaCl, transgenic plants accumulated higher concentration of Na+ and proline than the control plants. However, the K+ concentration of transgenic plants declined in comparison with the control plants. Moreover, the rutin content of the roots, stems and leaves of transgenic buckwheat increased than those of the control plants. These results showed that it could be possible to improve the salt-tolerance of crops with genetic technology.

  1. VoxLink—Combining sparse volumetric data and geometry for efficient rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Kauker, Daniel; Falk, Martin; Reina, Guido; Ynnerman, Anders; Ertl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Processing and visualizing large scale volumetric and geometric datasets is mission critical in an increasing number of applications in academic research as well as in commercial enterprise. Often the datasets are, or can be processed to become, sparse. In this paper, we present VoxLink, a novel approach to render sparse volume data in a memory-efficient manner enabling interactive rendering on common, offthe- shelf graphics hardware. Our approach utilizes current GPU architectures for voxeli...

  2. Color rendering ability and luminous efficacy enhancements in white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Roya; Schubert, Martin; Chhajed, Sameer; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E. Fred

    2009-08-01

    There exists a fundamental trade-off relation between color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy; in other words, improvements in one are generally detrimental to the other. We analyze and demonstrate through simulation that phosphor-converted white LEDs with dual-blue emitting active regions, as opposed to single-blue emitting active regions, significantly enhance color rendering ability while maximizing the output luminous flux. The improvements are achieved over a broad range of correlated color temperatures.

  3. Rendering mortars in Medina Azahara, Part I: Material characterization and alteration process

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Puertas, F.; Palomo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Rendering mortars, which are still exposed to the open air on some of the walls of Medina Azahara, are studied and characterized in this work. Some repairing mortars used in different previous restorations are also characterized. Those rendering mortars are of different make considering the composition of their binder: lime, gypsum and mixed lime/ gypsum. Repairing mortars used in previous interventions are made of lime, excepting for a portland cement used by Félix Hernández in the rest...

  4. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  5. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  6. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, ATryn the first drug approved by USFDA from transgenic animals was developed and it has opened door to drugs from transgenic animals. In addition, they are looked upon as potential future donors for xenotransplantation. With increasing knowledge about the genetics and improvements in the transgenetic technology numerous useful applications like biologically safe new-generation drugs based on human regulatory proteins are being developed.Various aspects of concern in the coming years are the regulatory guidelines, ethical issues and patents related to the use of transgenic animals. This modern medicine is on the threshold of a pharmacological revolution. Use of transgenic animals will provide solutions for drug research, xenotransplantation, clinical trials and will prove to be a new insight in drug development.

  7. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  8. An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuxin; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in modulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, as well as of plant metabolism in Arabidopsis. Several bHLH transcription factors have been shown to be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. We report here the characterization of bHLH129, a bHLH transcription factor in Arabidopsis. We found that the expression level of bHLH129 was reduced in response to exogenously applied ABA, and elevated in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. Florescence observation of transgenic plants expressing bHLH129-GFP showed that bHLH129 was localized in the nucleus, and transient expression of bHLH129 in protoplasts inhibited reporter gene expression. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter, bHLH129 promoted root elongation, and the transgenic plants were less sensitivity to ABA in root elongation assays. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that ABA response of several genes involved in ABA signaling, including ABI1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 were altered in the transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH129. Taken together, our study suggests that bHLH129 is a transcription repressor that negatively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26625868

  9. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  10. Selenoprotein-Transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazuan Ni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15, a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga.

  11. On-the-fly generation and rendering of infinite cities on the GPU

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for shape-grammar-based generation and rendering of huge cities in real-time on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Traditional approaches rely on evaluating a shape grammar and storing the geometry produced as a preprocessing step. During rendering, the pregenerated data is then streamed to the GPU. By interweaving generation and rendering, we overcome the problems and limitations of streaming pregenerated data. Using our methods of visibility pruning and adaptive level of detail, we are able to dynamically generate only the geometry needed to render the current view in real-time directly on the GPU. We also present a robust and efficient way to dynamically update a scene\\'s derivation tree and geometry, enabling us to exploit frame-to-frame coherence. Our combined generation and rendering is significantly faster than all previous work. For detailed scenes, we are capable of generating geometry more rapidly than even just copying pregenerated data from main memory, enabling us to render cities with thousands of buildings at up to 100 frames per second, even with the camera moving at supersonic speed. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A learning-based approach for automated quality assessment of computer-rendered images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Agam, Gady

    2012-01-01

    Computer generated images are common in numerous computer graphics applications such as games, modeling, and simulation. There is normally a tradeoff between the time allocated to the generation of each image frame and and the quality of the image, where better quality images require more processing time. Specifically, in the rendering of 3D objects, the surfaces of objects may be manipulated by subdividing them into smaller triangular patches and/or smoothing them so as to produce better looking renderings. Since unnecessary subdivision results in increased rendering time and unnecessary smoothing results in reduced details, there is a need to automatically determine the amount of necessary processing for producing good quality rendered images. In this paper we propose a novel supervised learning based methodology for automatically predicting the quality of rendered images of 3D objects. To perform the prediction we train on a data set which is labeled by human observers for quality. We are then able to predict the quality of renderings (not used in the training) with an average prediction error of roughly 20%. The proposed approach is compared to known techniques and is shown to produce better results.

  13. Possible ecological risks of transgenic organism release when transgenes affect mating success: Sexual selection and the Trojan gene hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M.; Howard, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread interest in producing transgenic organisms is balanced by concern over ecological hazards, such as species extinction if such organisms were to be released into nature. An ecological risk associated with the introduction of a transgenic organism is that the transgene, though rare, can spread in a natural population. An increase in transgene frequency is often assumed to be unlikely because transgenic organisms typically have some viability disadvantage. Reduced viability is assumed...

  14. Polyploidy in the Arabidopsis genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Madlung, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD), which gives rise to polyploids, is a unique type of mutation that duplicates all the genetic material in a genome. WGD provides an evolutionary opportunity by generating abundant genetic "raw material," and has been implicated in diversification, speciation, adaptive radiation, and invasiveness, and has also played an important role in crop breeding. However, WGD at least initially challenges basic biological functions by increasing cell size, altering relationships between cell volume and DNA content, and doubling the number of homologous chromosome copies that must be sorted during cell division. Newly polyploid lineages often have extensive changes in gene regulation, genome structure, and may suffer meiotic or mitotic chromosome mis-segregation. The abundance of species that persist in nature as polyploids shows that these problems are surmountable and/or that advantages of WGD might outweigh drawbacks. The molecularly especially tractable Arabidopsis genus has several ancient polyploidy events in its history and contains several independent more recent polyploids. This genus can thus provide important insights into molecular aspects of polyploid formation, establishment, and genome evolution. The ability to integrate ecological and evolutionary questions with molecular and genetic understanding makes comparative analyses in this genus particularly attractive and holds promise for advancing our general understanding of polyploid biology. Here, we highlight some of the findings from Arabidopsis that have given us insights into the origin and evolution of polyploids. PMID:24788061

  15. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants. PMID:26447683

  16. Constitutive expression of the barley dehydrin gene aba2 enhances Arabidopsis germination in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calestani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins (DHNs are a sub-family of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins generally induced during development of desiccation tolerance in seeds and water deficit or salinity stress in plants. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of the DHNs function is still lacking. In this work we investigated the possible protective role during salt stress of a Dhn from Hordeum vulgare (L., aba2. The coding sequence of the aba2 gene was constitutively expressed in transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.. During salt stress conditions germination rate, cotyledon expansion and greening were greatly improved in the transgenic lines as compared to the wild type. Between 98 and 100% of the transgenic seeds germinated after two weeks in media containing up to 250 mM NaCl, and 90% after 22 days at 300 mM NaCl. In conditions of 200 mM NaCl 93% of the transgenic cotyledons had greened after two weeks, outperforming the wild type by 45%. Our study provides further evidence that DHNs have an important role in salt stress tolerance. The production of plants constitutively expressing DHNs could be an effective strategy to improve plant breeding programs.

  17. Efforts of Transgene Oncostatin M on the Development of Retinal Neuron in Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Xia; Qin Chen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose:Oncostatin M(OSM) is a cytokine released by macrophages and lymphocytesthat can function as a growth regulator. A current study shows that leukemia inhibitoryfactor (LIF), a homologue of OSM, can prevent photoreceptor cell death when expressedin the lens of transgenic mice. We determined the efforts of lens-specific overexpressionof OSM on the development of eye.Methods: A truncated mouse OSM cDNA ( ~ 660 bp) was linked to the αA-crytallinpromoter, and injected into single-cell embryos with microinjection. Then, transgenic micewere established. The mRNA expression of transgene OSM was detected by in situhybridization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of syntaxin, glialfibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin in the retinas of transgenic mice.Results: At embryonic day (E 17.5), the expression of the syntaxin at the inner and midportion of the retinas of transgenic mice was much higher than that of the retinas ofnon-transgenic mice. The expression of GFAP was detected in the retinas of transgenicmice, while no expression in non-transgenic normal FVB(FVB/N) mice was detected inthis stage. At postnatal day one (P1), the expression of synaptophysin was detected inthe retinas of transgenic mice, but there was no such expression in FVB/N mice.Conclusions: Lens-specific overexpression of OSM induces premature differentiation ofamacrine cells, gial cells, and photoreceptors in vivo.

  18. Transgenic plants expressing ω-ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA) fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin ω-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6 ± 4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after 7 days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50 = 0.73 mg/ml after 2 days against LC50 = 1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae), as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  19. Transgenic plants expressing -ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Y.T. Nakasu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin w-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6±4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after seven days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50=0.73 mg/ml after two days against LC50=1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae, as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  20. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the Alfin-like protein family in Arabidopsis lyrata, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Thellungiella halophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    Full Text Available In previous studies, the Alfin1 gene, a transcription factor, enhanced salt tolerance in alfalfa, primarily through altering gene expression levels in the root. Here, we examined the molecular evolution of the Alfin-like (AL proteins in two Arabidopsis species (A. lyrata and A. thaliana and a salt-tolerant close relative Thellungiella halophila. These AL-like proteins could be divided into four groups and the two known DUF3594 and PHD-finger domains had co-evolved within each group of genes, irrespective of species, due to gene duplication events in the common ancestor of all three species while gene loss was observed only in T. halophila. To detect whether natural selection acted in the evolution of AL genes, we calculated synonymous substitution ratios (dn/ds and codon usage statistics, finding positive selection operated on four branches and significant differences in biased codon usage in the AL family between T. halophila and A. lyrata or A. thaliana. Distinctively, only the AL7 branch was under positive selection on the PHD-finger domain and the three members on the branch showed the smallest difference when codon bias was evaluated among the seven clusters. Functional analysis based on transgenic overexpression lines and T-DNA insertion mutants indicated that salt-stress-induced AtAL7 could play a negative role in salt tolerance of A. thaliana, suggesting that adaptive evolution occurred in the members of AL gene family.