WorldWideScience

Sample records for arab countries

  1. Cystinuria in Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and genetics of cystinuria. It is expected that future development will be based on molecular and gene therapy. Until then, the therapy in cystinuric patients remains a difficult task and the goal should be the prevention of recurrences. This can be achieved by full compliance with medical regimens that result in significantly reduced urinary cystine excretion and good long term prognosis in most patients. Such measures include urinary alkalinization with potassium citrate, modest reduction of dietary sodium and maintenance of a daily urinary volume of about three liters to prevent stone recurrence in adult cystinuric patients. The use of life-long pharmacological agents with disulfide chelators should be reserved for patients who fail the general conservative therapy. Invasive surgery should be used only minimally so as to preserve renal anatomy and function. However, repeated episodes of obstructive urotherapy, frequently complicated by infection may eventually result in the need for nephrectomy, and are significantly associated with development of chronic renal failure. In Arab World we lack properly designed epidemiological studies on renal stone-disease in general, and the cystine stone in particular. We recommend a multi-center study to determine the incidence of the disease and a molecular genetic analysis of cystinuric patients and their relatives, to determine the different mutations in our population and the types of the disease both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes. (author)

  2. School Attainment and Knowledge in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    driouchi, ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with school attainment in the Arab economies. It is based on descriptive statistical analyses on Barro and Lee data for the period 1950-2010. The opportunities lost with the low level of school attainment and the corresponding time trends in Arab countries are discussed. The relatively slow speed of recovery in schooling could already be expressed by the lowest knowledge performances achieved by the economies of North Africa, Sudan and Yemen.

  3. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  4. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  5. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  6. Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key creative industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five nat...

  7. Current situation in the Arab countries and the AAEA Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA) is one of the organizations of the League of Arab States (LAS). AAEA is working within the framework of the LAS to coordinate the scientific efforts of the Arab Countries in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. So, AAEA works hard to enhance the socio-economical development in Arab countries by promoting the peaceful applications of atomic energy in many aspects of life. The Arab Authority contributes for the implementation of training programs for Arab staff in the field of parameters mentioned above through the implementation of training courses, workshops and expert meetings in addition to scientific visits exchanged between the researchers and Arabs scientists and translation of books from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to the Arabic language and circulated to the Arab countries. At Arab Summits (Riyadh - 2007 - Damascus and Doha 2008 - 2009), AAEA elaborates 12 projects on the Arab strategy for the peaceful uses of atomic energy until 2020 and planed all applications of atomic energy. Integration of radioisotopes production in the Arab countries is among these projects. This project aims to unify efforts and coordinate cooperation between the Arab countries together to develop the human potential and benefit from the expertise available in some Arab countries in the production of radioisotopes to insure the integration between Arab countries. Nuclear and radioactive facilities in Arab countries are:- Research reactors (RRs) that can produce isotopes (Egypt -2, -2 Algeria, Libya -1) and (-1 Morocco, Syria -1).- Ions accelerators (cyclotron) for isotope production (Morocco, Algeria, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt).- Ions accelerators (VDG) for research and analysis (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria and Jordan).- Electron accelerator (LINAC) for research and industry applications (Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE and Kuwait).- Electron accelerators (LINAC) for nuclear medicine therapy

  8. The nuclear choice of arab countries particularism and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes the arab countries opinion and policy concerning the nuclear energy use. He shows how socio-economical factors but also Israel position concerning the nuclear weapon possession, influence on the objective of the arab countries. (A.L.B.)

  9. Virtual Universities for African and Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.

  10. Epidemiological profile of common haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2013-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies including the thalassemias and sickle cell disease are known to be prevalent inherited disorders in most Arab countries with varying prevalence rates and molecular characterisation. β-thalassemia is encountered in polymorphic frequencies in almost all Arab countries with carrier rates of 1-11 % and a varying number of mutations. The most widespread mutation in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia and Algeria is the IVS-I-110 (G>A). In the Eastern Arabian Peninsula, the Asian Indian mutations (IVS-I-5 (G>C), codons 8/9 (+G) and IVS-I (-25 bp del)) are more common. The α-thalassemias are encountered in the majority of Arab countries in frequencies ranging from 1 to 58 % with the highest frequencies reported from Gulf countries. The (-α(3.7)) mutation is the most frequent followed by the non-deletional α2 polyadenylation signal mutation (AATAAA>AATAAG) and the α2 IVS1 5-bp deletion. The rates of sickle cell trait in Arab countries range from 0.3 to 30 %, with the Benin, the Arab-Indian and the Bantu haplotypes constituting the bulk of the haplotypes, leading to two major phenotypes; a mild one associated with the Arab-Indian and a severe one with the Benin and Bantu haplotypes. Public health approaches targeting prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries include newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and premarital screening for carriers of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. These services are still patchy and inadequate in many Arab countries recommending the upgrade of these services with strengthening of the education and training of health care providers and raising public awareness on the feasibility of prevention and care for haemoglobinopathies. PMID:23224852

  11. Financial Development in Arab Countries (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Khaled; Omran, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    This book of readings provides fruitful policy recommendations on various financial development issues in the Arab World such as operational efficiency and service quality in banking. It also examines different aspects related to stock markets development such as efficiency, volatility, hedging, and returns.

  12. State of Corporate Governance in Arab Countries: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the state of corporate governance as a major factor affecting the growth performance of the private sector in MENA countries. For this purpose both country-specific assessments, carried out by World Bank-IMF teams (so-called ROSC’s assessments) and focus-group discussions that took place in four regional conferences have been synthesized. Strengths and weaknesses of corporate governance in selected Arab countries have been highlighted. One major key find...

  13. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  14. State and directions of improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Nasibova

    2015-01-01

    In this article the condition of external trade turnover and external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries based on different statistic data are analysed; the role and place of the Arab countries in external commercial relations of Azerbaijan are defined and the recommendations for the improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries are provided.

  15. Economic Performance Of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This paper addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic performance of th...

  16. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  17. Efforts of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences to Enhance Nuclear Security in the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial contribution of educational institutions in confronting terrorism is parallel to the role played by security apparatus in its combat. This confirms the central role of universities, institutions of academic and professional training, security research organizations and sanctuaries of worship in the overall confrontation against terrorism. Unique among these universities is Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) which has made tremendous contributions to fight against crime and terrorism through its academic endeavors. NAUSS was established in 1978 as an Arab institution specialized in security sciences to fulfill the needs of the Arab law enforcement agencies for an academic institution that promotes research in security sciences, offers graduate education programs and conduct short-term training courses, which should contribute to the prevention and control of crimes in the Arab world. NAUSS is a regional organization providing education and training in all security disciplines to students from all the 22 Arab countries. This paper will discuss the efforts made by NAUSS to enhance the nuclear security in the Arab countries. NAUSS and the IAEA organized several workshops, forums and training courses which aimed to explore and improve the nuclear security culture and awareness. In addition, NAUSS incorporates an introductory course in nuclear security into the existing graduate studies security sciences program. In collaboration with the Office of Nuclear Security, NAUSS launched a post-graduate degree programme focused on nuclear security based on IAEA guidance documents (NSS no. 12) and being used to reach the region in support of nuclear security education. This degree is currently being enhanced through integration of instructional materials from the Master of Science in Nuclear Security degree framework developed for the IAEA and the global education community by the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). (author)

  18. Cooperation in the Arab Countries: Common Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Hamdy Aboul Kheir

    1990-01-01

    The countries forming the region classified as developing societies remain below the economic and social norms of the industrialised world. With the exception of the oil producing countries in the Gulf area and Libya, the per capita share of the GNP is notably low and is ever-decreasing in most parts of the region. The main reasons for this situation are related to the growing population with inadequate human resources management, poor planning, declining productivity and heavy debt to foreig...

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility: Challenges and Prospects for Development in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elasrag, Hussein

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and problems for Establishment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Arab countries. The paper explores the nature and concept of CSR, particularly the Arab initiatives. As well as studying the activation of the corporate social responsibility role in the economic and social development of Arab countries.

  20. Management of Water Demand in Arab Countries Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world. Scarcity of water in the Arab countries is not a new phenomenon—although population growth and economic development exacerbate the scarcity. Therefore, it is useful to examine how the problem has been dealt with during millennia of experience in the Arab world. Water is a main issue in many countries especially in those Arab countries; it has focused a global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management and availability solutions. With about 170 million people in 17 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 275 million in 9 countries having "water stresses" conditions, it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity. Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability. The main objective of this paper is the application of these concepts to Arabs countries. Water demand management is about achieving a reduction in the use of water resources, normally through increased efficiency of water application. The management of water resources was not explicitly included in the past from thirty-five years in all most of those countries normative system partly because water was believed to be a free good in mind, and was not accepted to have a price to pay to use it. This work contributed to a low efficiency of water use and waste of it, and water prices are often well below levels needed to cover the costs of the system. Moreover, this contributes to a worse quality of water, and, as quality of water decrease, the management of water resources becomes more challenging and the need to integrate water quality into an overall water resources management grows. The main goal of this paper is showing, how Geographical Information Systems (GIS can be used to support infrastructure planners and analyst on water demand of a local area in

  1. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical suppor...

  2. The Economic System of Muslim Countries. The Case of Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Adrianna Łukaszewicz

    2002-01-01

    This article is a contribution to an analysis of the characteristic of the economic system of Muslim countries. In the first part of the article the author endeavours to justify the choice of the subject. She also notices that because of the extent of the problems in her article she concentrates on the case of Arab countries. In successive parts the author tries to show the influence of Islam on the economic life of the Arab countries and the economic effects of basing the economy on Koranic ...

  3. Coordinated indoor radon surveys in some Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon surveys were carried out in some of the Arab countries through a Coordination Research Program (CRP) organized by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA). The objectives of the program aim at establishing a database on indoor radon concentration levels in the region and investigating any anomalies, where they exist. The approach adopted by the survey teams to achieve public participation in accepting the radon detectors in dwellings is presented and discussed. Most of the participants in the CRP used the passive method (CR-39 plastic detectors) for long-term radon measurements, while others used charcoal detectors and E-Perm systems for short-term measurements. The results of the surveys showed that radon concentration levels in most of the dwellings were low, whilst in some old cities and in an area close to a phosphate mine the levels were found to be relatively high. (authors)

  4. Telecommunications (interception and access and its Regulation in Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzal Kiswani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Telecommunication has been a necessity in all countries this century. Communication has always been an essential part of our lives, education, family relations, business, government and other organizational activities. As telecommunication technology has advanced, so has the need for the interception of telecommunications and access by law enforcement authorities. In addition, lawful interception and the way it is performed have played an important role in the effectiveness of the monitoring of communications. Telecommunications interception and access law should also place a great deal of importance on the privacy of the individual as well as the needs of national security, crime investigation, counter terrorism efforts and economic growth. This paper looks at the applicability of regulations aimed at controlling telecommunications interception and access law in Arab countries. The Australian telecommunications interception and access law is taken as a relevant template that can be examined in light of Arab countries needs and requirements. Various issues unique to Arab countries need to be examined prior to adopting the Australian framework wholesale. 

  5. Quantity and quality of obesity-related research in Arab countries: assessment and comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Ansam F Sawalha

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a serious worldwide medical condition, considered by some researchers as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. The main objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of obesity-related research from Arab countries and compare it with that from non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published by Arab countries about obesity up until 2011 were screened using the ISI Web of Science da...

  6. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the h...

  7. Environmental permits in Arab Gulf countries - local government perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legacy of past environmentally careless oil and gas exploration practices is becoming more apparent as time goes by and our understanding of causes and results increase. In many petroleum producing countries and in Arab Gulf countries in particular, this understanding has resulted in greater social demand for environmental protection and responsible exploitation of limited resources. In response to this demand, governments of the Gulf Region are paying increasingly more attention to the responsible management of environmental impacts of new developments. As a result, most of them require developers to obtain environmental permits supported by a variety of environmental baseline studies, Environmental Impact Assessments and comprehensive Environmental Management Plans. These local environmental requirements are similar to those in North America and Europe, although there are some important differences on account of local environmental, historical and socioeconomic conditions. Developers, who choose to ignore them, often find their projects caught in a web of unfamiliar environmental regulations or administrative procedures that may cause costly and unnecessary delays. Based on the author's Canadian and Arab Gulf regulatory experience, this paper describes some common causes that may delay obtaining environmental permits or cause cancellation of a project, and provides ideas to assist companies in securing necessary permits and licenses. (author)

  8. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Ansam F Sawalha; Zyoud, Sa’ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in “nutrition and dietetics” in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in “nutrition and dietetics” Web of Sci...

  9. Arab nations lagging behind other Middle Eastern countries in biomedical research: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of biomedical research and publications in a country or group of countries is used to monitor research progress and trends. This study aims to assess the performance of biomedical research in the Arab world during 2001–2005 and to compare it with other Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. Methods PubMed and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded were searched systematically for the original biomedical research publications and their citation frequencies of 16 Arab nations and three non-Arab Middle Eastern countries (Iran, Israel and Turkey, all of which are classified as middle or high income countries. Results The 16 Arab countries together have 5775 and 14,374 original research articles listed by PubMed and SCI-expanded, respectively, significantly less (p Conclusion The Arab world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Studies are needed to clarify the causes and to propose strategies to improve the biomedical research status in Arab countries.

  10. Performance of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Selected Arab Countries: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi-Arabia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This research project addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic p...

  11. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research activity in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Ansam F Sawalha

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory diseases, like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a worldwide health problem. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma and COPD-related research from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on such field. The main objectives of this study were to analyze research output originating from Arab countries in the field of bronchial asthma and COPD. Methods Original scientifi...

  12. Intercultural communication in business between China and Arabic countries : Case company: Zhejiang Lianmei Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural communication plays a very important role in international commercial intercourse. China and Arabic countries both have a long history and unique culture. With the process of globalization, the contact between China and Arabic countries become more and more frequent, especially in business intercourses. In that case, business meetings the between two parties are inevitable. The main purpose of this thesis was to give theoretical cultural knowledge and practical case informat...

  13. Substance use disorders in Arab countries: research activity and bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed M. Sweileh; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders, which include substance abuse and substance dependence, are present in all regions of the world including Middle Eastern Arab countries. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly used tool for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research productivity in the field of substance use disorders in Arab countries using bibliometric indicators. Methodology Original or review research articles authored or co-authored by investigators ...

  14. Assessing urology and nephrology research activity in Arab countries using ISI web of science bibliometric database

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed M. Sweileh; Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly being used for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research output in Urology and Nephrology subject from the Arab countries. Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 21 Arab countries in “Urology and Nephrology” subject were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analyzing the...

  15. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected Arab Countries. A Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Frank J., Ed.

    A group of 25 members of the higher education community of North America visited the Middle East for the purpose of improving admissions criteria and academic placement of Arab students. Group findings and the consensus of recommendations are reported. Countries studied were: Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Examined were each country's…

  16. The Research Reactors in Arab Countries: The AAEA Role in Effective Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are eight research reactors operating at present in the Arab world. The level of their operation and utilization differs from one country to another depending on the individual situation in a particular country. Some other Arab countries are constructing or planning to build new research reactors. These RRs are mostly used in: analysis of the structure of matter, radiation damage studies to develop better materials for nuclear and industrial applications, neutron activation analysis for accurate determination of elemental concentrations in material, production of isotopes that are used in biology, medicine, agriculture, industry, hydrology and research and training of scientists, engineers and technicians needed to support the nuclear power industry. This paper describes the role of the AAEA in the promotion of peaceful utilization of atomic energy in Arab states. (author)

  17. Potential use of economic instruments in waste management in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqqar, Muwaffaq M

    2004-01-01

    Changing public behavior towards the environment is considered an essential component in the environmental strategies of all the Arab countries. An important mechanism is using economic instruments (pricing, charges, taxes, and financial incentives) to achieve the desired changes. This article presents potential applications for the use of economic instruments in waste management in the Arab countries. Applications are suggested for implementation in several fields that include wastewater, solid waste, hazardous waste, and agricultural pollution. Examples are presented based on real data from Jordan. In addition, the requirements needed to implement the economic instruments are explained. PMID:15027827

  18. Obesity among adolescents in five Arab countries: relative to gender and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Musaiger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in five Arab countries, relative to age and sex. Methods: A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used to select the secondary school students from five Arab countries (Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria and United Arab Emirates. The total sample was 3,302 (1,584 males, 1,718 females. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was used to calculate the proportion of overweight and obesity based on the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF. Results: Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity among both males and females, compared to their counterparts in other countries. There was no trend in the proportion of overweight and obesity by age in any of the countries included in the study. Conclusion: Adolescent obesity has reached a critical level in the Arab countries. Therefore there is an urgent need to establish programs to prevent and control obesity among schoolchildren in these countries.

  19. Utilization of ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement in Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review for research work in the field of utilizing ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement conducted in Arab countries has been summerized and discussed in the light of some economic features of the crop or the plant on national or regional (arab) level. Among the 241 articles in the above mentioned fields reviewed, around 230 articles were conducted in Egypt, 6 in Iraq, 2 in Algeria and 2 in Sudan. Some of the articles dealing with more than one crop and/or more than one type of radiation or radioisotope

  20. Electronic Commerce Adoption in the Arab Countries – An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that affect Electronic Commerce (EC adoption in the Arab countries. The five countries that are represented in this study include Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The purpose of this study is analyzing the crucial factors affecting EC adoption among the Arab consumers. The study examines the effect of risk perception, trust and consumer knowledge on their EC adoption. It also highlights consumer’s knowledge mediation in affecting their perception of risk and trust towards EC adoption. Upon filtration, three hundred samples were selected for data analysis in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses including statistical mediation technique were carried out to analyse the data. Results reveal knowledge as the most important factor that contributes to EC adoption and it mediates consumers’ perception of risk and trust in contributing to their EC adoption. The preliminary finding of this study was presented in the International Arab Conference of E-Technology held in Amman, Jordan from 14th to 16th October 2008. This paper presents the complete study and further data analysis with extended report and discussions.

  1. Family Background, School Enrollments and Wastage: Evidence from Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Qudsi, Sulayman S.

    2003-01-01

    Applying single and recursive bivariate probit models that utilize micro data sets of five countries, this paper examines the concatenation between school enrollments and family background. The empirical analysis captures considerable variations in the pattern of school enrollments and school wastage according to rural-urban locations and family…

  2. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    , Udyavara and Mangalore played an active role in establishing the trade contacts with outside countries. The sea trade of Karnataka constituted a significant part of her economic activities and secured for her a niche in the oceanic trade of the western...

  3. Arab Republic of Egypt Workforce Development : SABER Country Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    From the mid-2000s to 2011, the Egyptian economy grew at a rapid pace. Yet, this economic performance has not significantly improved the country's overall competitiveness, nor has this growth impacted the masses by providing more decent jobs. In 2004, the Government of Egypt embarked on a structural reform program of liberalization and privatization, which, combined with high oil prices, b...

  4. Access and barriers to health care delivery in Arab countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfol, N M

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the main obstacles encountered by the population (or rather by different social groups) in accessing health services in Arab countries. These obstacles can be social and cultural, administrative and organizational or financial and may impact on gender and ethnic groups to different degrees. Governments are urged to address the health inequalities that result from these obstacles and promote equity, solidarity and fairness through social policies that enhance social and national development. PMID:23301399

  5. Petroleum and economic development in Arab countries. Experience of past and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is surprising to see that with 62% of petroleum reserves the economic development of Arab countries is not as well as it was expected. The first reason is the policy evolution of the Middle East and the second one is directly because of the petroleum policy, in part of price, of production and regional cooperation. All these reasons are detailed in this article. 2 tabs

  6. The Determinants of Arab Countries Demand for Saudi Exports: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Aljebrin

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the critical parameters of export demand function for Saudi Arabia by using annual time series-cross section data (1984-2008) and by applying fixed effects model. The empirical results confirm that there exists a significant relationship among the real value of Saudi Arabia exports to Arab countries and trade partner's real income, relative export price, and trade partner's real exchange rates. The estimation results show that all variables have a significant ...

  7. The Effect of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in the Arab Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    HAMDAN, Bader S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...

  8. Sero-epidemiology and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Arab and African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim

    2016-09-01

    The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors. Data on T. gondii infection in pregnancy are scant in many countries, especially where there is lack of political stability. Identified risk factors included eating raw meat, proximity with cats, undercooked food, and increasing maternal age. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Arab and African countries is an underestimated health problem. Further research is needed. This report is a foundation for strategies and policies for intervention needed to combat the consequences of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:27605750

  9. Activities of the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Centre was established at the beginning of 1963. The present Member States are: Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAR and Yemen. The aims of the Centre are: (a) to train specialists in radioisotope applications according to the needs of the host country and of the Member States, dealing more particularly with uses in hydrology, medicine, agriculture, industry, health physics and radiation protection; (b) to do research on applications in the fields interesting the host country and Member States, such as hydrology (ground water), tropical diseases, fertilizers and entomology; (c) to promote the development of radioisotope applications in the countries served by the Centre. Up to the present the Centre has trained more than 200 specialists and university professors from the Arab countries and some African States, working in medicine, agriculture, science, pharmacy, engineering and veterinary medicine, in order to help build up a team of scientists and specialists able to introduce the use of radioisotopes in these disciplines in the countries of the area. The Centre has undertaken research work aimed at the solution of some of the economic problems of the Arab countries through the use of radioisotopes in various fields, especially in: groundwater, agriculture, entomology and medicine. Groundwater studies have been undertaken in the UAR, Kuwait, Libya and the Sudan. Experiments on the fertilizer-water-soil-plant relationship have been carried out in the Sudan and the UAR and will shortly start in Iraq. The Centre has undertaken research to control the fruit-fly pest by using the sterile-male technique: similar research is carried out to eradicate the malaria-vector mosquito in some regions of the area. Basic medical research is undertaken by the Centre to study thyroid dysfunctions and bilharziasis and its complications in the Sudan, Iraq and the UAR. (author)

  10. The education of an industrial middle class in Arab-Islamic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Ibrahim Assad

    1993-07-01

    The absence of an industrial middle class in Arab Islamic countries has been, and still is, a major obstacle to national development. These countries, like others in the Third World, mostly inherited their systems of industrial education from former colonial or mandated powers, that is, from industrial nations, without taking into consideration the different social and socio-economic situation. A model is proposed here for a kind of industrial "university", the Djamiat Al-Sináh. The name alludes to the Mosque as a centre of common activity, and tries to express the cultural and social contexts, and the target groups, of the institution. The model relies on social and industrial evolution, and meets the urgent need of Arab societies for an alternative to Eurocentric models. In the Djamiat, a practice-oriented education is to be provided, based on principles of professional efficiency and creativity, competence and entrepreneurial initiative. The students are to become co-ordinators, organizers, technicians and industrial trainers as well as independent small businessmen. The model is understood as a contribution to the education of an industrial middle class and to the promotion of trade and industry.

  11. Challenges to web-based learning in pharmacy education in Arabic language speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez M Alkoudmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based learning and web 2.0 tools which include new online educational technologies (EdTech and social media websites like Facebook® are playing crucial roles nowadays in pharmacy and medical education among millennial learners. Podcasting, webinars, and online learning management systems like Moodle® and other web 2.0 tools have been used in pharmacy and medical education to interactively share knowledge with peers and students. Learners can use laptops, iPads, iPhones, or tablet devices with a stable and good Internet connection to enroll in many online courses. Implementation of novel online EdTech in pharmacy and medical curricula has been noticed in developed countries such as European countries, the US, Canada, and Australia. However, these trends are scarce in the majority of Arabic language speaking countries (ALSC, where traditional and didactic educational methods are still being used with some exceptions seen in Palestine, Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE, and Qatar. Although these new trends are promising to push pharmacy and medical education forward, major barriers regarding adaptation of E-learning and new online EdTech in Arab states have been reported such as higher connectivity costs, information communication technology (ICT problems, language barriers, wars and political conflicts, poor education, financial problems, and lack of qualified ICT-savvy educators. More research efforts are encouraged to study the effectiveness and proper use of web-based learning and emerging online EdTech in pharmacy education not only in ALSC but also in developing and developed countries.

  12. Petroleum and gas economy in Arab Countries, in Angola, Congo and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, exploration and production. In OPEC countries, petroleum production has increased of 1% at a level of 24.77 millions barrels per day. Petroleum exploration or oil field development are going on at Ras al Khaima and Oum al Qaiwain (Arab Union Emirates), Gachsaran and Parsi (Iran) and Masilia (Yemen). In Tunisia, Union Texas Petroleum (Houston) has obtained a license for the exploration of Ramla oil field. In 1993, for the first, world wide petroleum demand will be reduce of 150000 barrels per day since 1983. In Congo, Sofresid Petrole Gaz has obtained a contract for the building of the bridge of two offshore platforms on N'Kossa oil field. In Nigeria, Offshore Pipelines Inc. (Houston) will build offshore structures for North Apoi and Okubie oil fields

  13. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  14. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmad Ghiath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP. Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines.

  15. Investigating inspection practices of pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities in selected Arab countries: views of inspectors and pharmaceutical industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S; Hasan, R; Scahill, S; Babar, Z Ud-Din

    2013-11-01

    There are few studies that explore inspection practices of pharmaceutical facilities from the viewpoint of inspectors and industry employees. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, inspectors and quality assurance staff from 4 Arab countries--the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan--were surveyed about their inspection practices and views. There was considerable variation in inspection practices across countries and between the inspectorate and quality assurance staff within countries. Divergence was found in views associated with payment mechanisms. There was mutual agreement by both groups that inspectors were in short supply and that they needed to be better trained. Inspectors appeared to have less authority than expected in order to control pharmaceutical manufacturing and marketing activities. Compounding this was a dearth of policy which would support a more uniform and systematic approach to the inspection process within and across countries. PMID:24673082

  16. The formation of the integration priorities of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of the global world order transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Oriekhova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of activation process of the international integration cooperation of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of ongoing transformations, which are obviously taking place in the global world order. The article gives the author’s definition of “integration maturity”, its characteristic features; concluded the integration maturity level of the Middle East Arab countries; identified the place of the Arab countries as players of the global economic system formation process. By virtue of the cluster analysis there was generalized the idea concerning the restructuring of approaches in the formation of the Middle East countries integration strategies.

  17. A bibliometric analysis of toxicology research productivity in Middle Eastern Arab countries during a 10-year period (2003–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Waleed M. Sweileh; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessment by involving the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each country. The main objective of this study was to analyse the research productivity originating from 13 Middle Eastern Arab (MEA) countries with articles published in toxicology journals. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 till December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words in t...

  18. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  19. Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

  20. A Water Sector Assessment Report on the Countries of the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the Water Sector Review in the member countries the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) is to (1) conduct a diagnosis of the current situation of the water sector, identify issues in the GCC region, evaluate the GCC governments' current water policies, and propose recommendations for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Phase I of the study; (2) present key findings and recommendations at the GCC Water Conference in Bahrain, Septe...

  1. Responding to the challenges of breast cancer in egypt and other arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saghir, Nagi S

    2008-12-01

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt. In addition to breast cancer, WHOP included screening for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. WHOP investigators are to be congratulated for this extraordinary ambitious project and all the efforts put into it. They were well prepared in regards to having a multi-disciplinary working team and they included in their project programs for training of clerks, data managers, radiographers, nurses, radiologists and other physicians who deal with diagnosis and management of breast cancer. They also included engineers and arranged for mobile units to reach women who could not otherwise reach them. WHOP investigators are to be commended also for performing a field plan demonstration project and testing it and for measuring citizens' response before finalizing their plans and starting the project1. They set a great example for other people working in the field. Breast cancer is the most

  2. Female Labour Force Participation in Arab Countries: The Role of Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Caris, Tobias; Hayo, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    We investigate why female labour market participation is low in the Arab region. Utilising Akerlof and Kranton’s (2000) ‘identity economics’ approach, we show in a simple gametheoretic framework that women socialised in a traditional family environment violate their identities by taking a job. In the empirical analysis, we study the respective impact of two determinants of identity in the Arab region, Islam and cultural tradition. Employing two waves of the World Values Survey, we find signif...

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the United Arab Emirates 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the United Arab Emirates carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Syrian Arab Republic 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Obeid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases. Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs.

  6. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran, Gabon and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and markets trends, trade and contracts, petroleum and natural gas exploration in Gabon, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Sudan. Algeria and Portugal have signed a contract for natural gas supply of 2.1 Gm3

  7. Arabic learner corpus (ALC) v2: a new written and spoken corpus of Arabic learners

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaifi, AYG; Atwell, E.; Hedaya, I

    2014-01-01

    Arabic learner corpora have not received enough attention, particularly for learning Arabic as a second language (in Arabic speaking countries). Based on the literature, there are a few projects are developing Arabic learner corpora, of which most are not freely available for users or researchers. In addition to that they are intended to assist in the language acquisition of Arabic as a foreign language (collected from learners studying Arabic in non-Arabic speaking countries). The present pa...

  8. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Iran, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration and new discovery in Algeria and Libya, birth of a joint venture for the building of a gas pipeline between Ukraine and Europe. The building of another pipeline, between Algeria and Europe, will begin in April 1993. Several agreements for oil and gas fields development in Qatar, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates have been signed. Petroleum industry has criticized energy taxing project in Usa

  9. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  10. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT OF STOCK RETURNS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM FIVE SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedeaq Nassar

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the presence of one of the prominent anomalies which is the day of the week effect anomaly in five of Arab stock exchanges which are (Qatar, Amman, Palestine, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchanges) cover the period from May 2010 to April 2014. By using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis and Post Hoc Tests, the study indicates that there is no existence of the day of the week effect in each of (Qatar, Amman, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchange) while it is prese...

  11. Maternal complications and neonatal outcome in Arab women of a fast developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to examine maternal complications that occur during the third trimester and their neonatal outcome in Arab women residing in Qatar. Design : This is a prospective hospital-based study. Setting: The survey was carried out in women′s hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the log book of the women′s hospital, from which we recruited women in their third trimester of pregnancy between the first week of January 2010 and April 2011. Of the 1 824 Arab women who were approached to participate in the study, 1 432 (78.5% consented. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the pregnant women in the third trimester attending routine antenatal clinics at a women′s hospital. The questionnaire covered variables related to sociodemographic factors, family history, medical history, maternal complications, and neonatal outcome. Medical records of the patients were referred to collect the clinical variables. Results: Of the pregnant women studied, 39.8% were less than 30 years of age. The risk of maternal complications was higher in housewives (60.8% and women with a low monthly household income (38.2%. Most of the pregnant women (77.6% had antenatal care. Normal delivery (69.7% was more common in expatriate Arab women, whereas caesarean was more prevalent in Qatari women (22.2%. Women aged 35 years or older had a significantly higher risk of maternal complications such as gestational diabetes (20.8% vs 13.4%; P < 0.01, gestational hypertension (21.6% vs 15.2%; P = 0.003, and ante-partum hemorrhage (17.9% vs 13.7%; P = 0.042 than younger women. Gestational diabetes increased the risk of caesarean delivery (25.1% and macrosomia (42.3%. The frequency of caesarean delivery (22.1% was higher in women with gestational hypertension. Neonatal complications such as Apgar score (<7 1 minute (33.1% vs 21.2%; P < 0.001, 5 minutes (13.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.005, and congenital anomalies (2.9% vs 0.9%; P = 0

  12. "Gulf Pidgin Arabic" : individual strategies or a structured variety? : a study of some features of the linguistic behaviour of Asian migrants in the Gulf countries

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA) is a scarcely documented contact language in the Arabic-speaking Persian Gulf countries, which has been used as a communication tool between local citizens and the large Asian immigrant population in the area for at least 30 years. Based on a corpus made up of transcripts of my interviews with Asian immigrants in the Omani border town of Buraimi, I have attempted to verify its status as a separate language variety rather than as a collection of individual attempts of ...

  13. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  14. [The role of the state in the migration of workers and economic diversification in the countries of the Arab Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, G

    1985-01-01

    This work argues that analyses of the contribution of foreign workers to economic diversification of the Gulf states should begin with a study of the structure of petroleum income and the social relations of each country. This hypothesis is in contrast to those which regard the labor market or the low activity rates of Gulf countries as the principle impetus for labor migrations in the Middle East. Although the labor importing countries differ in their degrees of development, size, existing infrastructure, agricultural development, and other key aspects, they have some important features in common. Recourse to foreign labor developed in all the countries during the early 1970s as a result of the increase in petroleum prices. Until the late 1960s, the petroleum producing countries had seen the bulk of the petroleum revenues go to the large oil companies and the consuming countries. The legitimacy of their governments rested on the support of the oil companies and on a system of internal alliances among clans in which the paramount clan redistributed the income receive from the petroleum companies. The redistributed value did not strictly speaking represent the profit but only a fraction of the world petroleum profit divided up by the oil companies. The structure of the state and the relations which attached it to the civil society continue to constitute an effective and durable block to mobilization of an internal labor force. The state, becaue of its relations to the oil companies, had no need of investments. The internal economies of gulf oil producing states were weakly diversified before the 1970s, the state was highly influential, capital as a particular aspect of wealth was poorly developed or undeveloped except in enclaves with foreign capital, internal consumption was largely imported, and no mechanism existed to break the ties of the individual clans or tribes with the state. After 1974 the large oil states undertook a sustained process of productive

  15. Five minutes with Timothy Reno of the International Policy and Leadership Institute: “transformation and consolidation of changes in the Arab Spring countries takes time.”

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson, Christopher; Kirchherr, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The International Policy and Leadership Institute (IPLI) is a platform for policy-makers and students to interact and learn from each other. Timothy Reno founded the institute in 2010. Since its launch, IPLI has been particularly involved in building capacity in the Arab Spring countries. In an interview with EUROPP editors Chris Gilson and Julian Kirchherr, Reno argues that the international community must be patient – progressive democratic reform throughout the Middle East will not happen ...

  16. Economic Feasibility Study about the Possibility of Setting Food Irradiation Technology Locally in the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous economic studies on the food irradiation focused on the financial and marketing according to the private investigator's point of view. In this study the food irradiation technology evaluated according to the society's point of view since it is risky to focus on the technical, financial sides only. This study has evaluated the expected benefits on the national income, the employment, the payment balance and the dependence on the foreign countries.

  17. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets. PMID:23756571

  18. The Arab Geologists' Association(AGA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WissamS.Al-Hashimi

    2004-01-01

    The Arab Geologists Association (AGA) is a non-governmental pan-Arab geological organization founded in 1975 by geological commissions, i.e., geologists unions, geological societies, representing nine Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, Jordan,Libya, Sudan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. Organizations of geologists in Syria and Yemen joined the Association shortly after.

  19. The Talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hanna; Khalil, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Since Israel's independence in 1948 Arab females were the main beneficiaries of the law of mandatory education. Arab women aged 65+ have, on average, less than one year of formal education. Their granddaughters, aged 18-24, have about 12.5 years of schooling--a number that increases each year. As in many Arab countries, Arab girls in Israel tend…

  20. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

  1. Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children referred for learning disabilities from two Arab countries: A cross-cultural examination of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Keshky, Mogeda; Emam, Mahmoud

    2014-11-11

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a widely used child mental health questionnaire with five hypothesized subscales. There is theoretical and preliminary empirical support for combining the SDQ's hypothesized emotional and peer subscales into an 'internalizing' subscale and the hypothesized behavioural and hyperactivity subscales into an 'externalizing' subscale (alongside the fifth prosocial subscale). We examined both structures using the teacher informant version data from two Arab countries, namely Saudi Arabia (323) and Oman (439). Multigroup CFAs based on structural equation modelling revealed culture invariance for the SDQ. The three-factor model showed a better description of the SDQ structure. The analysis also revealed gender invariance for the SDQ three and five factor models in both the Omani and Saudi samples. There were gender differences in all the three and five factors between the Saudi and Omani samples. PMID:25462506

  2. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Sixth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1968. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  3. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1966. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  4. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. 3rd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1965. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo

  5. Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. PMID:23801552

  6. THE TRANSFER OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TO THE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES AND ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF FIVE ARAB GULF OIL-PRODUCING STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Melikian, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    Psychological knowledge transmitted by universities in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates is presented and some historical-cultural roots identified. Required courses for a B.A. are similar to those in the United States. Almost all courses are taught in Arabic and offered in the Faculties of Education. Four types of psychology books are identified. Laboratories are well equipped and libraries well stocked with Arabic and English books and periodicals. Research i...

  7. The Food Dome: dietary guidelines for Arab countries La Cúpula alimentaria: guías dietéticas para los países árabes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Musaiger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines are important tool for selection a healthy diet. There is no special dietary guidelines for Arab people. Health Institutes are mainly using the Western dietary guidelines, such as American Food Pyramid. The objective of this paper therefore, was to summarize the steps taken by Arab Centers for Nutrition to establish "Food Dome", the dietary guidelines for the Arab countries. The development of Food Dome was done in eight steps as: 1 Identification of the current nutrition problems, 2 Identification of current food consumption patterns, 3 Identification of food groups used in the region, 4 Identification of specific foods within each group, 5 Estimation of nutritional profile for each group, 6 Identification the serving sizes for each group, 7 Incorporating physical activity into the food guidelines, 8 Identification of the pictorial illustration for the food guidelines. This Food Dome provides dietary guidelines for the Arab people to prevent the risk of diet-related diseases. It is also a useful tool for nutrition education. However, more testing in the target population is needed to evaluate the understanding of messages delivered by this Food Dome.Las guías dietéticas son una herramienta importante para la selección de una dieta saludable. No existen guías dietéticas específicas para las personas de origen árabe. Los Institutos de Salud utilizan principalmente las guías dietéticas occidentales, como la Pirámide americana de la alimentación. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es el de resumir los pasos dados por los Centros Árabes para la Nutrición para establecer la "Cúpula alimentaria", las guías dietéticas para los países árabes. El desarrollo de la Cúpula alimentaria se realizó en ocho pasos: 1 Identificación de los problemas nutricionales actuales; 2 Identificación de los patrones actuales de consumo de alimentos; 3 Identificación de los grupos de alimentos usados en la región; 4

  8. The Dwarf Leader of Arab Countries. Material and semi-material conditions influencing foreign policy of Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Until the end of the twentieth century, Qatar was known to be unknown. Its geographical position predestined the small emirate to hide in the shadows or regional powerhouses -- Saudi Arabia and Iran. However the immense wealth of natural gas and massive introduction of LNG production to the world market has turned Qatar into a country with the world's highest GDP per capita. This thesis analyses the role that natural gas is playing in the country's foreign policy, security and development. A ...

  9. Sharing and Unsharing Memories. Life Stories of Jews from Muslim-Arab Countries: Fear, Anger and Discontent within a Silenced Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cohen Fournier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As a massive exodus drained the Jewish communities from Muslim-Arab countries, starting just after World War II a large number of them migrated in cosmopolitan Montréal. This paper offers a new perspective on their displacement, inquiring on individual narratives of their reconstruction of shared and unshared memories. In this post-Shoah and post-colonial migration, how have these departures been represented within individual memory? What are the elements that have been shared and others hidden? And what are the consequences of uprooting within the individual realm?Using an oral history methodology, the life stories of Sephardic Jews reveal a paradigm present in certain individuals of an ever-present fear and emotional burden, as well as an ability to maintain their agency over their own trajectory. Through the sharing of memories enabled by the project Life stories of Montrealers displaced by war, genocide and human rights violation, I will look at four narratives from four individuals that demonstrate these lingering emotions of fear, anger and discontent. By engaging with usually unshared memories, information is revealed on the personal significance of massive displacement and hopeful for future reconciliation with a fragmented past.

  10. Joint Arab project for building of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently many Arab countries have expressed their interest in adopting nuclear power for electricity generation and seawater desalination in their energy strategies and hence sought assistance from IAEA and Arab Atomic Energy Agency. The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level encouraged member states to develop peaceful use of atomic energy in different aspects of development, especially in energy generation and to establish a cooperative Arab program in this field. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if an Arab country forms a sharing partnership with other Arab countries. The sharing can be between two or more Arab states. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. This article outlines the major direct benefits of joint nuclear Arab programme to build a Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  11. Islamic attitudes and the support for gender equality and democracy in seven Arab countries, and the role of anti-Western feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the societal and scientific discussions about the support for democracy and gender equality in the Arab Middle East, this study engages the triangular theory, which links Islamic orientations, gender equality attitudes and democracy. I theorize and test if and how Islam is related to the attitudes towards democracy and gender equality, and whether gender equality attitudes partly channel the influence of Islam on democracy support. The different theoretical expectations were tested on Arab...

  12. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has ...

  13. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. 2nd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Second Report 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' describes developments and scientific work during the year 1964. It reports on the activities of the Agency's Laboratory Vienna - Seibersdorf, the Marine Biological Project at Monaco, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. In addition, it contains a first, short review on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste. This Centre was established in October 1963 and started its operations in 1964. The Report is similar to the first one published at the beginning of 1964, and is intended as a source of current information

  14. IAEA Laboratory Activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fifth Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth report describes development and work during the year 1967. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. Contents: The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf: Introduction; Standardization of measurement and of analytical methods related to peaceful applications of nuclear energy; Services to Member States and International Organizations; Chemical and physico-chemical investigations relevant to the Agency's programme; Nuclear techniques in hydrology; Nuclear techniques in medicine; Nuclear techniques in agriculture; Nuclear electronics service and development; Administrative matters. — The International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco: Introduction; Research; Administrative matters. — The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Assistance to developing countries; Research activities; Administrative matters; Annexes. — The Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo: Introduction; The scientific programme of the Centre; Publications on work done at the Centre; Finance; Annex. Entirely in English. (author)

  15. Islamic attitudes and the support for gender equality and democracy in seven Arab countries, and the role of anti-Western feelings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the societal and scientific discussions about the support for democracy and gender equality in the Arab Middle East, this study engages the triangular theory, which predicts that Islamic orientations influence gender equality attitudes and democracy negatively, and attitudes towards gender equali

  16. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  17. United Arab Emirates Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the ...

  18. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  19. Arabic Words Stemming Approach Using Arabic Wordnet

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hamid Kreaa; Ahmad S Ahmad; Kassem Kabalan

    2014-01-01

    The big growth of the Arabic internet content in the last years has raised up the need for an effective stemming techniques for Arabic language. Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, according to three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja); stem-based approach (ex. Larkey); and statistical approach (ex. N-Garm). However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have a low efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a new stemming technique for Arabic words that...

  20. The Arab activity in uranium exploration and recovery: pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second part of a paper given during the third Arab energy conference held in Algeria, 4 - 9 May, 1985. Information concerning uranium resources and exploration in some Arab Countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Lybia is presented. In addition to that, uranium content in phosphate rocks in the world and specially in Arab Countries is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Forecasting Value at Risk in Emerging Arab Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    C. Guermat; K. Hadri; C. C. Kucukozmen

    2003-01-01

    The economic and political instability of most of the Arab countries may lead to the assumption that Arab stock markets are riskier and less predictable than stock markets in developed countries. Value at Risk (VaR) measures risk exposure at a given probability level and is very important for risk management. In this paper extreme value theory with volatility updating is used to forecast Value at Risk in three emerging Arab stock markets and the US stock market. Several forecast accuracy crit...

  2. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  3. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  4. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  5. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  6. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  7. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. 1st report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1958 the General Conferences of the International Atomic Energy Agency have discussed the establishment of scientific centres which would help the Agency to carry out its statutory functions. Subsequently, decisions were taken which have led to the foundation of two laboratories and the establishment under the Agency's auspices of an isotope centre. The plans for the setting up of the Agency's Laboratory Vienna - Seibersdorf were approved by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency in April 1 959, and the agreement on the Marine Biological Project at Monaco came into force in March 1961. In March 1963 the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab countries was opened. The first comprehensive report on the activities of the laboratories and the isotope centre is now published; it contains information on the development of the centres and their activities carried out in 1963. The Agency expresses its gratitude to the Governments of Austria, Monaco and the United Arab Republic for the generous assistance offered in connection with the establishment of the laboratories and the isotope centre

  8. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  9. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  10. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , peop...

  11. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  12. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  13. Arabic Words Stemming Approach Using Arabic Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hamid Kreaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The big growth of the Arabic internet content in the last years has raised up the need for an effective stemming techniques for Arabic language. Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, according to three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statistical approach (ex. N-Garm. However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have a low efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a new stemming technique for Arabic words that also solve the problem of the plural form of irregular nouns in Arabic language, which called broken plural. The proposed stem extractor provides very accurate results in comparisons with other algorithms.Consequently the search effectiveness improved.

  14. Deaf People, Modernity, and a Contentious Effort to Unify Arab Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fityani, Kinda

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines a project to unify sign languages across twenty-two Arab countries. Proponents of the project, mainly pan-Arab governmental bodies with the support of members of the staff at the Al Jazeera satellite network, have framed the project as a human rights effort to advance the welfare of deaf Arab people. They have urged its…

  15. Arab management accounting systems under the influence of their culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dik, Roula

    2011-01-01

    Due to globalization, business opportunities can be established in new countries more than ever before. The Arab countries are gaining more attention as emerging markets in global business. Applying managerial accounting on a global basis requires an understanding of the cultural aspects of the countries. Arabic culture has a long history on the one hand and contradicts the Western cultures sharply on the other hand. Research on comparative management accounting (CMA) emerged in the early ...

  16. A Study of the Factors that Influence the Acceptance of e-Commerce in Developing Countries: A Comparative Survey between Iran and United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfollah Forouzandeh Dehkordi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available National culture is an important factor in any study of global information system attitudes, recent studies [1,2] also indicate that gender and previous behavior may also play roles in attitude towards technology. Thus, with the advent of the Internet and the importance of electronic commerce and the previous studies indicating the relevance of the dimensions of culture, gender and previous experience to information technology, it becomes imperative to also understand the role of these dimensions to electronic commerce. This paper examined each of these by using electronic commerce as the common technology. This paper provides significant data on identifying the areas and issues important to the success of e-commerce, and shows the impact of culture, gender and previous behavior upon those issues. To determine if there are differences in attitude about technology in general and e-commerce in particular, among the independent variables of culture groups, genders and those having experienced an ecommerce activity, 136 people from Iran and the United Arab Emirates were given surveys allowing them to express their opinions on several important issues. These issues included national control, privacy cost, property rights, access rights, internet infrastructure and consumer preferences. The findings resulted in support for two of the hypothesis. Further, it was clear that culture groups differ in attitudes about national control, property rights, access rights, and internet infrastructure. More importantly, this paper found no statistically significant differences among culture groups or gender in attitudes about privacy cost and consumer preferences

  17. Osteoporosis is a neglected health priority in Arab World: a comparative bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Ansam F Sawalha; Ghanim, Mustafa A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important health problem with serious consequences. Evaluation of osteoporosis scientific output from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on research activity about osteoporosis. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the research output originating from Arab countries and 3 Middle Eastern non-Arab countries, particularly Israel, Turkey and Iran in the field of osteoporosis. Original scientific articles or revi...

  18. The Israeli Circassians: non-Arab Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Merza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One day, I was at the tahana merkazit [central bus station] in Jerusalem with Mussa and we went through the metal detector. They let him go through but when it was my turn, they asked for my identity card. They saw that we kept talking together so they asked for his I.D. too. He is a redhead and has blue eyes so they thought he was Ashkenazi. But they saw his name ‘Musa’ – that sounds quite Arabic and they asked him if he was Arab, but then his family name doesn’t sound Arabic at all so he ex...

  19. Classification of Arabic Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Elbery, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Arabic language is a very rich language with complex morphology, so it has a very different and difficult structure than other languages. So it is important to build an Arabic Text Classifier (ATC) to deal with this complex language. The importance of text or document classification comes from its wide variety of application domains such as text indexing, document sorting, text filtering, and Web page categorization. Due to the immense amount of Arabic documents as well as the number of inter...

  20. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  1. Chinese-Arab Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of nuclear energy launched during the second Conference of Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of energy, which was held in Khartoum during the period of 26 to 28 January 2010, where a meeting was held between the Arab Atomic Energy Agency and the Chinese Nuclear National Committee in the framework of activating the memorandum of understanding between the League of Arab States and the Chinese National Energy Authority, which is responsible of the cooperation with the Arab countries wishing to enter the nuclear option within their strategies to diverse their sources of energy and promote their nuclear infrastructure, as well as help the Arab Atomic Energy Agency in the implementation of the Arab strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy until the year 2020 and find a mechanism for the Arab-Chinese cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency also proposed programs over the coming years in the fields of energy planning, nuclear safety, selection of sites, exploring of uranium, emergency preparedness and response and management of radioactive reactors.

  2. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  3. Market Power versus Efficient-Structure in Arab GCC Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muharrami, Saeed; Matthews, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of the Arab GCC banking industry in the context of the Structure-Conduct-Performance hypothesis in the period 1993-2002. The paper uses panel estimation differentiating between bank fixed effects and country fixed effects. It examines the Relative-Market-Power and the Efficient-Structure hypotheses differentiating between the two by employing a non-parametric measure of technical efficiency, and finds that the banking industry in the Arab GCC countries is ...

  4. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. Websites of the selected libraries would be compared on the extent of the usage of these tools, the participation level and their purpose. The author would also share his opinion and suggestions on improving the current trends pertaining to the area of Web2.0 and libraries. The impact and importance of Web2.0 on libraries cannot be disputed. Since gaining popularity in mid-2000, libraries around the globe have jumped onto the Web2.0 bandwagon. Among the common examples of Web2.0 used by libraries today are namely: social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomies and video sharing sites. Libraries are using Web2.0 to (among others): • market their services / resources to their community, • announce latest library news, • provide their online guides / notes for their resources among others. Though such tools have been implemented by most libraries around the world, some of the challenges faced by libraries are: •participation level – casting the net to a wider audience •selection of web2.0 tools •effectiveness of present web2.0 tools used by the libraries

  5. United Arab Emirates : Student Assessment 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component to improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths ...

  6. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Akheela Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstedes cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstedes score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  7. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  8. Introducing Arabic: Meeting the Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth M. Bergman

    2009-01-01

    article addresses two issues that concern new as well as expanding programs in Arabic language. They are myths about (teaching and learning) Arabic and advice for new or expanding programs. Myths about (teaching and learning) Arabic describe Arabic as impossible or at least extraordinarily difficult to learn, Unless these are countered With factual information from the outset, they can impair the effectiveness of even the most well planned Arabic language program. Advice for new o...

  9. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  10. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  11. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues increase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compression scheme would allow users to use more characters than the default value specified by the provider. The development of an efficient compression scheme to compress short Arabic texts is not a straight forward task. Approach: This study combined the benefits of pre-processing, entropy reduction through splitting files and hybrid dynamic coding: A new technique proposed in this study that uses the fact that Arabic texts have single case letters. Experimental tests had been performed on short Arabic texts and a comparison with the well known plain Huffman compression was made to measure the performance of the proposed schema for Arabic short text. Results: The proposed schema can achieve a compression ratio around 4.6 bits byte-1 for very short Arabic text sequences of 15 bytes and around 4 bits byte-1 for 50 bytes text sequences, using only 8 Kbytes overhead of memory. Conclusion: Furthermore, a reasonable compression ratio can be achieved using less than 0.4 KB of memory overhead. We recommended the use of proposed schema to compress small Arabic text with recourses limited.

  12. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  13. The Arab-Americans: a demographic and cultural profile

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff, Kristy D.

    1996-01-01

    After the passage of the 1965 immigration and Naturalization Act, for the first time in U.S. history, the United States acquired a large group of immigrants from Arab Muslim countries. This immigration is so recent that relatively little is known about it. This thesis is a demographic and cultural examination of the Arab community in America. It asks, who the Arab-Americans are, where they come from, where they go in America, how they are assimilating, and how they organize and act socially, ...

  14. Arab regional systems of innovation: characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to discuss the systems of innovation in the Arab region. We explain that the two common characteristics of poor Arab regional systems of innovation is apparent from both the poor subsystems of education, S&T and R&D and ICT institutions across the Arab countries and the heavy concentration of R&D activities within both public and universities sectors and v...

  15. The Impact of the Arab Media on the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Resit Iren; Aivaz Kamer Ainur

    2011-01-01

    Before the war in Afghanistan in 2001, the Arab media was almost unknown for the countries outside the Middle East. Media is probably one of the most important weapons of the governments in order to manipulate and to mobilize people and due to this fact it can have a major influence on the global economy. The development of the Arab media can be divided into 3 historical stages: the colonial phase, when the Arabic media was created due to Napoleon, the post-colonial phase, which tried to use ...

  16. Arabic in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Munazzah

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation discusses with both the teaching and testing systems associated with the language of Arabic in Pakistan. This study does not only discuss the pedagogical issues of teaching this language in Pakistan, but it also highlights the importance of it being a symbolic language and the resultant symbolic interpretation. The focus of the study is the translation and interpretation of the Arabic language and how it has affected socio-political aspects, in general, and linguistic issues...

  17. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS)

    OpenAIRE

    ASMA AL-OMARI; BELAL ABUATA

    2014-01-01

    Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR), and natural language processing (NLP). A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem). Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the b...

  18. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  19. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    OpenAIRE

    Serghini Mansour; Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare t...

  20. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  1. Arab-Related Bilateral and Multilateral Sources of Development Finance: Issues, Trends, and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the organizational structure as well as the characteristics of development finance provided by Arab donor countries. This is done with a comparative view in relation to western donors and with the aim to develop recommendations as to how Arab development finance can be strengthened and rendered more effective for the new Millennium. In the 1960s and 1970s Arab donors established a variety of national and multilateral agencies. These agencies share many characteristics of...

  2. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  3. Energy Subsidies in the Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    Fattouh, Bassam; El-Katiri, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The policy of maintaining tight control of domestic energy prices has characterized the political and economic environment in most Arab countries, together with many other parts of the world, for decades. The objectives behind such a policy range from overall welfare objectives such as expanding energy access and protecting poor households’ incomes; to economic development objectives such as fostering industrial growth and smoothing domestic consumption; and to politi- cal considerations, inc...

  4. Dearborn: Modern Standard Arabic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundup of the Arabic language instruction offered in the Dearborn, Michigan, school district. Only one of the district's 22 elementary schools--Becker--offers Arabic. Pupils receive at least two 40 minute periods of Arabic a week. The school gave up a two-way immersion program, in which students were taught half their…

  5. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  6. First Training Course for Leading Members of Arab Countries’ Friendship-with-China Organizations Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From May 21 to 30,a training course for leading members of the Arab countries’ friendship-with-China organizations jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) was held in Beijing. This was the first training course ever held by the CPAFFC for leading members of a group of friendship-with-China organizations of foreign countries,and of the 22 Arab countries in particular. On May 21,

  7. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  8. To a doubling of Arab natural gas exports on 2000 horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three Arab countries export natural gas up to day: Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Libya. Algerian exports will get 60 milliards cubic metres from now to the year 2000, in fact, around 1995-1996. According to the Organization of oil exporting arab countries, other arab countries exports would be multiplied by a factor eight between 1992 and 2000, going up from 4.7 milliards cubic metres to about 40 milliards cubic metres at the end of century, with Qatar and Oman coming on the worldwide market and sales increasing of Abou Dhabi. If these expectations came true, Arab natural gas exports would add up to 100 milliards cubic metres in the year 2000, against 40 milliards cubic metres last year (1992)

  9. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya; Dawns Jesse; Khawaja Marwan; Yamout Rouham

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child he...

  10. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    Educational materials from Arab countries are listed in this annotated bibliography. The 230 items cited were published in 1979 and include journal articles, dissertations, books, essays, reports, guides, papers, and governmental publications. Topics dealt with include adult education, Arabic language, art education, children's literature,…

  12. Population, employment and development in the Arab region: scope and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam HT; Khoury N

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on trends, problems and priority areas for population, employment and development planning in Arab country - covers sectoral and occupational structure, underemployment, labour migration in the Arab region, human resources planning, the role of woman workers, employment creation and development policies. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  13. MOOCS as a Method of Distance Education in the Arab World--A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Raniah Samir; Lundqvist, Karsten Oster

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the Arab World are still in their infancy. Many Arab countries are now starting to launch their MOOC platforms; however, there are only a few who have actually implemented such systems. This paper will explore online learning, in particular the rise of MOOCs around the world and their impact on the Arab…

  14. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Component II: Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kiswani, Abeer

    2013-01-01

    The UNEVOC-UNESCO International Centre in cooperation with the Regional Bureau for Education-Beirut published the regional synthesis report on Component II of the regional project on entrepreneurship education in the Arab States (2009-2012). With support from the StratREAL Foundation, the project aimed at supporting Arab countries in the…

  15. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  16. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  17. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  18. Arab Emirates: Middle East oasis of development; Emirados Arabes: o oasis do desenvolvimento no Oriente Medio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)

  19. DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub­ words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the Arabic language and presents the various steps that have been completed to achieve this goal including segmentation, binarization, tagging and validation.

  20. Overview of research on the mental health impact of violence in the Middle East in light of the Arab Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amawi, Noor; Mollica, Richard F; Lavelle, James; Osman, Ossama; Nasir, Laeth

    2014-09-01

    This is a baseline of published research in the trauma field by Arab researchers. It highlights groundbreaking attempts by Arab researchers to investigate the mental health impact of violence in their countries before the Arab Spring. Peer-reviewed articles (N = 157) were identified through computerized searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Pilots Database, 1995 to 2012. A synopsis of the published research included (a) country, (b) screening instruments, (c) sample size, (d) methods, and (e) results. The findings reveal that domestic violence attracted most attention after civil strife in Palestine and Lebanon. Torture survivors and victims of sexual violence received little attention. Study instruments were borrowed from Western researchers without being validated within local Arab cultures. No clinical outcome studies were found. In light of the Arab Spring, it is urgent that Arab researchers conduct studies that are evidence based and culturally valid addressing the mental health care of all traumatized citizens. PMID:25126755

  1. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    OpenAIRE

    Mufrodi

    2015-01-01

    The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fushhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fushhâ used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fushhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in p...

  2. Azhary: An Arabic Lexical Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Ishkewy; Hany Harb; Hassan F arahat

    2014-01-01

    Arabic language is the most spoken languages in the Semitic languages group, and one of the most common languages in the world spoken by more than 422 million. It is also of paramount importance to Muslims, it is a sacred la nguage of the Islamic Holly Book (Qur an) and prayer (and other acts of worship) in Islam is performed only by mastering some of Arabic words. Arabic is also a major ritual language of a number of Christian ch urches in the Arab w...

  3. Automatic Arabic Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Al-harbi, S; Almuhareb, A.; Al-Thubaity , A; Khorsheed, M. S.; Al-Rajeh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Automated document classification is an important text mining task especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Text classification aims to automatically assign the text to a predefined category based on linguistic features. Such a process has different useful applications including, but not restricted to, e-mail spam detection, web page content filtering, and automatic message routing. This paper presents the results of experiments on documen...

  4. Turkey's Kurdish Question: Changing Domestics and Regional Dynamics through the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Pusane, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, international developments have always influenced Turkey's Kurdish question in general and the country's struggle with the PKK in particular. Arab Spring, which started in Tunisia in 2010 and quickly spread to several countries of the Middle East and North Africa, also significantly shaped the various decisions of the PKK, as well as Turkey's policies to resolve the Kurdish Question in recent years. This paper examines how the Arab Spring has influenced domestic and regional ...

  5. Arab Public Opinion and NATO after the International Military Operations in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Saddiki, Said

    2012-01-01

    Although, NATO has always taken into account public opinion in its member states, the emergence of new Information and Communication Technologies and the extension of its out-of- area operations have given NATO a new impetus to extend the space of communication beyond the Alliance countries.With regard to the NATO's partnership with Arab countries, the Arab spring uprisings have created a new political atmosphere in which many signs of a positive perception of NATO and its members states have...

  6. Teaching Culture in the Classroom to Arabic Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf

    2015-01-01

    Arabic language learning comprises of certain elements, including syntactic ability, oral capability, dialect proficiency, and a change in state of mind towards different culture or society. For teachers and laymen alike, cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the customs, beliefs, and systems of another country, is indisputably an integral…

  7. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  8. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  9. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohamedGomma Elnour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of air quality conditions and atmospheric pollution in the Arab Region has been addressed through consideration of the energy production and energy consumption pattern. Global, regional and local sources of air pollution in the study have been considered. Emission scenarios of many Arab countries of the region have been outli ned. It has been realized that air pollution constitutes one of the major sources of loss on GNP of many Arab countries in the region due to weak institutional capabilities for air pollution management and control. Major types of air pollution sources in t he region such as greenhouse gas emissions and other gases from various industries are considered. Local sources of air pollution are found due to urban growth, transportation systems, industrialization and lack of awareness and shortage of institutional c apabilities all contributed to the relatively low air quality and weak control in the Arab Region. The purpose of this paper is to review all available literature on the issue of air pollution in Arab countries due to combustion of fossil fuel coming from mobile sources and petroleum gas flaring in order to present the dire situation of the air quality in Arab countries. The report is organized based on certain factors which make the transport sector , power plants and associated gas flaring are significan t polluters of the air in the Arab region. We present a brief introduction to the composition of the transport sector in most of Arab countries and the forms of emissions resulting from it, then the report continues with the explanation of the major impact s that old - aged machines like automobiles, old petroleum production technology and old electrical energy plants technology have in terms of causing air pollution in these countries and thus; making them very inefficient and also very harmful towards the en vironment in most of Arab countries. In this paper also we have used the statistical data during

  10. Azhary: An Arabic Lexical Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Ishkewy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language is the most spoken languages in the Semitic languages group, and one of the most common languages in the world spoken by more than 422 million. It is also of paramount importance to Muslims, it is a sacred la nguage of the Islamic Holly Book (Qur an and prayer (and other acts of worship in Islam is performed only by mastering some of Arabic words. Arabic is also a major ritual language of a number of Christian ch urches in the Arab world and it is also used in writing several intellectual and religious Jewish books in the Middle Ages. Despite this, there is no semantic Arabic lexicon which researchers can depend on. In this paper we introduce Azhary as a lexical ontology for the Arabic language . It groups Arabic words into sets of synonyms called synsets , and records a number of relations hips between words such as synonym , antonym, hypernym, hyponym, meronym, holonym and association relations. The ontology contains 26,195 words organized in 13,328 synsets . It has been developed and contrasted against AWN which is the most common available Arabic lexical ontology.

  11. How Arabs Read Roman Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mick; Meara, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Shows that native-speaking Arabic readers produce search functions that are radically different from the search functions of readers whose script uses the Roman alphabet (RAs). The processes used by Arabic readers are more akin to the processes used by RAs when searching arrays of shapes. (Author/LMO)

  12. A review of Suicide Behavior Among Arab Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Morad; Efrat Merrick; Amir Schwarz; Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Islam prohibits the taking of one's life, because this way you will interfere with the work of G-d (Allah), which is clear from several places in the Quran. Concerning individual suicide or suicide attempts in various Arab countries the literature is sparse and the incidence low. In this paper we present a review of research from Israel showing that suicide epidemiology among the Arab population of children and adolescents display a low incidence, but an increase has been observed over the pa...

  13. Guide to OCR for Arabic scripts

    CERN Document Server

    Märgner, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, specifically devoted to the emerging field of OCR for Arabic Scripts Presents state-of-the-art research from an international selection of pre-eminent authorities in the field Describes numerous applications of Arabic script recognition technology, from historical Arabic manuscripts to online Arabic recognition

  14. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined si

  15. Perceived Parental Acculturation Behaviors and Control as Predictors of Subjective Well-Being in Arab American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.; Stiles, William B.; Biran, Mia W.; Hinkle, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the relations of the well-being of college students whose parents immigrated to America from Arab countries with their perceptions of their parents' (a) acculturation behaviors (i.e., openness to the American culture and preservation of the Arab culture) and (b) control. Results indicate that the perceived acculturation…

  16. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Dromedaries, North and East Africa, United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan, 1983–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Andrea; Saqib, Muhammad; Liljander, Anne M.; Bornstein, Set; Zohaib, Ali; Renneker, Stefanie; Steinhagen, Katja; Wernery, Renate; Younan, Mario; Gluecks, Ilona; Hilali, Mosaad; Musa, Bakri E.; Jores, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Drexer, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max

    2016-01-01

    A new hepatitis E virus (HEV-7) was recently found in dromedaries and 1 human from the United Arab Emirates. We screened 2,438 dromedary samples from Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and 4 African countries. HEV-7 is long established, diversified and geographically widespread. Dromedaries may constitute a neglected source of zoonotic HEV infections. PMID:27315454

  17. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  18. Modernist Arabic Literature and the Clash of Civilizations Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Mohammad Gohor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the incorporation of western and Christian traditions, assimilated from western culture and literature in contemporary texts, written by Muslim/Arab poets and addressed to predominantly Muslim communities, in order to disrupt the clash of civilizations narrative and underline the attempt of post WWII Arab poets, led by Badr Shaker Al-Sayyab, to be engaged into trans-cultural dialogues with western masters particularly T.S Eliot. The paper argues that Arab poets, from ex-colonized countries, attempted to build bridges with the West by construction of a poetics that takes as its core the cultural/religious traditions of the European colonizers. Unlike writers from the ex-colonies, in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the West Indies who reconstruct western texts in order to subvert them, post WWII Arab poets integrated the religious heritage of what is traditionally categorized as an alien/hostile civilization into the Arab-Islamic literary canon.

  19. Components and public health impact of population growth in the Arab world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asharaf Abdul Salam

    Full Text Available The Arab world, which consists of the 22 member states of the Arab League, is undergoing a rapid transition in demographics, including fertility, mortality, and migration. Comprising a distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa and unified by the Arabic language, these states share common values and characteristics despite having diverse economic and political conditions. The demographic lag (high fertility and low mortality that characterizes the Arab world is unique, but the present trend of declining fertility, combined with the relatively low mortality, brings about significant changes in its population size. This research aimed to: (i assess the population growth in the Arab world over 3 time periods, (ii explore its components, and (iii understand its public health impact. Data from the International Data Base (IDB of the U.S. Census Bureau for 3 time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012 in 21 countries of the Arab world were analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors, namely, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, West Asia, Maghreb, and the Nile Valley African Horn. The population of the Arab world has grown considerably due to both natural growth and migration. The immigration is pronounced, especially into resource-intensive GCC nations, not only from East Asian and Central African countries but also from resource-thrifty (limited-resource Arab nations. The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: migration flows and trends. However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality-the impact of demographic changes-depict a new era in the Arab world.

  20. OSMAN:a novel Arabic readability metric

    OpenAIRE

    El-Haj, Mahmoud; Rayson, Paul Edward

    2016-01-01

    We present OSMAN (Open Source Metric for Measuring Arabic Narratives) - a novel open source Arabic readability metric and tool. It allows researchers to calculate readability for Arabic text with and without diacritics. OSMAN is a modified version of the conventional readability formulas such as Flesch and Fog. In our work we introduce a novel approach towards counting short, long and stress syllables in Arabic which is essential for judging readability of Arabic narratives. We also introduce...

  1. Recent Approaches to Arabic Dialogue Acts Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Elmadany, Abdelrahim A; Abdou, Sherif M.; Mervat Gheith

    2015-01-01

    Building Arabic dialogue systems (Spoken or Written) has gained an increasing interest in the last few. For this reasons, there are more interest for Arabic dialogue acts classification task because it a key player in Arabic language understanding to buil ding this systems. This paper describes the results of the recent approaches of Arabic dialogue acts classifications and covers Arabic dialogue acts corpora, annotation schema, utterance segmentation, and classi...

  2. Arabic Stemmer for Search Engines Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khalid; Zakir Hussain; Mirza Anwarullah Baig

    2016-01-01

    Arabic language is very different and difficult structure than other languages, that’s because it is a very rich language with complex morphology. Many stemmers have been developed for Arabic language but still there are many weakness and problems. There is still lack of usage of Arabic stemming in search engines. This paper introduces a rooted word Arabic stemmer technique. The results of the introduced technique for six Arabic sentences are used in famous search engines Google Chrome, Inter...

  3. Language's Borrowings: The Role of the Borrowed and Arabized Words in Enriching Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhafeth Ali Khrisat; Majiduddin Sayyed Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Borrowing is entering Arabic language. Researchers focus on the origin of the borrowed words and their meanings without analyzing the syntactic and semantic changes of these words. This paper focuses on Arabic language's borrowings from other languages. Moreover, it studies the meaning of 'arabization' and the role of arabized and borrowed words in enriching Arabic language, the difference between the arabized words and the borrowed ('dakheel') ones by examining and analyzing samples for ever...

  4. Arabic and Urdu in international perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Habibul Haq Nadvi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development of Arabic and Urdu in South Africa up to 1984 when Indian languages as a school subject were introduced from standards two to ten. It sketches the state of Indian languages at ·the various universities in the country and proceeds to place these languages in an international perspective. From the article it becomes clear that Arabic cannot be ignored by any scholar who seriously intends to probe the problems of our times. In the last instance, the article focuses on South Africa again, where Urdu, in particular, is flourishing, and where several poets have earned widespread acclaim. It concludes that the future of Urdu in this country has never been brighter. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor die ontwikkeling van Arabies en Urdu in Suid-Afrika, tot en met die instelling in 1984 van Indiese tale as skoolvak vanaf standerd twee tot matriek. Die stand van hierdie tale aan verskeie plaaslike universiteite word geskets en daarna word die lndiese tale binne 'n internasionale perspektief geplaas. Die artikel stel dit dat 'n kennis van Arabies onontbeerlik is vir enige geleerde wat werklik die probleme van ons tyd wil deurvors. In laaste instansie keer die perspektief terug na SuidAfrika, waar vera! Urdu sterk groei en waar verskeie digters wye erkenning geniet. Die gevolgtrekking is dat die toekoms van Urdu hi er te lande nog nooit beter was nie.

  5. Nuclear desalination in the Arab world. Part I: Relevant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle Eastern and North African countries suffer from a shortage of fresh water resources. Statistical analysis shows that fresh water resources in these countries constitute less than 13% of the average world resources per capita. In the Arab world, the rapid increase in population and an increase in living standards led to a greater demand for fresh water and electricity. Accordingly, the Arab world has assumed (a leading role in the) desalination industry, contributing about 60% of total world production. Desalination processes are highly power intensive. Thus, different types of energies are used to bridge the gap between these processes and the general increased demand in production. Projections for water and electricity demand in the Arab world, up to 2030, are made according to population and its growth rates. The present study (according to these projections) indicates that population in the Arab world will double by the year 2030. At that time, domestic and industrial water demand will be 360 million m3 d-1; meanwhile, electrical power consumption will be 4.5 trillion kWh d-1. Accordingly, the Advanced Inherent Safe Nuclear Power Plants adapted for water-electricity co-generation could meet the demand, as a clean energy source. (author)

  6. Arab Economic Integration: Missing links

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Sekkat, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on Arab economic integration, discusses the goals and progress that has been made to date and some of the key policy, regulatory and political factors that underpin the segmentation of Arab markets. It argues that there has been an excessive focus by both analysts and policymakers on trade in goods and that the prospects for – and returns to – efforts to deepen integration of other markets (services, labor and capital) are likely to be higher.

  7. Syria : why is the Arab Spring turning into a long winter

    OpenAIRE

    Aeid, Munzer

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses the problematic trajectory of the Syrian Revolution 2011, which was inspired by the Arab Spring. It first evaluates the causes of the revolution during Bashar al-Asad’s era. An era was aimed to be a transition from authoritarianism to democracy and from suppression to fair openness. It second investigates the factors behind turning the Arab Spring into a Syrian winter, plunging the country into internal war and uncontrolled violence. The research is based o...

  8. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Methods Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all ...

  9. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E.; Shaheen, Hafez Q.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific ou...

  10. Communication Infrastructures, Institutional Efficiency and EU-Arab Trade: Assessment and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Harb George

    2010-01-01

    With the implementation of the European Neighborhood Policy, many Arab countries have been actively pursuing economic and policy reforms in the context of bilateral Action Plans with the European Union (EU). Among other things, these reforms target enhanced communication infrastructures as well as more efficient public administrations. Using a gravity model and panel data econometrics, we evaluate the impact of the Internet diffusion and institutional efficiency on EU-Arab trade. We generate ...

  11. Effective Arabic Stemmer Based Hybrid Approach for Arabic Text Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryeme Hadni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Text pre-processing of Arabic Language is a challenge and crucial stage in Text Categorization (TCparticularly and Text Mining (TM generally. Stemming algorithms can be employed in Arabic text pre-processing to reduces words to their stems/or root.Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, accordingto three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statisticalapproach (ex. N-Garm.However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have asmall efficiency.In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy ofstemming and therefore the accuracy of our proposedTC system, an efficient hybrid method is proposed for stemming Arabic text. The effectiveness of theaforementioned four methods was evaluated and compared in term of the F-measure of the Naïve Bayesianclassifier and the Support Vector Machine classifier used in our TC system. The proposed stemmingalgorithm was found to supersede the other stemmingones: The obtained results illustrate that using theproposed stemmer enhances greatly the performance of Arabic Text Categorization

  12. Functional or Anaphoric Control in Jordanian Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haq, Fawwaz Al-Abed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses functional and anaphoric control in complex sentences (sentences with more than one verb) in Jordanian Arabic within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It is argued that Jordanian Arabic utilizes anaphoric rather that functional control. (18 references) (JL)

  13. Yemen: A Mirror to the Future of the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Kronenfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic, political, and religious rifts make Yemen one of the most complex arenas in the Middle East, even more so following the eruption of the Arab Spring, which in November 2011 ended the 33-year regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. The disintegration of the delicate political balance Saleh created has brought Yemen to the brink of an abyss with competing elites, ethnic revolts, separatists, external intervention and fundamentalist terrorism threatening to divide the country while hindering the new regime’s attempts to build a new political order and establish stability. Currently, the future of Yemen is still unclear, but the developments and processes it is undergoing may provide us with insights about possible scenarios in other Middle Eastern countries in the post-Arab Spring era.

  14. English/Arabic Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR for Arabic OCR-Degraded Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Elghazaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel for Query Translation and Expansion for enabling English/Arabic CLIR for both normal and OCR-Degraded Arabic Text model has been proposed, implemented, and tested. First, an English/Arabic Word Collocations Dictionary has been established plus reproducing three English/Arabic Single Words Dictionaries. Second, a modern Arabic Corpus has been built. Third, a model for simulating the Arabic OCR errors has been proposed. Forth, a comprehensive model for Query Translation and expansion is proposed. The model translates the Query from English to Arabic detecting and translating collocations, translating single words and transliterating names. It solves the replacement ambiguity then it expands the Arabic Query to handle the expected Arabic OCR errors. The proposed model gives high accuracy in translating the Queries from English to Arabic solving the translation and transliteration ambiguities and with orthographic query expansion, it gave high degree of accuracy in handling OCR errors.

  15. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB : PROBLEMATIKA DAN SOLUSINYA

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Fahrurrozi

    2014-01-01

    There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic classroom is one of the important factor. This article discusses how linguistic factor and non linguistic factor influenced Arabic Classroom.

  16. Arabizi Detection and Conversion to Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    Arabizi is Arabic text that is written using Latin characters. Arabizi is used to present both Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Arabic dialects. It is commonly used in informal settings such as social networking sites and is often with mixed with English. In this paper we address the problems of: identifying Arabizi in text and converting it to Arabic characters. We used word and sequence-level features to identify Arabizi that is mixed with English. We achieved an identification accuracy of 9...

  17. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  18. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB : PROBLEMATIKA DAN SOLUSINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fahrurrozi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic classroom is one of the important factor. This article discusses how linguistic factor and non linguistic factor influenced Arabic Classroom.

  19. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs) while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs). The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, ...

  20. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dial...

  1. After the arab spring: the problem of freedom of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Mario G. Losano

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 “Arab Spring” arouses, in Western societies, expectations that often do not take into account the real context of the Islamic countries. As a matter of fact, the Western Secular tradition frequently obstructs the understanding of the strong religious feeling that pervades the social reality of the Islamic world, even if in a non-uniform way: the modernists, traditionalists and fundamentalists’ school of thoughts have a different idea of the modern Islamic State. In order to clarify t...

  2. The differential impact of women's pariticipation in the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlow, Sasha J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social...

  3. Labialization in Cairene Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates certain morphological categories in Cairene Arabic where the contrast between the short high vowels [i] and [u] is neutralized. The understanding of these neutralizations has direct consequences on the featural composition of different classes of segments. The analysis is formulated in the framework of the Parallel Structures Model of feature geometry, first introduced in Morén (2003, 2006, 2007 and further developed in work at CASTL. Assuming that features are language-specific but also articulatorily based, I motivate feature specifications for each participating segment and offer a straightforward autosegmental analysis of the distribution. The proposed analysis fits neatly into a constraint-based model and supports the growing body of literature claiming that representations are important even to optimality-theoretic analyses.

  4. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  5. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fushhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fushhâ used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fushhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in phonological and morphological differences were deemed difficult for students who only learn Arabic fushhâ. The difficulty that arises due to the ignorance of students to the differences that occur between Arabic fushhâ and Egyptian dialect. With an understanding of phonological and morphological of Arabic ‘âmiyah expected that the students of Arabic language or people who have learned fushhâ can understand-at least a few understanding-spoken language so that communication will run smoothly.

  7. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  8. Appropriation des technologies de l'information et de la communication par les pays arabes : difficultés d'adoption ou source de développement ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel Touati

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats the problematic of the “digital divide” between the Arab countries. Empirical study shows that relation between Gross National Income and human capital (independent variables) and diffusion of ICT - dependent variable - is statistically significant. While analysing as well the factors which delayed the development of the Arab society of information as well as the main characteristics of the adoption of TIC by the Arab States, this article shows finally how these countries ca...

  9. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  10. Arab Economic Integration: Missing Links

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Sekkat, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on Arab economic integration and discusses the goals and progress that has been made to date and some of the key policy, regulatory, and political factors that underpin the segmentation of Arab markets. It argues that there has been an excessive focus by both analysts and policy makers on trade in goods and that the prospects for--and returns to--efforts to deepen integration of other markets (services, labour, and capital) are likely to be higher.

  11. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  12. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.

  13. Health information in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed. PMID:23823454

  14. Arabic Stemmer for Search Engines Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language is very different and difficult structure than other languages, that’s because it is a very rich language with complex morphology. Many stemmers have been developed for Arabic language but still there are many weakness and problems. There is still lack of usage of Arabic stemming in search engines. This paper introduces a rooted word Arabic stemmer technique. The results of the introduced technique for six Arabic sentences are used in famous search engines Google Chrome, Internet Explore and Mozilla Firefox to check the effect of using Arabic stemming in these search engines in terms of the total number of searched pages and the search time ratio for actual sentences and their stemming results. The results show that Arabic words stemming increase and accelerate the search engines output.

  15. Machine-printed Arabic OCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassibi, Khosrow M.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of our research in the development of an OCR system for recognition of machine-printed texts in languages that use the Arabic alphabet. The cursive nature of machine-printed Arabic makes the segmentation of words into letters a challenging problem. In our approach, through a novel preliminary segmentation technique, a word is broken into pieces where each piece may not represent a valid letter in general. Neural networks trained on a training sample set of about 500 Arabic text images are used for recognition of these pieces. The rules governing the alphabet and character-level contextual information are used for recombining these pieces into valid letters. Higher-level contextual analysis schemes including the use of an Arabic lexicon and n-grams is also under development and are expected to improve the word recognition accuracy. The segmentation, recognition, and contextual analysis processes are closely integrated using a feedback scheme. The details of preparation of the training set and some recent results on training of the networks will be presented.

  16. Syria divides the Arab left

    OpenAIRE

    Dot-Pouillard, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The violence deepens and spreads. Yet unlike Egypt and Tunisia, the Syrian revolt has not had unanimous support from the Arab left. There is a split between those who sympathise with the protestors' demands and those who fear foreign interference, both political and military

  17. La Sociedad de la Información en los países árabes: una aproximación al análisis de indicadores socioeconómicos The Information Society in the Arab Countries: an approach to socio-economic indicators' analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al Dwairi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo mostramos el nivel de lo que se suele llamar Sociedad de la Información en los países árabes. Se presentan los problemas que han encontrado las nuevas tecnologías para su implantación y evolución en esta zona; cuál ha sido la postura de los diferentes países frente a las posibilidades ofrecidas por Internet, desde su origen hasta la situación actual; los problemas que Internet ha tenido para desarrollarse en la región, y las diferencias que entre cada uno de estos países se pueden apreciar. Se muestra el nivel de infraestructura de las nuevas tecnologías, revelando tanto los indicadores socioeconómicos (población, densidad, renta per capita, nivel de alfabetización como los indicadores tecnológicos (líneas telefónicas, ordenadores, proveedores, servidores, usuarios. El estudio muestra el nivel de desarrollo de cada uno de los países, los cuales clasificamos en tres grandes grupos en función de su riqueza. Finalmente se muestra cómo estos grupos no son cerrados y cómo hay países que pueden incluirse en más de un grupo.The situation of Information Science in Arab Countries is described, and problems related to the implementation of new information technologies in the region, also considered, as well as the attitude of each one of these countries towards Internet. Socio-economic (population, density, per capita income, literacy and technological indicators (number of telephone lines, computers, ISPs, servers, users are presented together with the level of development of each country. These countries are divided into three different economic groups (A,B and C, but results show that such groups are not clearly delineated with respect to technological incorporation in society.

  18. Unified M-Learning Model through Interactive Education Satellite:A Proposal for an Arab Homeland Education Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Issa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a unified and interactive mobile learning (M-Learning model to help with expanding and spreading education in the Arab Homeland countries. The model utilizes a new competitive spot beam satellite communication technology, which enables efficient channel allocation, where communication channels can be allocated to specific and precise areas. The proposed model is referred to as the interactive Arab education satellite (IAESat.The communication satellite can efficiently and effectively cover the entire Arab Homeland and reaches a wide area and mobile users that cannot be reached otherwise. The model implements existing interactivity components to enhance the learning process and meet international standards in education.

  19. Arab Higher Education and Research post–2011. An Interview with Sari Hanafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Rohde

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upheavals of 2011 and subsequent developments in the MENA region have had substantial effects on universities and research centers within Arab world and in other neighboring countries where similar developments are taking shape (security issues, stricter political control/lesser levels of political control and repression, changing levels of funding, changing focus of donors etc.. META had the opportunity to talk with American University of Beirut’s Prof. Sari Hanafi about the repercussions of these developments for scholarly work within the MENA region. Sari Hanafi is currently a Professor of Sociology and chair of the department of sociology, anthropology and media studies at the American University of Beirut. He is also the editor of Idafat: the Arab Journal of Sociology (Arabic. He is the Vice President of the International Sociological Association (ISA and Vice President of the board of the Arab Council of Social Science. He is the author of numerous journal articles and book chapters on the political and economic sociology of the Palestinian diaspora and refugees; sociology of migration; transnationalism; politics of scientific research; civil society and elite formation and transitional justice. His last book is Arab Research and Knowledge Society: New Critical Perspective (with R. Arvanitis (in Arabic, Beirut: CAUS and forthcoming in English with Routledge.

  20. The relevance of Arabic-based Pidgins-Creoles for Arabic Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The paper summarizes the main historical and linguistic characteristics associated with PC languages and analyses their relevant concerning Arabic-based contact language of the South Sudanese basin. It sketches the main linguistic features of Juba Arabic

  1. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C.; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with su...

  2. KSUCCA: a key to exploring Arabic historical linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alrabiah, M; Al-Salman, A.; Atwell, ES; Alhelewh, N

    2014-01-01

    Classical Arabic forms the basis of Arabic linguistic theory and it is well understood by the educated Arabic reader. It is different in many ways from Modern Standard Arabic which is more simplified in its lexical, syntactic, morphological, phraseological and semantic structure. King Saud University Corpus of Classical Arabic is a pioneering corpus of around 50 million words of Classical Arabic. It is initially constructed for the purpose of studying distributional lexical semantics of the Q...

  3. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  4. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  5. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-01-01

    Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans) are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascinati...

  6. Arabic natural language processing: handwriting recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel

    2008-01-01

    The automatic recognition of Arabic writing is a very young research discipline with very challenging and significant problems. Indeed, with the air of the Internet, of Multimedia, the recognition of Arabic is useful to contributing like its close disciplines, Latin writing recognition, speech recognition and Vision processing, in current applications around digital libraries, document security and in numerical data processing in general. Arabic is a Semitic language spoken and understood in ...

  7. Towards Arabic to English Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Yasser; Hensman, Arnold; Nolan, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how the characteristics of the Arabic language will effect the development of a Machine Translation (MT) tool from Arabic to English. Several distinguishing features of Arabic pertinent to MT will be explored in detail with reference to some potential difficulties that they might present. The paper will conclude with a proposed model incorporating the Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) technique to achieve this end.

  8. Supervised learning model for parsing Arabic language

    OpenAIRE

    Khoufi, Nabil; Aloulou, Chafik; Belguith, Lamia Hadrich

    2014-01-01

    Parsing the Arabic language is a difficult task given the specificities of this language and given the scarcity of digital resources (grammars and annotated corpora). In this paper, we suggest a method for Arabic parsing based on supervised machine learning. We used the SVMs algorithm to select the syntactic labels of the sentence. Furthermore, we evaluated our parser following the cross validation method by using the Penn Arabic Treebank. The obtained results are very encouraging.

  9. An Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Hadhemi; Abdessalem, Wahiba Ben

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ICT development and the increasingly growing use of the Internet in particular, practices of language teaching and learning are about to evolve significantly. Our study focuses on the Arabic language, and aims to explore and evaluate Arabic language learning websites. To reach these goals, we propose in a first step, to define an evaluation model, based on a set of criteria for assessing the quality of websites dedicated to teaching and learning Arabic. We subsequently apply ou...

  10. Arabic Document Classification Using Multiword Features

    OpenAIRE

    Diab Abuaiadah

    2013-01-01

    Weinvestigate the use of multiword features to improve Arabic document classification. The Arabic language is both morphologically rich and highly inflected. Accordingly it presents more challenges when enhancing Arabic information retrieval to a level comparable to English. The multiword features are modeled as a combination of words appearing within windows of varying sizes. Our experiments show multiword features combined with dice similarity distance outperform the cosine similarity funct...

  11. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  12. Computational Analyses of Arabic Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraz, G A

    1994-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a (multi-tape) two-level formalism can be used to write two-level grammars for Arabic non-linear morphology using a high level, but computationally tractable, notation. Three illustrative grammars are provided based on CV-, moraic- and affixational analyses. These are complemented by a proposal for handling the hitherto computationally untreated problem of the broken plural. It will be shown that the best grammars for describing Arabic non-linear morphology are moraic in the case of templatic stems, and affixational in the case of a-templatic stems. The paper will demonstrate how the broken plural can be derived under two-level theory via the `implicit' derivation of the singular.

  13. ANDRAGOGI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasyim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to get empirical evidence whether there is a significant difference between the class which is taught by andragogy technique and which is taught by conventional technique. This article describes that technique is one of the important factors in conducting Arabic class. This study categorized as an experimental research. The data is collected by giving the test for both experimental and conventional class. The result of the study shows that experimental class which is taught by applying andragogy technique get higher score than the conventional one. Means that Al-Ittihad Islamic Boarding School get higher score than Ulil Albâb. It seems that technique influences the quality of teaching and learning Arabic.

  14. Why Microsoft Arabic Spell checker is ineffective

    OpenAIRE

    Neme, Alexis Amid

    2014-01-01

    Since 1997, the MS Arabic spell checker was integrated by Coltec-Egypt in the MS-Office suite and till now many Arabic users find it worthless. In this study, we show why the MS-spell checker fails to attract Arabic users. After spell-checking a document (10 pages -3300 words in Arabic), the assessment procedure spots 78 false positive errors. They reveal the lexical resource flaws: an unsystematic lexical coverage of the feminine and the broken plural of nouns and adjectives, and an arbitrar...

  15. Morphological descriptive analysis of Qatari Arabic nouns.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Easa, Noor Sultan

    1993-01-01

    Qatari Arabic is a form of the Arabic language It is used by the native speakers of Qatar as a dialect of Arabic. The social structure of the Qatari society is very similar to those of the Arabian Peninsula in origin. traditions. and customs. A dialect can be seen as a group of linguistic criteria which belong to a certain culture or society: and therefore. is used by the members of this society. It exists in the spoken form only since Qataris still use Modem Standard Arabic for writing. As ...

  16. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  17. Design and Realization of an Arabic Morphological Automaton-New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad Gridach; Noureddine Chenfour

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  18. THE MODERN MEDIA AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE REVOLUTIONARY PROCESS «ARAB SPRING»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Mohammed Ba Alawi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the role that played the Internet in the organization of the occurred events of 2011 in the Arab world, the so-called «Arab spring».It has been shown how they used new media as an instrument of calls, organizing protests and exchanging information and the import of revolution from one country to another. It is revealed how the Arab events have demonstrated the importance and high efficiency of modern technologies.Purpose. To reveal the role of modern media and their influence on the revolutionary process in the Arab countries.Methodology. Applied general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, system approach. In the process of preparations the article carried out an analysis of factual material, scientific sources, used statistical data.Results. It has been shown the absence of trust in the traditional media that belongs to the state, and mastering new technological facilities have led to an active use of the Internet as a political instrument during the «Arab Spring».

  19. Immigrant Arab adolescents in ethnic enclaves: physical and phenomenological contexts of identity negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; Seay, Nancy; Karabenick, Stuart A

    2015-04-01

    Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents' feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents' multifaceted identity. PMID:25150820

  20. ANDRAGOGI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hasyim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to get empirical evidence whether there is a significant difference between the class which is taught by andragogy technique and which is taught by conventional technique. This article describes that technique is one of the important factors in conducting Arabic class. This study categorized as an experimental research. The data is collected by giving the test for both experimental and conventional class. The result of the study shows that experimental class whi...

  1. Natural Arabic language text understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khonaizi, Mohammed Taqi

    1999-01-01

    The most challenging part of natural language understanding is the representation of meaning. The current representation techniques are not sufficient to resolve the ambiguities, especially when the meaning is to be used for interrogation at a later stage. Arabic language represents a challenging field for Natural Language Processing (NLP) because of its rich eloquence and free word order, but at the same time it is a good platform to capture understanding because of its rich computational, m...

  2. Arabic Sentiment Analysis: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Assiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most social media commentary in the Arabic language space is made using unstructured non-grammatical slang Arabic language, presenting complex challenges for sentiment analysis and opinion extraction of online commentary and micro blogging data in this important domain. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the important research works in the field of Arabic sentiment analysis. An in-depth qualitative analysis of the various features of the research works is carried out and a summary of objective findings is presented. We used smoothness analysis to evaluate the percentage error in the performance scores reported in the studies from their linearly-projected values (smoothness which is an estimate of the influence of the different approaches used by the authors on the performance scores obtained. To solve a bounding issue with the data as it was reported, we modified existing logarithmic smoothing technique and applied it to pre-process the performance scores before the analysis. Our results from the analysis have been reported and interpreted for the various performance parameters: accuracy, precision, recall and F-score.

  3. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research. PMID:26996912

  4. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  5. International Heliophysical Year and Astronomy and Space Science Activities in Arab States: Concentration on United Arab Emirates and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimiy, Hamid M. K.; Al-Douri, Ala A. J.

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes International Heliophysical Year (IHY), astronomy and space sciences (ASS) activities in many Arab countries with the concentration on Iraq and UAE. The level and type of these activities differ in each country. -The paper shows also the current activities on topics related to IHY in different countries, following are suggested future Astronomy and Space Science (ASS) plans in some of these countries: -UAE Research Centre for Solar Physics, Astronomy and Space Sciences: A proposal under consideration for building a Solar Physics and Space Research Centre that may contain: Solar, radio and optical observatories, and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Receiver for remote sensing the Ionosphere on UAE region. The proposed research project will facilitate the establishment and conduct of VLF observations in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) as a part of Asia sector, thus providing a basis for comparison to facilitate global extrapolations and conclusions. -Iraqi National Astronomical Observatory (INAO): The Kurdistan Government/Universities planning to rebuilt INAO which has been destroyed during the two wars. Proposed suggestion is to build a 5-6 meters optical telescope and small solar telescope on the tope of Korek Mountain, which has excellent observing conditions.

  6. National, Regional and Global Perspectives of Higher Education and Science Policies in the Arab Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction between science policies (and particularly in the area of scientific research) and higher education policies in Gulf and Mediterranean Arab countries. Our analysis reveals a discrepancy between the two sub-regions with respect to integration in the global market, cooperation in scientific research and…

  7. Voices from the United Arab Emirates: Engineering Graduates' Labour Market Requisite Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  9. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  10. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  11. Euro-Arab energy cooperation in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation evaluates the economic relations between Arab Mediterranean (AMC) and Europe and provides a statistical overview of the energy scene of aggregate, as well as, individual Arab Mediterranean's countries. Energy plays an important role in the interdependence of countries AMC and Europe. In recent years Europe has been the destination of some 70% of AMC oil exports and 90% of its gas exports. Revenues from these exports support AMC imports; half of which comes from Europe. The value of these imports have been increasing faster than the value of AMC exports to Europe; resulting in an annual deficit of around $3 billion in favor of the latter. On the other hand, more energy will be needed to sustain European economic growth. It is estimated that the call for energy in Europe will increase 20% by the year 2010. The AMC, along with the Arab countries of the Gulf, have significant known reserves of oil and gas. This presents opportunities for cooperation in developing and marketing these resources. Expansion of capacities to supply hydrocarbons entail the commitment of significant investments and sufficient lead-times. The provision of these requirements is hindered by any uncertainty regarding future demand for hydrocarbon products. Uncertainty is increased when taxes, for instant are imposed on these products. Such action dampers the demand of final consumers and often raises the cost of economic growth. It thus affects the willingness of AMC suppliers of hydrocarbons to commit the required capital to provide these supplies, especially in the light of increasing competition for the funds available, arising from the social expectations of an expanding population base. (author). 11 tabs

  12. PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT OF LITERARY ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.

    THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…

  13. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  14. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  15. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks in the ...

  16. Computer Program To Transliterate Into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual program for TRS-80, Model 12 (or equivalent) computer transliterates from English letters of computer keyboard to Arabic characters in output of associated printer. Program automatically changes character sequence from left-to-right of English to right-to-left of Arabic.

  17. The Integration of Arab Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naser I Abumustafa

    2006-01-01

    Naser I. Abumustafa presents a review of the functions, regulations, and definitions of Arab emerging stock markets, identifying the barriers and solutions to potential integration of Arab stock markets. Development (2006) 49, 81–85. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100249

  18. On Bidirectional English-Arabic Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljlayl, M.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.

    2002-01-01

    Machine-Readable Dictionaries (MRD) and Machine Translation (MT) systems are important resources for query translation in Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR). Investigates use of MT systems and MRD to Arabic-English and English-Arabic CLIR. Translation ambiguity is the key problem. Presents three methods of query translation using a…

  19. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  20. Transnational Communication among Arab Americans in Detroit: Dimensions, Determinants, and Attitudinal Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tessler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report summarizes findings from the Detroit Arab American Study pertaining to transnational activities and experiences, particularly those involving communication with the Arab Middle East. In today’s increasingly globalized environment, it is easier than in the past to maintain transnational connections. Indeed, many immigrants of recent decades were undoubtedly participants in transnational networks involving ties to the United States before they came to this country. On the other hand, the intensity of participation in these networks may gradually diminish after years in the United States.

  1. The Arab Awakening and US counterterrorism in the Greater Middle East: A missed opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 'In 2011, the Arab Awakening offered an opportunity to the Obama administration to advance the US interest to counter terrorism in the Greater Middle East without compromising its commitment to the promotion of democracy. As of early 2015, however, with the exception of still-hopeful Tunisia, democracy has not made any significant progress in Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, old and new regional extremist groups have become increasingly active. How did the Obama administration miss the opportunity offered by the Arab Awakening? What actions could the United States take to reverse current unfavorable trends and advance US policies of counterterrorism and democratization in the region?'''

  2. LANGUAGE USES VS. LANGUAGE POLICY: SOUTH SUDAN AND JUBA ARABIC IN THE POST-INDEPENDENCE ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Stefano; Tosco°, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes the language and educational policy of the Republic of South Sudan against the backdrop of a sociolinguistic survey conducted in Juba, South Sudan, in the months of July-August 2013, and aiming at a better understanding of the role, uses and beliefs surrounding the use of Juba Arabic, an Arabic-based pidgincreole widely used in Juba and in a wide part of the newly independent country. The results highlight the fact that, although the government of the newly independent co...

  3. The 1967 ‘Six Day’ Arab-Israeli War

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, M.

    2015-01-01

    In June 1967, the Israeli armed forces crushed the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria in a lightning ‘six-day’ war in which Israeli warplanes wiped out enemy air forces - mostly on the ground – after which Israeli tanks and infantry swept out and conquered Sinai, Gaza Strip, the old walled city of Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. Without their warplanes to protect them, Arab soldiers in open, desert country were pounded from the air; many were burnt alive in napalm strikes as t...

  4. RECOGNITION OF HINDI (ARABIC HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan I. Zaghloul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.

  5. External threats, socio-political instability and links to growth in MENA countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos, Nauro; Nugent, J. B.; Robinson, J. A.

    Cairo : Arab Planning Institute and the Economic Research Forum for Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey, 1999 - (Limam, I.), s. 59-92 [Institutional Reform and Development in the MENA Region. Dubai (AE), 1999] Keywords : economic growth * Middle East * instability Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Text Organization and Transfer: The Case of Arab ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed.…

  7. Penggunaan Grafem Dalam Pelambangan Bunyi Aksara Jawi (Arab Melayu) Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dra. Fauziah, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Asal usul Arab Melayu Indonesia ( Jawi ) sudah ada sejak lama di Indonesia. Ia berasal dari Arab Saudi. Ini dapat dibuktikan dalam sejarah Arab Melayu Indonesia. Seperti pada prasasti tertua Leran dan Gresik terdapat tulisan Arab yaitu pada batu nisan anak perempuan Maimun ( 1082 M ).

  8. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  9. UNDP and World Bank project: Energy planning for European and Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) initiated a technical assistance project in energy planning. It was designed to stimulate the exchange and flow of knowledge and experience among countries of Europe and Arab States (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Tunisia, Cyprus, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and Yugoslavia). The World Bank is the executing agency. The project's broad objective is to strengthen national energy planning capabilities within the participating countries

  10. TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF ARAB WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN BAHRAIN AND OMAN

    OpenAIRE

    KATHLEEN DECHANT; ASYA AL LAMKY

    2005-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has become a defining business trend in many countries throughout the world. The ranks of entrepreneurs contain a sizable contingent of women. As a result, research into the pathways of entrepreneurship as a general phenomenon as well as a career option for women has flourished in recent years. However, very little of this research has focused on women entrepreneurs in Arab countries, particularly those around the Gulf of Arabia, where private enterprise is viewed as a way fo...

  11. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. PMID:25687797

  12. Issues in the History of Mathematics Teaching in Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeljaouad, Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    George Makdisi's The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981: 10) says: "with the advent of the madrasa, the institution inclusive of the foreign sciences began to fade away, becoming extinct by the XIIth century." In fact, the status of teaching rational sciences in the…

  13. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Arab Republic of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Egypt's corporate governance system is framed by French civil law for corporations. Sharia law has no direct influence on corporate governance. Anglo-American influence is prevalent in the securities depository law and the new capital markets law shortly to be introduced to Parliament. There is one stock exchange with two trading floors: The Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) which...

  14. A Comparative Analysis on Arab and European Identity Structures: Portraying Distinctive Transnational Identity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Chamieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Arab countries speaking the same language (Arabic and sharing the same cultural background, yet so far, a superficial coordination exists among them. Whereas, comparatively, European community members, who have less in common (in terms of multilingual and multicultural societies, have succeeded in forming a certain unified transnational identity structure. In order to understand this perplexity which indicates an apparent incoherence vis-à-vis both identity formations – in terms of unification models – this article proposes to dig deeply within the transnational European identity formation so as to disclose the mechanisms of its unifying functions by excavating tangibly rationalized theoretical analyses and apply them on Arab identity formations. Accordingly, a comparison is performed based on a set of theoretical analysis, where Arab and European identity formations are comparatively examined for cause of identifying plausible unifying patterns that may be adhered within the construct of a common Arab identity structure. Our original analysis framework is based on several theoretical approaches leading to the identification of identity-significant independent variables that will enable us to measure the similarities and the differences between the two above mentioned identity models.

  15. Global geoscience transects in the Arab region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazangi, Mauwia

    The Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project is one of the most recent initiatives of the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). The GGT project is represented by ILP Coordinating Committee 7 (CC7), which is coordinated by J . Monger (Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver). M. Barazangi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.) is responsible for the coordination of the Middle East and North Africa region, which includes most of the Arab countries.The main objective of the GGT project is to strengthen and broaden international cooperation mainly through active participation of Earth scientists in constructing geological and geophysical transects, especially cross sections. The transects will be at least to Moho depth and will contain as much detail as transects of geological structures mapped on Earth's surface. The transects are being selected by the participating geoscientists to traverse all continents and, as much as possible, to form a continuous grid across political boundaries. Members of CC7 act as regional coordinators to help the local Earth scientists to initiate and implement GGT objectives. The implementation phase has to a large extent been standardized to follow clear guidelines that were developed by CC7 members. These guidelines are based on a modified and expanded version of the recent highly successful Continent-Ocean Transect project of the Geological Society of America.

  16. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket; Mohd Juzaiddin Ab Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this anal...

  17. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiauddin

    2015-01-01

    Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The resul...

  18. Performance of the Google Desktop, Arabic Google Desktop and Peer to Peer Application in Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Salam Al Hajjar; Anis Ismail; Mohammad Hajjar; Mazen Elsayed

    2012-01-01

    The Arabic language is a complex language; it is different from Western languages especially at the morphological and spelling variations. Indeed, the performance of information retrieval systems in theArabic language is still a problem. For this reason, we are interested in studying the performance of the most famous search engine, which is a Google Desktop, while searching in Arabic language documents. Then, we propose an update to the Google Desktop to take into consideration in search th...

  19. PENGARUH BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuba Pantu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discover and describe how the Arabic influence on the development of the Indonesian language,  which focused on the influence of the vocabulary,  the influence of the Arabic alphabet and its influences on Indonesian syntax,  as well as to discover how changes are absorbed Arabic vocabulary into Indonesian. The method used in this study is a literature review using the technique of content analysis,  which is a research technique for making inferences that can be replicable,...

  20. On Multiple Typeface Arabic Script Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalek Zidouri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new sub-word segmentation and recognition scheme, which is independent of font size and font type. D ifferent ways of recognition are attempted namely Neural N et, template matching and principal component analysis. Results show that the real problem in Arabic character recognition remains the challenging separation of sub-words into characters. The system is realized in a modularized way. The combination of the different modules forms the basis of a complete Arabic OCR system. A successful preprocessing stage is reported. Unlike Latin based languages, recognition of printed Arabic characters remains an open field of research.

  1. Aeroballistic Parameters of Arab arrows On the Medieval Tract "Arab Archery"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas W. Mitiukov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With a helping of simple mathematical models there was analyzed the ballistic information of the Arab arrow on medieval Arabic treatise "Arab archery". It is shown that there were no any errors on the text and the translation was correct, then, apparently, Arabian heavy arrow had specific design and can no to be in one quiver with the light arrows. Regarding light arrows, then, apparently, they have the typical design with coefficient of drag function cx ≈ 2, and firing was carried out to a maximum range Arabic archer with an elevation angle about 10°.

  2. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  3. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA. Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for transcribing the phones of actual pronunciation, it was found that the pronunciation of many Arabic sounds has gradually diverged from the standard.  The study also discussed several related issues including: The phonetic description of Arabic vowels, classification of Arabic vowels, types of Arabic vowels and distribution of Arabic vowels.

  4. DIFFICULTIES THAT ARAB STUDENTS FACE IN LEARNING ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassem BAHEEJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jordan English is not used in everyday situations. Arab students face problems of learning English, both in writing and in speech. They find it hard to learn English in their native country, where language is Arabic. The only way to learn English in Jordan is through formal training, ie inside the classroom foreign language teachers are native speakers of Arabic. There is little opportunity to learn English through natural interaction in the target language. This is possible only when students are faced with native speakers of English who come to the country as tourists, and this happens very rarely.DIFICULTĂŢI CU CARE SE CONFRUNTĂ STUDENŢII ARABI CARE ÎNVAŢĂ LIMBA ENGLEZĂ În Iordania, limba engleză nu este utilizată în situaţii cotidiene. Studenţii arabi se confruntă cu probleme de învăţare a limbii engleze, atât în scris, cât şi în vorbire. Lor le vine greu să înveţe limba engleză în ţara lor natală, dat fiind că limba maternă este araba. Singura modalitate de a învăţa limba engleză în Iordania este prin instruire formală, adică în sala de clasă în care profesorii de limbă străină sunt vorbitori nativi de limbă arabă. Există puţine şanse de a învăţa limba engleză prin interacţiune naturală în limba-ţintă. Acest lucru este posibil numai atunci când elevii conversează cu vorbitori nativi de limbă engleză, care vin în ţară în calitate de turişti, ceea ce se întâmplă foarte rar.

  5. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  6. Arabic Electronic Journals in Librarianship : Evaluative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Sha'ban

    2007-01-01

    An evaluative study for 5 Arabic electronic journal on librarianship and information science, it apply a customized criteria for evaluation the e-journals, the selected journals were; Imformatics, Arabia 3000, Aren, Journal of King Fahd Library, and cybrarians journal.

  7. Towards Arabic Administration for Informative Resources : A Future Vision . 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Al Sadeq Bezan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no difference to say: the world entered a new millennium, result of communication and information revolution that human ages haven't known before. The stage that we are living now is a post-industry stage or information and knowledge Age. Thus, this paper aims at discussing the importance of having sage management for information & knowledge resources as it should be in the new millennium in order to suport and help decision making through forming institutional Information systems inside a country or all of the Arab Nation countries. In addition the paper will discuss the methods should be followed as procedure processes performed by the systems to provide information services according to the needs and requests. Also the paper will discuss the practical and applicational operations for knowledge investment and supporting decision making.

  8. Multistage Hybrid Arabic/Indian Numeral OCR System

    CERN Document Server

    Alginaih, Yasser M

    2010-01-01

    The use of OCR in postal services is not yet universal and there are still many countries that process mail sorting manually. Automated Arabic/Indian numeral Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems for Postal services are being used in some countries, but still there are errors during the mail sorting process, thus causing a reduction in efficiency. The need to investigate fast and efficient recognition algorithms/systems is important so as to correctly read the postal codes from mail addresses and to eliminate any errors during the mail sorting stage. The objective of this study is to recognize printed numerical postal codes from mail addresses. The proposed system is a multistage hybrid system which consists of three different feature extraction methods, i.e., binary, zoning, and fuzzy features, and three different classifiers, i.e., Hamming Nets, Euclidean Distance, and Fuzzy Neural Network Classifiers. The proposed system, systematically compares the performance of each of these methods, and ensures t...

  9. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically confined to examining the optimal candidates that surface when the definite article morpheme is prefixed. It thus proves that OT constraints in RA interact in an interestingly distinctive way that triggers divergence and sometimes convergence with other dialects due to the parametrical ranking of these constraints in this dialect unlike some other dialects. It is hoped that this humble endeavor will give insight to many interested researchers to deeply investigate various phonological aspects of this dialect.Keywords: optimality, syllable structure, onset, coda, epenthesis, constraints, faithfulness, markedness

  10. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    sources are noteworthy for the study of maritime history of Kalinga. The ports namely Palur, Pithunda, Kalingapatnam, Khalkatapatna, Tamralipti, Manikapatna had the contacts with Africa, Ceylon, China and Arab and Southeast Asian countries. In this paper...

  11. Autosomal recessive diseases among Palestinian Arabs.

    OpenAIRE

    Zlotogora, J

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of the high consanguinity rate among the Palestinian Arabs, many recessive disorders are present with a relatively high frequency. In a survey of 2000 different Palestinian Arab families who visited our genetic clinic, in 601 an autosomal recessive disease was diagnosed or strongly suspected. The distribution of these disorders was not uniform and some disorders, such as Krabbe disease, were found at high frequency in only a small part of the population. For some other disord...

  12. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  13. An Arabic framework for dyslexia training tools

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rowais, Fadwa; Wald, Mike; Wills, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Language features and cultural factors play key roles in the difficulties associated with dyslexia. Thus, addressing the combination of these elements is essential to obtain better coverage of dyslexia issues and a deeper understanding of the needs of Arabic speakers with dyslexia. There is a great deal of progress yet to be achieved in the area of Arabic dyslexia, as little is published about manifestation of dyslexia in this language. This paper presents a framework to integrate the linguis...

  14. Arabic multi-document text summarisation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Haj, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Multi-document summarisation is the process of producing a single summary of a collection of related documents. Much of the current work on multi-document text summarisation is concerned with the English language; relevant resources are numerous and readily available. These resources include human generated (gold-standard) and automatic summaries. Arabic multi-document summarisation is still in its infancy. One of the obstacles to progress is the limited availability of Arabic resources to su...

  15. Internationalization path to the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to introduce internationalization of an SME including motives and risks of new market entry, as well as describing the steps of a target market selection and presenting different operational modes. Since the executive company, DesignShopOutlet, was interested in exploring their market possibilities in the United Arab Emirates, the aim of the thesis was also to conduct a market research report of the United Arab Emirates. The study applied a qualitative resea...

  16. Digital Arabs : Representation in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Šisler, Vít

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the ways in which Muslims and Arabs are represented and represent themselves in video games. First, it analyses how various genres of European and American video games have constructed the Arab or Muslim Other. Within these games, it demonstrates how the diverse ethnic and religious identities of the Islamic world have been flattened out and reconstructed into a series of soci...

  17. Introduction of EFLPS in an Arab Context

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mutawa, Najat [نجاة عبد العزيز المطوع; Eassa, M. Rifky [محمد رفقي عيسى; محمد رفقي عيسى

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates two inter-related topics in foreign language learning. First, it assesses the impact of introducing English as a foreign language in the primary stage curriculum, on the scholastic achievement of pupils in their native language. Achievement in Arabic is taken as a yardstick for this comparison: pre- and post- EFLPS introduction. Second, it explores Arabic-language teachers' perception of positive and negative change in school "environment" as a result of such introduct...

  18. STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN KOMPONEN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Fathur Rohman

    2014-01-01

    In the field of education, teaching management is one of the most important parts to ensure the success and the effectiveness of teaching. This article aims to describe the application of teaching management in the field of Arabic language teaching. The results presented in this article is that there are some aspects that need to manage in the field of teaching Arabic language, those are: curriculum, teaching materials, students, teachers, evaluation, teaching methods, and teaching purposes.

  19. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  20. Using Arabic Wordnet for Semantic Indexation in Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alaeddine Abderrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of arabic Information Retrieval Systems (IRS guided by arabic ontology and to enable those systems to better respond to user requirements, this paper aims to representing documents and queries by the best concepts extracted from Arabic Wordnet. Identified concepts belonging to Arabic WordNet synsets are extracted from documents and queries, and those having a single sense are expanded. The expanded query is then used by the IRS to retrieve the relevant documents searched. Our experiments are based primarily on a medium size corpus of arabic text. The results obtained shown us that there are a global improvement in the performance of the arabic IRS.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimate...

  2. THE FALSES IN TURKISH TEXTS’ TRANSCRIPTION WITH ARABIC CHARACTER / ARAP HARFLİ TÜRKÇE METİNLERİN ÇEVİRİSİNDE KARŞILAŞILAN YANLIŞLAR

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNVER, Prof. Dr. İsmail

    2008-01-01

    Transcription matter appeared a prolem after the progress of changing alphabet from Arabic alphabet to Latin alphabet in our country. In this article the experiences of transcription’s problems and suggestion of solutions on this matter will present.

  3. Effects Of CO2 Emissions On Economic Growth, Urbanization And Welfare: Application To Mena Countries

    OpenAIRE

    FAKHRI, ISSAOUI; HASSEN, TOUMI; WASSIM, TOUILI

    2015-01-01

    This paper has investigated the impact of CO2 emissions on per capita growth, energy consumption, life expectancy and urbanization in MENA countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Emirates Arabs, Jordan, Saudi Arabs, Morocco, Qatar, Tunisia and Yemen) from 1990 to 2010. The empirical results have covered two time horizons: the short and long term. Indeed, in the short term we noticed for all countries of our sample, that the CO2 emission is explained by energy consumption and economic growth per c...

  4. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  5. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  6. Elaboration of Integrated Arabic Lesson for Increasing Expertness of Arabic Mastery of Islamic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Nurbayan, M.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on scarcity of Arabic text books which is used in Islamic university. The aim of this study was to produce integrated Arabic textbooks including muthalaa, muhadatsah, kitabah and qiraah in one discourse. This study was using Research and Development method (R&D started by conception of Integrated Arabic Lesson textbook, followed by limited testing and revision, finished by producing the textbooks pass through revisions and discussions with UPI and UIN Arabic experts and lecturers. This study involved 14 students of STIT and 2 Arabic lecturers of UIN and UPI who were lecturing at that place. It was concluded that competence mean of freshman before using the textbooks were 31, whereas after using it, they got average value 55. The difference was 23.

  7. A Critical Review of Qualitative Research Methods in Evaluating Nursing Curriculum Models: Implication for Nursing Education in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Briliya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this critical literature review was to examine qualitative studies done on innovative nursing curriculums in order to determine which qualitative methods have been most effective in investigating the effectiveness of the curriculum and which would be most appropriate in an Arab Islamic country. Data Sources: At least 25 studies…

  8. Arabic Language Planning in the Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhafaifi, Hussein M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Arabic language planning efforts, which so far have not been very successful, and suggests Arabic language planning agencies must closely examine the work of other planning organizations that have succeeded in achieving many of their goals. (Author/VWL)

  9. UTILIZATION OF GUM ARABIC FOR INDUSTRIES AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...

  10. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh; Abdel-Rahman Abu-Melhim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for tran...

  11. Perbandingan Kualitas Buku Teks Bahasa Arab Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah

    OpenAIRE

    M Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-01-01

    Choosing good Arabic textbooks determines the quality of Arabic learning in the classroom . This paper aims to identify and compare the quality of the Arabic language text books at Islamic junior high school levelsseen from the aspect of content, presentation , language and graphic . The object of research is the book of D Hidayat, Maman Abdul Djalil and A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah . The results showed that all three of the Arabic language textbooks have advantages and disadvantages ....

  12. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  13. Environmental Risks to Public Health in the United Arab Emirates: A Quantitative Assessment and Strategic Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Yeatts, Karin B.; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic...

  14. Arab Higher Education and Research post–2011. An Interview with Sara Hanafi

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Rohde; Ines Braune

    2015-01-01

    The upheavals of 2011 and subsequent developments in the MENA region have had substantial effects on universities and research centers within Arab world and in other neighboring countries where similar developments are taking shape (security issues, stricter political control/lesser levels of political control and repression, changing levels of funding, changing focus of donors etc.). META had the opportunity to talk with American University of Beirut’s Prof. Sari Hanafi about the repercussio...

  15. Development of community health services for the arab village population in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Stockler

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948 the war began between Israel and her neighbours and the health services for the entire population were at a minimum. Among the Arab population where such services did exist, the personnel - doctors, nurses, teachers - fled; those in Jerusalem went to Jordan and in the North, Haifa was the point of departure for Lebanon and other countries (Mizrahi 1981, Ron 1981.

  16. The Scope and Impact of Workplace Diversity in the United Arab Emirates – An Initial Study

    OpenAIRE

    Badreya Al-Jenaibi

    2011-01-01

    Managing workplace diversity has become a priority concern among organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) today. The UAE has one of the world's largest net migration rates, and the number of workers from India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, the USA, among other countries, has increased significantly in recent decades (Burns, 2005). The UAE's cross-border mobility has resulted in the interaction of people with diverse language, customs and ethnic backgrounds. Although diversity...

  17. The role of photos in social media interactions of adult Arabs with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mashat, Alaa; Wald, Mike; Parsons, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face difficulties in everyday life with their communication and interaction skills. Due to preferences for visual stimuli, photos have been used to support communication and to teach interaction and social skills. In Arab countries, adults on the autism spectrum experience the same difficulties in addition to dealing with other issues, such as stigma within society, a lack of services, cultural rules and the inability to sufficiently bene...

  18. The scope and impact of workplace diversity in the United Arab Emirates – A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Badreya Al-Jenaibi

    2012-01-01

    Managing workplace diversity has become a priority concern among organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) today. The UAE has one of the world's largest net migration rates, and the number of workers from India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, the USA, among other countries, has increased significantly in recent decades. The UAE's cross-border mobility has resulted in the interaction of people with diverse language, customs and ethnic backgrounds. Although diversity has been show...

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Yemen Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yemen Arab Republic occupies a part of the southern Arabian Shield and has been subject to considerable faulting and movement. As far as is known no uranium exploration has ever been undertaken or is presently contemplated in the country. Uranium could occur in the Shield rocks and conditions are right for calcrete type uranium deposits. The Speculative Potential may be in category 2, i.e. between 1000 and 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  20. When Virtual Reality Meets Realpolitik: Social Media Shaping the Arab Government-Citizen Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Klischewski

    2012-01-01

    Since most activists participating in the recent uprisings in Arab countries have been using social media to an unprecedented extent, public analyst and researchers have rushed to reflect on and explain the phenomena, often attributing a ‘change agency’ to social media as such. This exploratory research combines recent publications and use statistics with insights from blogs and focus group meetings in order to challenge our understanding of the role of social media and its usage in reshaping...

  1. Water Security in Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity issues are critical to all Nations and always been discussed at the highest levels of dialogue in organizations and governmental and international bodies. Saving water constitutes the centerpiece of most contemporary societies, given the increasing in population and scarcity of water year after year, in addition to climate change such as drought and desertification and increasing environmental pollution. All of this may lead in the future to war. Water resources has become one of the biggest challenges for future plans of the world in general and Arab region in particular. Although the volume of water on earth is estimated at about 1.5 billion cubic kilometers, but most of it (97%) is salt water found in oceans, seas and lakes . Only 3% fresh water is distributed in a manner not in conformity with the requirements of our needs. This study aims to use environmental and radioactive isotope technology to identify sources of groundwater wells and also use modern mathematical models to determine the ages of these sources. All of this leads to develop a complete and integrated system to keep the sources from depletion or pollution and develop optimal strategies for water system in desert and semi-desert States. (author)

  2. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  3. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  4. Pushing the Limits: Achieving Superior Arabic Fluency in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the current situation of Arabic education in the United States with an overarching question of, "What is the best way for a student of Arabic in the United States to achieve Superior proficiency?" This study focuses on two elite institutions of Arabic education in the United States. This study is based on 3 sources of…

  5. The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Yasir

    This study of Arabic culture, language, history, and nationalism provides an inside view of key issues in understanding the Arab world. It combines detailed readings of Arabic nationalist literature, the scholarly literature on nationalism, and sociolinguistics work on language and national identity. Seven chapters focus on the following issues:…

  6. The Problems of Translating Oriental Texts into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need…

  7. Arabic as a Heritage Language in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Arabic language in the United States. Drawing on archival research and statistical analysis, the article is divided into 4 major sections. The first discusses the history of immigration from the Arab world to the United States, as well as past efforts at Arabic language maintenance. The article continues…

  8. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  9. Role of Information Technology in Digitizing Arabic Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizy Zohayr

    2007-01-01

    A research about using the information technology tools in digitizing the Arabic manuscripts; it begins with a brief history about the Arabic manuscripts; then it discusses using automation systems in manuscripts processing, then it shows the Arab experiments in digitizing manuscripts in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and finally talks about requirements of digitizing process.

  10. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos

  11. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia,...

  12. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  13. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  14. Reallocation of Water Resources in the Arab Region: An Emerging Challenge in Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ambalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is an integral part of ecosystems. It is essential to earth’s living creatures and central to maintaining the earth’s ecosystems. In most part of the world, both water quantity andquality problems are becoming more acute, since the limited available water resource are being over-utilized and stressed beyond the sustainability point. The contemporary globalwater crises including inefficient use and lack of equitable distribution are mainly due to the crises of governance. Water governance emerged as a comprehensive framework byreplacing all the existing paradigms including integrated water resource management. Though water governance focuses many aspects in ensuring sustainable use of water resources and its equitable distribution, reallocation of water resources may be most appropriate policy option to achieve these objectives. Reallocation systematically addresses the problems of uneven distribution of water resources across the sectors as well asprevents excessive allocation of water to a particular sector. Based on the secondary sources, this paper analyzes the challenges involved in water governance in terms of waterreallocation in the Arab countries where the allocation of water for agriculture is reasonable very high. Addressing water scarcity in the Arab region lies mainly in effectively managing the growing demand. Major water governance challenges with respectreallocation of water resources in the Arab region are tariff, metering and billing, which led to the excessive use in an unprecedented manner.Keywords: Arab Region, Global Water Crisis, Reallocation, Water Governance, WaterManagement, Water Rights

  15. The Intonation of Topic and Focus: Zaar (Nigeria), Tamasheq (Niger), Juba Arabic (South Sudan) and Tripoli Arabic (Libya)

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Bernard; Lux, Cécile; Manfredi, Stefano; Pereira, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience A follow-up of the CorpAfroAs project, this paper presents a typologically-oriented study of the intonation of Topic and Focus in four Afroasiatic languages (Zaar, Tamasheq, Juba Arabic and Tripoli Arabic), in relation to their phonological and information structures. The different prosodic systems represented in the study - i.e. the demarcative accent system of Berber, the lexical stress system of Tripoli Arabic; the pitch accent system of Juba Arabic; and the tone ...

  16. Studying Arabic as a foreign/second language together with Arab Heritage Language Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...... questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment....

  17. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  18. An Automatic Collocation Extraction from Arabic Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgabbar M. Saif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The identification of collocations is very important part in natural language processing applications that require some degree of semantic interpretation such as, machine translation, information retrieval and text summarization. Because of the complexities of Arabic, the collocations undergo some variations such as, morphological, graphical, syntactic variation that constitutes the difficulties of identifying the collocation. Approach: We used the hybrid method for extracting the collocations from Arabic corpus that is based on linguistic information and association measures. Results: This method extracted the bi-gram candidates of Arabic collocation from corpus and evaluated the association measures by using the n-best evaluation method. We reported the precision values for each association measure in each n-best list. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that the log-likelihood ratio is the best association measure that achieved highest precision.

  19. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  20. A strategy within the context of the Arab Spring to strenghten Portuguese energy security regarding import of hydrocarbon from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel H. dos S. Silva Sebastião

    2014-01-01

    Energy plays a crucial role in the survival of the current civilizational model and the dispute regarding its control present a constant challenge to State security. Portugal is highly dependent on other countries in terms of energy supply. Moreover, Algeria was the sixth biggest Oil exporting country in 2011 and is the second biggest exporter of Natural Gas to Portugal. Considering this and the effects of the Arab Spring in northern Africa, the situation requires assessment so as to determin...

  1. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    , whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard to...... migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...

  2. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz’ method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it...

  3. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz' method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it...

  4. High Quality Arabic Concatenative Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Chabchoub

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of TD-PSOLA tools to improve the quality of the Arabic Text-tospeech(TTS system. This system based on Diphone concatenation with TD-PSOLA modifier synthesizer.This paper describes techniques to improve the precision of prosodic modifications in the Arabic speechsynthesis using the TD-PSOLA (Time Domain Pitch Synchronous Overlap-Add method. This approach isbased on the decomposition of the signal into overlapping frames synchronized with the pitch period. Themain objective is to preserve the consistency and accuracy of the pitch marks after prosodic modificationsof the speech signal and diphone with vowel integrated database adjustment and optimisation.

  5. PERAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PENGEMBANGAN ILMU DAN PERADABAN ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Muhbib Abdul Wahab

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the role of the Arabic language in advancing science and Islamic civilization through a library study of the history of the Arab ic language a long the ages. The approach used to analyze the data of Arabic language development is hist orical approach combined with content analysis approach. The study has come to the conclusion that there are βive important roles of Arabic language. Firstly, it served as the language of the union among the people and the Arab tribes....

  6. Perbandingan Kualitas Buku Teks Bahasa Arab Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing good Arabic textbooks determines the quality of Arabic learning in the classroom . This paper aims to identify and compare the quality of the Arabic language text books at Islamic junior high school levelsseen from the aspect of content, presentation , language and graphic . The object of research is the book of D Hidayat, Maman Abdul Djalil and A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah . The results showed that all three of the Arabic language textbooks have advantages and disadvantages . In general, the Arabic text book work of A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah is better than the other two books

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimated retained. Therefore, in this study will be assessed the extent of the implementation of the hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon. This study used the rationalistic paradigm and purposive sampling method of data collection which Arab house aged over 50 years. Analysis of the data using the parameters: (1 the physical hijab is permanent physical elements (walls, doors, windows and mashrabbiya and non permanent physical elements (furniture and plants and (2 non physical hijab is non physical elements (behavioral or user activity .The results showed that the concept of hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon is symbolized by: (1 the physical hijab is spatial zone that separates public and private space, and (2 non physical hijab is behavior or etiquette of visiting the implementing Islamic culture. Keywords:  : islamic architecture, arab house, hijab     Abstrak Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh kehadiran perkampungan Arab di Pasar Kliwon yang merupakan permukiman yang heterogen, terdiri dari Arab, Jawa, dan Cina dengan komunitas Arab lebih besar daripada komunitas Cina. Kehidupan multikultural yang terjadi di permukiman Arab di Pasar Kliwon akan secara langsung mempengaruhi proses  interaksi  antar  etnis.  Islam  merupakan  jalan  hidup  budaya Arab.  Rumah Arab  merupakan  produk arsitektur Islam yang mengaplikasikan hijab dan perhitungan pertahanan. Karena itulah dalam tulisan ini akan diperkirakan luasnya implementasi hijab pada rumah Arab di Pasar

  8. After the arab spring: the problem of freedom of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Losano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 “Arab Spring” arouses, in Western societies, expectations that often do not take into account the real context of the Islamic countries. As a matter of fact, the Western Secular tradition frequently obstructs the understanding of the strong religious feeling that pervades the social reality of the Islamic world, even if in a non-uniform way: the modernists, traditionalists and fundamentalists’ school of thoughts have a different idea of the modern Islamic State. In order to clarify this diversity, the history of the relationships between State and Islam, the inter-relationship (in a degree that is unthinkable in Western culture between State, religion and law and the consequent different perception of single individual behaviours have to be examined. This encounter-conflict with the Western political perspective became real in the Islamic States through the imposition of the Western law during the colonial period and – in the opposite direction – is taking place, today, in Europe through the increasing immigration of Islamic believers. The provision of concordats (a potential solution with other monotheistic religions is not possible with the Islamic communities, because Islam does not take into consideration a hierarchically organized ecclesiastical structure and, therefore, the Western States cannot find a single and official interlocutor. This way, within each individual Western State, a frequently difficult coexistence between Western and Islamic States is growing, a coexistence that is leading to new forms of legal pluralism. On an international relations level, the economic difference between the Western States and those who took part in the “Arab Spring” make it difficult for these last countries to promptly build up a modern State. The potential models range from Iranian theocracy to Turkish Secularism, with innumerous intermediate solutions. Today, the tendency seems to go towards an Islamic State, as the

  9. Philosophy and planning of uranium exploration in the arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents concepts behind thinking and planning of uranium exploration programs to prove reserves necessary for the peaceful application on nuclear energy. This will stem from the extensive data available on uranium deposits and the great progress in the methodology of its exploration, as well as the Egyptian experience. Thinking of finding uranium deposits stems from the answers of two questions, the first is: where could uranium deposits occur in the area under exploration ? and the second is: how could these uranium deposits be located ? so, uranium exploration programs should stem from the scientific and technological base incorporating the answers to these questions: where ? and how ? the better the answers, particularly to the first question, are, the more successful the exploration process will be. The answer to the first question needs the compilation and the integration of all the available information on uranium and its deposits, as well as the geologic environments in which these deposits occur. The geologic setting of uranium deposits given by the IAEA in the Red Book and their characteristics may be used as a frame for such compilation and integration. In the same time the geologic setting of the area of exploration must be well understood. From the integration of these two lines of information, target areas with priorities can be selected for the execution of the exploration programs. This means that the answer for the first question is concerned with scientific research in the geological sciences, and the answer to the second question is concerned with the methodology of mineral exploration in general and uranium exploration in particular. This paper also presents examples of the execution of such a policy in a general way in some Arab Countries, and concludes with a general framework for successive phases of uranium exploration plans in Arab Countries. 2 fig

  10. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area. PMID:25905019

  11. Long Memory Properties in Return and Volatility: An Application of the Impact of Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cevik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring which began on 17 December 2010 with the civil rebellions, revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Syria. The Arab Spring not only created a domino effect between Arabic countries but also it reflected a significant influence on the financial markets all over the world. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market in consideration of long memory. Long memory can be defined as the persistence of the unexpected shocks on the underlying has long lasting effects. Modeling long memory in stock returns and volatility has also attracted great deal of attention from finance literature recently. Existence of long memory is determined both for the returns and volatility of the time series by using different methods. Existence of long memory can be tested by Rescaled Range Statistics (R/S, Geweke and Porter-Hudak (GPH Model and Gaussian Semi Parametric (GSP Method. In consequence of these tests, if the stock returns have long memory affect then respectively Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average Model (ARFIMA and the Fractionally Integrated Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (FIGARCH model are used to detect the long memory in respectively return and volatility. In this study, the impact of the Arab Spring is investigated by modeled the long memory in Istanbul Stock Exchange using ISE 30 index prices in between December 17, 2010 and April 02, 2012.

  12. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  13. On the Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science or why did Arabic Science Fail to Achieve the Copernican Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Ghassib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry. A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  14. On The Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science Or Why Did Arabic Science Fail To Achieve The Copernican Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    A Hegelian version of the concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy and Ptolemaic science) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. The paper focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  15. Nuclear security education and training at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) was established in 1978 as an Arab institution specialized in security sciences to fulfill the needs of the Arab law enforcement agencies for an academic institution that promotes research in security sciences, offers graduate education programs and conduct short-term training courses, which should contribute to the prevention and control of crimes in the Arab world. NAUSS and the IAEA organized the first workshop on nuclear security on November, 2006, which aimed to explore and improve the nuclear security culture awareness through the definitions of the nuclear security main pillars, Prevention, Detection and Response. In addition, NAUSS and IAEA organized a very important training course on April, 2008 on combating nuclear terrorism titled Protection against nuclear terrorism: Protection of radioactive sources. In the past two years, IAEA has put tremendous efforts to develop an education program in nuclear security, which may lead into Master's degree in nuclear security, where NAUSS helped in this project through the participation in the IAEA organized consultancy and technical meetings for the development of this program along with many other academic, security and law enfacement experts and lawyers from many different institution in the world. NAUSS and IAEA drafted a work plan for the next coming two years which should lead into the gradual implementation of these educational programs at NAUSS. NAUSS also continues to participate in several local conferences and symposiums related to the peaceful application of nuclear power in the gulf region, and the need for a human resources development programs to fulfill the scientific and security needs which will arise from building nuclear power plants. NAUSS participated in the International Symposium on the Peaceful Application of Nuclear Technology in the GCC countries, organized by King Abdulaziz University in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Also NAUSS

  16. BBC Arabic, social media and citizen production: an experiment in digital democracy before the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines an innovative experiment in democratising international broadcasting through embracing a participatory model of production. In spring 2010, a political debate television series was co-created by BBC Arabic and citizen producers, using social media tools. Based around interviews with prominent political and controversial public figures, the show (G710) was broadcast weekly on satellite TV across the Middle East and the Arabic-speaking world. Combining collaborative ethno...

  17. Performance of the Google Desktop, Arabic Google Desktop and Peer to Peer Application in Arabic Language

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjar, Abd El Salam Al; Hajjar, Mohammad; El-Sayed, Mazen

    2012-01-01

    The Arabic language is a complex language; it is different from Western languages especially at the morphological and spelling variations. Indeed, the performance of information retrieval systems in the Arabic language is still a problem. For this reason, we are interested in studying the performance of the most famous search engine, which is a Google Desktop, while searching in Arabic language documents. Then, we propose an update to the Google Desktop to take into consideration in search the Arabic words that have the same root. After that, we evaluate the performance of the Google Desktop in this context. Also, we are interested in evaluation the performance of peer-to-peer application in two ways. The first one uses a simple indexation that indexes Arabic documents without taking in consideration the root of words. The second way takes in consideration the roots in the indexation of Arabic documents. This evaluation is done by using a corpus of ten thousand documents and one hundred different queries.

  18. Arab Countries’ Reform and Development of China-Arab Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    For a nation state, social, political, and economic reform is a common phenomenon as it helps promote development of a country and progress of a nation. In today’s world, where the international situation is undergoing profound changes and economic globalization is forging fast ahead, it has become a trend of the times and natural tendency of history for a nation

  19. A Constructivist Approach to Turkish Foreign Policy Oriented to the Arab Spring in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Akbaş, Zafer; Düzgün, Zeynep Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has recently drawn attentions with a rhythmic diplomacy that it has caught especially in the Middle East. Turkey has reached to a position which is effective and has a voice in the region by using the cultural relations and historic points properly and effectively in the region. Libya is one of the countries that has changed regime as a result of the Arab Spring. Libya is a highly important country in strategic and economic terms. Libya has a position that Western powers are also inte...

  20. Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUSHMANOV, N.V.

    THE PRESENT STUDY IS A TRANSLATION OF THE WORK "STROI ARABSKOGO YAZYKA" BY THE EMINENT RUSSIAN LINGUIST AND SEMITICS SCHOLAR, N.Y. YUSHMANOV. IT DEALS CONCISELY WITH THE POSITION OF ARABIC AMONG THE SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND THE RELATION OF THE LITERARY (CLASSICAL) LANGUAGE TO THE VARIOUS MODERN SPOKEN DIALECTS, AND PRESENTS A CONDENSED BUT…

  2. ARAB ARULMANI?... (RAMANUJAM “HUMAN RESOURCE”)

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani, B.E; V.R.Hema Latha

    2015-01-01

    ARULMANI IS ARAB?... ARULMANI IS USEFUL HUMAN RESOURCE OF RAMANUJAM?... “DARWIN SIR” says “ARULMANI” is of “APE ORIGIN”… ARULMANI has “MONKEY MIND”… ARULMANI IS TERRORIST?... (or) HUMANIST?... Numerology believe that the word ARUL means GOD’S GRACE. Further om mani padme hum is a six syllable Sanskrit mantra. If so…

  3. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  4. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  5. Dearborn Forms Elementary Arabic Language Program Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Shereen

    2009-01-01

    The Dearborn Public Schools, with 18,300 students, is located in the Detroit urban area with the largest concentration of Arabic-speaking people in the United States. In order to prepare the students for the 21st century skills and global awareness and in response to parents' requests, the author in collaboration with the school principal and…

  6. Automatic Arabic Hand Written Text Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Jannoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the decent development of the pattern recognition science applications in the last decade of the twentieth century and this century, text recognition remains one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in the area of Arabic text recognition compared with those for Latin, Chins and Japanese text. The main difficulty encountered when dealing with Arabic text is the cursive nature of Arabic writing in both printed and handwritten forms. An Automatic Arabic Hand-Written Text Recognition (AHTR System is proposed. An efficient segmentation stage is required in order to divide a cursive word or sub-word into its constituting characters. After a word has been extracted from the scanned image, it is thinned and its base line is calculated by analysis of horizontal density histogram. The pattern is then followed through the base line and the segmentation points are detected. Thus after the segmentation stage, the cursive word is represented by a sequence of isolated characters. The recognition problem thus reduces to that of classifying each character. A set of features extracted from each individual characters. A minimum distance classifier is used. Some approaches are used for processing the characters and post processing added to enhance the results. Recognized characters will be appended directly to a word file which is editable form.

  7. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Arabic Text Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharib, Tarek Fouad; Habib, Mena Badieh; Fayed, Zaki Taha; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Text classification (TC) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. Arabic language is highly inflectional and derivational language which makes text mining a complex task. In this paper we applied the Support Vector Machines (SVM) model in cl

  10. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  11. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  12. A segmentation-free approach to Arabic and Urdu OCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbour, Nazly; Shafait, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic script languages called Nabocr. Nabocr uses OCR approaches specific for Arabic script recognition. Performing recognition on Arabic script text is relatively more difficult than Latin text due to the nature of Arabic script, which is cursive and context sensitive. Moreover, Arabic script has different writing styles that vary in complexity. Nabocr is initially trained to recognize both Urdu Nastaleeq and Arabic Naskh fonts. However, it can be trained by users to be used for other Arabic script languages. We have evaluated our system's performance for both Urdu and Arabic. In order to evaluate Urdu recognition, we have generated a dataset of Urdu text called UPTI (Urdu Printed Text Image Database), which measures different aspects of a recognition system. The performance of our system for Urdu clean text is 91%. For Arabic clean text, the performance is 86%. Moreover, we have compared the performance of our system against Tesseract's newly released Arabic recognition, and the performance of both systems on clean images is almost the same.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Iraq provisions of law that apply to countries that have supported terrorism. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Supplement No. 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trlnidad & Tobago Tunisia Turkey Tuvalu Uganda United Arab Emirates...

  14. Cogeneration cycles applied to desalination in the Arab World: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review of cogeneration cycles applied to water desalination in most of the Arab countries. The scarcity of fresh water resources in many countries around the world, and in particular Gulf countries and north African countries such as Libya and Tunisia forced the local authorities to establish many desalination plants to compensate the water shortage. Some plants are conventional for desalination processes only and others are with cogeneration cycle. The high performance of cogeneration cycles encouraged establishing combined power and desalination plants. The present study is intended to provide an overview of cogeneration cycles in conjunction with desalination technologies under the two main resources of energy, fossils and renewables. Thermal technologies, which utilize fossil resource constitute the mainstay of large-scale desalination in the Arab countries and enjoy a relatively important position worldwide. While the technologies which utilize renewable resources such as solar are getting more attention year by year and still under research and almost for small units.(Author)

  15. The Connectıon Between The Culture And The Arabic Language: Effectual Elements On Perception And Construction Of The Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDÜZÖZ, Soner

    2005-01-01

    This article takes up the culture of Arabs and the rol of this culture on the Arabic Language, There are effectual elements on perception and construction of The Arabic Language. The social and political customs, logical errors, believes, social statuses and enviromental conditions effect on The Arabic Language.

  16. Arabic Speech Recognition System using CMU-Sphinx4

    CERN Document Server

    Satori, H; Chenfour, N

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the creation of an Arabic version of Automated Speech Recognition System (ASR). This system is based on the open source Sphinx-4, from the Carnegie Mellon University. Which is a speech recognition system based on discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs). We investigate the changes that must be made to the model to adapt Arabic voice recognition. Keywords: Speech recognition, Acoustic model, Arabic language, HMMs, CMUSphinx-4, Artificial intelligence.

  17. A grammar of Hadari Arabic: a contrastive-typological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bahri, Khaled Waleed

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides a synchronic morphosyntactic description of the Hadari dialect, a variety of Gulf Arabic spoken in Kuwait, and presents a current documentation of this rapidly changing, under documented spoken dialect of Arabic. The description covers the basic morphology and syntax of Hadari, focusing mainly on the syntax. The description refers to Modern Standard Arabic both as a point of comparison and a point of reference when describing the spoken dialect’s morphology and syntax. Th...

  18. Arabic name authority in the online environment : options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs Plettner, Martha

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the efforts for incorporating non-Roman scripts, notably Arabic, in MARC bibliographic and authority records. Arabic name authority records have been handwritten using Arabic script and filed manually in book or card catalogs since the time that it was considered important to preserve this information. After the adoption of typewriters as tools in library cataloging departments, those who only had Latin script typewriters were forced into using transliteration schemes, a...

  19. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; ,

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight ...

  20. PENGAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DI PONDOK PESANTREN SALAFIYAH KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    OpenAIRE

    Rais Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Arabic Language, as the language of Islam religion, and also the language of the Holy Quran, obtaining a privileged position in the heart of Indonesians, especially Muslims. Due to its privileged position, the Arabic language was able to survive from its extinction since its appearance in Indonesia until now. Unfortunately, the privileged position of Arabic language is not directly proportional to its fate in various educational institutions in Indonesia, especially in East Kalimantan. Th...

  1. A Contrastive Analysis Between English And Arabic Tenses

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijah, Aderia

    2015-01-01

    Arabic language is a Semitic language this a foreign language that which same as English language. Both language are international language which is the first rank in the world. English is an international language which the first ranks in the world , while Arabic is the language which the second ranks in the world's international language after English. Thesis entitled A Contrastive Analysis Between English and Arabic Tenses discussed about contrastive tenses in English a...

  2. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. The Electronic Archiving of Arab News Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Ayub Gigawy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved

  4. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  5. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriel Ben Fraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural languageprocessing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features thatmake it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In thispaper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classificationprocess. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classificationbefore recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For theexperimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists oftwo steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for theclassification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  6. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Ben Fraj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural language processing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features that make it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In this paper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classification process. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classification before recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For the experimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists of two steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for the classification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  7. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  8. Generating an Arabic Calligraphy Text Blocks for Global Texture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bataineh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to improve the current method for generating an Arabic Calligraphy text blocks. We test on seven types of Arabic Calligraphy text. We apply  projection profiles and a proposed filter to discriminate each line of the Arabic Calligraphy scripts. After performing text detection, skew correction, text and line normalization subsequently, we generate Arabic Calligraphy text blocks for global texture analysis purposes. We compare our proposed filter with current method and median filter. The results show that the proposed filter  is outperformed. The proposed method can be further  improved to boost the overall performance.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, D

    2015-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index ≥ 25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations >50% Muslim; N = 46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide

  10. Word Sense Disambiguation Approach for Arabic Text

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Bouhriz; Faouzia Benabbou; El Habib Ben Lahmar

    2016-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) consists of identifying the correct sense of an ambiguous word occurring in a given context. Most of Arabic WSD systems are based generally on the information extracted from the local context of the word to be disambiguated. This information is not usually sufficient for a best disambiguation. To overcome this limit, we propose an approach that takes into consideration, in addition to the local context, the global context too extracted from the full text. More ...

  11. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  12. Survey of Bounding Theory in Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Ensieh Talebi and; Hossein Seyyedi

    2014-01-01

    Government and Binding Theory or Principles and Parameters Theory is a universal theory of Chomsky. Linguists of world believe that Chomsky made a revolution in linguistics by this theory. One of the sub-theories of Government and Binding Theory is Bounding Theory which explains the restrictions of grammatical movements. Chomsky claims that his theory is universal and you can perform it in all languages. This essay considers this sub-theory (Bounding Theory) in Arabic language whether is perf...

  13. Les Arabes de l'autre rive

    OpenAIRE

    Montigny, Anie

    2005-01-01

    Au Qatar, l'identification de la société globale repose sur son origine arabe, mais la population établit une discrimination selon les lieux d'origine : l'Arabie ou l'Iran. Ce clivage schématique fait référence aux hommes de statut libre par opposition à ceux qui, dans la société traditionnelle, ne l'étaient pas : les esclaves.

  14. Narrating Normal: Arabs, Queers, Neoliberal Spectatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Boucai, Marc Barry

    2013-01-01

    Queer and Arab, as both social movements and signifiers of cultural difference, have shared surprisingly similar historical trajectories within American culture and politics since the late 1960's. The historical parallels become especially relevant to this project with the arrival of the 1990's, when the United States witnessed the roughly simultaneous consolidation of (1) identity politics and (2) a multicultural ideal in which difference is at once defining and irrelevant. Like other racial...

  15. ARAB ARULMANI?... (RAMANUJAM “HUMAN RESOURCE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, B.E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ARULMANI IS ARAB?... ARULMANI IS USEFUL HUMAN RESOURCE OF RAMANUJAM?... “DARWIN SIR” says “ARULMANI” is of “APE ORIGIN”… ARULMANI has “MONKEY MIND”… ARULMANI IS TERRORIST?... (or HUMANIST?... Numerology believe that the word ARUL means GOD’S GRACE. Further om mani padme hum is a six syllable Sanskrit mantra. If so…

  16. Arab EFL Learners' Acquisition of Modals

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Aziz

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates Arab EFL learners' acquisition of modal verbs. The study used a questionnaire, which comprises two versions, testing students' mastery of modals at the levels of both recognition and production. The questionnaire was distributed to 50 English major university students who had studied English for 12-14 years and who had scored 500 or more on the TOEFL. The findings of the study show that the overall performance of the subjects in the study was quite low. The study estab...

  17. Offering and hospitality in Arabic and English

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Karen; Kerkam, Z; Mansor, F; Mills, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the conventional linguistic practices involved in everyday hospitality situations. We compare offers in Arabic and English and, rather than focusing on the differences between the ways interactants in these two cultures make offers, we challenge the notion that offering is in essence differently handled in the two languages. We argue instead that we should focus just as much on the similarities between the ways offers are made, since no two cultural/linguistic groups are d...

  18. Diacritic Oriented Arabic Information Retrieval System

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Saleh Aloufi

    2011-01-01

    Arabic language support in search engines and operating systems is improved in recentyears. Searching in the Internet is reliable and can be compared to the excellent support forseveral other languages, including English. However, for text with diacritics there are somelimitations. For this reason, most Information retrieval (IR) systems remove diacritics from textand ignore it for its complexity. Searching text with diacritics is important for some kinds ofdocuments, such as those of religio...

  19. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    OpenAIRE

    Riadh BOUSLIMI; Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, o...

  20. Parsing Arabic Texts Using Rhetorical Structure Theory

    OpenAIRE

    H. I. Mathkour; A. A. Touir; W. A. Al-Sanea

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: Processing texts based on rhetorical structure theory has shown interesting results. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) improves the ability of extracting the semantic behind the processed text. Different applications such as information retrieval, text summarization, and text generation have proved to give better result using RST. The applicability of RST to process and understand texts has been studied in several languages, but little is devoted to the Arabic language. Giv...

  1. United Arab Emirates: Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Financial System Stability Assessment on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) examines macroeconomic and financial sector developments. The banking sector as a whole shows comfortable levels of capitalization and profits, having benefited from the rapid expansion of the economy and a steady decline in the ratio of nonperforming loans (NPLs) to total loans. Although mortgages still account for a relatively small part of bank loan portfolios, the indirect exposure could be significant. Some fina...

  2. Writer Identification of Arabic Handwritten Digits

    OpenAIRE

    Awaida, Sameh; Mahmoud, Sabri

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the identification of Arabic handwritten digits. In addition to digit identifiability, the paper presents digit recognition. The digit image is divided into grids based on the distribution of the black pixels in the image. Several types of features are extracted (viz. gradient, curvature, density, horizontal and vertical run lengths, stroke, and concavity features) from the grid segments. K-Nearest Neighbor and Nearest Mean classifiers are used. A database of 70000 of Ara...

  3. Perceptual Recognition of Arabic Literal Amounts

    OpenAIRE

    Labiba Souici Meslati; Mokhtar Sellami

    2012-01-01

    Since humans are the best readers, one of the most promising trends in automatic handwriting recognition is to get inspiration from psychological reading models. The underlying idea is to derive benefits from studies of human reading, in order to build efficient automatic reading systems. In this context, we propose a human reading inspired system for the recognition of Arabic handwritten literalamounts. Our approach is based on the McClelland and Rumelhart's neural model called IAM, which is...

  4. Gunpowder and Arab Firearms in Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available THERE is no certainty as to the actual date of the invention of gunpowder. The evidence that the Chinese possessed it in ancient times is not conclusive. Among the claimants of discovering gunpowder are Chinese, Indians, Greeks, Arabs, English and Germans. Who first thought of propelling a ball through a metal tube by exploding gunpowder is unknown; anyhow; it certainly was not Monk Berthold Schwartz.

    Consultar resumen en inglés.

  5. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Mehmet; Korkut, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were go...

  6. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Zouaghi; Mounir Zrigui; Georges Antoniadis; Laroussi Merhbene

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, an...

  7. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  8. Aspects of Modern Standard Arabic Use in Everyday Conversation: The Case of School Teachers of Arabic in Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    BAGUI, Hayet

    2012-01-01

    This research work endeavours to examine the phenomenon of code switching by Arabic language teachers from Algerian Arabic to Modern Standard Arabic in daily life conversation. It attempts to diagnose the reasons that stand behind this linguistic behaviour. It takes Tlemcen school teachers as a case study. By means of a set of research tools, this sociolinguistic inquiry has hypothesized that the determinant factors are: attitudes towards MSA and AA, the teaching experience, and the topic dis...

  9. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  10. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  11. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  12. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  13. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  14. Heterogeneous impact of traveling to Western countries on gender norms in Middle East and North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanov, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Social gender norms shape individuals’ opportunities and actions. Traditional and gender biased norms can contribute to persistent gender disparities. However, counter-stereotypical images can shift an expected behavior for men and women. This paper investigates if traveling to Western countries relaxes gender norms in the Middle East and North Africa region using the Arab Barometer data. Preliminary empirical findings suggest that international travel to Western countries is associated with ...

  15. Genetics of multifactorial disorders: proceedings of the 6th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pratibha; Bizzari, Sami; Rajah, Nirmal; Assaf, Nada; Al-Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2016-01-01

    The 6th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference (PAHGC), "Genetics of Multifactorial Disorders" was organized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 21 to 23 January, 2016. The PAHGCs are held biennially to provide a common platform to bring together regional and international geneticists to share their knowledge and to discuss common issues. Over 800 delegates attended the first 2 days of the conference and these came from various medical and scientific backgrounds. They consisted of geneticists, molecular biologists, medical practitioners, postdoctoral researchers, technical staff (e.g., nurses and lab technicians) and medical students from 35 countries around the world. On the 3rd day, a one-day workshop on "Genetic Counseling" was delivered to 26 participants. The conference focused on four major topics, namely, diabetes, genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders, congenital anomalies and cancer genetics. Personalized medicine was a recurrent theme in most of the research presented at the conference, as was the application of novel molecular findings in clinical settings. This report discusses a summary of the presentations from the meeting. PMID:27095177

  16. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  17. "They Didn't Consider Me and No-One Even Took Me into Account": Female School Principals in the Arab Education System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The study of women's management and leadership in education has become a central research topic and the copious work published in many countries encompasses various issues relating to gender and educational leadership. The study of female school principals from the Arab minority in Israel has only recently begun. This is a minority that lives…

  18. Energy Statistics Manual [Arabic version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  19. Arab Spring’: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and Their Vision of Islamic Finance and State (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Zidane Meriboute

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses the Muslim Brotherhood movement (Ikhwan al-muslimin) in its various guises. Born in the interwar period, this global, proselytising Islamic movement underwent a veritable resurgence, even a resurrection, in Muslim countries from the 1980s onwards. Founded in 1928 by the Egyptian Hassan al-Banna (1906–1949), the recent ‘Arab Spring’ phenomenon has given it fresh momentum. Significantly, the Muslim Brotherhood movement has taken the reins of Egypt, the most populous state ...

  20. On Being an Arab Student in the UK: An Autoethnographic Study on the Experiences of Overseas Students in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Awada, Hussein

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation uses autoethnography to provide a rich illustration of the difficulties that face overseas students in the UK higher educational system. I write several stories to present the key difficulties that I, as an Arab student, faced during my undergraduate and postgraduate studies in England. The focus of the stories is on the social and academic difficulties that result from the differences in my home and host countries cultural values and educational systems. The main aim of the...

  1. Performance économique de l’industrie du droit d’auteur dans certains pays arabes

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key copyright-based industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five n...

  2. The political economy of the United Arab Emirates : an analysis of the UAE as an oil rentier state

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The core question of this thesis is: In what way does the government use the oil economy as an instrument in securing political stability in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)? The political stability enjoyed by the UAE is remarkable. The country has witnessed no major changes in their political institutions during the years of its existence. There has been some tension at the federal level, but not of such a kind that the organisation of political power has changed. In addition, the federati...

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarti, Stéphanie; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ positive illness perceptions (IPs) significantly contribute to treatment success. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) is widely used in various diseases for assessing IPs. It was developed in English-speaking countries and studies on it in Arab countries are scarce. Objectives, Setting and design This observational cross-sectional study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ English version into a modern Arabic language version and determine its psychometric properties in a sample of Lebanese cardiac disease patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon. Participants A convenience sample of 30 patients with cardiac disease were recruited during routine visits to cardiologists’ offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Inclusion criteria were at least one cardiac disease for at least 6 months with no acute episode or exacerbation of the disease during the 6 preceding months, age≥18 years, and the ability to read and comprehend Arabic. The pre-final version of the Brief IPQ Arabic version was tested for face and content validity. The meaning, comprehensibility, and acceptability were studied by individual interviews. For discriminant validity and internal consistency of the Brief IPQ Arabic version (Brief IPQ-Ar), 100 patients were recruited in a similar manner using the same inclusion criteria. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients, selected randomly from the 100 patients, filled the questionnaire a second time, 3–4 weeks after its first administration and under the same conditions. Main outcome measures Psychometric properties of the Brief IPQ-Ar among Lebanese patients suffering from cardiac diseases. Results Semantic equivalence between the Brief IPQ-Ar questions and patients’ descriptions was 100%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.717, which shows good internal consistency. Reproducibility was satisfactory (ICC values>0.776). Moreover, the Brief IPQ

  4. Arab Animated Cartoons : Mediating and Negotiating Notions of Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayfo, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and pol

  5. "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature: Arabic and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…

  6. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.

    The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…

  7. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary on the...

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  9. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  10. Islam, Modernity and Education in the Arab States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which Arab education systems have responded to the challenges of modernity alongside framing structures of religion. Focusing mainly on the tertiary education sector, it offers a critical overview of the way in which Arab education authorities have sought, collectively and individually, to address both secular and…

  11. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  12. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  13. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  14. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN DISKOVERI SEBAGAI STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erta Mahyudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching strategy is very important in Arabic Classroom. It covers design and dimension. One of the model in the instructional design is discovery learning. In teaching Arabic language discovery model called guided discovery. In this model the exposure of linguistic material is given firstly, and followed by the rule of language.

  15. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  16. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...

  17. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  18. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  19. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  20. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  1. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study…

  2. Who Benefits from Foreign Universities in the Arab Gulf States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The Arab Gulf States are the largest hosts of international branch campuses globally. By increasing higher education capacity in the Arab Gulf States by over 30,000 places, foreign institutions have, through various forms of transnational provision, increased significantly the accessibility of higher education to young people living in these…

  3. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  4. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  5. Arab Teachers and Holocaust Education: Arab Teachers Study Holocaust Education in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Edna; Shiloah, Neomi; Kalisman, Raya

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether change occurred in the attitudes of Arab teachers in Israel toward Holocaust education following an inservice study course. Survey and interview data indicated that after the course, teachers had a better understanding of what occurred during the Holocaust, and their willingness to know about its effects on Jewish people…

  6. Le monde arabe face aux d\\'efis de l'eau : enjeux et conflits

    OpenAIRE

    Mutin, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, water has become a global concern. This essential and irreplaceable resource is unevenly distributed between Continents. North Africa and Middle East Arabic countries appear to be the most menaced area. From a starting point : 4.3% of the world population has access to only 0.67% of the resources for sustainable soft water. After decades of voluntarism, self-help, and of technical and development keen interest, times of worries have started. Since the 50's, all the efforts,...

  7. FAKTOR DEMOTIVASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISWA MADRASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Muhammad Saepul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays important role in language learning. When the language learner’s motivation is decreasing then he is being in a demotivation stage. Several previous studies in reveal that demotivation could diminish the student achievement in language skill. The phenomenon of this demotivation is rising in Arabic language learning in Indonesia’s madrasa. Using qualitative method with short essay from 105 students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN Cianjur, this study shows two major factors that cause demotivation in Arabic learning: external and internal. Specific external factors come from: (1 complexity of Arabic language; (2 learning material and method; (3 learning facility and environment; and (4 teacher’s behavior and personality. While internal factor sources are: (1 basic skill and previous learning experience; (2 negative attitude to Arabic subject. These factors need to be considered by teacher and other stakeholder as basic reference to increase student’s motivation in Arabic learning.

  8. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  9. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  10. Water ethics perspectives in the Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic

  11. Ideological Tensions in the Ranks of Syrian Officers: the Trigger of Military Circles Transformation in the Country?

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kostrounova

    2012-01-01

    Despite the research by some authors on the Syrian Arab Republic and its stand in the Middle East Region, little is known about the perspective of the Syrian military, unofficially called the “elder statesman”, who rules this country. The overall image that emerges not only from the Arab media during the revolutionary year 2011 is ambivalent: lazy, corrupt, unpatriotic, apathetic soldiers with poor fighting spirits versus the Free Syrian Army newly formed in July 2011. This paper recovers som...

  12. Disjoint Reference in Modern Standard Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Islam M. Al-Momani

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims at providing an explanation of pronominals in Modern Standard Arabic (hereafter MSA) by assuming that the relation between pronouns and available binders is constrained by the same syntactic condition, i.e., a pronoun cannot be coindexed with a c-commanding NP within its local domain.  It also aims at providing a unified account of two types of pronominals in MSA, referential and bound pronouns. These two types of pronouns have different values for their binders; where a refere...

  13. Siamese twins in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gohary, M A

    1998-03-01

    In the years 1985-1992, ten pairs of conjoined twins were born in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): one dicephalus, two teratopagi, and seven thoracoomphalopagi, one of which was still-born and three who were cared for in other hospitals. The first pair of thoraco-omphalopagus twins died of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 months after successful separation. The management of the third set of twins gave rise to moral and ethical problems often encountered in such situations, while one of the teratopagi was a unique case of a parasite projecting from the mouth of the normal twin. PMID:9563031

  14. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Benselama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [∫]. Results obtained are satisfying and the therapy program is prepared, for autonomous use by patients, for deep analysis and verifications.

  15. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in Arab children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Al, Y K; Shabani, I S; Lubani, M M; al-Ghawabi, M A; Ibrahim, M D; al-Mohtaseb, S; Duodin, K I

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen Arab children including six boys and 13 girls in ten sibships were diagnosed as having osteopetrosis over a 5-year period in various hospitals in Kuwait. Eighteen patients had an isolated autosomal recessive form and one had autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis. The mean age of diagnosis was 24 months. Parental consanguinity was high amongst them (68%). Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive, recurrent infections and neurological manifestations were common. Associated congenital abnormalities were found in 26%. Deafness, hydrocephalus and dental caries were relatively less common. A high mortality (37%) owing to infection was noted. The medical management and recommendations for patient care are discussed briefly. PMID:7516136

  16. The United States and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kivimäki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals, by studying correlative relationships between US regime support and regime properties, that the US foreign policy in the Middle East has traditionally helped governments to limit the political participation of Islamists, communists, enemies of Israel and populations that could be hostile to the US oil interests. This way the US economic and strategic security interests have contributed to human insecurity in the region. With the exception of the last interest, the US has relaxed its support for repression of the above-mentioned groups. This seems to be one of the international factors that made the Arab Spring possible.

  17. Hierachical Arabic Phoneme Recognition using MFCC Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduladhem Abdulkareem Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hierarchical Arabic phoneme recognition system is proposed in which Mel FrequencyCepstrum Coefficients (MFCC features is used to train the hierarchical neural networks architecture.Here, separate neural networks (subnetworks are to be recursively trained to recognize subsets ofphonemes. The overall recognition process is a combination of the outputs of these subnetworks.Experiments that explore the performance of the proposed hierarchical system in comparison to nonhierarchical(flat baseline systems are also presented in this paper.

  18. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  19. Reliability and known-group validity of the Arabic version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, S T; Shamsuddin, K; Shah, S A; Bosseri, S; Morisky, D E

    2015-10-01

    No validation study has previously been made for the Arabic version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8(©)) as a measure for medication adherence in diabetes. This study in 2013 tested the reliability and validity of the Arabic MMAS-8 for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a referral centre in Tripoli, Libya. A convenience sample of 103 patients self-completed the questionnaire. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha, average inter-item correlation and Spearman-Brown coefficient. Known-group validity was tested by comparing MMAS-8 scores of patients grouped by glycaemic control. The Arabic version showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.70) and moderate split-half reliability (r = 0.65). Known-group validity was supported as a significant association was found between medication adherence and glycaemic control, with a moderate effect size (ϕc = 0.34). The Arabic version displayed good psychometric properties and could support diabetes research and practice in Arab countries. PMID:26750162

  20. Travel-Related AIDS Awareness Among Young Gulf Arab Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulla KMA; Pugh; Hossain; Behrens

    1996-12-01

    Background: The Federal Ministry of Health of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a vigorous AIDS control programme that conforms to international guidelines. Available information on HIV infection in the Al Ain district (UAE) shows a low incidence among its citizens and a low frequency of spread by the sexual route. This is in keeping with cultural factors perceived to have withstood the potential for sexual spread in the Arabian Gulf area. However, there is an acknowledged concern for the risk to young male citizens while traveling abroad to popular destinations such as India, Thailand, and the Philippines. Methods: The authors attempted to determine the knowledge and attitude about AIDS among Emirati males (aged 18-25 years) by confidential, self-administered questionnaire (modification of a tested approach in the UK). A total sample of 298 subjects participated (94% response), comprising 47 medical students (16%), 194 nonmedical students (65%), and 57 school graduates (19%). Of all participants, 253 (85%) were unmarried. Results: Salient discriminatory findings were that medical students significantly differed from the other two groups in stating that AIDS could not be identified in a person by appearance (p=.003) and that the use of condoms was protective while traveling abroad (pAsian countries outside the Gulf region and 20% intended to visit. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a prevailing uncertainty about AIDS knowledge and a possible fear of AIDS, both of which tend to increase acceptance of special education programmes. PMID:9815461

  1. Testing Legal Boundaries within Arab Media Hubs: Reporting, Law and Politics in Three Media Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysiek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic transformation of the Arab world raises important questions about the character of structural alterations within Arab regimes. This transition has effected several changes in the legal sphere of Arab media. Rejecting the paradigm of the Arab world’s democratization, this article argues for the Arab regimes’ ability to adjust to globalization trends without a substantial loss of power. Based on empirical evidence, the legal aspects that govern media organizations within free media zo...

  2. Implementing Arabic-to-English Machine Translation Using the Role and Reference Grammar Linguistic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Yasser; Hensman, Arnold; Nolan, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents work-in-progress investigating the development of a rule-based lexical framework for Arabic language processing using the Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) linguistic model. A system, called UniArab is introduced in this research to support the framework. The paper outlines the conceptual structure of UniArab System, which utilizes the framework and translates the Arabic language into another natural language. Also, this paper explores how the characteristics of the Arabic ...

  3. Exploiting Out-of-Domain Data Sources for Dialectal Arabic Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Katrin; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Statistical machine translation for dialectal Arabic is characterized by a lack of data since data acquisition involves the transcription and translation of spoken language. In this study we develop techniques for extracting parallel data for one particular dialect of Arabic (Iraqi Arabic) from out-of-domain corpora in different dialects of Arabic or in Modern Standard Arabic. We compare two different data selection strategies (cross-entropy based and submodular selection) and demonstrate tha...

  4. Diacritic Oriented Arabic Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Saleh Aloufi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language support in search engines and operating systems is improved in recentyears. Searching in the Internet is reliable and can be compared to the excellent support forseveral other languages, including English. However, for text with diacritics there are somelimitations. For this reason, most Information retrieval (IR systems remove diacritics from textand ignore it for its complexity. Searching text with diacritics is important for some kinds ofdocuments, such as those of religious books, some newspapers and children stories. Thisresearch shows the design and development of the system that overcome the problem. Theproposed system considers diacritics. The proposed system includes the design complexity inthe retrieving algorithm rather than the information repository, which is database in this study.Also, this study analyses the results and the performance. Results are promising andperformance analysis shows methods to enhance design and increase the performance. Theproposed system can be integrated in search engines, text editors and any informationretrieval system that include Arabic text. Performance analysis of the proposed system showsthat this system is reliable. The proposed system is applied on database of Hadeeth, which isreligious book includes the prophet action and statements. The system can be applied in anykind of data repository.

  5. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  6. ARAB WOMEN DISCRIMINATION IN THE ISRAELI LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redan ABU AHMAD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extremely important problem for affirmation and welfare of Arab women in Israel. The author presents the situation on Israel labor market and the conditions that favor the perpetuation of discrimination against women, and the Arab population versus the Jewish. It also analyzed the social policies and measures to increase participation of Arab women in the labor market.DISCRIMINAREA FEMEILOR ARABE PE PIAŢA FORŢEI DE MUNCĂ DIN ISRAEL În articol este abordată o problemă extrem de importantă pentru afirmarea şi bunăstarea femeilor arabe din Israel. Autoarea prezintă situaţia pe piaţa forţei de muncă din Israel şi condiţiile care favorizează perpetuarea discriminării femeilor, dar şi a populaţiei arabe comparativ cu cea evreiască. De asemenea, sunt analizate şi politicile sociale destinate să ridice nivelul de participare a femeilor arabe la piaţa forţei de muncă.

  7. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs. PMID:15722265

  8. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  9. Dualism of Spirit-Material in Arabic Islamic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed H. Yaseen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current studies of Arabic Islamic architecture indicates different theoretical bases, whether in its definition or analyses, between different thinkers and researchers, dependable on the cultural, thoughtful and ideological   bases of related references; thus, we can find Arabic Islamic architecture, both in urban planning and architectural point of view, in the light of deferent visions  of: western thinkers, as an artistic forms and compositions, Arab national pioneers, analyzing its components on Arab society values, declined from its establishment of Arab desert and its impact on its rural culture; and radical Muslims thinkers restricting it on certain historical period, trying to reform it according to blocked theoretical rules, giving up its capability to development, sustainability and renewal.19The reason of all these problems is the ambiguity of the comprehensive emphasizes of one the most effective bases of Arabic Islamic architecture, which is the balance between the poles of spirit-material dualism; so that, some thinkers stood on one pole of this dualism, trying to study it through this defect point of view; meanwhile others stand on the other pole; without conscious or preconscious of the other pole, consequently the result of this hard shortage in identifying the bases of Arabic Islamic architecture in most of these studies.This research concludes an example of Arabic Islamic cities, Samarra City, which passed on different ages, lasting from Abbasid age to modern age, reflecting different spiritual and materialistic changes according to change in political, economic, social and cultural regimes; all these indicated by the vital ruins, obviously translating these changes, where it appoints the importance of the  balance between  both poles of this dualism, to illustrate vision of Arabic Islamic City, through these ages.

  10. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, English words order in target language is not the same order as the Arabic source language, so the translation from English to Arabic definitely needs effort to synchronize words between English and Arabic that based on matching rules grammar between both languages. Approach: This study focuses on the existing Context Free Grammar (CFG format as well as identifying the Part Of Speech (POS for single words and reordering the CFG for reorder purpose of English structure to Arabic structure and validate the reorder CFG constructed by the algorithm. Reordering algorithm is a system for translating structured English sentence in text to structure Arabic sentence in text that runs compatibly with English/Arabic interface. English dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word categories (POS and Bi-lingual dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word meaning relative to categories in approach format. Results: The domain area include twenty (20 abstracts containing ninety five (95 sentences have been tested in order to verify the authenticity of computer translation algorithm and the result were compared with human translation. The results obtain shows that the reordering rules is 81.855% accuracy on a translation from English Language to Arabic using an abstract from the European Psychiatry Journal. Conclusion: Based on the achieved results, we have managed to perform the syntactic reordering within an English sentence in text

  11. Energy Poverty in the Arab World: The Case of Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam

    2011-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the literature on energy poverty is on the prevalence of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, little has been written about energy poverty in the Arab world. Traditionally having being seen as one of the world’s most energy rich regions, the Arab world has in recent years often been overlooked as a region which suffers severely from energy poverty itself. In 2002, about 65 million people in the Arab world had no access to electricity, and an addi...

  12. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  13. Women on the Arab labour market. Option becoming reality

    OpenAIRE

    Górak-Sosnowska, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...

  14. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  15. The Design of a Corpus of Contemporary Arabic (CCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sulaiti, L; Atwell, ES

    2003-01-01

    Corpora are an important resource for both teaching and research. Since Arabic lacks enough resources in this field, a research project has been designed to compile a corpus, which represents the state of the Arabic language at the present time and the needs of end-users. This report presents the result of a survey of the needs of teachers of Arabic as a foreign language (TAFL) and language engineers. A quantitative analysis of the result shows that a number of text types should have priority...

  16. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  17. Introduction to Arabic Speech Recognition Using CMUSphinx System

    CERN Document Server

    Satori, H; Chenfour, N

    2007-01-01

    In this paper Arabic was investigated from the speech recognition problem point of view. We propose a novel approach to build an Arabic Automated Speech Recognition System (ASR). This system is based on the open source CMU Sphinx-4, from the Carnegie Mellon University. CMU Sphinx is a large-vocabulary; speaker-independent, continuous speech recognition system based on discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). We build a model using utilities from the OpenSource CMU Sphinx. We will demonstrate the possible adaptability of this system to Arabic voice recognition.

  18. Economic freedom in Muslim countries : an explanation using the theory of institutional path dependency

    OpenAIRE

    François Facchini

    2011-01-01

    This article explains the level of economic freedom in Muslim countries through the theory of institutional path dependency. Islamic countries are generally not free and they have a poor record regarding property rights. To explain these realities we use the institutional history of Muslim countries. We define three steps : the Arab and Ottoman Empires when Islamic law was of great importance, European colonisation, and the contemporary era with its movement towards a revival of Islam. Islami...

  19. Arabic Phrase-Level Contextual Polarity Recognition to Enhance Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Abdelrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of opinion mining works need lexical resources for opinion which recognize the polarity of words (positive/ negative regardless their contexts which called prior polarity. The word prior polarity may be changed when it is considered in its contexts, for example, positive words may be used in phrases expressing negative sentiments, or vice versa. In this paper, we aim at generating sentiment Arabic lexical semantic database having the word prior coupled with its contextual polarities and the related phrases. To do that, we study first the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and Support Vector Machine classifier. We then use the seminal English two-step contextual polarity phrase-level recognition approach to enhance word polarities within its contexts. Our results achieve significant improvement over baselines.

  20. Zack Liesbeth & Schippers Arie, Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic. Diachrony and S

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif restitue une partie des communications présentées lors de la deuxième conférence de l’Association internationale pour l’étude du moyen arabe et des variétés mixtes de l’arabe (AIMA) qui s’est tenue à l’université d’Amsterdam en 2007. La première conférence de l’AIMA, tenue à Louvain en 2004, a donné lieu à une importante publication (Lentin & Grand’Henry, 2008), incluant une bibliographie très exhaustive présentée par J. Lentin. Une troisième conférence a eu lieu en 2010...

  1. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Zaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037, Rhazes (965–915, Al Zahrawi (936–1013, and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288 referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients.

  2. Le monde arabe face aux d\\'efis de l'eau : enjeux et conflits

    CERN Document Server

    Mutin, Georges

    2009-01-01

    In the past years, water has become a global concern. This essential and irreplaceable resource is unevenly distributed between Continents. North Africa and Middle East Arabic countries appear to be the most menaced area. From a starting point : 4.3% of the world population has access to only 0.67% of the resources for sustainable soft water. After decades of voluntarism, self-help, and of technical and development keen interest, times of worries have started. Since the 50's, all the efforts, in the Arabic World, have tended towards the mobilization of increasing volumes. The expected advantages of irrigated agriculture and production of electricity have been lauded, as well as the extension of distribution networks in cities and country side districts. Today's big construction works contribute to legitimize present acting teams: projects such as the Assouan high dam in Egypt, in its time the largest in the world and the Syrian dam of Tabqa, the Moroccan slogan for a million irrigated hectares. Under the trip...

  3. ArabicTutor: a Multimedia m-Learning Platform for Learning Arabic Spelling and Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Erradi, A.; Al-kailani, Lubna; Almerekhi, Hind; Nahia, Sajeda

    2012-01-01

    Internet-enabled Mobile devices are increasingly used for enhancing the learning experience particularly for language learning. They can be exploited to allow learners to access and interact with multimedia learning resources from anywhere and at any time while offering an enhanced user experience. There are many systems for English learning such as SpellingCity.com. However there aren’t many such mobile learning tools for Arabic. In this context, this paper addresses the need to leverage mob...

  4. ARABIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS TO ENHANCE ARABIC DOCUMENTS CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  5. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  6. High-school Students’ Beliefs about Learning English and Arabic

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    Maryam Meshkat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comparative study exploring Iranian high-school students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic. Horwitz’s (1987 Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI was used to collect data from 540 high-school students. One-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the data. The MANOVA results revealed significant differences (F (5, 533 = 47.72, P =.000 between students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic in four categories of the BALLI: foreign language aptitude, the nature of language learning, learning and communication strategies, and motivation and expectations. Students’ beliefs about the difficulty of learning English and Arabic were not significantly different. The findings might be influential in developing and designing more effective language teaching programs in high-school context.Keywords: Foreign language learning, Beliefs about language learning, BALLI, High-school students, Arabic

  7. Arabic Keyphrase Extraction using Linguistic knowledge and Machine Learning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    El-shishtawy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a supervised learning technique for extracting keyphrases of Arabic documents is presented. The extractor is supplied with linguistic knowledge to enhance its efficiency instead of relying only on statistical information such as term frequency and distance. During analysis, an annotated Arabic corpus is used to extract the required lexical features of the document words. The knowledge also includes syntactic rules based on part of speech tags and allowed word sequences to extract the candidate keyphrases. In this work, the abstract form of Arabic words is used instead of its stem form to represent the candidate terms. The Abstract form hides most of the inflections found in Arabic words. The paper introduces new features of keyphrases based on linguistic knowledge, to capture titles and subtitles of a document. A simple ANOVA test is used to evaluate the validity of selected features. Then, the learning model is built using the LDA - Linear Discriminant Analysis - and training documents. Althou...

  8. Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidan, A A; Jalab, Hamid A; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami

    2010-01-01

    The ambition of a character recognition system is to transform a text document typed on paper into a digital format that can be manipulated by word processor software Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features, while other language doesn't have, from this language these are seven or eight language such as ordo, jewie and Persian writing, Arabic has twenty eight letters, each of which can be linked in three different ways or separated depending on the case. The difficulty of the Arabic handwriting recognition is that, the accuracy of the character recognition which affects on the accuracy of the word recognition, in additional there is also two or three from for each character, the suggested solution by using artificial neural network can solve the problem and overcome the difficulty of Arabic handwriting recognition.

  9. DEVELOPING AN ARABIC PLAGIARISM DETECTION CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Ahmed Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A corpus is a collection of documents. It is a valuable resource in linguistics research to perform statistical analysis and testing hypothesis for different linguistic rules. An annotated corpus consists of documents or entities annotated with some task related labels such as part of speech tags, sentiment etc One such task is plagiarism detection that seeks to identify if a given document is plagiarized or not. This paper describes our efforts to build a plagiarism detection corpus for Arabic. The corpus consists of about 350 plagiarized – source document pairs and more than 250 documents where no plagiarism was found. The plagiarized documents consists of students submitted assignments. For each of the plagiarized documents, the source document was located from the Web and downloaded for further investigation. We report corpus statistics including number of documents, number of sentences and number of tokens for each of the plagiarized and source categories.

  10. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters. PMID:11640512

  11. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zouaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, and the corpus. We use the measures employed in the domain of information retrieval, Harman, Croft, and Okapi combined to the Lesk algorithm, to assign the correct sense of those proposed.

  12. COULD GCC COUNTRIES ACHIEVE AN OPTIMAL CURRENCY AREA?

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED BENBOUZIANE; ABDELHAK BENAMAR

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test for the possibility of an optimal currency area (OCA) in the six Gulf countries (namely: Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates (UAE)). To constitute such an OCA, however, they must satisfy certain preconditions; i.e., they must have similar economic structures with exposure to symmetric shocks, they must be open, well-diversified economies, and they must also ensure a high degree of factor mobility. The objective of th...

  13. Using Arabic in Testing Reading Comprehension in English

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Jihad [جهاد حمدان; Diab, Turki [تركي دياب

    1997-01-01

    This study aims at examining the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing reading comprehension in the foreign language (English). It reports on the findings of a case study in which two test versions, one in Arabic and another in English , were used to assess the effect of the language of the test on the reading comprehension performance of 60 secondary school students in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in their prescribed textbook, two compr...

  14. Evaluating English to Arabic Machine Translation Using BLEU

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi; Taghreed M. Hailat; Emad M. Al-Shawakfa; Izzat M. AlSmadi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two popular machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system) used to translate English sentences into Arabic relative to the effectiveness of English to Arabic human translation. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) method, which was adopted and implemented to achieve the main goal of this study. BLEU meth...

  15. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  16. MARKET CHAIN ANALYSIS OF GUM ARABIC TRADE IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Muga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality, quantity, availability and economics are the key factors that affect the marketing of any product, irrespective of whether it is for domestic, national or international market. The consumer requires the product to be available in time, be of desired quality and quantity. The market of gum arabic is a good example of how the interplay of quality, quantity, availability and economics affect a product market. In Kenya, trade in gum arabic has remained informal due to inadequate marketing arrangements attributed to limited participation of gum arabic collectors in the development of the sector and a non-conducive business environment, which does not favor private sector expansion. This paper looked at the market chains of gum arabic, the stakeholders participating in the management and marketing of A. senegal products and the constraints to gum arabic production and collection within the Kenyan drylands. The results confirmed that the market chain of gum arabic was and is still poorly organized with only one company and a few individual traders being the major buyers. Wildlife related factors and price were the key constraints to gum arabic collection while production was limited by unreliable rainfall due prolonged droughts. Quality of the gum and road network determined the price with different grades attracting different rates per kilogram in different areas. SALTLICK and AWF were the chief stakeholders involved in A. senegal tree resources management. The study has shown that there is willingness of the locals to engage in full time gum collection if ready market can be availed to them. Nevertheless, numerous constraints need to be addressed to make gum arabic collection an attractive venture to the local communities’ key among them being the purchase price.

  17. The Need for Interdisciplinary Research of the Arab Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ayish; Harris Breslow

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reviews mainstream models of mass communication research in the Arab world and proposes an interdisciplinary perspective that addresses communication within a broader theoretical and analytical framework. Scholarly works on 20th century Arab mass communication can be placed in six subject categories: propaganda, development communication, historical accounts, international news flow, technical and professional works, and general theoretical works (Ayish, 1998). Recent si...

  18. Cross-Word Modeling for Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    AbuZeina, Dia

    2012-01-01

    "Cross-Word Modeling for Arabic Speech Recognition" utilizes phonological rules in order to model the cross-word problem, a merging of adjacent words in speech caused by continuous speech, to enhance the performance of continuous speech recognition systems. The author aims to provide an understanding of the cross-word problem and how it can be avoided, specifically focusing on Arabic phonology using an HHM-based classifier.

  19. Arabic Natural Language Processing Laboratory serving Islamic Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Moath M. Najeeb; Abdelkarim A. Abdelkader; Musab B. Al-Zghoul

    2014-01-01

    Arabic Natural Language Processing (ANLP) has a great attention as a new research topic in the last few years. In this paper an ANLP laboratory has been created to serve the Islamic Sciences, especially the science of Hadith. The main tasks of this laboratory are creating and using the necessary linguistic resources (Corpora, Lexicon, etc) in developing or adapting the basic tools (Parser, POS-tagger, etc), developing Arabic Natural Language Processing system’s evaluation framework and defini...

  20. Internet-Assisted Language Leaming (IALL) and Developing Arabic Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Bajwa

    2009-01-01

    The field of TAFL (Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language) ts m great need of pedagogical advancement that responds to the challenges of multiglossia and learner goals. Basic technology, such as the internet, is an untapped resource for such advancement and yet remains an uncomfortable domain for many Arabic language teachers. Resting on the assumption that encouraging students to take an active role outside of the classroom as autonomous learners facilitates and contribut...