Sample records for ar structural evolution

  1. Unveiling Turrialba (Costa Rica) volcano's latest geological evolution through new 40Ar/39Ar, ages (United States)

    Ruiz Cubillo, P.; Turrin, B. D.; Soto, G. J.; Del Potro, R.; Gagnevin, D.; Gazel, E.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Carr, M. J.; Swisher, C. C.


    Step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dating experiments on whole rock matrix were performed on samples from eight key lava flow units from Turrialba, the easternmost volcano of the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. Our results, together with available corrected 14C ages, recent mapping and new geochemical analyses, are part of a study to reconstruct Turrialba’s evolution. The project is being conducted as part of wider studies because of the increase in volcanic activity during the last three years. The geochemical compositions of the lava flow units span the range from basalts to dacites, and commonly have high K2O concentrations, making them good candidates for 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dating. The ages reported here correspond to the Paleo Turrialba (600-250 ka) and Neo Turrialba (< 250 ka) temporal stages. Sample TUR-38 (251 ± 4 ka) belongs to the latest unit of Paleo Turrialba stage, known as Finca Liebres volcano, while the remaining seven samples belong to Neo Turrialba: TUR-30 (99 ± 3 ka), TUR-19 (90 ± 4 ka), TUR-32 (62 ± 2 ka) TUR-33 (61 ± 2 ka), TUR-12 (25 ± 1.9 ka), TUR-36 (10 ± 3 ka) and TUR-08 (3 ± 3 ka). All the obtained ages in this study are in agreement with the local stratigraphy and prior 14C age determinations, adding robustness to our results. According to ages obtained and the areal distribution of the sampled units, the most important construction period of the massif was during the Neo-Turrialba stage which has passed through two important constructing episodes, around 100-60 ka and 10 ka-present. Although our results include some very young ages, all of them meet the established evaluation criteria used for plateau and isochron ages, commonly used for 40Ar/39Ar dating. Furthermore, we used a protocol that closely monitors the mass spectrometer mass discrimination during the measurements to provide additional control. Three of the eight 40Ar/39Ar ages reported here are remarkably young (25 ka or less). Two of those are the samples with the

  2. The Structure of the DoAr 25 Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, D J; Qi, Chunhua


    We present high spatial resolution (< 0.3" = 40$ AU) Submillimeter Array observations of the 865 micron continuum emission from the circumstellar disk around the young star DoAr 25. Despite its bright millimeter emission, this source exhibits only a comparatively small infrared excess and low accretion rate, suggesting that the material and structural properties of the inner disk may be in an advanced state of evolution. A simple model of the physical conditions in the disk is derived from the submillimeter visibilities and the complete spectral energy distribution using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. For the standard assumption of a homogeneous grain size distribution at all disk radii, the results indicate a shallow surface density profile, $\\Sigma \\propto r^{-p}$ with p = 0.34, significantly less steep than a steady-state accretion disk (p = 1) or the often adopted minimum mass solar nebula (p = 1.5). Even though the total mass of material is large (M_d = 0.10 M_sun), the densities inferred in t...

  3. Cadomian vs. Variscan evolution of the Ossa-Morena zone (SW Iberia): field and 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral age constraints (United States)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Quesada, C.


    . 390-400 Ma) rejuvenation of intracrystalline argon systems which had initially recorded ages > c. 500 Ma. Muscovite was concentrated from several lithologie elements in this area, including: (1) mylonitic Monesterio Granodiorite; (2) metasedimentary rocks of the Montemolin succession (displaying high-grade, sillimanite-potassium feldspar-bearing assemblages); and (3) migmatitic schist of the Siere Negra Group. These muscovite concentrates display similarly discordant 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra which suggest significant but incomplete Variscan rejuvenation occurred at c. 400 Ma. This appears to have affected intracrystalline argon systems which had initially cooled through appropriate closure temperatures sometime prior to c. 450 Ma following an initial high-grade (Cadomian?) metamorphism. The 40Ar/ 39Ar results clearly reflect a variable, complex, and polymetamorphic evolution for the Ossa-Morena zone. Internal consistency of data within each regional tectonic unit compared with marked contrast between the units provides evidence of the extremely heterogeneous Variscan tectonothermal overprint. The results demonstrate that the present tectonic architecture of the Ossa-Morena Zone was not solely the result of late Variscan wrench tectonics, but, instead, a consequence of processes active since at least the Lower-Middle Devonian. Juxtaposition of regional structural units with contrasting tectonothermal histories, and recording variable rates and extents of uplift are consistent with maintainence of an overall transpressional Variscan tectonic regime.

  4. Geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the evolution of volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Catalano, Joseph P.

    The tectonic mechanisms producing Pliocene to active volcanism in eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) have been debated for decades. In order to assess mechanisms that produce volcanism in the Woodlark Rift, we evaluate the evolution of volcanism in eastern PNG using 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology and whole rock geochemistry. Active volcanism in southeastern Papua New Guinea occurs on the Papuan Peninsula (Mt. Lamington, Mt. Victory and Waiwa), in the Woodlark Rift (Dobu Island, SE Goodenough Island, and Western Fergusson Island), and in the Woodlark Basin. In the Woodlark Basin, seafloor spreading is active and decompression melting of the upper mantle is producing basaltic magmatism. However, the cause of Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift is controversial. Two hypotheses for the tectonic setting have been proposed to explain Pliocene and younger volcanism in the Woodlark Rift: (1) southward subduction of Solomon Sea lithosphere beneath eastern PNG at the Trobriand Tough and (2) decompression melting of mantle, previously modified by subduction, as the lithosphere undergoes extension associated with the opening of the Woodlark Basin. A comparison of 40Ar/39Ar ages with high field strength element (HFSE) concentrations in primary magmas indicates that HFSE concentrations correlate with age in the Woodlark rift. These data support the hypothesis that Pliocene to active volcanism in the Woodlark Rise and D'Entrecasteaux Islands results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. The subduction zone geochemical signatures (negative HFSE anomalies) in Woodlark Rift lavas younger than 4 m.y. are a relict from older subduction beneath eastern Papua, likely in the middle Miocene. As the lithosphere is extended ahead of the tip of the westward propagating seafloor spreading center in the Woodlark Basin, the composition of volcanism is inherited from prior arc magmatism (via flux melting) and through time evolves toward magmatism associated with a rifting

  5. The Evolution of Vector Magnetic Field Associated with Major Flares in NOAA AR10656

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shuo Wang; Yuanyong Deng; Rajmal Jain; Vasyl Yurchyshyn; Haimin Wang; Yuanyuan Liu; Zhiliang Yang


    In this paper, we study the evolution of vector magnetic field of AR 10656 by using the observations of Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS, China) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO, USA). The magnetic flux emergence and cancellation, and thus, magnetic non-potential changes, are associated with the major flares in this active region. Compared with some other super-active regions, the evolution of magnetic morphologies and non-potentialities are relatively gradual, and thus the energy transportation and release are relatively slow. This gradual process may result in the recurrent flares of AR 10656.

  6. Behaviour of AR glass fibre for building structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravete, A.


    Full Text Available The AR glass reinforcement fibres were designed to resist the alkalis from the concrete. This is the main reason for its utilisation as a short-fibre-reinforcement of mortar and concrete for the last decades. Originally, the AR glass fibre sizing was not compatible with synthetic resins, so that this type of reinforcement was applied exclusively to mortar and concrete matrices. Recently, due to the developments of sizing, which are compatible with synthetic resins, the AR- glass fibres may be used as reinforcement of organic matrix composite materials, broadening the range of structural applications. The mechanical properties of AR glass fibre and organic matrix composite materials will be studied in this paper. First, the behaviour of this material under stress corrosion will be analysed. Their mass loss will be compared to E, C, and boron free glass fibres. Second, an experimental study dealing with 3P test bending and short beam ofAR glass fibre/polyester will de described with the goal of obtaining their Young modulus and tensile and interlaminar shear strengths. Finally, these experimental results will be compared to E glass fibre/polyester and several conclusions about their structural applications will be drawn.

    El vidrio AR y su presentación en forma de fibras de refuerzo, fue diseñado para ser inerte a los álcalis de los cementos. Por este motivo se viene utilizando desde hace varias décadas como refuerzo de morteros y hormigones en forma de fibra corta. El ensimaje que estas fibras de vidrio de refuerzo A R presentaba en su origen no era compatible con resinas de tipo sintéticas, por lo que el refuerzo era exclusivo para cementos y hormigones fuera cual fuera la aplicación, formato o proceso productivo. Recientemente, gracias al desarrollo específico de ensimajes especiales acordes a las fibras de vidrio AR ha aparecido la misma tipología de vidrio AR como refuerzo en forma de fibra continua compatible con resinas sint

  7. K/Ar ages, magnetic stratigraphy and morphological evolution of La Gomera: implications for the Canary Islands hotspot evolution. (United States)

    Paris, R.; Guillou, H.; Carracedo, J. C.; Pérez Torrado, F. J.


    The Canary Islands are a group of seven volcanic islands, 100-700 km west of the Sahara continental margin. The spatial and chronological evolution of the canarian volcanism, from east to west, is due to the progression of the slow-moving african plate on a hotspot. La Gomera is located between the western shield-growing stage islands (La Palma, 1,7 Ma and El Hierro, 1,1 Ma) and the central "rejuvaneted stage" islands (Tenerife, 11,9 Ma and Gran Canaria, 14,5 Ma). After 23 K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism datas, we determine the main volcanic phases of La Gomera : (1) the submarine shield volcano (> 9,5 Ma), (2) the first subaeriel shield volcano (9,43-7,36 Ma), (3) the Vallehermoso stratovolcan, (4) the peripheral "planèzes" and domes forming series (6,67-1,94 Ma) and the Garajonay horizontal series (5,42-4,25 Ma). The stratovolcano and the horizontal series fill a 10 km wide depression that is supposed to be a giant landslide embayment. The scarps of this landslide correspond to the main discontinuity in the island structure. After 4 M.y. of very scarce volcanism, the whole structure of La Gomera is in relief inversion, with a radial pattern of deep barrancos. The erosion rates are lower during the hiatus (< 0,2 m/ka) than during the shield stage (0,2-0,9 m/ka), pointing out the fact that the volcanic construction rates and the erosion rates are strongly correlated. La Gomera is one of the best example of a hiatus stage of hotspot evolution. The volcanic load La Gomera and Tenerife may have delayed the western islands volcanism, favouring a dual-line.

  8. Evolution of Anemone AR NOAA 10798 and the Related Geo-Effective Flares and CMEs

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Ayumi; Ishii, Takako T; Oka, Mitsuo; Kataoka, Ryuho; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Gopalswamy, Nat


    We present a detailed examination of the features of the Active Region (AR) NOAA 10798. This AR generated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that caused a large geomagnetic storm on 24 August 2005 with the minimum Dst index of -216 nT. We examined the evolution of the AR and the features on/near the solar surface and in the interplanetary space. The AR emerged in the middle of a small coronal hole, and formed a {\\it sea anemone} like configuration. H$\\alpha$ filaments were formed in the AR, which have southward axial field. Three M-class flares were generated, and the first two that occurred on 22 August 2005 were followed by Halo-type CMEs. The speeds of the CMEs were fast, and recorded about 1200 and 2400 km s$^{-1}$, respectively. The second CME was especially fast, and caught up and interacted with the first (slower) CME during their travelings toward Earth. These acted synergically to generate an interplanetary disturbance with strong southward magnetic field of about -50 nT, which was followed by the large g...

  9. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim


    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  10. Southern Brasilia Belt (SE Brazil): tectonic discontinuities, K-Ar data and evolution during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeriano, Claudio Morrison de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante [UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Heilbron, Monica [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    This paper focuses the tectonic evolution of the southern brasilia belt, with emphasis on the Furnas segment, along the 21 deg C S parallel. The uppermost structural unit (Passos Nappe - PN) comprises a highly deformed metasedimentary succession interpreted as a fragment of the Neoproterozoic passive margin of western Sao francisco craton. An inverted metamorphic gradient ranging from greensvhits to lower granulite facies of medium to high-pressure regime characterizes the PN as relict of a subduction zone. The External Domain display a complex imbrication of basement rocks (Archean Piumhi greenstones, a turbiditic gaywacke succession and a calc-alkaline granitoid suite) with undated siliciclast low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The Sao Francisco Craton (SFC) comprises pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks covered by anchimetamorphic Neoproterozoic carbonatic shallow marine platform deposits of the Bambui group. The Brasiliano thrust stacking generated a coarse clastic influx of molassic character on the foreland zone of Sao Francisco Craton, coeval with the exhumation of the External Domain thrust sheets. New K-Ar determinations on mineral separates are presented an interpreted among previous data. The SFC basement rocks display Paleo-to Meesoproterozoic cooling ages. The allochthonous units, in contrast, display K-Ar ages within the 560-675 Ma range. Brasiliano thrust stacking is therefore interpreted to have taken place onto a cold Sao Francisco craton foreland, in a thin-skinned style, as basement rocks were not heated enough to have their-K-ar systems reset during the allochthony. (author)

  11. Determination of Ar Concentration Evolution Within DIII-D Core Plasma by X-ray Ross Filter Method (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Edgell, D. H.; Brooks, N. H.; Snider, R. T.; West, W. P.; Wade, M. R.


    Injection of the non-recycling noble gas Ar into the DIII-D divertor is a promising technique for reducing the heat load on the plates; it also seems to improve thermal transport in an advanced operating mode. During such experiments core plasma contamination by migrating Ar can be investigated by measuring the evolution of the Ar concentration profile using the Ross filter method implemented on the fan shaped X-ray poloidal diagnostics on DIII-D. A Ross filter with energy pass band centered on the ArXVII K_α line at 3.14 keV, discriminating Ar K_α line against background radiation, was used on DIII-D. A high sensitivity to the injected quantity of Ar and good discrimination against Ne was observed. We present reconstruction of Ar concentration profiles from the chord-integrated measurements using the measured Te and ne profiles. Using the transport code MIST, the impurity diffusion coefficients can be determined by matching the time evolution of the Ar concentration evolution.

  12. Controlled Evolution of Silicon Nanocone Arrays Induced by Ar+ Sputtering at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qin-Tao; LI Zhi-Gang; XIE Qiao-Ling; GONG Jin-Long; ZHU De-Zhang


    Controlled evolution of silicon nanocone arrays induced by Ar+ sputtering at room temperature, using the coating carbon as a mask, is demonstrated. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy indicates that the morphology of silicon nanostructures can be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the coating carbon film.Increasing the thickness of the coating carbon film from 50-6Onm, 250-300nm and 750-800nm to 150Onm, the morphologies of silicon nanostructures are transformed from smooth surface ripple, coarse surface ripple and surface ripple with densely distributed nanocones to nanocone arrays with a high density of about 1 × 109-2 × 109 cm-2.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, paleomagnetism, and evolution of the Boring volcanic field, Oregon and Washington, USA (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Evarts, Russell C.; Conrey, Richard M.


    The 40Ar/39Ar investigations of a large suite of fine-grained basaltic rocks of the Boring volcanic field (BVF), Oregon and Washington (USA), yielded two primary results. (1) Using age control from paleomagnetic polarity, stratigraphy, and available plateau ages, 40Ar/39Ar recoil model ages are defined that provide reliable age results in the absence of an age plateau, even in cases of significant Ar redistribution. (2) Grouping of eruptive ages either by period of activity or by composition defines a broadly northward progression of BVF volcanism during latest Pliocene and Pleistocene time that reflects rates consistent with regional plate movements. Based on the frequency distribution of measured ages, periods of greatest volcanic activity within the BVF occurred 2.7–2.2 Ma, 1.7–0.5 Ma, and 350–50 ka. Grouped by eruptive episode, geographic distributions of samples define a series of northeast-southwest–trending strips whose centers migrate from south-southeast to north-northwest at an average rate of 9.3 ± 1.6 mm/yr. Volcanic activity in the western part of the BVF migrated more rapidly than that to the east, causing trends of eruptive episodes to progress in an irregular, clockwise sense. The K2O and CaO values of dated samples exhibit well-defined temporal trends, decreasing and increasing, respectively, with age of eruption. Divided into two groups by K2O, the centers of these two distributions define a northward migration rate similar to that determined from eruptive age groups. This age and compositional migration rate of Boring volcanism is similar to the clockwise rotation rate of the Oregon Coast Range with respect to North America, and might reflect localized extension on the trailing edge of that rotating crustal block.

  14. Sputtering and surface state evolution of Bi under oblique incidence of 120 keV Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.d [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Faculte de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H.; Hammoudi, H. [CRNA, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba Labs, MRG, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Cape Town 7129 (South Africa)


    The sputtering and surface state evolution of Bi/Si targets under oblique incidence of 120 keV Ar{sup +} ions have been investigated over the range of incidence angles 0{sup o} {<=} {theta}{sub i} {<=} 60{sup o}. Increasing erosion of irradiated samples (whose surface thickness reduced by {approx}3% at normal incidence up to {approx}8% at {theta} = 60{sup o}) and their surface smoothing with reducing grain sizing were pointed out using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), atomic force (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Measured sputtering yield data versus {theta}{sub i} with fixed ion fluence to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} are well described by Yamamura et al. semi-empirical formula and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using the SRIM-2008 computer code. The observed increase in sputter yield versus incidence angle is closely correlated to Bi surface topography and crystalline structure changes under ion irradiation.

  15. 40Ar/39Ar ages of seamount trachytes from the South China Sea and implications for the evolution of the northwestern sub-basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohu Li; Jiabiao Li; Xing Yu; Chunsheng Wang; Fred Jourdan


    A chronological study of seamount rocks in the South China Sea basin provides a great opportunity to understand the expansion and evolution history of the sea basin. In this paper, we analyzed the 40Ar/39Ar age of trachytic samples collected from the Shuangfeng seamounts in the northwestern sub-basin of the South China Sea. The two samples yielded plateau ages of 23.80 ? 0.18 and 23.29 ? 0.22 Ma, respectively, which indicate magmatic activity in late Oligocene which helpful constraints the expansion time of the northwest sub-basin. Previous studies suggested that the northwestern sub-basin and southwestern sub-basin have experienced a relatively consistent expansion in the NWeSE direction followed by a late expansion of the eastern sub-basin. We concluded that the expansion of the northwestern sub-basin began prior to ca. 24 Ma, which also implicated magmatic events of a late or stop expansion of the northwestern sub-basin combined with our results of 40Ar/39Ar age data and previous geophysical data.

  16. 40Ar/39Ar ages of seamount trachytes from the South China Sea and implications for the evolution of the northwestern sub-basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Li


    Full Text Available A chronological study of seamount rocks in the South China Sea basin provides a great opportunity to understand the expansion and evolution history of the sea basin. In this paper, we analyzed the 40Ar/39Ar age of trachytic samples collected from the Shuangfeng seamounts in the northwestern sub-basin of the South China Sea. The two samples yielded plateau ages of 23.80 ± 0.18 and 23.29 ± 0.22 Ma, respectively, which indicate magmatic activity in late Oligocene which helpful constraints the expansion time of the northwest sub-basin. Previous studies suggested that the northwestern sub-basin and southwestern sub-basin have experienced a relatively consistent expansion in the NW–SE direction followed by a late expansion of the eastern sub-basin. We concluded that the expansion of the northwestern sub-basin began prior to ca. 24 Ma, which also implicated magmatic events of a late or stop expansion of the northwestern sub-basin combined with our results of 40Ar/39Ar age data and previous geophysical data.

  17. Brittle tectonothermal evolution in the Forsmark area, central Fennoscandian Shield, recorded by paragenesis, orientation and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of fracture minerals (United States)

    Sandström, Björn; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Larson, Sven Åke; Page, Laurence


    In this paper, we show how studies of fracture mineral paragenesis, their orientation and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology can be applied in order to recognise the brittle tectonothermal evolution in an area. Samples were selected from nearly 18 km of drill cores from the upper 1 km of the Fennoscandian Shield obtained during the site investigation for a repository of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, central Sweden. Four major events of fracturing and/or reactivation of fractures associated with fracture mineralisation have been distinguished. The first event was characterised by precipitation of epidote, quartz and chlorite, along preferably sub-horizontal and gently-dipping fractures or steep, WNW-ESE to NW-SE fractures. Precipitation occurred between 1.8 and 1.1 Ga, possibly during the late stage of the Svecokarelian orogeny close to 1.8-1.7 Ga. The second event is associated with precipitation of hematite-stained adularia and albite, prehnite, laumontite, calcite and chlorite, preferably along steep, ENE-WSW to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fractures. Precipitation occurred around 1107 ± 7 to 1034 ± 3 Ma, probably due to effects from the Sveconorwegian orogeny. This event was followed by a period with dissolution of fracture minerals and subsequent precipitation of mainly calcite, quartz, pyrite and asphaltite during the Palaeozoic. The formation fluid emanated from an overlying organic-rich sedimentary cover. Precipitation occurred during reactivation of Proterozoic fractures, but formation of new fractures is also inferred, possibly due to far-field effects of the Caledonian orogeny, or elevated hydrostatic pressure due to its foreland basin. The latest event is dominated by clay minerals, chlorite and calcite along hydraulically conductive fractures. These minerals are prominent along sub-horizontal and gently-dipping fractures, but also occur in sets of steeply-dipping fractures. It is inferred that the hydraulically conductive fractures are Proterozoic structures in which

  18. Mars Atmospheric History Derived from Upper-Atmospheric Structure of 38Ar/36Ar Measured From MAVEN (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce; Slipski, Marek; Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul; Elrod, Meredith K.; Yelle, Roger; Stone, Shane; Alsaeed, Noora


    Measurements of the structure of the Martian upper atmosphere made from MAVEN observations allow us to derive homopause and exobase altitudes in the Mars upper atmosphere and to determine the isotopic fractionation that occurs between them. Fractionation in the ratio of 38Ar/36Ar occurs between the homopause and exobase due to diffusive separation. This fractionation, combined with measurements of the bulk atmospheric ratio, is used to determine the total amount of argon lost to space by pick-up-ion sputtering. Our analysis is based on Rayleigh distillation, modified by replenishment of gas to the atmosphere by outgassing, impact, and crustal weathering. Approximately 80 % of the 36Ar that was ever in the atmosphere has been removed through time. This high value requires that a major fraction of Mars atmospheric gas has been lost to space. It points strongly to loss to space as having been the dominant mechanism driving the transition in Martian climate from an early, warm, wet environment to today's cold, dry, thin atmosphere.

  19. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Faku tectonites: Implications for the tectonothermal evolution of the Faku block, northern Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaohui; WANG; Hui; LI; Tiesheng


    For lack of reliable isotopic chronological data, the metamorphic rock series in the Faku region of northern Liaoning has long been regarded as the platform basement. Recent studies reveal that these deformed and metamorphosed rocks, with a variety of protoliths of plutonic intrusions and supracrustal volcanic and sedimentary rocks, were genetically related to later ductile shearing events, and they, together with the syntectonic intrusions, constituted the large-scale Faku tectonites. In this paper, we report new 40Ar/39Ar data on hornblende, biotite, and K-feldspar from typical granitic mylonites in this suite of tectonites. The plateau age 256 Ma of FK53 hornblende and the high-temperature plateau age 262 Ma of Fk51-1 biotite should represent the cooling ages when the granites, formed as a result of Paleozoic oceanic crustal subduction beneath the continental crust or collision of multiple micro-continental blocks, were exhumed into shallow crustal levels. The plateau age 231 Ma of FK51-1 boitite and the apparent age 227 Ma of Fk51-2 K-feldspar are interpreted to record the time of ductile deformation occurring under greenschist facies conditions, i.e. the formation age of the Faku tectonites, while the age gradient from 197 Ma to 220 Ma of Fk51-2 K-feldspar probably record the subsequent stable uplift-cooling process. The tectonic exhumation event indicated by the plateau age 180 Ma of Fk51-2 K-feldspar may be associated with the onset of paleo-Pacific subduction beneath the North China plate. In addition, the U-Pb dating of FK54 zircon from later-intruded granite yields the age of crystallization of this super-unit intrusion at 159 Ma, thus establishing an upper limit for the formation age of the Faku tectonites, while the plateau age 125 Ma of Fk54 K-feldspar most likely corresponds to the rapid cooling and tectonic denudation event associated with the final collision between the Siberian plate and the North China plate. These isotopic ages provide important

  20. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis. (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang


    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function.

  1. Structure evolution in electrorheological fluids (United States)

    Qian, Bian; Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria; Murphy, Mike; Strauss, Marc; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, Anette


    Enhanced knowledge of the transient behavior and characteristics of electrorheological (ER) fluids subject to time dependent electric fields carries the potential to advance the design of fast actuated hydraulic devices. In this study, the dynamic response of electrorheological fluid flows in rectilinear microchannels was investigated experimentally. Using high-speed microscopic imaging, the evolution of particle aggregates in ER fluids subjected to temporally stepwise electric fields was visualized. Nonuniform growth of the particle structures in the channel was observed and correlated to field strength and flow rate. Two competing time scales for structure growth were identified. Guided by experimental observations, we develop a phenomenological model to quantitatively describe and predict the evolution of microscale structures and the concomitant induced pressure gradient. This work is supported by DARPA M3.

  2. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.


    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  3. Evolution of energy structures; Evolution des structures energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  4. Evolution of the Ar isotopic chain: the N=28 shell gap south of {sup 48}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoni, D., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Lenzi, S.M.; Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Broda, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Dewald, A.; Pissulla, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universtaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Angus, L. [School of Engineering and Science, University of Paisley, Paisley, Scotland (United Kingdom); Aydin, S.; Bazzacco, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Benzoni, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bizzeti, P.G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Corradi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Crespi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Angelis, G. de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Farnea, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Fioretto, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Goergen, A. [CEA Saclay, Daphnia/SphN, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    The lifetimes of the first excited states of the Z = 18 {sup 44}Ar and {sup 46}Ar isotopes have been determined using a novel technique that combines the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift method with the CLARA-PRISMA spectrometers for Multinucleon Transfer Reactions. The B(E2) values extracted for the 2{sup +}->0{sup +} transitions in both nuclei, as well as for higher excites states in {sup 44}Ar, are discussed and compared with the available experimental results and with the new large-scale shell-model calculations.

  5. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of the ArKr* exciplex (United States)

    Spiegelmann, F.; Gadea, F. X.; Castex, M. C.


    The lowest energy potential curves of the ArKr* exciplex are computed using non-empirical pseudopotentials and multireference configuration interaction. The {σL SSσ} states of ArKr* are obtained from relativistic averaged pseudopotentials, while the fine structure {σW} states are derived using ab initio spin-orbit pseudopotentials and achieving a diagonalisation of the total Hamiltonian(electrostatic+spin-orbit) in the basis of {σL SσS} states. The electronic structure of the exciplex is discussed and the ionic core nature of the Rydberg states is analysed.

  6. Comparison of Structures and Properties between Wool and Ramie Fibers Treated by Atmospheric Pressure Ar and Ar/O2 Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-ping; XU Xiang-yu; WANG Shou-guo; ZHANG Xiao-dan; ZHAO Ling-li; SHI Li-min; GAO Xu-shan


    The technique of atmospheric pressure plasma is of value in textile industry. In this paper, argon (Ar) and argon/oxygen (Ar/O2) atmospheric pressure plasma were used to treat wool and ramie fibers. The structures and properties of treated fibers were investigated by means of SEM, XPS, single fiber tensile tester and so on.The results proved that the effects of plasma treatments depended on structural characteristics of fibers to a great extent, besides conditions of plasma treatment. By atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, wool fiber had significant changes in morphology structure, surface chemical component, mechanic properties and dyeability, while ramie fiber just showed a little change. In additional, Ar/Q2 plasma showed more effective action than argon. And at the beginning of treatment, plasma brought about remarkable effects, which did not increase with prolonging of treat time.

  7. Wavelet-based AR-SVM for health monitoring of smart structures (United States)

    Kim, Yeesock; Chong, Jo Woon; Chon, Ki H.; Kim, JungMi


    This paper proposes a novel structural health monitoring framework for damage detection of smart structures. The framework is developed through the integration of the discrete wavelet transform, an autoregressive (AR) model, damage-sensitive features, and a support vector machine (SVM). The steps of the method are the following: (1) the wavelet-based AR (WAR) model estimates vibration signals obtained from both the undamaged and damaged smart structures under a variety of random signals; (2) a new damage-sensitive feature is formulated in terms of the AR parameters estimated from the structural velocity responses; and then (3) the SVM is applied to each group of damaged and undamaged data sets in order to optimally separate them into either damaged or healthy groups. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed structural health monitoring framework, a three-story smart building equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper under artificial earthquake signals is studied. It is shown from the simulation that the proposed health monitoring scheme is effective in detecting damage of the smart structures in an efficient way.

  8. Double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar5+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Configuration-average distorted-wave calculations are carried out for electron-impact ionization of Ar5+. Both direct ionization and the indirect excitation autoionization processes are included in our calculations. Our theoretical values are in quite reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The indirect processes contribute up to 50% to the total ionization cross sections. The possible origin of double-hump resonance structure of the cross sections is demonstrated and the contributions of metastable states are also taken into account.

  9. Structure Model of Urban Traffic System Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ke-jin; ZHANG Dian-ye


    A structure model of urban traffic system evolution is built based on the analysis of the factors influencing the system evolution and the hierarchy between the factors. Then the influencing degrees of the factors are quantificationally analyzed by DEMATE (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory). The analysis results indicate that the traffic mode structure which achieves the highest central degree is the dominant influencing factor of the urban traffic system evolution, and that economy development and the traffic poficy axe the second important factors that also affect the traffic mode structures. Furthermore, physical geography is a basic restriction to the urban traffic system evolution.

  10. Effects of Pt speedlayer and Ar pressure on magnetic and structural properties of sputtered CoNi/Pt multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Q.; Haan, de P.; Drent, van W.P.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, Th.J.A.


    CoNi/Pt multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering using Ar gas. The effects of the Pt seed layer and the Ar sputtering pressure on magnetic and structural properties are investigated. Microstructures of the multilayers were analysed using XRD and TEM. It was found that perpendicular magnetic

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of RNA structure. (United States)

    Gesell, Tanja; Schuster, Peter


    Darwin's conviction that all living beings on Earth are related and the graph of relatedness is tree-shaped has been essentially confirmed by phylogenetic reconstruction first from morphology and later from data obtained by molecular sequencing. Limitations of the phylogenetic tree concept were recognized as more and more sequence information became available. The other path-breaking idea of Darwin, natural selection of fitter variants in populations, is cast into simple mathematical form and extended to mutation-selection dynamics. In this form the theory is directly applicable to RNA evolution in vitro and to virus evolution. Phylogeny and population dynamics of RNA provide complementary insights into evolution and the interplay between the two concepts will be pursued throughout this chapter. The two strategies for understanding evolution are ultimately related through the central paradigm of structural biology: sequence ⇒ structure ⇒ function. We elaborate on the state of the art in modeling both phylogeny and evolution of RNA driven by reproduction and mutation. Thereby the focus will be laid on models for phylogenetic sequence evolution as well as evolution and design of RNA structures with selected examples and notes on simulation methods. In the perspectives an attempt is made to combine molecular structure, population dynamics, and phylogeny in modeling evolution.

  12. K—Ar Geochronology and Evolution of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Eastrn China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧芬; 杨学昌; 等


    Cenozoic volcanic rocks widespread in eastern China constitute an important part of the circum-Pacific volcanic belt.This paper presents more than 150K-Ar dates and a great deal of petrochemical analysis data from the Cenozoic volcanic rocks distributed in Tengchong,China's southeast coast,Shandong,Hebei,Nei Monggol and Northeast China.An integrated study shows that ubiquitous but uneven volcanic activities prevailed from the Eogene to the Holocene,characterized as being multi-eqisodic and multicycled.For example,in the Paleocene(67-58Ma),Eocene(57-37.5Ma),Miocene(22-18,16-19Ma),Pliocene(8-3Ma),and Early Pleistocene-Middle Pleistocene(1.2-0.5Ma) there were upsurges of volcanism,while in the Oligocene there was a repose period.In space,the older Eogene volcanic rocks are distributed within the region or in the central part of the NE-NNE-striking fault depression,while the younger Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are distributed in the eastern and western parts.Petrologically,they belong essentially to tholeiite-series and alkali-series basalts,with alkalinity in the rocks increasing from old to youg.The above regularities are controlled by both global plate movement and regional inherent tectonic pattern.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Wu; F.P.Wang; L.Q.Pan; Y.Tian; H.Qiu


    Cu films with thickness of 630-1300nm were deposited on glass substrates withoutheating by DC magnetron sputtering in pure Ar gas. Ar pressure was controlled to0.5, 1.0 and 1.5Pa respectively. The target voltage was fixed at 500V but the targetcurrent increased from 200 to 1150mA with Ar pressure increasing. X-ray diffrac-tion, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to observethe structural characterization of the films. The resistivity of the films was measuredusing four-point probe technique. At all the Ar pressures, the Cu films have mixturecrystalline orientations of [111], [200] and [220] in the direction of the film growth.The film deposited at lower pressure shows more [111] orientation while that depositedat higher pressure has more [220] orientation. The amount of larger grains in the filmprepared at 0.5Pa Ar pressure is slightly less than that prepared at 1. 0Pa and 1.5PaAr pressures. The resistivities of the films prepared at three different Ar pressures rep-resent few differences, about 3-4 times of that of bulk material. Besides the depositionrate increases with Ar pressure because of the increase in target current. The contri-bution of the bombardment of energetic reflected Argon atoms to these phenomena isdiscussed.

  14. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;


    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  15. Evolution of plasma parameters in an Ar-N2/He inductive plasma source with magnetic pole enhancement (United States)

    Maria, Younus; N, U. Rehman; M, Shafiq; M, Naeem; M, Zaka-Ul-Islam; M, Zakaullah


    Magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasmas (MaPE-ICPs) are a promising source for plasma-based etching and have a wide range of material processing applications. In the present study Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy were used to monitor the evolution of plasma parameters in a MaPE-ICP Ar-N2/He mixture plasma. Electron density ({n}{{e}}) and temperature ({T}{{e}}), excitation temperature ({T}{{exc}}), plasma potential ({V}{{p}}), skin depth (δ ) and the evolution of the electron energy probability function (EEPF) are reported as a function of radiofrequency (RF) power, pressure and argon concentration in the mixture. It is observed that {n}{{e}} increases while {T}{{e}} decreases with increase in RF power and argon concentration in the mixture. The emission intensity of the argon line at 750.4 nm is also used to monitor the variation of the ‘high-energy tail’ of the EEPF with RF power and gas pressure. The EEPF has a ‘bi-Maxwellian’ distribution at low RF powers and higher pressure in a pure {{{N}}}2 discharge. However, it evolves into a ‘Maxwellian’ distribution at RF powers greater than 70 W for pure {{{N}}}2, and at 50 W for higher argon concentrations in the mixture. The effect of argon concentration on the temperatures of two electron groups in the ‘bi-Maxwellian’ EEPF is examined. The temperature of the low-energy electron group {T}{{L}} shows a decreasing trend with argon addition until the ‘thermalization’ of the two temperatures occurs, while the temperature of high-energy electrons {T}{{H}} decreases continuously.

  16. Evolution of dinosaur epidermal structures. (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M; Evans, David C; Campione, Nicolás E


    Spectacularly preserved non-avian dinosaurs with integumentary filaments/feathers have revolutionized dinosaur studies and fostered the suggestion that the dinosaur common ancestor possessed complex integumentary structures homologous to feathers. This hypothesis has major implications for interpreting dinosaur biology, but has not been tested rigorously. Using a comprehensive database of dinosaur skin traces, we apply maximum-likelihood methods to reconstruct the phylogenetic distribution of epidermal structures and interpret their evolutionary history. Most of these analyses find no compelling evidence for the appearance of protofeathers in the dinosaur common ancestor and scales are usually recovered as the plesiomorphic state, but results are sensitive to the outgroup condition in pterosaurs. Rare occurrences of ornithischian filamentous integument might represent independent acquisitions of novel epidermal structures that are not homologous with theropod feathers.

  17. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia collision zone based on 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology in Ladakh, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Bhutani; Kanchan Pande; T R Venkatesan


    New 40Ar-39Ar thermochronological results from the Ladakh region in the India-Asia collision zone provide a tectono-thermal evolutionary scenario. The characteristic granodiorite of the Ladakh batholith near Leh yielded a plateau age of 46.3 ± 0.6Ma (2 ). Biotite from the same rock yielded a plateau age of 44.6 ± 0.3Ma (2 ). The youngest phase of the Ladakh batholith, the leucogranite near Himya, yielded a cooling pattern with a plateau-like age of ∼36 Ma. The plateau age of muscovite from the same rock is 29.8 ± 0.2Ma (2 ). These ages indicate post-collision tectonothermal activity, which may have been responsible for partial melting within the Ladakh batholith. Two basalt samples from Sumdo Nala have also recorded the post-collision tectono-thermal event, which lasted at least for 8MY in the suture zone since the collision, whereas in the western part of the Indus Suture, pillow lava of Chiktan showed no effect of this event and yielded an age of emplacement of 128.2 ± 2.6Ma (2 ). The available data indicate that post-collision deformation led to the crustal thickening causing an increase in temperature, which may have caused partial melting at the base of the thickened crust. The high thermal regime propagated away from the suture with time.

  18. Structure and Stability of Endohedral Complexes X@(HAlNH)12 (X = He, Ne, Ar, Kr)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cai-Yun; WU Hai-Shun


    The structures of closo-hedral cluster (HAlNH)12 and endohedral complexes X@(HAlNH)12 (X = He, Ne, Ar, Kr) have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometries, natural bond orbital (NBO), vibrational frequency, energetic parameters, magnetic shielding constants and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) were discussed. The potential surface of guest X shifting from the cage center to a face of six- membered ring was calculated at the same level. The exit transition state was demonstrated with IRC calculations. It is found that X@(HAlNH)12 complexes are dynamically stable, and Ne@(HAlNH)12 is more energetically favorable than the other complexes in thermodynamics.

  19. Structural manipulation of the graphene/metal interface with Ar+ irradiation (United States)

    Åhlgren, E. H.; Hämäläinen, S. K.; Lehtinen, O.; Liljeroth, P.; Kotakoski, J.


    Controlled defect creation is a prerequisite for the detailed study of disorder effects in materials. Here, we irradiate a graphene/Ir(111) interface with low-energy Ar+ to study the induced structural changes. Combining computer simulations and scanning-probe microscopy, we show that the resulting disorder manifests mainly in the forms of intercalated metal adatoms and vacancy-type defects in graphene. One prominent feature at higher irradiation energies (from 1 keV up) is the formation of linelike depressions, which consist of sequential graphene defects created by the ion channeling within the interface, much like a stone skipping on water. Lower energies result in simpler defects, down to 100 eV, where more than one defect in every three is a graphene single vacancy.

  20. Rapid magma evolution constrained by zircon petrochronology and 40Ar/39Ar sanidine ages for the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Yellowstone, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Schmitz, Mark;


    volcanic activity, zircon morphological zoning patterns coupled to strongly correlated changes in Ti-in-zircon thermometry and trace element indicators of progressive differentiation provide a proxy record for the evolution of the HRT member B magma body. Tandem in situ and isotope dilution U-Pb dating...

  1. Sputtering and crystalline structure modification of bismuth thin films deposited onto silicon substrates under the impact of 20-160 keV Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [CRNA/Division des Techniques Nucleaires, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: [USTHB/Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [CRNA/Division des Techniques Nucleaires, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Zemih, R. [USTHB/Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)


    The sputtering of bismuth thin films induced by 20-160 keV Ar{sup +} ions has been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive and diffraction spectroscopy. These techniques revealed increasing modifications of the Bi film surfaces with increasing both ion beam energy and fluence up to their complete deterioration under irradiation conditions E = 160 keV and phi = 1.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, leaving isolated islands of preferred (0 1 2) orientation on the Si substrate. The observed surface morphology and crystalline structure evolutions are likely due to a complex interplay of interaction mechanisms involving both elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic ones. The measured Bi sputtering yields versus Ar{sup +} ion fluence for a fixed ion energy exhibit a significant depression at very low phi-values followed by a steady state regime above approx2.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Measured sputtering yields versus Ar{sup +} ion energy with fixing ion fluence to 1.2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} in the upper part of the yield saturation regime are also reported. Their comparison to theoretical model and SRIM 2008 Monte Carlo simulation predictions is discussed.

  2. Evolution of cooperation in spatially structured populations (United States)

    Brauchli; Killingback; Doebeli


    Using a spatial lattice model of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma we studied the evolution of cooperation within the strategy space of all stochastic strategies with a memory of one round. Comparing the spatial model with a randomly mixed model showed that (1) there is more cooperative behaviour in a spatially structured population, (2) PAVLOV and generous variants of it are very successful strategies in the spatial context and (3) in spatially structured populations evolution is much less chaotic than in unstructured populations. In spatially structured populations, generous variants of PAVLOV are found to be very successful strategies in playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The main weakness of PAVLOV is that it is exploitable by defective strategies. In a spatial context this disadvantage is much less important than the good error correction of PAVLOV, and especially of generous PAVLOV, because in a spatially structured population successful strategies always build clusters. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Evolution of the rheological structure of Mars (United States)

    Azuma, Shintaro; Katayama, Ikuo


    The evolution of Mars has been greatly influenced by temporal changes in its rheological structure, which may explain the difference in tectonics between Mars and Earth. Some previous studies have shown the rheological structures of Mars calculated from the flow law of rocks and the predicted thermal structure. However, the Peierls mechanism, which is the dominant deformation mechanism at relatively low temperature, and the evolution of water reservoirs on Mars were not considered in such studies. In this paper, we apply the Peierls mechanism to refine the rheological structure of Mars to show a new history of the planet that considers the most recent reports on its evolution of water reservoirs. Considering the Peierls creep and the evolution of water reservoirs, we attempt to explain why the tectonics of Mars is inactive compared with that of Earth. On early Mars, the lithospheric thickness inferred from the brittle-ductile transition was small, and the lithospheric strength was low ( 200-300 MPa) under wet conditions at 4 Gya. This suggests that plate boundaries could have developed on the early "wet" Mars, which is a prerequisite for the operation of plate tectonics. Our results also imply that the lithospheric strength had significantly increased in the Noachian owing to water loss. Therefore, plate tectonics may have ceased or could no longer be initiated on Mars. At the least, the tectonic style of Mars would have dramatically changed during the Noachian.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)


    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  5. Learning Protein Structure with Peers in an AR-Enhanced Learning Environment (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chien


    Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive system that allows users to interact with virtual objects and the real world at the same time. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how AR, as a new visualization tool, that can demonstrate spatial relationships by representing three dimensional objects and animations, facilitates students to…

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AR5A-1UNFX [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  7. Ars disyecta Ars disyecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castillo


    Full Text Available Bajo la nominación Ars Disyecta se busca exponer el vínculo entre artes visuales, feminismo y metamorfosis. Las prácticas artísticas feministas aquí presentadas se proponen perturbar el espacio metafórico heredado de la diferencia sexual (pensemos, por ejemplo, en las palabras engendramiento, matriz, vida, compenetración o invaginamiento. En este sentido, la nominación Ars disyecta pone en escena un conjunto de prácticas e intervenciones que intentan interrumpir la matriz de la diferencia, desestabilizando lo femenino desde aquellas figuras que se resisten a la lógica de la totalidad y de un tiempo propio. Buscando seguir la huella de un arte disyecto es que interrogaré en este ensayo aquellas autorías feministas que en el arte contemporáneo trafican con las huellas del contagio, la mutación y la alteridad.This article aims to present the relation between visual arts, feminism I and metamorphosis. The feminist artistic practices portrayed in this article attempt to question categories inherited from the metaphor of sexual difference such as engendering, matrix and life. From this perspective, Ars disyecta will establish a set of artistic practices and interventions that intend to interrupt the proper idea of «feminine difference». Following this line of argument, I will discuss in this article a few contemporary feminist works of art that could be defined by words such as contagious, mutation and otherness.

  8. Giant Planet Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit; Podolak, Morris; Boley, Aaron; Meru, Farzana; Nayakshin, Sergei; Fortney, Jonathan J; Mayer, Lucio; Alibert, Yann; Boss, Alan P


    The large number of detected giant exoplanets offers the opportunity to improve our understanding of the formation mechanism, evolution, and interior structure of gas giant planets. The two main models for giant planet formation are core accretion and disk instability. There are substantial differences between these formation models, including formation timescale, favorable formation location, ideal disk properties for planetary formation, early evolution, planetary composition, etc. First, we summarize the two models including their substantial differences, advantages, and disadvantages, and suggest how theoretical models should be connected to available (and future) data. We next summarize current knowledge of the internal structures of solar- and extrasolar- giant planets. Finally, we suggest the next steps to be taken in giant planet exploration.

  9. A Substructural Damage Identification Approach for Shear Structure Based on Changes in the First AR Model Coefficient Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mei


    Full Text Available A substructural damage identification approach based on changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix is proposed in this paper to identify structural damage including its location and severity. Firstly, a substructure approach is adopted in the procedure to divide a complete structure into several substructures in order to significantly reduce the number of unknown parameters for each substructure so that damage identification processes can be independently conducted on each substructure. To establish a relation between changes in AR model coefficients and structural damage for each substructure, a theoretical derivation is presented. Thus the accelerations are fed into ARMAX models to determine the AR model coefficients for each substructure under undamaged and various damaged conditions, based on which changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix (CFAR is obtained and adopted as the damage indicator for the proposed substructure damage identification approach. To better assess the performance of the proposed procedure, a numerical simulation and an experimental verification of the proposed approach are then carried out and the results show that the proposed procedure can successfully locate and quantify the damage in both simulation and laboratory experiment.

  10. The mechanism of domain-wall structure formation in Ar-Kr submonolayer films on graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrykiejew


    Full Text Available Using Monte Carlo simulation method in the canonical ensemble, we have studied the commensurate-incommensurate transition in two-dimensional finite mixed clusters of Ar and Kr adsorbed on graphite basal plane at low temperatures. It has been demonstrated that the transition occurs when the argon concentration exceeds the value needed to cover the peripheries of the cluster. The incommensurate phase exhibits a similar domain-wall structure as observed in pure krypton films at the densities exceeding the density of a perfect (√3x√3R30º commensurate phase, but the size of commensurate domains does not change much with the cluster size. When the argon concentration increases, the composition of domain walls changes while the commensurate domains are made of pure krypton. We have constructed a simple one-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova-like model that yields the results being in a good qualitative agreement with the Monte Carlo results obtained for two-dimensional systems.

  11. Scaling behavior studies of Ar{sup +} ion irradiated ripple structured mica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metya, Amaresh, E-mail:; Ghose, Debabrata, E-mail: [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector - 1, Block - AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata - 700064 (India)


    We have studied scaling behavior of ripple structured mica surfaces. Clean mica (001) surface is sputtered by 500 eV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 40° incidence angle for different time ranging from 28 minutes to 245 minutes to form ripples on it. The scaling of roughness of sputtered surface characterized by AFM is observed into two regime here; one is super roughening which is for above the crossover bombardment time (i.e, t{sub x} ≥ 105 min) with the scaling exponents α = α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{sub local} = 1.67 ± 0.07 and another is a new type of scaling dynamics for t{sub x} ≤ 105 min with the scaling exponents α = 0.95 (calculated), α{sub s} = 1.45 ± 0.03, α{sub local} = 0.87 ± 0.03, β = 1.81 ± 0.01, β{sub local} = 1.67 ± 0.07. In the super roughening scaling dynamics, two types of power law dependency is observed on spatial frequency of morphology (k): for higher k values PSD ∼ k{sup −4} describing diffusion controlled smoothening and for lower k values PSD ∼ k{sup −2} reflecting kinetic roughening.

  12. The Liaonan Metamorphic Core Complex: Constitution, Structure and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junlai; GUAN Huimei; JI Mo; CAO Shuyun; HU Ling


    The Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) has a three-layer structure and is constituted by five parts, i.e. a detachment fault zone, an allochthonous upper plate and an supradetachment basin above the fault zone, and highly metamorphosed rocks and intrusive rocks in the lower plate. The allochthonous upper plate is mainly of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic rocks weakly deformed and metamorphosed in pre-Indosinan stage. Above these rocks is a small-scale supradetachment basin of Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The lower plate is dominated by Archean TTG gneisses with minor amount of supracrustal rocks. The Archean rocks are intruded by late Mesozoic synkinematic monzogranitic and granitic plutons. Different types of fault rocks, providing clues to the evolution of the detachment fault zone, are well-preserved in the fault zone, e.g. mylonitic gneiss,mylonites, brecciated mylonites, microbreccias and pseudotachylites. Lineations in lower plate granitic intrusions have consistent orientation that indicate uniform top-to-NW shearing along the main detachment fault zone. This also provides evidence for the synkinematic characteristics of the granitic plutons in the lower plate. Structural analysis of the different parts in the mcc and isotopic dating of plutonic rocks from the lower plate and mylonitic rocks from detachment fault zone suggest that exhumation of the mcc started with regional crustal extension due to crustal block rotation and tangential shearing. The extension triggered magma formation, upwelling and emplacement. This event ended with appearance of pseudotachylite and fault gauges formed at the uppermost crustal level.U-Pb dating of single zircon grains from granitic rocks in the lower plate gives an age of 130±5 Ma, and biotite grains from the main detachment fault zone have 40Ar-39Ar ages of 108-119 Ma. Several aspects may provide constraints for the exhumation of the Liaonan mcc. These include regional extensional setting, cover

  13. Heme oxygenase: evolution, structure, and mechanism. (United States)

    Wilks, Angela


    Heme oxygenase has evolved to carry out the oxidative cleavage of heme, a reaction essential in physiological processes as diverse as iron reutilization and cellular signaling in mammals, synthesis of essential light-harvesting pigments in cyanobacteria and higher plants, and the acquisition of iron by bacterial pathogens. In all of these processes, heme oxygenase has evolved a similar structural and mechanistic scaffold to function within seemingly diverse physiological pathways. The heme oxygenase reaction is catalytically distinct from that of other hemoproteins such as the cytochromes P450, peroxidases, and catalases, but shares a hemoprotein scaffold that has evolved to generate a distinct activated oxygen species. In the following review we discuss the evolution of the structural and functional properties of heme oxygenase in light of the recent crystal structures of the mammalian and bacterial enzymes.

  14. Structural Evolution of Carbon During Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel F. Sarofim; Angelo Kandas


    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs iOn the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and rnicroporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, C02 and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be "hidden" or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and C02 surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM studies has confined that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering,. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  15. Crystallography, evolution, and the structure of viruses. (United States)

    Rossmann, Michael G


    My undergraduate education in mathematics and physics was a good grounding for graduate studies in crystallographic studies of small organic molecules. As a postdoctoral fellow in Minnesota, I learned how to program an early electronic computer for crystallographic calculations. I then joined Max Perutz, excited to use my skills in the determination of the first protein structures. The results were even more fascinating than the development of techniques and provided inspiration for starting my own laboratory at Purdue University. My first studies on dehydrogenases established the conservation of nucleotide-binding structures. Having thus established myself as an independent scientist, I could start on my most cherished ambition of studying the structure of viruses. About a decade later, my laboratory had produced the structure of a small RNA plant virus and then, in another six years, the first structure of a human common cold virus. Many more virus structures followed, but soon it became essential to supplement crystallography with electron microscopy to investigate viral assembly, viral infection of cells, and neutralization of viruses by antibodies. A major guide in all these studies was the discovery of evolution at the molecular level. The conservation of three-dimensional structure has been a recurring theme, from my experiences with Max Perutz in the study of hemoglobin to the recognition of the conserved nucleotide-binding fold and to the recognition of the jelly roll fold in the capsid protein of a large variety of viruses.

  16. Structural evolution of ball-milled permalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzozka, K., E-mail: kbrzozka@poczta.f [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland); Oleksakova, D.; Kollar, P. [P.J. Safarik University, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gorka, B.; Gawronski, M. [Technical University, Department of Physics (Poland)


    Two series of Fe{sub 19.8}Ni{sub 80.2} samples obtained by ball milling and differing in the form of starting material were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the case of milled elemental powder, strong structural evolution was stated: both {alpha} and {gamma} phases arise and a small amount of pure iron is present as well. The annealing of as-milled powder at 490{sup o}C causes faster forming of {gamma}-(Ni-Fe) phase. Only slight changes in atomic order were stated in the series of milled polycrystalline ribbon.

  17. Protein structure and neutral theory of evolution. (United States)

    Ptitsyn, O B; Volkenstein, M V


    The neutral theory of evolution is extended to the origin of protein molecules. Arguments are presented which suggest that the amino acid sequences of many globular proteins mainly represent "memorized" random sequences while biological evolution reduces to the "editing" these random sequences. Physical requirements for a functional globular protein are formulated and it is shown that many of these requirement do not involve strategical selection of amino acid sequences during biological evolution but are inherent also for typical random sequences. In particular, it is shown that random sequences of polar and amino acid residues can form alpha-helices and beta-strand with lengths and arrangement along the chain similar to those in real globular proteins. These alpha- and beta-regions in random sequences can form three-dimensional folding patterns also similar to those in proteins. The arguments are presented suggesting that even the tight packing of side groups inside protein core do not require very strong biological selection of amino acid sequences either. Thus many structural features of real proteins can exist also in random sequences and the biological selection is needed mainly for the creation of active site of protein and for their stability under physiological conditions.

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AR5A-1EN6C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce>KGLKK----GTTLQ >H ---- > ATOM...D> A 1AR5A KNMAPKGSAPERPT ...tryIDChain> LVLKG--DKLAV >EEEE -- EEEE...ence>LVWDPLGKRINT >EEEE EEEEe> AT...>H > ATOM 632 CA LYS A 80 40.102 17.348 55.570 1.00 13

  19. Early carboniferous wrenching, exhumation of high-grade metamorphic rocks and basin instability in SW Iberia: Constraints derived from structural geology and U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology (United States)

    Pereira, M. Francisco; Chichorro, Martim; Silva, J. Brandão; Ordóñez-Casado, Berta; Lee, James K. W.; Williams, Ian S.


    New U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and structural data from high- to medium grade metamorphic shear zones of the Ossa-Morena Zone, and structural data from Early Carboniferous basins (Ossa-Morena Zone and South-Portuguese Zone), place additional constraints on the Variscan tectonics in SW Iberia. A zircon U-Pb age of 465 ± 14 Ma (Middle Ordovician) measured on migmatite from the Coimbra-Cordoba shear zone is interpreted as the age of protolith crystallization. This age determination revises the information contained in the geological map of Portugal, in which these rocks were considered to be Proterozoic in age. This paper describes the evolution of Variscan wrench tectonics related to the development of shear zones, exhumation of deep crustal rocks and emplacement of magma in the Ossa-Morena Zone basement. In the Coimbra-Cordoba shear zone (transpressional), migmatites were rapidly exhumed from a depth of 42.5 km to 16.6 km over a period of ca. 10 Ma in the Viséan (ca. 340-330 Ma), indicating oblique slip exhumation rates of 8.5 to 10.6 mm/yr (Campo Maior migmatites) and 3.2 mm/yr (Ouguela gneisses) respectively. In the Évora Massif, the gneisses of the Boa Fé shear zone (transtensional) were exhumed from 18.5 to 7.4 km depth in the period ca. 344-334 Ma (Viséan), with exhumation oblique slip rates of 2.8 to 4.2 mm/yr. At the same time, the Early Carboniferous basins of SW Iberia were filled by turbidites and olistoliths, composed mostly of Devonian rocks. The presence of olistoliths indicates significant tectonic instability during sedimentation with large-scale mass movement, probably in the form of gravity slides. Deformation and metamorphism dated at 356 ± 12 Ma, 321 ± 13 Ma and 322 ± 29 Ma respectively suggests that Variscan wrench movements were active in SW Iberia during the Early Carboniferous for a period of at least 35 Ma.

  20. From olivine nephelinite, basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyphonolite and comendite in the Ankaratra volcanic complex, Madagascar: 40Ar/39Ar ages, phase compositions and bulk-rock geochemical and isotopic evolution (United States)

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Melluso, Leone; le Roex, Anton P.; Jourdan, Fred; Morra, Vincenzo; de'Gennaro, Roberto; Grifa, Celestino


    The Ankaratra volcanic field covers an area of 3800 km2 in central Madagascar and comprises of lava flows, lava domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars emplaced at different ages (Miocene to Recent). The volcanic products include ultramafic-mafic (olivine-leucite nephelinite, basanite, alkali basalt, hawaiite and tholeiitic basalt), intermediate (mugearite and benmoreite) and felsic rocks (trachyphonolite, quartz trachyte and rhyolite), the latter often peralkaline. The 40Ar/39Ar determinations for mafic lavas yield ages of 17.45 ± 0.12 Ma, 16.63 ± 0.08 Ma and 8.62 ± 0.09 Ma, indicating a prolonged magmatic activity. The mineralogical and geochemical variations suggest that the magmatic evolution of the alkali basalt-hawaiite-mugearite-benmoreite-trachyte series can be accounted for by removal of olivine, feldspars, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides and accessory phases, producing residual trachytic and trachyphonolitic compositions mineralogically very similar to those of other volcanic areas and tectonic settings. The Ankaratra olivine leucite nephelinites, basanites and tholeiitic basalts do not seem to be associated with significant amounts of evolved comagmatic rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr (0.70504-0.71012), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51259-0.51244) and 206Pb/204Pb (17.705-18.563) isotopic ratios of trachytes and comendite are consistent with open-system processes. However, other trachyphonolites have 143Nd/144Nd (0.51280), 206Pb/204Pb (18.648), 207Pb/204Pb (15.582) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.795) similar to those of mafic rocks, suggesting differentiation processes without appreciable interaction with crustal materials. The Ankaratra volcanism is to be directly linked to a broadly E-W-trending intracontinental extension. A large-scale thermal anomaly, associated with an anomalously hot source region, is not required to explain the Cenozoic magmatism of Madagascar.

  1. Behavior of argon gas release from manganese oxide minerals as revealed by 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Manganese oxides in association with paleo- weathering may provide significant insights into the multiple factors affecting the formation and evolution of weathering profiles, such as temperature, precipitation, and biodiversity. Laser probe step-heating analysis of supergene hollandite and cryptomelane samples collected from central Queensland, Australia, yield well-defined plateaus andconsistent isochron ages, confirming the feasibility dating very-fined supergene manganese oxides by 40Ar/39Ar technique. Two distinct structural sites hostingAr isotopes can be identified in light of their degassing behaviors obtained byincremental heating analyses. The first site, releasing its gas fraction at thelaser power 0.2-0.4 W, yields primarily 40Aratm, 38Aratm, and 36Aratm (atmospheric Ar isotopes). The second sites yield predominantly 40Ar* (radiogenic 40Ar),39ArK, and 38ArK (nucleogenic components), at ~0.5-1.0 W. There is no significant Ar gas released at the laser power higher than 1.0 W, indicating the breakdown of the tunnel sites hosting the radiogenic and nucleogenic components. The excellent match between the degassing behaviors of 40Ar*, 39ArK, and 38ArK suggests that these isotopes occupy the same crystallographic sites and that 39ArK lossfrom the tunnel site by recoil during neutron irradiation and/or bake-out procedure preceding isotopic analysis does not occur. Present investigation supports that neither the overwhelming atmospheric 40Ar nor the very-fined nature of the supergene manganese oxides poses problems in extracting meaningful weathering geochronological information by analyzing supergene manganese oxides minerals.

  2. Structural evolution and metallicity of lead clusters (United States)

    Götz, Daniel A.; Shayeghi, Armin; Johnston, Roy L.; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Schäfer, Rolf


    The evolution of the metallic state in lead clusters and its structural implications are subject to ongoing discussions. Here we present molecular beam electric deflection studies of neutral PbN (N = 19-25, 31, 36, 54) clusters. Many of them exhibit dipole moments or anomalies of the polarizability indicating a non-metallic state. In order to resolve their structures, the configurational space is searched using the Pool Birmingham Cluster Genetic algorithm based on density functional theory. Spin-orbit effects on the geometries and dipole moments are taken into account by further relaxing them with two-component density functional theory. Geometries and dielectric properties from quantum chemical calculations are then used to simulate beam deflection profiles. Structures are assigned by the comparison of measured and simulated beam profiles. Energy gaps are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. They are compared to Kubo gaps, which are an indicator of the metallicity in finite particles. Both, experimental and theoretical data suggest that lead clusters are not metallic up to at least 36 atoms.The evolution of the metallic state in lead clusters and its structural implications are subject to ongoing discussions. Here we present molecular beam electric deflection studies of neutral PbN (N = 19-25, 31, 36, 54) clusters. Many of them exhibit dipole moments or anomalies of the polarizability indicating a non-metallic state. In order to resolve their structures, the configurational space is searched using the Pool Birmingham Cluster Genetic algorithm based on density functional theory. Spin-orbit effects on the geometries and dipole moments are taken into account by further relaxing them with two-component density functional theory. Geometries and dielectric properties from quantum chemical calculations are then used to simulate beam deflection profiles. Structures are assigned by the comparison of measured and simulated beam profiles. Energy gaps

  3. Effectiveness of Land Use Structure Evolution to Industrial Structure Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Scarcity of land resources and transformation of industrial structure is a pair of contradictory elements.We derive the characteristics of land use structure and industrial structure transformation in Xining City using Transformation Coefficient(TC):first,in the period 1999-2000,the land use structure coefficient(θ1) declined by 79.55%,but the overall evolution trend is gentle;second,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure(θ2) tended to decline ceaselessly on the whole,a decrease of 36.09%(overall,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure is slightly greater than the land use structure coefficient);third,the inter-annual variation of the two experienced ups and downs(in the period 1999-2007,the inter-annual variation was great and in the period 2008-2010,the inter-annual variation tended to be gentle).On the basis of autocorrelation and co-integration model,we draw the following conclusions through analysis:first,the land use structure in Xining City plays a role in promoting industrial structure transformation;second,there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the two.Finally,relevant policy recommendations are put forward for the industrial development in Xining City.

  4. Bonding trends traversing the tetravalent actinide series: synthesis, structural, and computational analysis of An(IV)((Ar)acnac)4 complexes (An = Th, U, Np, Pu; (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu2C6H3). (United States)

    Schnaars, David D; Gaunt, Andrew J; Hayton, Trevor W; Jones, Matthew B; Kirker, Ian; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean D; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Guang


    A series of tetravalent An(IV) complexes with a bis-phenyl β-ketoiminate N,O donor ligand has been synthesized with the aim of identifying bonding trends and changes across the actinide series. The neutral molecules are homoleptic with the formula An((Ar)acnac)(4) (An = Th (1), U (2), Np (3), Pu (4); (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu(2)C(6)H(3)) and were synthesized through salt metathesis reactions with actinide chloride precursors. NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy confirm the purity of all four new compounds and demonstrate stability in both solution and the solid state. The Th, U, and Pu complexes were structurally elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shown to be isostructural in space group C2/c. Analysis of the bond lengths reveals shortening of the An-O and An-N distances arising from the actinide contraction upon moving from 1 to 2. The shortening is more pronounced upon moving from 2 to 4, and the steric constraints of the tetrakis complexes appear to prevent the enhanced U-O versus Pu-O orbital interactions previously observed in the comparison of UI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) and PuI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) bis-complexes. Computational analysis of models for 1, 2, and 4 (1a, 2a, and 4a, respectively) concludes that both the An-O and the An-N bonds are predominantly ionic for all three molecules, with the An-O bonds being slightly more covalent. Molecular orbital energy level diagrams indicate the largest 5f-ligand orbital mixing for 4a (Pu), but spatial overlap considerations do not lead to the conclusion that this implies significantly greater covalency in the Pu-ligand bonding. QTAIM bond critical point data suggest that both U-O/U-N and Pu-O/Pu-N are marginally more covalent than the Th analogues.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of ice structural evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Dong Shun-Le


    Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to study the structural evolution of low density amorphous ice during its compression from one atmosphere to 2.5 GPa. Calculated results show that high density amorphous ice is formed at an intermediate pressure of~1.0GPa; the O-O-O bond angle ranges from 83° to 113°, and the O-H...O bond is bent from 112° to 160°. Very high density amorphous ice is obtained by quenching to 80K and decompressing the ice to ambient pressure from 160 K/1.3 GPa or 160 K/1.7 GPa; and the next-nearest O-O length is found to be 0.310 nm, just 0.035 nm beyond the nearest O-O distance of 0.275 nm.

  6. Structural Evolution of Compressing Amorphous Ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; DONG Shun-Le


    Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to study structural evolution during compressing low density amorphous ice from one atmosphere to 2.5 GPa.The calculated results show that high density amorphous ice is formed under intermediate pressure of about 1.0 GPa and O-O-O angle ranges from about 83°to 113°and O-H……O is bent from 112°to 160°.The very high density amorphous ice is also formed under the pressure larger than 1.4 GPa and interstitial molecules are found in 0.3-0.4 (A) just beyond the nearest O-O distance.Low angle O-H……O disappears and it is believed that these hydrogen bonds are broken or re-bonded under high pressures.

  7. Modification of stearic acid in Ar and Ar-O{sub 2} pulsed DC discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardelli, E.A.; Souza, T.; Maliska, A.M.; Kleinjohann, K.J.; Bendo, T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mafra, M. [Nancy-Universite (France). Institut Jean Lamour; CNRS, Nancy (France); Belmonte, T. [Federal University of Technology from Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Stearic acid (C{sub 1}8H{sub 36}O{sub 2}) was treated into Ar and Ar-O{sub 2}(10%) pulsed DC discharge created by a cathode-anode confined system. The samples were placed at the floating potential. The results show that the mass variation of the stearic acid samples after Ar-O{sub 2} plasma exposure is more important than the pure Ar plasma treatments. This comportment demonstrate that the oxygen actives species (O and O{sub 2} in all states) strongly enhance the etching process with regards to A{sup *} species, regardless of their concentration. After treatment by Ar and Ar-O{sub 2} plasma, analyses by X-ray diffraction show a significant structural modification of the samples surface, utilizing Ar-O{sub 2} plasma the modification was more pronounced. The chemical composition evolution shows that the acid function is etched preferentially in the beginning of the treatment (about 5 min) and that after 10 min the carbonic chains seems to be functionalized by oxygen. (author)

  8. Peculiarities of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with Ar, Kr and Xe ions (United States)

    Al'zhanova, A.; Dauletbekova, A.; Komarov, F.; Vlasukova, L.; Yuvchenko, V.; Akilbekov, A.; Zdorovets, M.


    The process of latent track etching in SiO2/Si structures irradiated with 40Ar (38 MeV), 84Kr (59 MeV) and 132Xe (133 and 200 MeV) ions has been investigated. The experimental results of SiO2 etching in a hydrofluoric acid solution have been compared with the results of computer simulation based on the thermal spike model. It has been confirmed that the formation of a molten region along the swift ion trajectory with minimum radius of 3 nm can serve as a theoretical criterion for the reproducible latent track etching tracks in SiO2.

  9. Ar-40 to Ar-39 ages of the large impact structures Kara and Manicouagan and their relevance to the Cretaceous-Tertiary and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (United States)

    Trieloff, M.; Jessberger, E. K.

    Since the discovery of the Ir enrichment in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays in 1980, the effects of a 10-km asteroid impacting on the Earth 65 Ma ago have been discussed as the possible reason for the mass extinction--including the extinction of the dinosaurs--at the end of the Cretaceous. But up to now no crater of this age that is large enough (ca. 200 km in diameter) has been found. One candidate is the Kara Crater in northern Siberia. Kolesnikov et al. determined a K-Ar isochron of 65.6 +/- 0.5 Ma, indistinguishable from the age of the K-T boundary and interpreted this as confirmation of earlier proposals that the Kara bolide would have been at least one of the K-T impactors. Koeberl et al. determined Ar-40 to Ar-39 ages ranging from 70 to 82 Ma and suggested an association to the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary, another important extinction horizon 73 Ma ago. We dated four impact melts, KA2-306, KA2-305, SA1-302, and AN9-182. Results from the investigation are discussed.

  10. Relationship between human evolution and neurally mediated syncope disclosed by the polymorphic sites of the adrenergic receptor gene α2B-AR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyoshi Komiyama

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of disease on neurally mediated syncope (NMS during an acute stress reaction. We analyzed the mechanism of the molecular interaction and the polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor (α2B-AR gene as the potential psychiatric cause of incentive stress. We focused on the following three genotypes of the repeat polymorphism site at Glu 301-303 in the α2B-AR gene: Glu12/12, Glu12/9, and Glu9/9. On the basis of our clinical research, NMS is likely to occur in people with the Glu12/9 heterotype. To verify this, we assessed this relationship with the interaction of Gi protein and adenylate cyclase by in silico analysis of the Glu12/9 heterotype. By measuring the difference in the dissociation time of the Gi-α subunit twice, we found that the Glu12/9 heterotype suppressed the action of adenylate cyclase longer than the Glu homotypes. As this difference in the Glu repeat number effect is thought to be one of the causes of NMS, we investigated the evolutionary significance of the Glu repeat number. Glu8 was originally repeated in simians, while the Glu12 repeats occurred over time during the evolution of bipedalism in humans. Taken with the Glu12 numbers, NMS would likely become a defensive measure to prevent significant blood flow to the human brain.

  11. The rovibrational structure of the Ar-CO complex from a model interaction potential (United States)

    Gianturco, F. A.; Paesani, F.


    The full three-variable potential-energy surface for the Ar-CO complex, V(R,θ,rCO), has been calculated using a recently developed scheme which combines density-functional theory (DFT) with the long-range dispersion contributions obtained from perturbation theory. The two adiabatic surfaces given by integration of the full potential over the vibrational coordinate of CO have been then used to calculate the bound states of the van der Waals complex for both vCO=0 and vCO=1. Calculations of the wave functions and of the frequencies of various rotational and rovibrational transitions provide overall good agreement both with the experiments and with the results obtained using the most recent, and more computationally demanding, potential-energy surfaces for the title system.

  12. Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO magnetic multilayers: structure and magnetism of the high-Ar pressure series. (United States)

    Pappas, S D; Delimitis, A; Kapaklis, V; Papaioannou, E Th; Poulopoulos, P; Trachylis, D; Velgakis, M J; Politis, C


    Natural nanomorphous Ni/NiO multilayers have exhibited interesting magnetic properties, such as an unusual positive surface anisotropy and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Most attention has been paid to multilayers prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering under relatively low (3 x 10(-3) mbar) Ar pressure. Here we report on the correlation between structural and magnetic properties for a new series of multilayers, prepared under relatively high (3 x 10(-2) mbar) Ar pressure. The crystalline Ni individual layer thickness ranges between 5-8 nm. The amorphous NiO layer thickness is constant, about 1.1 nm thick. X-ray reflectivity showed that in some of the multilayers the high-order Bragg peaks become broader and diminish quickly. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals that this occurs because the first bilayers are formed in accordance to the growth conditions, while the ones near the top are vanished. Despite the deterioration of the interface quality, all samples show tendency for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for large bilayer thickness of about 9 nm. Similar tendency is observed even by a 330 nm thick non-multilayered Ni film grown under the same conditions. This observation reveals the important role of strain and magnetoelastic anisotropy as a source of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Ni/NiO multilayers.

  13. Time Evolution of the Basse Terre Island (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) Effusive Volcanism from New K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot Ages. (United States)

    Samper, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Mollex, D.; Komorowski, J. C.; Boudon, G.


    Radiometric dating and geochemistry of effusive volcanics have been combined with geomorphological observations in order to provide a general evolution model of the volcanic island of Basse Terre, Guadeloupe (French West Indies). More than forty new Cassignol-Gillot K-Ar ages distributed within the entire island, together with the twenty ages (Blanc, 1983; Carlut et al., 2000) previously obtained with the same technique, makes the Guadeloupe Island the best place to study the evolution of volcanic processes within the Lesser Antilles Arc. Dating was performed on the carefully separated groundmass in order to avoid K loss due to weathering and excess argon carried by mafic minerals. Ages obtained are relatively younger than previously thought on Basse Terre and range from a few ka to 2.79+-0.04 Ma. When available, the paleomagnetic polarity of the dated flows agree with the GPTS and a very good coherence of ages is observed for each massif. Our results demonstrate the general north to south migration of volcanism through time. It correlates with the main volcanic stages previously identified. The 2.75 Ma Basal Complex, the 1.81+-0.03 _ 1.15+-0.02 Ma Septentrional Chain, the 1.02+-0.02 Ma _ 0.606+-0.02 Ma Axial Chain, the 442+-6 _ 207+-28 ka Mateliane _ Sans Toucher Complex and the basaltic andesites and andesites although a few basalt and dacite have also been dated. All of them are characterized by low MgO values (geochemical characteristics similar to that of the central islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. Within Basse Terre, geochemical characteristics are relatively constant through time, indicating no major change of volcanic processes during the whole subaerial activity. Finally the detailed chronological framework now available provides new constraints for estimating rates of edification and destruction at the island scale and, more generally, to help better understand the evolution of the still active Guadeloupe island Soufriere volcano.

  14. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten


    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  15. Experimental study of the structure of rich premixed 1,3-butadiene/CH4/O2/Ar flame

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique


    The structure of a laminar rich premixed 1,3-C4H6/CH4/O2/Ar flame have been investigated. 1,3-Butadiene, methane, oxygen and argon mole fractions are 0.033; 0.2073; 0.3315, and 0.4280, respectively, for an equivalent ratio of 1.80. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr). The concentration profiles of stable species were measured by gas chromatography after sampling with a quartz probe. Quantified species included carbon monoxide and dioxide, methane, oxygen, hydrogen, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propyne, allene, propene, cyclopropane, 1,3-butadiene, butenes, 1-butyne, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, C5 compounds, benzene, and toluene. The temperature was measured thanks to a thermocouple in PtRh (6%)-PtRh (30%) settled inside the enclosure and ranged from 900 K close to the burner up to 2100 K.

  16. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungi, E.K.; Kariithi, H.M.; Adunga, V.; Obonyo, M.; Christoffels, A.


    Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major role

  17. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli


    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.

  18. Modeling Temporal Evolution and Multiscale Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    Many real-world networks exhibit both temporal evolution and multiscale structure. We propose a model for temporally correlated multifurcating hierarchies in complex networks which jointly capture both effects. We use the Gibbs fragmentation tree as prior over multifurcating trees and a change......-point model to account for the temporal evolution of each vertex. We demonstrate that our model is able to infer time-varying multiscale structure in synthetic as well as three real world time-evolving complex networks. Our modeling of the temporal evolution of hierarchies brings new insights...

  19. Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar, [Ar = 4-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl, pyrrol-2-yl, thien-2-yl and furan-2-yl]: Difference in conformations and intermolecular hydrogen bonding (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric B.; Yoneda, Julliane D.; Leal, Katia Z.; Nogueira, Antônio F.; Vasconcelos, Thatyana R. A.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.


    Structures of hydrazones, (E)-2-(1,3-benzothiazolyl)-NHsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd Ar(Ar = pyridine-2-yl (1), pyrrol-2-yl (2), thien-2-yl (3) and furan-2-yl (4), prepared from 2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzothiazole and ArCHO, followed by recrystallisation from alcohol solutions, are reported. No significant intramolecular hydrogen bonds are present in any of the four molecules. Different conformations were found between 2 and 3, on one hand and for 4, on the other. Thus for 4, the oxygen atom of the furanyl ring is on the same side of the molecule as is the sulfur atom of the benzothiazole unit, while in contrast, each of the heteroatoms of the thienyl and pyrrole rings lies on opposite sides to the benzothiazole sulphur atom. In addition to the conformational variations, differences are noted in the connections between molecules. Despite the presence in each case of N(hydrazono)sbnd H---N(benzothiazolo) intermolecular hydrogen bonds, molecules of 4 are linked into spiral chains, while molecules of 2 and 3 (and indeed all compounds having Ar = substituted phenyl) form symmetric dimers. Further intermolecular interactions, albeit weaker ones, are found in 2 [Csbnd H··N and Nsbnd H··π], 3 [Csbnd H··π] and 4 [π··π], while dimers of 1 remain essentially free. Calculations carried out using the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) method indicated that the conformations determined by crystallography for 2-4 were the more stable.

  20. Evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured coronal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, D; Nakariakov, V M; Li, B; Keppens, R


    Magnetohydrodynamic waves interact with structured plasmas and reveal the internal magnetic and thermal structures therein, thereby having seismological applications in the solar atmosphere. We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-$\\beta$ plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. A randomly structured plasma acts as a dispersive medium for a fast magnetoacoustic pulse, causing amplitude attenuation and broadening of the pulse width. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear in the plasma. Width evolution of both...

  1. Melt evolution beneath a rifted craton edge: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope systematics of primitive alkaline basalts and lamprophyres from the SW Baltic Shield (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Smart, Katie A.; Stracke, Andreas; Romer, Rolf L.; Prelević, Dejan; van den Bogaard, Paul


    A new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar anorthoclase feldspar age of 176.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2-sigma) reveals that small-volume alkaline basaltic magmatism occurred at the rifted SW margin of the Baltic Shield in Scania (southern Sweden), at a time of global plate reorganization associated with the inception of Pangea supercontinent break-up. Our combined elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope dataset for representative basanite and nephelinite samples (>8 wt.% MgO) from 16 subvolcanic necks of the 30 by 40 km large Jurassic volcanic field suggests magma derivation from a moderately depleted mantle source (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7034-0.7048; εNdi = +4.4 to +5.2; εHfi = +4.7 to +8.1; 206Pb/204Pbi = 18.8-19.5). The mafic alkaline melts segregated from mixed peridotite-pyroxenite mantle with a potential temperature of ∼1400 °C at 2.7-4.2 GPa (∼90-120 km depths), which places ultimate melt generation within the convecting upper mantle, provided that the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the southern Baltic Shield margin was at ⩽100 km depth during Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting. Isotopic shifts and incompatible element enrichment relative to Depleted Mantle reflect involvement of at least 20% recycled oceanic lithosphere component (i.e., pyroxenite) with some minor continent-derived sediment during partial melting of well-stirred convecting upper mantle peridotite. Although pargasitic amphibole-rich metasomatized lithospheric mantle is excluded as the main source of the Jurassic magmas from Scania, hydrous ultramafic veins (i.e., hornblendite) may have caused subtle modifications to the compositions of passing sublithospheric melts. For example, modeling suggests that the more radiogenic Hf (εHfi = +6.3 to +8.1) and Pb (206Pb/204Pbi = 18.9-19.5) isotopic compositions of the more sodic and H2O-rich nephelinites, compared with relatively homogenous basanites (εHfi = +4.7 to +6.1; 206Pb/204Pbi = 18.8-18.9), originate from minor interactions between rising asthenospheric melts and

  2. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, Eugen [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart [Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef, E-mail: [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  3. Structure, Evolution and Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siess, L; Lattanzio, J C; Siess, Lionel; Livio, Mario; Lattanzio, John


    (abridge version) The evolution of population III stars (Z=0) is followed from the pre-main sequence phase up to the AGB phase for intermediate-mass stars and up to C ignition in more massive stars...We find that, thanks to the development of mixing episodes (carbon injections) at the beginning of the AGB phase, the carbon abundance of the 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5Mo models is significantly increased in the envelope. This process then allows low- and intermediate-mass stars to achieve a ``standard'' thermally pulsing AGB phase... In the 7Mo model, the CNO envelope abundance following the second dredge-up is so large that the star does not experience the carbon injection episode and follows a more standard thermally pulsing AGB evolution. Our computations also indicate that, thanks to a small overshooting at the base of the convective envelope, the third dredge-up is already operating in stars with M >~1.5 Mo after a few pulses, and that by the end of our modeling, hot bottom burning is activated in stars more mas...

  4. Mixing biases: Structural changes in the as topology evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Fay, D.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Jamakovic, A.


    In this paper we study the structural evolution of the AS topology as inferred from two different datasets over a period of seven years. We use a variety of topological metrics to analyze the structural differences revealed in the AS topologies inferred from the two different datasets. In particular

  5. Evolution of extortion in structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila


    Extortion strategies can dominate any opponent in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game. But if players are able to adopt the strategies performing better, extortion becomes widespread and evolutionary unstable. It may sometimes act as a catalyst for the evolution of cooperation, and it can also emerge in interactions between two populations, yet it is not the evolutionary stable outcome. Here we revisit these results in the realm of spatial games. We find that pairwise imitation and birth-death dynamics return known evolutionary outcomes. Myopic best response strategy updating, on the other hand, reveals new counterintuitive solutions. Defectors and extortioners coarsen spontaneously, which allows cooperators to prevail even at prohibitively high temptations to defect. Here extortion strategies play the role of a Trojan horse. They may emerge among defectors by chance, and once they do, cooperators become viable as well. These results are independent of the interaction topology, and they highlight the importan...

  6. The proteome: structure, function and evolution. (United States)

    Fleming, Keiran; Kelley, Lawrence A; Islam, Suhail A; MacCallum, Robert M; Muller, Arne; Pazos, Florencio; Sternberg, Michael J E


    This paper reports two studies to model the inter-relationships between protein sequence, structure and function. First, an automated pipeline to provide a structural annotation of proteomes in the major genomes is described. The results are stored in a database at Imperial College, London (3D-GENOMICS) that can be accessed at Analysis of the assignments to structural superfamilies provides evolutionary insights. 3D-GENOMICS is being integrated with related proteome annotation data at University College London and the European Bioinformatics Institute in a project known as e-protein ( The second topic is motivated by the developments in structural genomics projects in which the structure of a protein is determined prior to knowledge of its function. We have developed a new approach PHUNCTIONER that uses the gene ontology (GO) classification to supervise the extraction of the sequence signal responsible for protein function from a structure-based sequence alignment. Using GO we can obtain profiles for a range of specificities described in the ontology. In the region of low sequence similarity (around 15%), our method is more accurate than assignment from the closest structural homologue. The method is also able to identify the specific residues associated with the function of the protein family.

  7. Structure, dynamics, assembly, and evolution of protein complexes. (United States)

    Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A


    The assembly of individual proteins into functional complexes is fundamental to nearly all biological processes. In recent decades, many thousands of homomeric and heteromeric protein complex structures have been determined, greatly improving our understanding of the fundamental principles that control symmetric and asymmetric quaternary structure organization. Furthermore, our conception of protein complexes has moved beyond static representations to include dynamic aspects of quaternary structure, including conformational changes upon binding, multistep ordered assembly pathways, and structural fluctuations occurring within fully assembled complexes. Finally, major advances have been made in our understanding of protein complex evolution, both in reconstructing evolutionary histories of specific complexes and in elucidating general mechanisms that explain how quaternary structure tends to evolve. The evolution of quaternary structure occurs via changes in self-assembly state or through the gain or loss of protein subunits, and these processes can be driven by both adaptive and nonadaptive influences.

  8. Population structure and evolution of Rhinoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali P Waman

    Full Text Available Rhinoviruses, formerly known as Human rhinoviruses, are the most common cause of air-borne upper respiratory tract infections in humans. Rhinoviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae and are divided into three species namely, Rhinovirus A, -B and -C, which are antigenically diverse. Genetic recombination is found to be one of the important causes for diversification of Rhinovirus species. Although emerging lineages within Rhinoviruses have been reported, their population structure has not been studied yet. The availability of complete genome sequences facilitates study of population structure, genetic diversity and underlying evolutionary forces, such as mutation, recombination and selection pressure. Analysis of complete genomes of Rhinoviruses using a model-based population genetics approach provided a strong evidence for existence of seven genetically distinct subpopulations. As a result of diversification, Rhinovirus A and -C populations are divided into four and two subpopulations, respectively. Genetically, the Rhinovirus B population was found to be homogeneous. Intra-species recombination was observed to be prominent in Rhinovirus A and -C species. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was obtained for several sites within coding sequences of structural and non-structural proteins. This corroborates well with known phenotypic properties such as antigenicity of structural proteins. Episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for emergence of new lineages especially in Rhinovirus A. In summary, the Rhinovirus population is an ensemble of seven distinct lineages. In case of Rhinovirus A, intra-species recombination and episodic positive selection contribute to its further diversification. In case of Rhinovirus C, intra- and inter-species recombinations are responsible for observed diversity. Population genetics approach was further useful to analyze phylogenetic tree topologies pertaining to recombinant strains

  9. Population structure and evolution of Rhinoviruses. (United States)

    Waman, Vaishali P; Kolekar, Pandurang S; Kale, Mohan M; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila


    Rhinoviruses, formerly known as Human rhinoviruses, are the most common cause of air-borne upper respiratory tract infections in humans. Rhinoviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae and are divided into three species namely, Rhinovirus A, -B and -C, which are antigenically diverse. Genetic recombination is found to be one of the important causes for diversification of Rhinovirus species. Although emerging lineages within Rhinoviruses have been reported, their population structure has not been studied yet. The availability of complete genome sequences facilitates study of population structure, genetic diversity and underlying evolutionary forces, such as mutation, recombination and selection pressure. Analysis of complete genomes of Rhinoviruses using a model-based population genetics approach provided a strong evidence for existence of seven genetically distinct subpopulations. As a result of diversification, Rhinovirus A and -C populations are divided into four and two subpopulations, respectively. Genetically, the Rhinovirus B population was found to be homogeneous. Intra-species recombination was observed to be prominent in Rhinovirus A and -C species. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was obtained for several sites within coding sequences of structural and non-structural proteins. This corroborates well with known phenotypic properties such as antigenicity of structural proteins. Episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for emergence of new lineages especially in Rhinovirus A. In summary, the Rhinovirus population is an ensemble of seven distinct lineages. In case of Rhinovirus A, intra-species recombination and episodic positive selection contribute to its further diversification. In case of Rhinovirus C, intra- and inter-species recombinations are responsible for observed diversity. Population genetics approach was further useful to analyze phylogenetic tree topologies pertaining to recombinant strains, especially when trees

  10. Structural Approaches to Sequence Evolution Molecules, Networks, Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastolla, Ugo; Roman, H. Eduardo; Vendruscolo, Michele


    Structural requirements constrain the evolution of biological entities at all levels, from macromolecules to their networks, right up to populations of biological organisms. Classical models of molecular evolution, however, are focused at the level of the symbols - the biological sequence - rather than that of their resulting structure. Now recent advances in understanding the thermodynamics of macromolecules, the topological properties of gene networks, the organization and mutation capabilities of genomes, and the structure of populations make it possible to incorporate these key elements into a broader and deeply interdisciplinary view of molecular evolution. This book gives an account of such a new approach, through clear tutorial contributions by leading scientists specializing in the different fields involved.

  11. Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong


    In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.

  12. Population Structure and Evolution of Rhinoviruses



    Rhinoviruses, formerly known as Human rhinoviruses, are the most common cause of air-borne upper respiratory tract infections in humans. Rhinoviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae and are divided into three species namely, Rhinovirus A, -B and -C, which are antigenically diverse. Genetic recombination is found to be one of the important causes for diversification of Rhinovirus species. Although emerging lineages within Rhinoviruses have been reported, their population structure has not ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, D.; Li, B. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Keppens, R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one-dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-β plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. Acting as a dispersive medium, a randomly structured plasma causes amplitude attenuation and width broadening of the fast wave pulses. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear. Width evolution of both linear and nonlinear pulses can be well approximated by linear functions; however, narrow pulses may have zero or negative broadening. This arises because narrow pulses are prone to splitting, while broad pulses usually deviate less from their initial Gaussian shape and form ripple structures on top of the main pulse. Linear pulses decay at an almost constant rate, while nonlinear pulses decay exponentially. A pulse interacts most efficiently with a random medium with a correlation length of about half of the initial pulse width. This detailed model of fast wave pulses propagating in highly structured media substantiates the interpretation of EIT waves as fast magnetoacoustic waves. Evolution of a fast pulse provides us with a novel method to diagnose the sub-resolution filamentation of the solar atmosphere.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa Puthanparambil; Casey Kimball; Shaw Ling Hsu; Zhiyong Ren


    Spectroscopic studies have revealed that the amount of polyureas formed and the kinetics of their formation in soy based polyurethane systems are considerably different from traditional systems employing ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO-PO) based polyols. The aggregation of polyureas was characterized by the hydrogen bonds formed utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. This study offered the opportunity to assign the previously undefined infrared features. The structural transformation is reflected in the segmental relaxation kinetics characterized by spin-spin diffusion most conveniently measured using low field NMR. The reaction kinetics and the products formed are directly related to the hydrophobic nature of the soy based polyols and its inability to disperse water.

  15. Structural Evolution of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Hammonds, Mark; Candian, Alessandra; Mori, Tamami; Usui, Fumihiko; Onaka, Takashi


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important reservoir for molecular carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and investigations into their chemistry and behaviour may be important to the understanding of how carbon is processed from simple forms into complex prebiotic molecules such as those detected in chondritic meteorites. In this study, infrared astronomical data from AKARI and other observatories are used together with laboratory and theoretical data to study variations in the structure of emitting PAHs in interstellar environments using spectroscopic decomposition techniques and bands arising from carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations at wavelengths from 3 - 14 microns. Results and inferences are discussed in terms of the processing of large carbonaceous molecules in astrophysical environments.

  16. Arc-oblique fault systems: their role in the Cenozoic structural evolution and metallogenesis of the Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Piquer, Jose; Berry, Ron F.; Scott, Robert J.; Cooke, David R.


    The evolution of the Main Cordillera of Central Chile is characterized by the formation and subsequent inversion of an intra-arc volcano-tectonic basin. The world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits were emplaced during basin inversion. Statistically, the area is dominated by NE- and NW-striking faults, oblique to the N-striking inverted basin-margin faults and to the axis of Cenozoic magmatism. This structural pattern is interpreted to reflect the architecture of the pre-Andean basement. Stratigraphic correlations, syn-extensional deposits and kinematic criteria on fault surfaces show several arc-oblique structures were active as normal faults at different stages of basin evolution. The geometry of syn-tectonic hydrothermal mineral fibers, in turn, demonstrates that most of these structures were reactivated as strike-slip ± reverse faults during the middle Miocene - early Pliocene. Fault reactivation age is constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals deposited during fault slip. The abundance and distribution of these minerals indicates fault-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow was widespread during basin inversion. Fault reactivation occurred under a transpressive regime with E- to ENE-directed shortening, and was concentrated around major plutons and hydrothermal centers. At the margins of the former intra-arc basin, deformation was largely accommodated by reverse faulting, whereas in its central part strike-slip faulting was predominant.

  17. Rehabilitation Counselor Education Accreditation: History, Structure, and Evolution (United States)

    Shaw, Linda R.; Kuehn, Marvin D.


    This review examines some of the critical factors that influenced the evolution of rehabilitation counselor education accreditation. The article discusses the history and structure of the accreditation process and the activities that have occurred to maintain the relevancy and viability of the process. Major issues that the Council on…

  18. Stable Solution of Nonlinear Age-structuredForest Evolution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDing-jiang; ZHAOTing-fang


    This paper studies the dynamical behavior of a class of total area dependent nonlinear age-structured forest evolution model. We give the problem of equal value for the forest system, and discuss the stable solution of system. We obtained the necessary and sufficient conditions for there exists the stable solution.

  19. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Ze-wei; Song Xiao-gang; Ye Chun-yang


    Numerical analysis was made for shoreline evolution in the vicinity of coastal structures, including spur dike, detached breakwaters. The nonlinear partial differential equation was derived, and numerical solutions were obtained by the finite difference method. The numerical results show good agreement with previous analytical results.

  1. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming


    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  2. The nonsinglet structure function evolution by Laplace method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G. R., E-mail:, E-mail:; Zarrin, S. [Razi University, Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We derive a general scheme for the evolution of the nonsinglet structure function at the leadingorder (LO) and next-to-leading-order (NLO) by using the Laplace-transform technique. Results for the nonsinglet structure function are compared with MSTW2008, GRV, and CKMT parameterizations and also EMC experimental data in the LO and NLO analysis. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data and other parameterizations in the low- and large-x regions.

  3. Evolution and physics in comparative protein structure modeling. (United States)

    Fiser, András; Feig, Michael; Brooks, Charles L; Sali, Andrej


    From a physical perspective, the native structure of a protein is a consequence of physical forces acting on the protein and solvent atoms during the folding process. From a biological perspective, the native structure of proteins is a result of evolution over millions of years. Correspondingly, there are two types of protein structure prediction methods, de novo prediction and comparative modeling. We review comparative protein structure modeling and discuss the incorporation of physical considerations into the modeling process. A good starting point for achieving this aim is provided by comparative modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. Incorporation of physical considerations is illustrated by an inclusion of solvation effects into the modeling of loops.

  4. The structure and evolution of plankton communities (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan R.

    New understanding of the circulation of ancient oceans is not yet matched by progress in our understanding of their pelagic ecology, though it was the planktonic ecosystems that generated our offshore oil and gas reserves. Can we assume that present-day models of ecosystem function are also valid for ancient seas? This question is addressed by a study of over 4000 plankton samples to derive a comprehensive, global description of zooplankton community structure in modern oceans: this shows that copepods form only 50% of the biomass of all plankton, ranging from 70% in polar to 35% in tropical seas. Comparable figures are derived from 14 other taxonomic categories of zooplankton. For trophic groupings, the data indicate globally: geletinous predators - 14%; gelatinous herbivores - 4%; raptorial predators - 33%; macrofiltering herbivores - 20%; macrofiltering omnivores - 25%; and detritivores - 3%. A simple, idealized model for the modern pelagic ecosystem is derived from these percentages which indicates that metazooplankton are not the most important consumers of pico- and nano-plankton production which itself probably constitutes 90% of primary production in warm oceans. This model is then compared with candidate life-forms available in Palaeozoic and Mesozoic oceans to determine to what extent it is also valid for ancient ecosystems: it is concluded that it is probably unnecessary to postulate models fundamentally differing from it in order to accommodate the life-forms, both protozoic and metazoic, known to have populated ancient seas. Remarkably few life-forms have existed which cannot be paralleled in the modern ocean, which contains remarkably few life-forms which cannot be paralleled in the Palaeozoic ocean. As a first assumption, then, it is reasonable to assume that energy pathways were similar in ancient oceans to those we study today.

  5. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.


    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  6. Structural effects due to the incorporation of Ar atoms in the lattice of ZrO sub 2 thin films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Holgado, J P; Veen, A V; Schut, H; Hosson, J T M; González-Elipe, A R


    Two sets of ZrO sub 2 thin films have been prepared at room temperature by ion beam induced chemical vapour deposition and subsequently annealed up to 1323 K. The two sets of samples have been prepared by using either O sub 2 sup + or mixtures of (O sub 2 sup + +Ar sup +) ions for the decomposition of a volatile metallorganic precursor of zirconium. The structure and microstructure of these two sets of samples have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and positron beam analysis (PBA). The samples were very compact and dense and had a very low-surface roughness. After annealing in air at T>=573 K both sets of films were transparent and showed similar refraction indexes. For the (O sub 2 sup + +Ar sup +)-ZrO sub 2 thin films it is shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford back scattering that a certain amount of incorporated Ar (5-6 at.%) remains incorporated within the oxide lattice. No changes were detected in the amount of incorporated Ar even ...

  7. The history of crustal uplift and metamorphic evolution of Panzhihua-Xichang micro-palaeoland, SW China:Constraints on Sm-Nd, 40Ar/39Ar and FT ages of granulites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shijin; LIU Wenzhong; WANG Rucheng; YU Hangbo; LI Daming; WAN Jinglin; FANG Zhong


    Panzhihua-Xichang (Panxi) micro-palaeoland is the oldest terrane on the western margin of the Yangtze Block. Some intermediate-basic granulites are considered to be the crystalline basement of lower crust in the terrane. Granulite-facies metamorphism of the granulites was developed in the period from 1186 Ma to 1128 Ma. The origin of granulites was related to the collision orogenic process occurring when the micro-palaeolands merged to form the Rodinia Supercontinent. Amphibolite-facies retrogressive metamorphism of granulites took place in the period from 877 Ma to 825 Ma. This period was consistent with the breakup time of the Rodinia Supercontinent. 40Ar/39Ar ages and fission track (FT) ages of granulites in the Panxi micro-palaeoland show that the vertical movement history of crustal rocks was a slow uplift process of the rigid terrane in the time from Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic. The subduction of India Plate towards Euroasia Plate resulted in the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Block in Cenozoic.Meanwhile, the Qinghai-Tibetan Block moved towards east. Consequently the Panxi terrane was uplifted rapidly. As a result of the collision orogeny between the Qinghai-Tibetan Block and the Panxi terrane, the granulite-facies crystalline basement in this region was exhumed and exposed to the surface.

  8. Formation and Evolution of Structure in Loop Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, M; Kagan, M; Singh, P; Skirzewski, A; Bojowald, Martin; Hernandez, Hector; Kagan, Mikhail; Singh, Parampreet; Skirzewski, Aureliano


    Inhomogeneous cosmological perturbation equations are derived in loop quantum gravity, taking into account corrections in particular in gravitational parts. This provides a framework for calculating the evolution of modes in structure formation scenarios related to inflationary or bouncing models. Applications here are corrections to the Newton potential and to the evolution of large scale modes which imply non-conservation of curvature perturbations possibly noticeable in a running spectral index. These effects are sensitive to quantization procedures and test the characteristic behavior of correction terms derived from quantum gravity.

  9. Structure and Evolution of Hot Gas in 30 Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D


    We have investigated the structure and evolution of hot gas in the 30 Dor nebula, based on recent X-ray observations. Our deep ROSAT HRI image shows that diffuse X-ray emission arises in blister-shaped regions outlined by loops of HII gas. X-ray spectroscopic data from ASCA confirm the thermal nature of the emission and indicate that hot gas temperature decreases from the core to the halo of the nebula. The structure of the nebula can be understood as outflows of hot and HII gases from the parent giant molecular cloud of the central OB association. The dynamic mixing between the two gas phases is likely responsible for the mass loading to the hot gas, as required to explain the observed thermal structure and X-ray luminosity of the nebula. Such processes should also be important in the formation of similar giant HII regions and in their subsequent evolution into supergiant bubbles or galactic chimneys.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The scope of this article is the evolution analysis of net investment in Romania between economic growth and international economic crisis. The analysis captures both the evolution of net investment by structure elements (buildings, outfits, other investments and the structure and evolution of investments by sources of financing. Also there is an analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI share in the total net investment and the impact of the economic crisis on this share. The article aims to identify the main factors for the evolution of investments in Romania before the financial crisis and determine how the financial crisis influenced the structure and volume of investments in the national economy. Most previous studies have focused either on a small part of the investments made in Romania (in most cases the FDI have been analyzed or on the period of economic expansion without capturing the evolution of investment during the economic crisis. Previous research has highlighted especially the FDI influence on macroeconomic indicators of high importance for the economy (unemployment rate, GDP growth rate, etc. with less focus on the factors influencing these investments and the close connection between the economic context (economy status and the volume of these investments. For the analysis of the investment evolution during the mentioned period statistical data was used that captured both the investment evolution trend and the changes occurred by the national economy stepping into recession amid the global financial crisis established. To get an overview of the situation it was considered a time internal that captured both the economic growth and the period after the onset of the economic crisis. Thereby information was obtained on the volume of net investment during 2000-2010, on foreign direct investment in the period 2003-2010 and their share in total net investment and also on the main sources of investment financing during the

  11. 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology, Isotope Geochemistry (Sr, Nd, Pb), and petrology of alkaline lavas near Yampa, Colorado: migration of alkaline volcanism and evolution of the northern Rio Grande rift (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Thompson, Ren A.; Lee, John P.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.


    Volcanic rocks near Yampa, Colorado (USA), represent one of several small late Miocene to Quaternary alkaline volcanic fields along the northeast margin of the Colorado Plateau. Basanite, trachybasalt, and basalt collected from six sites within the Yampa volcanic field were investigated to assess correlations with late Cenozoic extension and Rio Grande rifting. In this paper we report major and trace element rock and mineral compositions and Ar, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data for these volcanic rocks. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology indicates westward migration of volcanism within the Yampa volcanic field between 6 and 4.5 Ma, and the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope values are consistent with a primary source in the Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Relict olivine phenocrysts have Mg- and Ni-rich cores, whereas unmelted clinopyroxene cores are Na and Si enriched with finely banded Ca-, Mg-, Al-, and Ti-enriched rims, thus tracing their crystallization history from a lithospheric mantle source region to one in contact with melt prior to eruption. A regional synthesis of Neogene and younger volcanism within the Rio Grande rift corridor, from northern New Mexico to southern Wyoming, supports a systematic overall southwest migration of alkaline volcanism. We interpret this Neogene to Quaternary migration of volcanism toward the northeast margin of the Colorado Plateau to record passage of melt through subvertical zones within the lithosphere weakened by late Cenozoic extension. If the locus of Quaternary alkaline magmatism defines the current location of the Rio Grande rift, it includes the Leucite Hills, Wyoming. We suggest that alkaline volcanism in the incipient northern Rio Grande rift, north of Leadville, Colorado, represents melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in response to transient infiltration of asthenospheric mantle into deep, subvertical zones of dilational crustal weakness developed during late Cenozoic extension that have been

  12. Voronoi Structural Evolution of Bulk Silicon upon Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-Liang; ZHANG Xin-Yu; WANG Lin-Min; QI Li; ZHANG Su-Hong; ZHU Yan; LIU Ri-Ping


    @@ The Voronoi structural evolution of silicon upon melting is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation.At temperatures below the melting point, the solid state system is identified to have a four-fold coordination structure .As the temperature increases, the five-fold coordination and six-fold coordination structures and are observed.This is explained in terms of increasing atomic displacement due to thermal motion and the trapping of the moving atoms by others.At temperatures above the melting point, nearly ali of the four-fold coordination structures grows into multiple-fold coordination ones.%The Voronoi structural evolution of silicon upon melting is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation. At temperatures below the melting point, the solid state system is identified to have a four-told coordination structure (4,0,0,0). As the temperature increases, the five-fold coordination (2,3,0,0) and six-fold coordination structures (2,2,2,0) and (0,6,0,0) are observed. This is explained in terms of increasing atomic displacement due to thermal motion and the trapping of the moving atoms by others. At temperatures above the melting point, nearly all of the four-fold coordination structures grows into multiple-fold coordination ones.

  13. Simulated evolution of the dark matter large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Demiański, M; Pilipenko, S; Gottlöber, S


    We analyze evolution of the basic properties of simulated large scale structure elements formed by dark matter (DM LSS) and confront it with the observed evolution of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest. In three high resolution simulations we selected samples of compact DM clouds of moderate overdensity. Clouds are selected at redshifts $0\\leq z\\leq 3$ with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) technique. The main properties of so selected clouds are analyzed in 3D space and with the core sampling approach, what allows us to compare estimates of the DM LSS evolution obtained with two different techniques and to clarify some important aspects of the LSS evolution. In both cases we find that regular redshift variations of the mean characteristics of the DM LSS are accompanied only by small variations of their PDFs, what indicates the self similar character of the DM LSS evolution. The high degree of relaxation of DM particles compressed within the LSS is found along the shortest principal axis of clouds. We see that the inter...

  14. Protoplanetary Disk Structure With Grain Evolution: the ANDES Model

    CERN Document Server

    Akimkin, V; Wiebe, D; Semenov, D; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya; Vasyunin, A; Birnstiel, T; Henning, Th


    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes 1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, 2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes surface reactions, 3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and 4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains to the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partl...

  15. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.


    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  16. Triadic Conceptual Structure of the Maximum Entropy Approach to Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten


    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference device...

  17. Secondary Privatisation: The Evolution of Ownership Structures of Privatised Enterprises


    Barbara Blaszczyk; Richard Woodward


    This summary was prepared and edited by Barbara Blaszczyk and Richard Woodward of CASE - the Center for Social and Economic Research. In the project whose results are presented here, our team investigated the phenomenon of "secondary privatisation" (that is, the post-privatisation evolution of the ownership structures established as the result of initial privatisation) in three transition economies (the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia) in the years 1995-1999. Our research covered companie...

  18. Modified structure of graphene oxide by investigation of structure evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Nekahi; S P H Marashi; D Haghshenas Fatmesari


    The structure of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (GO) has been studied previously using various analyses and computer simulations. Although some oxygen functional groups (OFGs) are accepted as the main functionalities in GO, the structure of GO has remained elusive. In this regard, GO was produced using the modified Hummers method and was investigated using X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared analysis and Boehm titration method. Based on the obtained results, a modified model was proposed for GO based on the model of Lerf-Klinowski. OFGs include highly carboxyl groups and phenols with few epoxides, lactones and ketones agglomerated in some regions due to hydrogen bonding between functional groups. Trapped water molecules were shown between the GO sheets which strongly affected the distribution of OFGs and their aggregation by hydrogen bonding.

  19. The Evolution of Community Structure in a Coauthorship Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mcdowell


    Full Text Available Mechanisms such as triadic closure and preferential attachment drive the evolution of social networks. Many models use these mechanisms to predict future links, and they generate realistic networks with scale-free degree distributions. These social networks also have community structure, or sets of vertices which are more connected to each other than the rest of the network. To study the evolution of research groups of scientists in a coauthorship network, we use a timeheterarchy representation to extend the mechanisms driving the evolution of the network to the level of this community structure. Specifically, we examine changes in the structure of groups in terms of mechanisms analogous to triadic closure and preferential attachment, and as a result, we find that the network evolves in the same way at the group-level and the individual-level. In addition, we find that interactions at the group-level might affect interactions at the individual-level in that members of a single group are more likely to strengthen their relationships than members of separate groups.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya. [Institute of Astronomy of the RAS, Pyatnitskaya str. 48, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Vasyunin, A. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Virginia, VA (United States); Birnstiel, T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R {approx}< 50 AU) and lower in the outer disk (R {approx}> 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HNO, H{sub 2}O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  1. Structural Evolution of Silicon Carbide Nanopowders during the Sintering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Volkova


    Full Text Available Processes of sintering of silicon carbide nanopowder were investigated. Values of density (ρ=3.17 g/cm3 and strength (σ=450 MPa were obtained. Within the theory of dispersed systems, the temperature evolution of the materials structure was considered. The relationship between sintering temperature, characteristics of crystal structure and physical properties, in particular, density, and strength of aforementioned ceramics was established. It was concluded that it is necessary to suppress the anomalous diffusion at temperatures above 2080°C.

  2. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    identify possible ground plan characteristics of the Lepidoptera and Amphiesmenoptera (MS1), 2) to describe and understand the evolution of the neolepidopteran caterpillar, and in particularly its crochet-bearing prolegs that are closely linked to walking on silken substrates and an external arboreal......The thesis explores some major transformation series in the structure of the lepidopteran larval trunk, focusing partly on the initial events in the evolution of the order, partly on one of the more spectacular cases of subsequent biological diversification within ‘typical’/’higher’ Lepidoptera...... cuticle thickness, the degree of myrmecopily and the underlying mechanism of lycaenid-ant associations (MS4). In two major manuscripts (MS1-2), comparative descriptions are provided of the larval trunk in, respectively the Micropterigidae and the lowest-grade leaf-mining caterpillars. Available knowledge...

  3. Syn-collisional exhumation of Sumdo eclogite in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet: Evidences from structural deformation and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology.%拉萨地体内松多榴辉岩的同碰撞折返:来自构造变形和40Ar-39Ar年代学的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化启; 许志琴; 杨经绥; 唐哲民; 杨梅


    松多地区的区域构造变形与糜棱质白云母石英片岩和绿片岩的白云母单矿物40Ar-39Ar年代学测试表明拉萨地体内的松多地区于220~240 Ma经历过印支期碰撞造山事件.这次造山事件为晚二叠世松多榴辉岩带代表的古特提斯洋盆消失闭合之后北拉萨地体与南冈瓦那大陆碰撞的结果.该区榴辉岩与退变榴辉岩白云母和角闪石的40Ar-39Ar测年结果也为220~240 Ma,且退变榴辉岩经历了与围岩一致的同构造变形,说明榴辉岩折返退变的时代和碰撞造山的时代一致.即碰撞造山的强挤压及挤压转换作用应是本区榴辉岩折返出露的主要机制.拉萨地体内印支晚期(210~190 Ma)大规模花岗岩带的发育从另一个侧面说明松多榴辉岩的折返与造山后伸展和区域内大规模花岗岩浆活动等后期热事件没关系,应为同碰撞折返机制.研究结果为高压变质岩石的同碰撞折返研究提供了一个具体实例和翔实的地质资料.%The structural deformation and muscovite and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating of muscovite quartz schist,eclogite and retrograde eclogite indicate that an Indosinian orogenesis occurred in 220 - 240 Ma in the Lhasa Terrane, which caused the closure of Paleo-Tethys ocean basin and the collision between the northern Lhasa Terrane and southern Gondwana. The accordance of muscovite and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating among eclogite,retrograde eclogite and muscovite quartz schist shows that the eclogite exhumation and Indosinian collisional orogenesis occurred simultaneously, which suggests that the regional ductile extrusion should be the main mechanism for the exhumation of Sumdo eclogite. The existence of large scale granite belt of late Indochina EPoch in the Lhasa Terrane, with the high precision single zircon U-Pb ages of 210 - 190 Ma, confirms the syn-collisional exhumation of eclogite from the another side, indicating that the eclogite exhumation had no relation to the

  4. Structure of the ArsI C-As Lyase: Insights into the Mechanism of Degradation of Organoarsenical Herbicides and Growth Promoters. (United States)

    Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Pawitwar, Shashank S; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P


    Arsenic is a ubiquitous and carcinogenic environmental element that enters the biosphere primarily from geochemical sources, but also through anthropogenic activities. Microorganisms play an important role in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle by biotransformation of inorganic arsenic into organic arsenicals and vice versa. ArsI is a microbial non-heme, ferrous-dependent dioxygenase that transforms toxic methylarsenite [MAs(III)] to less toxic and carcinogenic inorganic arsenite [As(III)] by C-As bond cleavage. An ArsI ortholog, TcArsI, from the thermophilic bacterium Thermomonospora curvata was expressed, purified, and crystallized. The structure was solved in both the apo form and with Ni(II), Co(II), or Fe(III). The MAs(III) binding site is a vicinal cysteine pair in a flexible loop. A structure with the loop occupied with β-mercaptoethanol mimics binding of MAs(III). The structure of a mutant protein (Y100H/V102F) was solved in two different crystal forms with two other orientations of the flexible loop. These results suggest that a loop-gating mechanism controls the catalytic reaction. In the ligand-free open state, the loop is exposed to solvent, where it can bind MAs(III). The loop moves toward the active site, where it forms a closed state that orients the C-As bond for dioxygen addition and cleavage. Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism of this unprecedented C-As lyase reaction will enhance our understanding of recycling of environmental organoarsenicals.

  5. Structural evolution of carbon during oxidation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, A.F.


    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs in the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and microporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, CO{sub 2} and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be {open_quotes}hidden{close_quotes} or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and CO{sub 2} surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM. Studies has confirmed that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  6. Learning structural bioinformatics and evolution with a snake puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo S. Nido


    Full Text Available We propose here a working unit for teaching basic concepts of structural bioinformatics and evolution through the example of a wooden snake puzzle, strikingly similar to toy models widely used in the literature of protein folding. In our experience, developed at a Master’s course at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain, the concreteness of this example helps to overcome difficulties caused by the interdisciplinary nature of this field and its high level of abstraction, in particular for students coming from traditional disciplines. The puzzle will allow us discussing a simple algorithm for finding folded solutions, through which we will introduce the concept of the configuration space and the contact matrix representation. This is a central tool for comparing protein structures, for studying simple models of protein energetics, and even for a qualitative discussion of folding kinetics, through the concept of the Contact Order. It also allows a simple representation of misfolded conformations and their free energy. These concepts will motivate evolutionary questions, which we will address by simulating a structurally constrained model of protein evolution, again modelled on the snake puzzle. In this way, we can discuss the analogy between evolutionary concepts and statistical mechanics that facilitates the understanding of both concepts. The proposed examples and literature are accessible, and we provide supplementary material (see ‘Data Availability’ to reproduce the numerical experiments. We also suggest possible directions to expand the unit. We hope that this work will further stimulate the adoption of games in teaching practice.

  7. Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution. (United States)

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N


    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.

  8. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  9. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.A., E-mail: [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Dong, K.J.; Yu, A.B. [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.

  10. Evolution of deep collapse caldera: from structural to gravitational process (United States)

    Geshi, N.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.


    We discuss the evolution of deep-subsiding caldera mainly controlled by gravitational process. Progress of caldera subsidence increases its subsidence/diameter ratio (S/D ratio). We investigate the surface features of calderas undergoing significant subsidence with regard to their diameter. First, we consider the evolution of the 2000 Miyakejima caldera, from double-concentric ring faults at earlier collapsing stages, to a gravitational-erosion dominant stage at a mature stage. When the topographic S/D approaches 0.33, the topographic S/D (hereafter S/Dt) becomes significantly different from the structural S/D (hereafter S/Ds), owing to the gravitational erosion on the caldera wall and accumulation of the debris on the floor. As collapse progresses, the peripheral block bounded by the inner reverse fault and outer normal fault extends and tilts towards the caldera center; it finally collapses towards the caldera floor and the double-ring faults disappeares. Subsidence of the caldera floor induces the gravitational erosion of the wall. This process increases the topographic diameter and the filling of the floor decreases the topographic depth. Consequently, the S/Dt decreases, while the continuous caldera subsidence increases the S/Ds. This evolution finds close similarities with the caldera collapses of Krakatau (1883), Katmai (1912), Fernandina (1968), Tolbachik (1975-76), Pinatubo (1991) and Dolomieu (2007). Analogue experiments mimic the observed variation, evolving from a depression controlled by the activity of the double-ring faults to that controlled by the gravitational slumping of the wall and sedimentation at the floor. The transition occurs for S/Dt ~0.34. These results show that the control on the shape of mature calderas (S/Ds>0.07) and approaching S/Dt=0.3 passes from a mainly structural to a mainly gravitational type. Both S/Dt and S/Ds are needed to describe the evolution of a collapse and the processes accompanying it. Evaluating the S/Dt and S

  11. Primary Cell Wall Structure in the Evolution of Land Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Investigation of the primary cell walls of lower plants improves our understanding of the cell biology of these organisms but also has the potential to improve our understanding of cell wall structure and function in angiosperms that evolved from lower plants. Cell walls were prepared from eight species, ranging from a moss to advanced gymnosperms, and subjected to sequential chemical extraction to separate the main polysaccharide fractions. The glycosyl compositions of these fractions were then determined by gas chromatography. The results were compared among the eight plants and among data from related studies reported in the existing published reports to identify structural features that have been either highly conserved or clearly modified during evolution. Among the highly conserved features are the presence of a cellulose framework, the presence of certain hemicelluloses such as xyloglucan, and the presence of rhamnogalacturonan Ⅱ, a domain in pectic polysaccharides. Among the modified features are the abundance of mannosyl-containing hemicelluloses and the presence of methylated sugars.

  12. Dynamical evolution of the community structure of complex earthquake network

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi


    Earthquake network is known to be complex in the sense that it is scale-free, small-world, hierarchically organized and assortatively mixed. Here, the time evolution of earthquake networks is analyzed around main shocks in the context of the community structure. It is found that the maximum of the modularity measure quantifying existence of communities exhibits a peculiar behavior: its maximum value stays at a large value before a main shock, suddenly drops to a small values at the main shock, and then increases to relax to a large value again relatively slowly. In this way, a main shock is characterized in the language of theory of complex networks. The result is also interpreted in terms of the clustering structure of the earthquake network.

  13. ArArCALC—software for 40Ar/ 39Ar age calculations (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.


    ArArCALC is a Microsoft Excel ® 97-2000-XP application for performing calculations in 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology. It is coded in Visual Basic for Applications and can be used under the Windows ® 95/98/NT/2000/ME/XP operating systems. ArArCALC provides an easy-to-use graphical interface for the calculation of age plateaus, total fusion ages and isochrons following the regression of 40Ar/ 39Ar mass spectrometry data. Results are stored in single Excel workbooks including nine different data tables and four different diagrams. Analytical, internal and external errors are calculated based on error propagation of all input parameters, analytical data and applied corrections. Finally, the age calculation results can be recalibrated with reference to the primary K-Ar standards (e.g. GA-1550, MMhb-1) in order to obtain more consistent absolute40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations. ArArCALC is distributed as freeware.

  14. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Daqingshan thrust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhenghong; XU Zhongyuan; YANG Zhensheng


    The Daqingshan thrust system, to the south of the Shiguai Mesozoic basin, is a complex system of top-to- the-north thrusting tectonic sheets. The thrust system has a complicated evolution due to multi-stage thrusting. In order to date the thrusting events, syntectonic muscovite and biotite grains are respectively analyzed with normal 40Ar/39Ar dating and laser 40Ar/39Ar dating, which yield 2 isochron ages, i.e. 193.74 ± 3.88 Ma and 121.6 ± 1.6 Ma. These ages suggest that faults within the Daqingshan thrust system formed during 2 stages of thrusting, one the early Indosinian and the other the late Yanshanian. The isotopic dating is consistent with field geological relations. Indosinan deformation is evidenced by top-to-the-north thrusting, with the occurrence of a series of large-scale east-west trending thrust faults and folds, while the Yanshanian thrusting is characterized by top-to-the-NNW thrusting. It is superposed on and modifies early Indosinian thrust faults.

  15. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.


    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r/sub 0/ = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(..cap omega..h)/sup -1/ (H/sub 0/ = 100h km s/sup -1/ Mpc/sup -1/). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Ly..cap alpha.. absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with ..cap omega..<1.

  16. Modeling Augmented Reality User Interfaces with SSIML/AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Vitzthum


    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR technologies open up new possibilities especially for task-focused domains such as assembly and maintenance. However, it can be noticed that there is still a lack of concepts and tools for a structured AR development process and an application specification above the code level. To address this problem we introduce SSIML/AR, a visual modeling language for the abstract specification of AR applications in general and AR user interfaces in particular. With SSIML/AR, three different aspects of AR user interfaces can be described: The user interface structure, the presentation of relevant information depending on the user’s current task and the integration of the user interface with other system components. Code skeletons can be generated automatically from SSIML/AR models. This enables the seamless transition from the design level to the implementation level. In addition, we sketch how SSIML/AR models can be integrated in an overall AR development process.

  17. The evolution of chloroplast genome structure in ferns. (United States)

    Wolf, Paul G; Roper, Jessie M; Duffy, Aaron M


    The plastid genome (plastome) is a rich source of phylogenetic and other comparative data in plants. Most land plants possess a plastome of similar structure. However, in a major group of plants, the ferns, a unique plastome structure has evolved. The gene order in ferns has been explained by a series of genomic inversions relative to the plastome organization of seed plants. Here, we examine for the first time the structure of the plastome across fern phylogeny. We used a PCR-based strategy to map and partially sequence plastomes. We found that a pair of partially overlapping inversions in the region of the inverted repeat occurred in the common ancestor of most ferns. However, the ancestral (seed plant) structure is still found in early diverging branches leading to the osmundoid and filmy fern lineages. We found that a second pair of overlapping inversions occurred on a branch leading to the core leptosporangiates. We also found that the unique placement of the gene matK in ferns (lacking a flanking intron) is not a result of a large-scale inversion, as previously thought. This is because the intron loss maps to an earlier point on the phylogeny than the nearby inversion. We speculate on why inversions may occur in pairs and what this may mean for the dynamics of plastome evolution.

  18. Rb, Sr and strontium isotopic composition, K/Ar age and large ion lithophile trace element abundances in rocks and glasses from the Wanapitei Lake impact structure (United States)

    Winzer, S. R.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, S.


    Shock metamorphosed rocks and shock-produced melt glasses from the Wanapitei Lake impact structure have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe. Eleven clasts exhibiting varying degrees of shock metamorphism and eight impact-produced glasses have been analyzed for Rb, Sr and Sr isotopic composition. Five clasts and one glass have also been analyzed for large ion lithophile (LIL) trace element abundances including Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba and the REE's. The impact event forming the Wanapitei Lake structure occurred 37 m.y. ago based on K/Ar dating of glass and glassy whole-rock samples. Rb/Sr isotopic dating failed to provide a meaningful whole-rock or internal isochron. The isotopic composition of the glasses can be explained by impact-produced mixing and melting of metasediments.

  19. The Interior Structure, Composition, and Evolution of Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, Jonathan J


    We discuss our current understanding of the interior structure and thermal evolution of giant planets. This includes the gas giants, such as Jupiter and Saturn, that are primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, as well as the "ice giants," such as Uranus and Neptune, which are primarily composed of elements heavier than H/He. The effect of different hydrogen equations of state (including new first-principles computations) on Jupiter's core mass and heavy element distribution is detailed. This variety of the hydrogen equations of state translate into an uncertainty in Jupiter's core mass of 18 M_Earth. For Uranus and Neptune we find deep envelope metallicities up to 0.95, perhaps indicating the existence of an eroded core, as also supported by their low luminosity. We discuss the results of simple cooling models of our solar system's planets, and show that more complex thermal evolution models may be necessary to understand their cooling history. We review how measurements of the masses and radii of the ~50 ...

  20. Structure and evolution of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Chabrier, Gilles; Baraffe, Isabelle


    We present extensive calculations of the structure and the evolution of low-massstars in the range 0.07-0.8 $\\msol$, for metallicities $-2.0\\le \\mh \\le 0.0$. These calculations are based on the most recent description of the microphysics characteristic of these dense and cool objects and on the lattest generation of grainless non-grey atmosphere models. We examine the evolution of the different mechanical and thermal properties of these objects as a function of mass and metallicity. We also demonstrate the inaccuracy of grey models and $T(\\tau)$ relationships under these conditions. We provide detailed tables of the mass-radius-luminosity-effective temperature relations for various ages and metallicities, aimed at calibrating existing or future observations of low-mass stars and massive brown dwarfs. We derive new hydrogen-burning minimum masses, within the afore-mentioned metallicity range. These minimum masses are found to be smaller than previous estimates, a direct consequence of non-grey effects. At last...

  1. Cooling-induced structure formation and evolution in collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Batta, Aldo


    The collapse of massive rotating stellar cores and the associated accretion onto the newborn compact object is thought to power long gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The physical scale and dynamics of the accretion disk are initially set by the angular momentum distribution in the progenitor, and the physical conditions make neutrino emission the main cooling agent in the flow. The formation and evolution of structure in these disks is potentially very relevant for the energy release and its time variability, which ultimately imprint on the observed GRB properties. To begin to characterize these, taking into account the three dimensional nature of the problem, we have carried out an initial set of calculations of the collapse of rotating polytropic cores in three dimensions, making use of a pseudo-relativistic potential and a simplified cooling prescription. We focus on the effects of self gravity and cooling on the overall morphology and evolution of the flow for a given rotation rate in the context of the collapsar...

  2. Sm-Nd, K-Ar and petrologic study of some kimberlites from eastern United States and their implication for mantle evolution (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Rubury, E.; Mehnert, H.; Tatsumoto, M.


    We provide new data on Sm-Nd systematics, K-Ar dating and the major element chemistry of kimberlites from the eastern United States (mostly from central New York State) and their constituent mineral phases of olivine, clinopyroxene, garnet, phlogopite and perovskite. In addition, we report Nd-isotopes in a few kimberlites from South Africa, Lesotho and from the eastern part of China. The major element compositions of the New York dike rocks and of their constituent minerals including a xenolith of eclogite are comparable with those from the Kimberley area in South Africa. The K-Ar age of emplacement of the New York dikes is further established to be 143 Ma. We have analyzed the Nd-isotopic composition of the following kimberlites and related rocks: Nine kimberlite pipes from South Africa and Lesotho, two from southern India; one from the U.S.S.R., fifteen kimberlite pipes and related dike rocks from eastern and central U.S. and two pipes from the Shandong Province of eastern China. The age of emplacement of these kimberlites ranges from 1300 million years to 90 million years. The initial Nd-isotopic compositions of these kimberlitic rocks expressed as e{open}NdIwith respect to a chondritic bulk-earth growth-curve show a range between 0 and +4, with the majority of the kimberlites being in the range 0 to +2. This range is not matched by any other suite of mantle-derived igneous rocks. This result strengthens our earlier conclusion that kimberlitic liquids are derived from a relatively primeval and unique mantle reservoir with a nearly chondritic Sm/Nd ratio. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  3. A teaching module about stellar structure and evolution (United States)

    Colantonio, Arturo; Galano, Silvia; Leccia, Silvio; Puddu, Emanuella; Testa, Italo


    In this paper, we present a teaching module about stellar structure, functioning and evolution. Drawing from literature in astronomy education, we designed the activities around three key ideas: spectral analysis, mechanical and thermal equilibrium, energy and nuclear reactions. The module is divided into four phases, in which the key ideas for describing stars' functioning and physical mechanisms are gradually introduced. The activities (20 hours) build on previously learned laws in mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism and help students combine them meaningfully in order to get a complete picture of processes that happens in stars. The module was piloted with two intact classes of secondary school students (N = 59 students, 17-18 years old), using a ten-question multiple-choice questionnaire as research instrument. Results support the effectiveness of the proposed activities. Implications for the teaching of advanced physics topics using stars as fruitful context are briefly discussed.

  4. Biophysical and structural considerations for protein sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnen Johan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequence evolution is constrained by the biophysics of folding and function, causing interdependence between interacting sites in the sequence. However, current site-independent models of sequence evolutions do not take this into account. Recent attempts to integrate the influence of structure and biophysics into phylogenetic models via statistical/informational approaches have not resulted in expected improvements in model performance. This suggests that further innovations are needed for progress in this field. Results Here we develop a coarse-grained physics-based model of protein folding and binding function, and compare it to a popular informational model. We find that both models violate the assumption of the native sequence being close to a thermodynamic optimum, causing directional selection away from the native state. Sampling and simulation show that the physics-based model is more specific for fold-defining interactions that vary less among residue type. The informational model diffuses further in sequence space with fewer barriers and tends to provide less support for an invariant sites model, although amino acid substitutions are generally conservative. Both approaches produce sequences with natural features like dN/dS Conclusions Simple coarse-grained models of protein folding can describe some natural features of evolving proteins but are currently not accurate enough to use in evolutionary inference. This is partly due to improper packing of the hydrophobic core. We suggest possible improvements on the representation of structure, folding energy, and binding function, as regards both native and non-native conformations, and describe a large number of possible applications for such a model.

  5. Structure and Evolution of Internally Heated Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Youdin, Andrew N.


    The transit radii of many close-in extrasolar giant planets, or "hot Jupiters," are systematically larger than those expected from models considering only cooling from an initial high-entropy state. Though these planets receive strong irradiation, with equilibrium temperatures of 1000-2500 Kelvin, the absorption of stellar incident flux in the upper atmosphere alone cannot explain these anomalous radii. More promising mechanisms involve irradiation-driven meteorological activity, which penetrates much deeper into the planet than direct stellar heating. This circulation can lead to large-scale mixing and downward transport of kinetic energy, both processes whereby a fraction of the stellar incident power is transported downwards to the interior of the planet. Here we consider how deposition of heat at different pressure levels or structural locations within a planet affects the resulting evolution. To do so, we run global gas giant evolutionary models with with the stellar structure code MESA including additional energy dissipation. We find that relatively shallow atmospheric heating alone can explain the transit radii of the hot Jupiter sample, but heating in the convective zone is an order of magnitude more efficient regardless of exact location. Additionally, a small difference in atmospheric heating location can have a significant effect on radius evolution, especially near the radiative-convective boundary. The most efficient location to heat the planet is at the radiative-convective boundary or deeper. We expect that shear instabilities at this interface may naturally explain energy dissipation at the radiative-convective boundary, which typically lies at a pressure of ~1 kilobar after 5 Gyr for a planet with the mass and incident stellar flux of HD 209458b. Hence, atmospheric processes are most efficient at explaining the bloated radii of hot Jupiters if they can transport incident stellar power downwards to the top of the inner convective zone.

  6. The Structure and Evolution of Cold Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Diemand, Jürg; Moore, Ben


    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the f ormation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in the literature, galaxy formation and evolution needs to be understood in more detail in order to fully test the CDM paradigm. Whatever the true nature of the dark matter particle is, its clustering properties must not be too different from a cold neutralino like particle to maintain all the successes of the model in matching large scale structure data and the global properties of halos which are mostly in good agreement with observations.

  7. Grain structure evolution during cryogenic rolling of alpha brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkova, T. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Rssian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Mironov, S. [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Korznikov, A. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Rssian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Korznikova, G. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Rssian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Myshlyaev, M.M. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Russian Academy of Science, 49 Lenin-av., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Semiatin, S.L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7817 (United States)


    Highlights: • Cryogenic rolling produced inhomogeneous ultrafine-grained microstructure. • Grain refinement was mainly related with twinning and shear banding. • Grain refinement preferentially occurred in Copper {1 1 0}(1 1 2) grains. - Abstract: High-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to study grain structure development during cryogenic rolling of Cu–29.5Zn brass. Microstructure evolution was found to be broadly similar to that occurring during rolling at room temperature. Specifically, favorably-oriented grains (Copper {1 1 2}(1 1 1) and S {1 2 3}(6 3 4)) experienced profuse deformation twinning followed by extensive shear banding. This eventually produced an ultrafine structure with a mean grain size of ~0.2 μm. On the other hand, grains with crystallographic orientations close to Brass {1 1 0}(1 1 2) and Goss {1 1 0}(1 0 0) were found to be stable against twinning/shear banding and thus showed no significant grain refinement. As a result, the final structure developed in heavily-rolled material was distinctly inhomogeneous consisting of mm-scale remnants of original grains with poorly developed substructure and ultra-fine grain domains.

  8. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.


    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  9. Structure and Evolution of Kuiper Belt Objects and Dwarf Planets (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Prialnik, D.; Stern, S. A.; Coradini, A.

    Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) accreted from a mélange of volatile ices, carbonaceous matter, and rock of mixed interstellar and solar nebular provenance. The transneptunian region, where this accretion took place, was likely more radially compact than today. This and the influence of gas drag during the solar nebula epoch argue for more rapid KBO accretion than usually considered. Early evolution of KBOs was largely the result of heating due to radioactive decay, the most important potential source being 26Al, whereas long-term evolution of large bodies is controlled by the decay of U, Th, and 40K. Several studies are reviewed dealing with the evolution of KBO models, calculated by means of one-dimensional numerical codes that solve the heat and mass balance equations. It is shown that, depending on parameters (principally rock content and porous conductivity), KBO interiors may have reached relatively high temperatures. The models suggest that KBOs likely lost ices of very volatile species during early evolution, whereas ices of less-volatile species should be retained in cold, less-altered subsurface layers. Initially amorphous ice may have crystallized in KBO interiors, releasing volatiles trapped in the amorphous ice, and some objects may have lost part of these volatiles as well. Generally, the outer layers are far less affected by internal evolution than the inner part, which in the absence of other effects (such as collisions) predicts a stratified composition and altered porosity distribution. Kuiper belt objects are thus unlikely to be "the most pristine objects in the solar system," but they do contain key information as to how the early solar system accreted and dynamically evolved. For large (dwarf planet) KBOs, long-term radiogenic heating alone may lead to differentiated structures -- rock cores, ice mantles, volatile-ice-rich "crusts," and even oceans. Persistence of oceans and (potential) volcanism to the present day depends strongly on body size and

  10. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ar(3P2) Metastable Density Generated in a Pulsed DC Atmospheric Pressure micro-Plasma Jet Impinging on a Glass Plate (United States)

    Gazeli, K.; Bauville, G.; Es-Sebbar, Et-T.; Fleury, M.; Neveau, O.; Pasquiers, St.; Santos Sousa, J.; Laboratoire de Physique des gaz et des plasmas Team


    Atmospheric Pressure micro-Plasma Jets (APPJs) are promising tools in various domains such as biomedical and material treatments. In this work, APPJs are produced in pure argon at variable flow rates (i.e., 200, 400 and 600 sccm), by applying high voltage positive pulses (250 ns in FWHM and 6 kV in amplitude) at a repetition frequency of 20 kHz. The generated plasma impacts an ungrounded glass plate placed at a distance of 5 mm from the tube's orifice and perpendicular to the streamers propagation. At these conditions, a diffuse discharge is established resulting in a non-filamentary and reproducible plasma, in contrast with the free-jet case (no target). This allows the quantification of the absolute density of the Ar(1s5) metastable state by using laser absorption spectroscopy to probe the transition 1s5 -> 2p9 at 811.531 nm. The experiments show the dependence on the gas flow rate and on the axial and radial positions of the maximum density (6-9x1013 cm-3) . At 200 sccm, it is obtained close to the tube's orifice, while with increasing flow rate it is displaced towards the plate. Regarding the radial variation, density maxima are obtained in a small area around the streamers propagation axis.

  11. Real-Time Structure and Motion by Fusion of Inertial and Vision Data for Mobile AR System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; WANG Yong-tian; LIU Yue; AXEL Pinz


    The performance of adding additional inertial data to improve the accuracy and robustness of visual tracking is investigated. For this real-time structure and motion algorithm, fusion is based on Kalman filter framework while using an extended Kalman filter to fuse the inertial and vision data, and a bank of Kalman filters to estimate the sparse 3D structure of the real scene. A simple, known tar get is used for the initial pose estimation. Motion and structure estimation filters can work alternately to recover the sensor motion, scene structure and other parameters. Real image sequences are utilized to test the capability of this algorithm. Experimental results show that the proper use of an additional inertial information can not only effectively improve the accuracy of the pose and structure estimation, but also handle occlusion problem.

  12. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin K. Murungi


    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  13. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang


    Full Text Available Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that the information entropy of HEC increased gradually, and coal will be reduced by clean energies, such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The information entropy tends to stabilize and converge due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental protection and natural resource conservation, the structure of household energy consumption will be optimized. This study revealed that residents’ income level is one of the most critical factors for the increase of energy consumption, while the energy intensity is the only driving force for the reduction of HEC. The accumulated contribution of these two factors to the HEC is 240.53% and −161.75%, respectively. It is imperative to improve the energy efficiency in the residential sector. Recommendations are provided to improve the energy efficiency-related technologies, as well as the standards for the sustainable energy strategy.

  14. Revised error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter


    The main advantage of the 40Ar/39Ar method over conventional K-Ar dating is that it does not depend on any absolute abundance or concentration measurements, but only uses the relative ratios between five isotopes of the same element -argon- which can be measured with great precision on a noble gas mass spectrometer. The relative abundances of the argon isotopes are subject to a constant sum constraint, which imposes a covariant structure on the data: the relative amount of any of the five isotopes can always be obtained from that of the other four. Thus, the 40Ar/39Ar method is a classic example of a 'compositional data problem'. In addition to the constant sum constraint, covariances are introduced by a host of other processes, including data acquisition, blank correction, detector calibration, mass fractionation, decay correction, interference correction, atmospheric argon correction, interpolation of the irradiation parameter, and age calculation. The myriad of correlated errors arising during the data reduction are best handled by casting the 40Ar/39Ar data reduction protocol in a matrix form. The completely revised workflow presented in this paper is implemented in a new software platform, Ar-Ar_Redux, which takes raw mass spectrometer data as input and generates accurate 40Ar/39Ar ages and their (co-)variances as output. Ar-Ar_Redux accounts for all sources of analytical uncertainty, including those associated with decay constants and the air ratio. Knowing the covariance matrix of the ages removes the need to consider 'internal' and 'external' uncertainties separately when calculating (weighted) mean ages. Ar-Ar_Redux is built on the same principles as its sibling program in the U-Pb community (U-Pb_Redux), thus improving the intercomparability of the two methods with tangible benefits to the accuracy of the geologic time scale. The program can be downloaded free of charge from

  15. Quadrupole Collectivity beyond N=28: Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation of Ar47,48 (United States)

    Winkler, R.; Gade, A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Meharchand, R.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Weisshaar, D.


    We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei Ar47,48 using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.

  16. The structural evolution of the deep continental lithosphere (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Miller, Meghan S.; Moresi, Louis


    Continental lithosphere houses the oldest and thickest regions of the Earth's surface. Locked within this deep and ancient rock record lies invaluable information about the dynamics that has shaped and continue to shape the planet. Much of that history has been dominated by the forces of plate tectonics which has repeatedly assembled super continents together and torn them apart - the Wilson Cycle. While the younger regions of continental lithosphere have been subject to deformation driven by plate tectonics, it is less clear whether the ancient, stable cores formed and evolved from similar processes. New insight into continental formation and evolution has come from remarkable views of deeper lithospheric structure using enhanced seismic imaging techniques and the increase in large volumes of broadband data. Some of the most compelling observations are that the continental lithosphere has a broad range in thicknesses ( 300 km), has complex internal structure, and that the thickest portion appears to be riddled with seismic discontinuities at depths between 80 and 130 km. These internal structural features have been interpreted as remnants of lithospheric formation during Earth's early history. If they are remnants, then we can attempt to investigate the structure present in the deep lithosphere to piece together information about early Earth dynamics much as is done closer to the surface. This would help delineate between the differing models describing the dynamics of craton formation, particularly whether they formed in the era of modern plate tectonics, a transitional mobile-lid tectonic regime, or are the last fragments of an early, stagnant-lid planet. Our review paper (re)introduces readers to the conceptual definitions of the lithosphere and the complex nature of the upper boundary layer, then moves on to discuss techniques and recent seismological observations of the continental lithosphere. We then review geodynamic models and hypotheses for the formation

  17. MC carbide structures in M(lc2)ar-M247. M.S. Thesis - Final Report (United States)

    Wawro, S. W.


    The morphologies and distribution of the MC carbides in Mar-M247 ingot stock and castings were investigated using metallographic, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The MC carbides were found to form script structures during solidification. The script structures were composed of three distinct parts. The central cores and elongated arms of the MC carbide script structures had compositions (Ti, Cr, Hf, Ta, W)C and lattice parameters of 4.39 A. The elongated script arms terminated in enlarged, angular "heads". The heads had compositions (Ti, Hf, Ta, W)C and lattice parameters of approximately 4.50 A. The heads had a higher Hf content than the cores and arms. The size of the script structures, as well as the relative amount of head-type to core and arm-type MC carbide, was found to be determined by solidification conditions. No carryover of the MC carbides from the ingot stock to the remelted and cast material was observed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)


    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  19. Evolution of grain structures during directional solidification of silicon wafers (United States)

    Lin, H. K.; Wu, M. C.; Chen, C. C.; Lan, C. W.


    The evolution of grain structures, especially the types of grain boundaries (GBs), during directional solidification is crucial to the electrical properties of multicrystalline silicon used for solar cells. To study this, the electric molten zone crystallization (EMZC) of silicon wafers at different drift speeds from 2 to 6 mm/min was considered. It was found that orientation was dominant at the lower drift velocity, while orientation at the higher drift velocity. Most of the non-∑GBs tended to align with the thermal gradient, but some tilted toward the unfavorable grains having higher interfacial energies. On the other hand, the tilted ∑3GBs tended to decrease during grain competition, except at the higher speed, where the twin nucleation became frequent. The competition of grains separated by ∑GBs could be viewed as the interactions of GBs that two coherent ∑3n GBs turned into one ∑3nGB following certain relations as reported before. On the other hand, when ∑ GBs met non-∑ GBs, the non-∑ GBs remained which explained the decrease of ∑ GBs at the lower speed.

  20. Interactive diversity promotes the evolution of cooperation in structured populations (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Long


    Evolutionary games on networks traditionally assume that each individual adopts an identical strategy to interact with all its neighbors in each generation. Considering the prevalent diversity of individual interactions in the real society, here we propose the concept of interactive diversity, which allows individuals to adopt different strategies against different neighbors in each generation. We investigate the evolution of cooperation based on the edge dynamics rather than the traditional nodal dynamics in networked systems. The results show that, without invoking any other mechanisms, interactive diversity drives the frequency of cooperation to a high level for a wide range of parameters in both well-mixed and structured populations. Even in highly connected populations, cooperation still thrives. When interactive diversity and large topological heterogeneity are combined together, however, in the relaxed social dilemma, cooperation level is lower than that with just one of them, implying that the combination of many promotive factors may make a worse outcome. By an analytical approximation, we get the condition under which interactive diversity provides more advantages for cooperation than traditional evolutionary dynamics does. Numerical simulations validating the approximation are also presented. Our work provides a new line to explore the latent relation between the ubiquitous cooperation and individuals’ distinct responses in different interactions. The presented results suggest that interactive diversity should receive more attention in pursuing mechanisms fostering cooperation.

  1. A probabilistic model for the evolution of RNA structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the purposes of finding and aligning noncoding RNA gene- and cis-regulatory elements in multiple-genome datasets, it is useful to be able to derive multi-sequence stochastic grammars (and hence multiple alignment algorithms systematically, starting from hypotheses about the various kinds of random mutation event and their rates. Results Here, we consider a highly simplified evolutionary model for RNA, called "The TKF91 Structure Tree" (following Thorne, Kishino and Felsenstein's 1991 model of sequence evolution with indels, which we have implemented for pairwise alignment as proof of principle for such an approach. The model, its strengths and its weaknesses are discussed with reference to four examples of functional ncRNA sequences: a riboswitch (guanine, a zipcode (nanos, a splicing factor (U4 and a ribozyme (RNase P. As shown by our visualisations of posterior probability matrices, the selected examples illustrate three different signatures of natural selection that are highly characteristic of ncRNA: (i co-ordinated basepair substitutions, (ii co-ordinated basepair indels and (iii whole-stem indels. Conclusions Although all three types of mutation "event" are built into our model, events of type (i and (ii are found to be better modeled than events of type (iii. Nevertheless, we hypothesise from the model's performance on pairwise alignments that it would form an adequate basis for a prototype multiple alignment and genefinding tool.

  2. Structure Shape Evolution in Lanthanide and Actinide Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.


    Full Text Available To give the characteristics of the evolution of the collectivity in even-even nuclei, we studied the behavior of the energy ratios R(4 / 2 and R(6 / 4. All chains of lanthanides begins as vibrational with R(4 / 2 near 2.0 and move towards rotational (R(4 / 2 3.33 as neutron number increases. A rabid jump in R(4 / 2 near N = 90 was seen. The plot of R(4 / 2 against Z shows not only the existence of a shape transitions but also the change in curvature in the data for N = 88 and 90, concave to convex. For intermedi- ate structure the slopes in E-GOS ( E over spin plots range between the vibrator and rotor extremes. The abnormal behavior of the two-neutron separation energies of our lanthanide nuclei as a function of neutron number around neutron number 90 is cal- culated. Nonlinear behavior is observed which indicate that shape phase transition is occurred in this region. The calculated reduced B(E2 transition probabilities of the low states of the ground state band in the nuclei 150 Nd / 152 Sm / 154 Gd / 156 Dy are analyzed and compared to the prediction of vibrational U(5 and rotational SU(3 limits of interacting boson model calculations.

  3. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks. (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu


    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  4. Mutation rates and the evolution of germline structure (United States)


    Genome sequencing studies of de novo mutations in humans have revealed surprising incongruities in our understanding of human germline mutation. In particular, the mutation rate observed in modern humans is substantially lower than that estimated from calibration against the fossil record, and the paternal age effect in mutations transmitted to offspring is much weaker than expected from our long-standing model of spermatogenesis. I consider possible explanations for these discrepancies, including evolutionary changes in life-history parameters such as generation time and the age of puberty, a possible contribution from undetected post-zygotic mutations early in embryo development, and changes in cellular mutation processes at different stages of the germline. I suggest a revised model of stem-cell state transitions during spermatogenesis, in which ‘dark’ gonial stem cells play a more active role than hitherto envisaged, with a long cycle time undetected in experimental observations. More generally, I argue that the mutation rate and its evolution depend intimately on the structure of the germline in humans and other primates. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325834

  5. Evolution by structural polymorphism in a Miocene neogastropod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmon, W.D.


    Morphological change in the shallow marine species Bullia (Bulliopsis) quadrata (Nassariidae) from the middle to late Miocene of Maryland and Virginia seems to have been by anagenesis within a single lineage rather than by cladogenesis, or associated with a speciation event. The mechanism for this change seems to have been a shift in frequency of a shell form polymorphism. When B.quadrata first appears in the lower St. Mary's Fm., all individuals show a similar smooth shell form. In the middle St. Mary's a distinct carinate morphotype appears, represented by only a few individuals. In the upper St. Mary's a higher proportion of these more ornate forms occurs. Finally in the upper member of the overlying Eastover Fm. the ornate morphology becomes dominant. Specimens from the Eastover Fm. are not only mostly of the more ornate type, but maximum size has increased and the ornate morphology has become more pronounced. This occurs in an area geographically and ecologically marginal to the previous main species range and so may represent an ecophenotypic effect. The genetics of gastropod shell form are very poorly understood. This study represents one of the few documented examples of the role of structural polymorphism in gastropod evolution.

  6. Structural evolution of zirconium carbide under ion irradiation (United States)

    Gosset, D.; Dollé, M.; Simeone, D.; Baldinozzi, G.; Thomé, L.


    Zirconium carbide is one of the candidate materials to be used for some fuel components of the high temperature nuclear reactors planned in the frame of the Gen-IV project. Few data exist regarding its behaviour under irradiation. We have irradiated ZrC samples at room temperature with slow heavy ions (4 MeV Au, fluence from 10 11 to 5 × 10 15 cm -2) in order to simulate neutron irradiations. Grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis have been performed in order to study the microstructural evolution of the material versus ion fluence. A high sensitivity to oxidation is observed with the formation of zirconia precipitates during the ion irradiations. Three damage stages are observed. At low fluence (high micro-strains appear together with small faulted dislocation loops. At the highest fluence (>10 14 cm -2), the micro-strains saturate and the loops coalesce to form a dense dislocation network. No other structural modification is observed. The material shows a moderate cell parameter increase, corresponding to a 0.6 vol.% swelling, which saturates around 10 14 ions/cm 2, i.e., a few Zr dpa. As a result, in spite of a strong covalent bonding component, ZrC seems to have a behaviour under irradiation close to cubic metals.

  7. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J


    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on

  8. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.


    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  9. Structure and evolution of high-mass stellar mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Glebbeek, Evert; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Pols, Onno R


    In young dense clusters repeated collisions between massive stars may lead to the formation of a very massive star (above 100 Msun). In the past the study of the long-term evolution of merger remnants has mostly focussed on collisions between low-mass stars (up to about 2 Msun) in the context of blue-straggler formation. The evolution of collision products of more massive stars has not been as thoroughly investigated. In this paper we study the long-term evolution of a number of stellar mergers formed by the head-on collision of a primary star with a mass of 5-40 Msun with a lower mass star at three points in its evolution in order to better understand their evolution. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations to model the collision between the stars. The outcome of this calculation is reduced to one dimension and imported into a stellar evolution code. We follow the subsequent evolution of the collision product through the main sequence at least until the onset of helium burning. We find that l...

  10. Experimental study of the structure of a lean premixed indane/CH4/O2/Ar flame

    CERN Document Server

    Pousse, Emir; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique


    In order to better understand the chemistry involved during the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with indane has been investigated. The gases of this flame contains 7.1% (molar) of methane, 36.8% of oxygen and 0.90% of indane corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.74 and a ratio C9H10/CH4 of 12.75%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.2 cm/s at 333 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products, but also 11 C3-C5 hydrocarbons and 3 C1-C3 oxygenated compounds, as well as 17 aromatic products, namely benzene, toluene, phenylacetylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluenes, indene methylindane, methylindene, naphthalene, phenol, benzaldehyde, benzofuran. The temperature was measured thanks to a thermocouple in PtRh (6%)-PtRh (30%) settled inside the enclosure and ranged from 800 K close to the bu...

  11. Construction of a chimeric ArsA-ArsB protein for overexpression of the oxyanion-translocating ATPase. (United States)

    Dou, D; Owolabi, J B; Dey, S; Rosen, B P


    Resistance to toxic oxyanions of arsenic and antimony in Escherichia coli is conferred by the conjugative R-factor R773, which encodes an ATP-driven anion extrusion pump. The ars operon is composed of three structural genes, arsA, arsB, and arsC. Although transcribed as a single unit, the three genes are differentially expressed as a result of translational differences, such that the ArsA and ArsC proteins are produced in high amounts relative to the amount of ArsB protein made. Consequently, biochemical characterization of the ArsB protein, which is an integral membrane protein containing the anion-conducting pathway, has been limited, precluding studies of the mechanism of this oxyanion pump. To overexpress the arsB gene, a series of changes were made. First, the second codon, an infrequently used leucine codon, was changed to a more frequently utilized codon. Second, a GC-rich stem-loop (delta G = -17 kcal/mol) between the third and twelfth codons was destabilized by changing several of the bases of the base-paired region. Third, the re-engineered arsB gene was fused 3' in frame to the first 1458 base pairs of the arsA gene to encode a 914-residue chimeric protein (486 residues of the ArsA protein plus 428 residues of the mutated ArsB protein) containing the entire re-engineered ArsB sequence except for the initiating methionine. The ArsA-ArsB chimera has been overexpressed at approximately 15-20% of the total membrane proteins. Cells producing the chimeric ArsA-ArsB protein with an arsA gene in trans excluded 73AsO2- from cells, demonstrating that the chimera can function as a component of the oxyanion-translocating ATPase.

  12. Statistical characteristics of formation and evolution of structure in the universe


    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A.


    An approximate statistical description of the formation and evolution of structure of the universe based on the Zel'dovich theory of gravitational instability is proposed. It is found that the evolution of DM structure shows features of self-similarity and the main structure characteristics can be expressed through the parameters of initial power spectrum and cosmological model. For the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression ...

  13. InterEvol database: exploring the structure and evolution of protein complex interfaces


    Faure, Guilhem; Andreani, Jessica; Guerois, Raphaël


    Capturing how the structures of interacting partners evolved at their binding interfaces is a fundamental issue for understanding interactomes evolution. In that scope, the InterEvol database was designed for exploring 3D structures of homologous interfaces of protein complexes. For every chain forming a complex in the protein data bank (PDB), close and remote structural interologs were identified providing essential snapshots for studying interfaces evolution. The database provides tools to ...

  14. Study on Evolution of Spatial Structure of Pan-Linxia Economic Zone


    Jing Xu


    This paper applies spatial correlation method in spatial statistics and GIS technology to analyze special structural form and evolution process of regional economy of Pan-Linxia region. Morphological analysis of spatial structure shows the correlation between economic development level of Linxia City and regional economic development in the minority area of south Gansu has strong complementarities. The evolution of spatial structure shows spatial correlation between the economy in Linxia City...

  15. Analysis on the Evolution of Agricultural Structure about Pan-Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jiang; LIU Zhi-ying


    Starting from the definition of agricultural structure,this paper firstly analyzes the change of industrial and spatial structure of agriculture of Pan-Yangtze River Delta,then inspects the relationship between the development of economics and the evolution of agricultural structure,an the end it provides policy recommendation about the development and adjustment of agricultural structure for the future.

  16. Spatial evaluation of Ar-systematics in rocks from the British Channel Islands: a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.


    The Ar-Ar method is a powerful tool for constraining thermal histories of metamorphic and plutonic rocks, most commonly undertaken on potassium rich mineral separates rather than whole rocks. While this approach usually yields reasonable thermal histories, it is rarely as precise as dating volcanics, and such rocks are also frequently contaminated by excess argon, artificially elevating the Ar-Ar ages. Understanding the evolution of excess argon represents a challenge; whilst it is possible to discern the ‘sink’ as the host mineral now contaminated by excess argon, examining the ‘source’ and ‘transport’ mechanism is more challenging. The approach we have taken here is to combine measurements of potassium rich and potassium poor minerals to understand the argon reservoirs and argon transfer between minerals, grain boundaries and fluids. Considering the system as a whole provides a method for understanding the complete history of the rock and thus assessing any interactions which may impact on the interpretation of ages and thermal history [Kelley, 2002, Chem. Geol. 188]. Here we have studied a series of plutonic and metamorphic basement samples from the British Channel Islands with different ages and post-emplacement histories, namely Icart Gneiss, Perelle Quartz Diorite, L’Ancresse Granodiorite, and Bordeaux Diorite. The formation age of Icart Gneiss is ~2000 Ma [D’Lemos et al., 1990, Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub. 51]. Ar-Ar ages of hornblendes and biotites from quartz diorites on Guernsey and Sark range between 606 and 596 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148], whilst U-Pb zircon ages are in the range 710 to 613 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991; Samson & D’Lemos 1998, J. Geol. Soc. London 155; Miller et al. 1999, Tectonophysics 132]. Detailed petrograpic (microscope, electron microprobe) investigations established the crystallization and deformation history of the samples, and revealed that post-magmatic alteration is unevenly distributed. This

  17. Is it possible to unify the QCD evolution of structure functions in X and $Q^{2}$?

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R


    We start from the two existing QCD evolution equations for structure functions, the BFKL and DGLAP equations, and discuss the theoretical hints for a unifying picture of the evolution in x and Q^2. The main difficulty is due to the property of angular ordering of the gluon radiation driving the evolution and the cancellation of the related collinear singularities. At the leading \\log\\ 1/x and leading \\log \\ Q^2 accuracy, we find a unified set of equations satisfying the constraints.

  18. Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology (United States)

    Ao, Songjian; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian; Mao, Qigui


    The continental growth mechanism of the Altaids in Central Asia is still in controversy between models of continuous subduction-accretion versus punctuated accretion by closure of multiple oceanic basins. The Beishan orogenic belt, located in the southern Altaids, is a natural laboratory to address this controversy. Key questions that are heavily debated are: the closure time and subduction polarity of former oceans, the emplacement time of ophiolites, and the styles of accretion and collision. This paper reports new structural data, zircon ages and Ar-Ar dates from the eastern Beishan Orogen that provide information on the accretion process and tectonic affiliation of various terranes. Our geochronological and structural results show that the younging direction of accretion was northwards and the subduction zone dipped southwards under the northern margin of the Shuangyingshan micro-continent. This long-lived and continuous accretion process formed the Hanshan accretionary prism. Our field investigations show that the emplacement of the Xiaohuangshan ophiolite was controlled by oceanic crust subduction beneath the forearc accretionary prism of the Shuangyingshan-Mazongshan composite arc to the south. Moreover, we address the age and terrane affiliation of lithologies in the eastern Beishan orogen through detrital zircon geochronology of meta-sedimentary rocks. We provide new information on the ages, subduction polarities, and affiliation of constituent structural units, as well as a new model of tectonic evolution of the eastern Beishan orogen. The accretionary processes and crustal growth of Central Asia were the result of multiple sequences of accretion and collision of manifold terranes. Reference: Ao, S.J., Xiao, W., Windley, B.F., Mao, Q., Han, C., Zhang, J.e., Yang, L., Geng, J., Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Gondwana Research, doi:

  19. Compact structure and proteins of pasta retard in vitro digestive evolution of branched starch molecular structure. (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Warren, Frederick J; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G


    The roles that the compact structure and proteins in pasta play in retarding evolution of starch molecular structure during in vitro digestion are explored, using four types of cooked samples: whole pasta, pasta powder, semolina (with proteins) and extracted starch without proteins. These were subjected to in vitro digestion with porcine α-amylase, collecting samples at different times and characterizing the weight distribution of branched starch molecules using size-exclusion chromatography. Measurement of α-amylase activity showed that a protein (or proteins) from semolina or pasta powder interacted with α-amylase, causing reduced enzymatic activity and retarding digestion of branched starch molecules with hydrodynamic radius (Rh)pasta protects the starch and proteins in the interior of the whole pasta, reducing the enzymatic degradation of starch molecules, especially for molecules with Rh>100nm.

  20. Evolution of Anabaenopeptin Peptide Structural Variability in the Cyanobacterium Planktothrix (United States)

    Entfellner, Elisabeth; Frei, Mark; Christiansen, Guntram; Deng, Li; Blom, Jochen; Kurmayer, Rainer


    , Tyrosine, and Lysine in the exocyclic position of the AP-molecule. The increased structural diversity resulted from the evolution of apnA A1 genotypes through a small number of positively selected point mutations that occurred repeatedly and independently from phylogenetic association. PMID:28261178

  1. Origin, Internal Structure and Evolution of 4 Vesta (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T.; McSween, Harry Y.; Binzel, Richard P.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Pieters, Carle M.; Smith, David E.


    Asteroid 4 Vesta is the only preserved intact example of a large, differentiated protoplanet like those believed to be the building blocks of terrestrial planet accretion. Vesta accreted rapidly from the solar nebula in the inner asteroid belt and likely melted due to heat released due to the decay of 26Al. Analyses of meteorites from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite, which have been both spectroscopically and dynamically linked to Vesta, lead to a model of the asteroid with a basaltic crust that overlies a depleted peridotitic mantle and an iron core. Vesta’s crust may become more mafic with depth and might have been intruded by plutons arising from mantle melting. Constraints on the asteroid’s moments of inertia from the long-wavelength gravity field, pole position and rotation, informed by bulk composition estimates, allow tradeoffs between mantle density and core size; cores of up to half the planetary radius can be consistent with plausible mantle compositions. The asteroid’s present surface is expected to consist of widespread volcanic terrain, modified extensively by impacts that exposed the underlying crust or possibly the mantle. Hemispheric heterogeneity has been observed by poorly resolved imaging of the surface that suggests the possibility of a physiographic dichotomy as occurs on other terrestrial planets. Vesta might have had an early magma ocean but details of the early thermal structure are far from clear owing to model uncertainties and paradoxical observations from the HEDs. Petrological analysis of the eucrites coupled with thermal evolution modeling recognizes two possible mechanisms of silicate-metal differentiation leading to the formation of the basaltic achondrites: equilibrium partial melting or crystallization of residual liquid from the cooling magma ocean. A firmer understanding the plethora of complex physical and chemical processes that contribute to melting and crystallization will ultimately be required to

  2. Models of the Protocellular Structures, Functions and Evolution (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; New, Michael; Keefe, Anthony; Szostak, Jack W.; Lanyi, Janos F.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models that capture important features of protocellular systems. Such efforts are currently underway in a collaborative project between NASA-Ames, Harvard medical School and University of California. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures. The centerpiece of this project is a method for the in vitro evolution of protein enzymes toward arbitrary catalytic targets. A similar approach has already been developed for nucleic acids: First, a very large population of candidate molecules is generated using a random synthetic approach. Next, the small numbers of molecules that can accomplish the desired task are selected. These molecules are next vastly multiplied using the polymerase chain reaction. A mutagenic approach, in which the sequences of selected molecules are randomly altered, can yield further improvements in performance or alterations of specificities. Unfortunately, the catalytic potential of nucleic acids is rather limited. Proteins are more catalytically capable but cannot be directly amplified. In the new technique, this problem is circumvented by covalently linking each protein of the initial, diverse, pool to the RNA sequence that codes for it. Then, selection is performed on the proteins, but the nucleic acids are replicated. To date, we have obtained "a proof of concept" by evolving simple, novel proteins capable of selectively binding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). Our next goal is to create an enzyme that can phosphorylate amino acids and another to catalyze the formation of peptide bonds in the absence of nucleic acid templates. This latter reaction does not take place in contemporary cells. once developed, these enzymes will be encapsulated in liposomes so that they will function in a simulated cellular

  3. Ars Himera / Irina Lobanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobanova, Irina


    Iseloomustatakse praegust aega ja moodsat kunsti: valitseb vastutustundetus ja ebainimlikkus. Näited - professor von Hageni "Korpwelten" ja uusim kunstinähtus Ars Chimaera - eksponeerimise eesmärgil surrogaatsete elusolendite saamise kunst

  4. Evolution and Structure of Neuromuscular Systems in Spiralian Meiofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkouche, Nicolas Tarik

    into their evolution: Lobatocerebrum is an aberrant annelid showing only few common traits with Annelida, yet, our detailed studies unravel putative resemblances of muscular, nervous and glandular system to previous findings in annelids. Micrognathozoa shows more resemblances with Rotifera than Gnathostomulida (these...... on the evolution of this group. Diuronotus aspetos shows a unique combination of muscular traits not easily traceable, but in contrast the nervous system traits can be compared in high details, hereby bridging to other Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha). Moreover, we describe new gastrotrich characters...... such as the ciliary pattern or a system of pharyngeal canals of possible importance for future comparative approaches. These different studies show that information on rare and phylogenetically isolated animals with their unique combination of neural and muscular characters are necessary to understand the evolution...

  5. The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP): New insight on caldera structure, evolution and hazard implications for the Naples area (Southern Italy) (United States)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Mark, Darren; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Di Vito, Mauro A.; Isaia, Roberto; Carlino, Stefano; Barra, Diana; Somma, Renato


    The 501 m deep hole of the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project, located west of the Naples metropolitan area and inside the Campi Flegrei caldera, gives new insight to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic evolution of this highly populated volcano. It is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world, but its tectonic structure, eruptive history, and size of the largest eruptions are intensely debated in the literature. New stratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating allow us to determine, for the first time, the age of intracaldera deposits belonging to the two highest magnitude caldera-forming eruptions (i.e., Campanian Ignimbrite, CI, 39 ka, and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, NYT, 14.9 ka) and to estimate the amount of collapse. Tuffs from 439 m of depth yield the first 40Ar/39Ar age of ca. 39 ka within the caldera, consistent with the CI. Volcanic rocks from the NYT were, moreover, detected between 250 and 160 m. Our findings highlight: (i) a reduction of the area affected by caldera collapse, which appears to not include the city of Naples; (ii) a small volume of the infilling caldera deposits, particularly for the CI, and (iii) the need for reassessment of the collapse amounts and mechanisms related to larger eruptions. Our results also imply a revaluation of volcanic risk for the eastern caldera area, including the city of Naples. The results of this study point out that large calderas are characterized by complex collapse mechanisms and dynamics, whose understanding needs more robust constraints, which can be obtained from scientific drilling.

  6. Structure and evolution of the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaar, Edward Louis Christian


    The research described in this thesis is focused on the structure and evolution of the bovine Y-chromosome and the use of paternal markers in molecular diagnostics. The Y-chromosome has emerged together with the X-chromosome early during the evolution of the mammals by differentiation of a pair of a

  7. Sputtering and surface structure modification of gold thin films deposited onto silicon substrates under the impact of 20–160 keV Ar{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S., E-mail: [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculté de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H.; Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria)


    Highlights: •Sputter yields were measured for gold thin films under keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. •RBS analysis was used to derive energy dependence of sputtering yield. •Surface effects under Ar{sup +} ion irradiation were studied by SEM and XRD analyses. -- Abstract: The induced sputtering and surface state modification of Au thin films bombarded by swift Ar{sup +} ions under normal incident angle have been studied over an energy range of (20–160) keV using three complementary techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sputtering yields determined by RBS measurements using a 2 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} ion beam were found to be consistent with previous data measured within the Ar{sup +} ion energy region E ⩽ 50 keV, which are thus extended to higher bombarding energies. Besides, the SEM and XRD measurements clearly point out that the irradiated Au film surfaces undergo drastic modifications with increasing the Ar{sup +} ion energy, giving rise to the formation of increasingly sized grains of preferred (1 1 1) crystalline orientations. The relevance of different sputtering yield models for describing experimental data is discussed with invoking the observed surface effects induced by the Ar{sup +} ion irradiation.

  8. Modeling solidification structure evolution and microsegregation under pressure condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Qiaoyi Guo; Rongde Li


    Solidification microstructure and microsegregation were simulated under a constant pressure condition using the cellular automaton method. First, a single dendrite evolution was simulated and compared under pressure condition and under normal condition,respectively. The solidification microstructure and microsegregation were then simulated. Through simulation, it may be concluded that if the growth direction of the dendrite is parallel to the pressure direction, dendrite growth will be hindered. On the other hand,pressure has no influence on the dendrite evolution. However, when two dendrites grow in close contact, solute enrichment occurs in the dendrites, which hinders the growth of the dendrites. In addition, the solute is preferentially enriched along the pressure direction.

  9. Influence of the irradiation temperature on the surface structure and physical/chemical properties of Ar ion-irradiated bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menéndez, E., E-mail: [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hynowska, A.; Fornell, J.; Suriñach, S. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Montserrat, J. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Campus Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baró, M.D. [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); García-Lecina, E. [Surfaces Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, E-20009 Donostia (Spain); Pellicer, E., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, J., E-mail: [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)


    Highlights: • Ion irradiation is performed on bulk metallic glasses at 300 K and close to T{sub g}. • Nanocrystallization is observed after high-temperature irradiation. • The mechanical properties are enhanced after the irradiation procedures. • Corrosion resistance is improved after irradiation close to T{sub g}. - Abstract: Surface treatments using multiple Ar ion irradiation processes with a maximum energy and fluence of 200 keV and 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been performed on two different metallic glasses: Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 28}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 7} and Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 38}Pd{sub 12}. Analogous irradiation procedures have been carried out at room temperature (RT) and at T = 620 K (≈0.9 T{sub g}, where T{sub g} denotes the glass transition). The structure, mechanical behavior, wettability and corrosion resistance of the irradiated alloys have been compared with the properties of the as-cast and annealed (T = 620 K) non-irradiated specimens. While ion irradiation at RT does not significantly alter the amorphous structure of the alloys, ion irradiation close to T{sub g} promotes decomposition/nanocrystallization. Consequently, the hardness (H) and reduced Young’s modulus (E{sub r}) decrease after irradiation at RT but they both increase after irradiation at 620 K. While annealing close to T{sub g} increases the hydrophobicity of the samples, irradiation induces virtually no changes in the contact angle when comparing with the as-cast state. Concerning the corrosion resistance, although not much effect is found after irradiation at RT, an improvement is observed after irradiation at 620 K, particularly for the Ti-based alloy. These results are of practical interest in order to engineer appropriate surface treatments based on ion irradiation, aimed at specific functional applications of bulk metallic glasses.

  10. The Evolution and Internal Structure of Jupiter and Saturn with Compositional Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Vazan, A; Podolak, M; Kovetz, A


    The internal structure of gas giant planets may be more complex than the commonly assumed core-envelope structure with an adiabatic temperature profile. Different primordial internal structures as well as various physical processes can lead to non-homogenous compositional distributions. A non-homogenous internal structure has a significant impact on the thermal evolution and final structure of the planets. In this paper, we present alternative structure and evolution models for Jupiter and Saturn allowing for non-adiabatic primordial structures and the mixing of heavy elements by convection as these planets evolve. We present the evolution of the planets accounting for various initial composition gradients, and in the case of Saturn, include the formation of a helium-rich region as a result of helium rain. We investigate the stability of regions with composition gradients against convection, and find that the helium shell in Saturn remains stable and does not mix with the rest of the envelope. In other cases,...

  11. Parallel dynamics and evolution: Protein conformational fluctuations and assembly reflect evolutionary changes in sequence and structure. (United States)

    Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A


    Protein structure is dynamic: the intrinsic flexibility of polypeptides facilitates a range of conformational fluctuations, and individual protein chains can assemble into complexes. Proteins are also dynamic in evolution: significant variations in secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure can be observed among divergent members of a protein family. Recent work has highlighted intriguing similarities between these structural and evolutionary dynamics occurring at various levels. Here we review evidence showing how evolutionary changes in protein sequence and structure are often closely related to local protein flexibility and disorder, large-scale motions and quaternary structure assembly. We suggest that these correspondences can be largely explained by neutral evolution, while deviations between structural and evolutionary dynamics can provide valuable functional insights. Finally, we address future prospects for the field and practical applications that arise from a deeper understanding of the intimate relationship between protein structure, dynamics, function and evolution.

  12. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David


    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  13. Properties and evolution of anisotropic structures in collisionless plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Karimov, A R; Stenflo, L


    A new class of exact electrostatic solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations based on the Jeans's theorem is proposed for studying the evolution and properties of two-dimensional anisotropic plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the free expansion of a slab of electron-ion plasma into vacuum is investigated.

  14. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David


    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  15. Downstream Evolution of Longitudinal Embedded Vortices with Helical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    In the present work the downstream development of device induced vortices with helical symmetry embedded in wall bounded flow on a bump is studied with the aid of Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The downstream evolution of characteristic parameters of helical vortices is studied...

  16. A comparative study of the structure and bonding in heavier pnictinidene complexes [(ArE)M(CO)n] (E = As, Sb and Bi; M = Cr, Mo, W and Fe). (United States)

    Vránová, Iva; Kremláček, Vít; Erben, Milan; Turek, Jan; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Alonso, Mercedes; Dostál, Libor


    N,C,N-Chelated pnictinidenes ArE [where E = As (1), Sb (2) or Bi (3); Ar = C6H3-2,6-(CH[double bond, length as m-dash]Nt-Bu)2] were used as ligands for the coordination of transition metal carbonyls. Thus, the reaction of 1-3 with [M(CO)5THF] (where M = Cr, W) or [Mo(CO)5(Me3N)] gave complexes [(ArE)M(CO)5] [where E = As and M = Cr (1a), Mo (1b), W (1c); E = Sb and M = Cr (2a), Mo (2b), W (2c); E = Bi and M = Cr (3a), Mo (3b), W (3c)]. Analogously, the treatment of 1-3 with [Fe2(CO)9] resulted in the formation of the complexes [(ArE)Fe(CO)4] [where E = As (1d), Sb (2d) or Bi (3d)]. All compounds were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, Raman, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The molecular structures of the majority of the compounds (except 1b and 1c) were also determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the structure and bonding of the title compounds have also been thoroughly investigated using a computational approach.

  17. Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear EvolutionEquation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang


    We derive the generalized dromions of the new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by the arbitrary function presented in the bilinearized linear equations. The rich soliton and dromion structures for this system are released.

  18. The concurrent evolution of cooperation and the population structures that support it. (United States)

    Powers, Simon T; Penn, Alexandra S; Watson, Richard A


    The evolution of cooperation often depends upon population structure, yet nearly all models of cooperation implicitly assume that this structure remains static. This is a simplifying assumption, because most organisms possess genetic traits that affect their population structure to some degree. These traits, such as a group size preference, affect the relatedness of interacting individuals and hence the opportunity for kin or group selection. We argue that models that do not explicitly consider their evolution cannot provide a satisfactory account of the origin of cooperation, because they cannot explain how the prerequisite population structures arise. Here, we consider the concurrent evolution of genetic traits that affect population structure, with those that affect social behavior. We show that not only does population structure drive social evolution, as in previous models, but that the opportunity for cooperation can in turn drive the creation of population structures that support it. This occurs through the generation of linkage disequilibrium between socio-behavioral and population-structuring traits, such that direct kin selection on social behavior creates indirect selection pressure on population structure. We illustrate our argument with a model of the concurrent evolution of group size preference and social behavior.

  19. Antarlides: A New Type of Androgen Receptor (AR) Antagonist that Overcomes Resistance to AR-Targeted Therapy. (United States)

    Saito, Shun; Fujimaki, Takahiro; Panbangred, Watanalai; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Imoto, Masaya


    Prostate cancer is treated with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists but most patients experience disease progression after long-term treatment with these compounds. Therefore, new AR antagonists are required for patient follow-up treatment. In the course of screening for a new AR antagonist, we isolated the novel compounds antarlides A-E (1-5) from Streptomyces sp. BB47. Antarlides are mutually isomeric with respect to the double bond and have a 22-membered-ring macrocyclic structure. The full stereostructure of 1 was established by chemical modifications, including methanolysis, the Trost method, acetonide formation, and the PGME method. 1-5 inhibited the binding of androgen to ARs in vitro. In addition, 2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of not only wild-type AR but also mutant ARs, which are seen in patients with acquired resistance to clinically used AR antagonists. Therefore, antarlides are a potent new generation of AR antagonists that overcome resistance.

  20. The structural evolution process and the electronic properties of armchair silicon nanotubes (United States)

    Liu, Deng-Hui; Tang, Yu-Chao; Yao, Cheng-Peng; Zhu, Heng-Jiang


    The structural evolution process of the capped armchair single- and double-walled SiNTs grown from silicon clusters was investigated using the DFT method. The evolution process was described quantitatively by monitoring change of the geometry structures. The initial structural configuration of the single- and double-walled SiNTs was determined by optimizing structure of the small silicon clusters. The evolution process of the SWSiNTs is through forming tubular clusters with a global reconstruction from structure of the double-rings. Then, it elongates through the layer-by-layer growth process with local reconstructions. Eventually, the infinite SiNTs can be constructed with corresponding repeat unit, designed by the periodic characteristics on the basis of tubular clusters. Eventually, All of the SiNTs have a narrow band gap. From calculation of band structure, the band gap which occurs oscillations and gradually decreases with increase of the diameter, length, and the number of walls.

  1. Evolution of collective action in adaptive social structures. (United States)

    Moreira, João A; Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C


    Many problems in nature can be conveniently framed as a problem of evolution of collective cooperative behaviour, often modelled resorting to the tools of evolutionary game theory in well-mixed populations, combined with an appropriate N-person dilemma. Yet, the well-mixed assumption fails to describe the population dynamics whenever individuals have a say in deciding which groups they will participate. Here we propose a simple model in which dynamical group formation is described as a result of a topological evolution of a social network of interactions. We show analytically how evolutionary dynamics under public goods games in finite adaptive networks can be effectively transformed into a N-Person dilemma involving both coordination and co-existence. Such dynamics would be impossible to foresee from more conventional 2-person interactions as well as from descriptions based on infinite, well-mixed populations. Finally, we show how stochastic effects help rendering cooperation viable, promoting polymorphic configurations in which cooperators prevail.

  2. Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution


    Wasik, Bethany R.; Liew, Seng Fatt; Lilien, David A.; Dinwiddie, April J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antónia


    Despite significant efforts to study structural colors in nature, little is known about how such colors and structures evolved in the first place. To address this key question, we performed the first artificial selection (to our knowledge) on a structural color using butterflies. We demonstrated rapid evolution of violet structural color from ultra-violet brown scales in Bicyclus anynana butterflies with only six generations of selection. Furthermore, we identified the structural changes resp...

  3. Structural Relationship Between Piton des Neiges and Piton de la Fournaise Volcanoes: New K-Ar Data and Geomorphological Study of the Takamaka Region (East Reunion Island, Indian Ocean) (United States)

    Salvany, T.; Lahitte, P.; Gillot, P.; Kluska, J.


    Reunion Island (Indian ocean) is a volcanic complex resulting from hotspot activity composed of three coalescent eruptive systems. The first subaerial volcano (la Montagne massif), which only outcrops in the NW part has been dated between 2.2 and 1.8 Ma (McDougall, 1971). After a major flank collapse of this volcano (Gillot et al., 1994), Piton des Neiges (PNv) edificated from 1.2 Ma to 30 ka (McDougall., 1971; Gillot et al.,1982). then, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PFv), one of the most active on Earth, started its activity about 530 kyr ago (Gillot et al., 1989; 1990) and was affected by 3 eastward flank collapses (Gillot et al., 1994). Its present complex morphology is characterized by large scale erosional depressions, (Cirques) cut in the volcanic structures, such as Cilaos, Mafate or Salazie in PNv, Grand Bassin between the two volcanoes, and Grand Pays in PFv. Due to the tropical conditions, deeply incised valleys are present throughout the island. The eastern part of the island (Takamaka area), where we show that products of both PNv and PFv overlap, is one of the most rainy place in the world. It is deeply incised and has been highly eroded during the coeval building stages of PFv and PNv since at least 530 kyr. In order to constrain the relationship between the PNv and PFv volcanoes and to characterise the morphological evolution of this area, we realized a new geochronological study of the different massifs based on the accurate K- Ar technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Cassignol technique; Gillot et Cornette, 1986). A preserved structure between the two volcano, Morne de l'Etang, is dated between 1.36 +/- 0.02 Ma, which is older than the primary known activity of Piton des Neiges (about 1.2 Ma; McDougall, 1971), to 0.97 +/- 0.02 Ma. It may either correspond to a remnant and older part of PNv or it belongs to the Proto Fournaise 'les Alizés' volcano', which existence is still debated. Our analysis also emphasizes the fact that PFv

  4. Molecular evolution, intracellular organization, and the quinary structure of proteins.


    McConkey, E H


    High-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that at least half of 370 denatured polypeptides from hamster cells and human cells are indistinguishable in terms of isoelectric points and molecular weights. Molecular evolution may have been more conservative for this set of proteins than sequence studies on soluble proteins have implied. This may be a consequence of complexities of intracellular organization and the numerous macromolecular interactions in which most ...

  5. The structure of mutations and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián García

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations assumes that all mutations are equally likely, i.e., if there are n strategies a single mutation can result in any strategy with probability 1/n. However, in biological systems it seems natural that not all mutations can arise from a given state. Certain mutations may be far away, or even be unreachable given the current composition of an evolving population. These distances between strategies (or genotypes define a topology of mutations that so far has been neglected in evolutionary game theory. In this paper we re-evaluate classic results in the evolution of cooperation departing from the assumption of uniform mutations. We examine two cases: the evolution of reciprocal strategies in a repeated prisoner's dilemma, and the evolution of altruistic punishment in a public goods game. In both cases, alternative but reasonable mutation kernels shift known results in the direction of less cooperation. We therefore show that assuming uniform mutations has a substantial impact on the fate of an evolving population. Our results call for a reassessment of the "model-less" approach to mutations in evolutionary dynamics.

  6. Deciphering the brittle evolution of SW Norway through a combined structural, mineralogical and geochronological approach (United States)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; Fredin, Ola; Zwingmann, Horst; Wilkinson, Camilla Maya; Ganerød, Morgan


    SW Norway has experienced a complex brittle history after cessation of the Caledonian orogeny, and the recent discoveries of major hydrocarbon reserves in heavily fractured and weathered basement offshore SW Norway has triggered a renewed interest in understanding this complex tectonic evolution. In this contribution we present results from a multidisciplinary study combining lineament analysis, field work, paleo-stress inversion, mineralogical characterization and radiometric dating in the Bømlo area of SW Norway in order to develop a tectonic model for the brittle evolution of this important region. The study area mainly consists of the Rolvsnes granodiorite (U-Pb zircon age of ca. 466 Ma), which is devoid of penetrative ductile deformation features. The first identified brittle faults are muscovite-bearing top-to-the-NNW thrusts and E-W striking dextral strike-slip faults decorated with stretched biotite. These are mechanically compatible and are assigned to the same NNW-SSE transpressional regime. Ar-Ar muscovite and biotite dates of ca. 450 Ma (Late Ordovician) indicate fault activity in the course of a Taconian-equivalent orogenic event. During the subsequent Silurian Laurentia-Baltica collision variably oriented, lower-grade chlorite and epidote-coated faults formed in response to a ENE-WSW compressional stress regime. A large number of mainly N-S striking normal faults consist of variably thick fault gouge cores with illite, quartz, kaolinite, calcite and epidote mineralizations, accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges and zones of altered granodiorite constrain deformation ranging from the Permian to the Late Jurassic, indicating a long history of crustal extension where faults were repeatedly activated. In addition, a set of ca. SW-NE striking faults associated with alteration zones give Cretaceous dates, either representing a young phase of NW-SE extension or reactivation of previously formed

  7. The structural evolution of the Zaghouan-Ressas Structural Belt, northern Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.A.; Grocott, J.; Moody, R.T.J. [Kingston University (United Kingdom). School of Geological Science


    From Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous time the African-European Rift Zone (AERZ), a seaway connecting the western part of the Tethys Ocean to the embryonic Atlantic Ocean, was characterized by sinistral transtension. On the African margin of the AERZ this cause brea-up of Tethyan Triassic and Lower Jurassic evaporite and carbonate platform sequences by linked, strike-slip and normal-slip fault displacements that delineated a system of sedimentary basins separated by horsts. The Zaghouan-Ressas Structural Belt (ZRSB) in northern Tunisia was initiated as a north-tapering horst in this system, bounded to the northwest by a pelagic basin (the Tunisian Trough) in which thick Lower Cretaceous sequences were deposited and to the east by a north-south trending system of reactived Tethyan margin faults. Two models for the structural evolution of the ZRSB during the Atlassic orogeny are evaluated. The first recognizes the importance of facies variation in controlling thrust geometry, but is essentially a thin-skinned model in which detachment on incompetent Triassic strata forms the main control of structural style. The second model emphasizes reactivation of AERZ-related basin margin faults during contraction and accounts for the major folds in the ZRSB at Djebel Zaghouan and Djebel Ressas as forced folds formed by fault inversion. (author)

  8. Investigating Protein Structure and Evolution with SCOP2. (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina; Howorth, Dave; Chothia, Cyrus; Kulesha, Eugene; Murzin, Alexey G


    SCOP2 is a successor to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database that organizes proteins of known structure according to their structural and evolutionary relationships. It was designed to provide a more advanced framework for the classification of proteins. The SCOP2 classification is described in terms of a directed acyclic graph in which each node defines a relationship of particular type that is represented by a region of protein structure and sequence. The SCOP2 data are accessible via SCOP2-Browser and SCOP2-Graph. This protocol unit describes different ways to explore and investigate the SCOP2 evolutionary and structural groupings.

  9. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  10. The evolution of capital structure theories and their classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Korzh


    Full Text Available The article deals with existing approaches of determining the optimal capital structure. Joint-stock companies operation calls for improving the capital structure aimed at the stockholder equity rise in profitability. In this case, the interests of capital owners and management may not coincide. The existing approaches distribution to two groups based on the conceptual approaches analysis dealing with optimal capital structure determination has been made. One group, called “static”, determine the optimal capital structure by current assets evaluation maximization, the other, called “dynamic”, is liable to variations of target capital structure at the certain moment. Theories within these groups were classified and their characteristic features were described on the basis of theoretical ideas of optimal capital structure peculiarities.

  11. The evolution of composite materials in submarine structures.


    Lemiere, Y


    Since the sixties, the amount of composite structures on submarines has increased continuously. The main reasons are their low apparent weight in water, good behaviour in a marine environment, excellent mechanical properties and acoustic transparency. The new applications required the use of prepreg. Relevant processes had to be adapted to the large dimensions and thickness of the structures. Future applications will be concerned with both structures and internal equipment. A lively debate is...

  12. Evolution of Wurtzite Structured GaAs Shells Around InAs Nanowire Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y


    Full Text Available Abstract GaAs was radially deposited on InAs nanowires by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition and resultant nanowire heterostructures were characterized by detailed electron microscopy investigations. The GaAs shells have been grown in wurtzite structure, epitaxially on the wurtzite structured InAs nanowire cores. The fundamental reason of structural evolution in terms of material nucleation and interfacial structure is given.

  13. Structural evolution of yttrium nanolayer inserted in FeNi/Y nanomultilayered film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail:; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Fengcang; Liu, Xinkuan; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Daihua


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The FeNi/Y nanomultilayers with different Y layer thickness were synthesized. • The structural evolution of Y nanolayer within FeNi/Y nanomultilayer was studied. • The microstructural evolution sequence of Y layer was fcc→amorphous→hcp structure. • The microstructural evolution of Y nanolayer was explained by a thermodynamic model. - Abstract: The FeNi/Y nanomultilayered films with different Y layer thickness (t{sub Y}) were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. The structural evolution of Y nanolayer with increase in t{sub Y} was investigated. When t{sub Y} was less than 2 nm, Y layers transformed to fcc structure under the template effect of FeNi layers and grew epitaxially with FeNi. With t{sub Y} of 3 nm, Y layers could not maintain the epitaxial growth, but present a transient amorphous state. As t{sub Y} further increases to 4 nm, Y layers transformed into the stable hcp structure. The microstructural evolution sequence of Y layers was fcc→amorphous→hcp structure, which could be explained by a thermodynamic model.

  14. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R.; Spakman, W.; Wortel, R.


    We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Ric

  15. Structural Evolution of Human Recombinant alfaB-Crystallin under UV Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Fujii, Noriko; Morimoto, Yukio;


    External stresses cause certain proteins to lose their regular structure and aggregate. In order to clarify this abnormal aggregation process, a structural evolution of human recombinant aB-crystallin under UV irradiation was observed with in situ small-angle neutron scattering. The abnormal...

  16. Tabletop imaging of structural evolutions in chemical reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Schmidt, Bruno E; Thiré, Nicolas; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T; Wanie, Vincent; Giguére, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Sanderson, Joseph; Schuurman, Michael S; Légaré, François


    The introduction of femto-chemistry has made it a primary goal to follow the nuclear and electronic evolution of a molecule in time and space as it undergoes a chemical reaction. Using Coulomb Explosion Imaging we have shot the first high-resolution molecular movie of a to and fro isomerization process in the acetylene cation. So far, this kind of phenomenon could only be observed using VUV light from a Free Electron Laser [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263002 (2010)]. Here we show that 266 nm ultrashort laser pulses are capable of initiating rich dynamics through multiphoton ionization. With our generally applicable tabletop approach that can be used for other small organic molecules, we have investigated two basic chemical reactions simultaneously: proton migration and C=C bond-breaking, triggered by multiphoton ionization. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the timescales and relaxation pathways predicted by new and definitively quantitative ab initio trajectory simulations.

  17. Shifting the Starspot Paradigm through Imaging Magnetic Structures and Evolution (United States)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.


    Magnetism is present in stars across all masses and evolutionary states. For cool stars with a convective outer envelope, stellar magnetic fields are generated through complex interactions between the convective layer and radiative core due to rotation. Magnetism in cool stars fuels stellar activity, in particular as starspots. Using starspots as a proxy, this work concentrates on imaging stellar magnetism. With state-of-the-art observations and imaging techniques, I investigate shifting the spot paradigm of localized starspots blemishing an otherwise bright surface (analogous to the solar photosphere) to a surface hosting a widespread network of magnetically-suppressed convection. This network is capable of affecting measurements of fundamental stellar parameters, such as radius and temperature, leading to inaccurate mass and age estimates. To accomplish this shift, I use precision Kepler data and a light-curve inversion algorithm for studies of stellar differential rotation and starspot evolution. Additionally, with long-baseline interferometric data collected with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, I target the bright, spotted, giant primary stars of close binary (RS CVn) systems. For these stars, I combine interferometric detections with radial velocity data to measure orbital and stellar parameters, which are used in concert with long-term photometric light curves to observe ellipsoidal variations, measure gravity darkening, and isolate the starspot signatures. In direct imaging using the interferometric data, I observe a spotted RS CVn star through an entire rotation period to detect canonical starspots, a polar starspot, and globally-suppressed convection. The regions of magnetically-suppressed convection cover a large fraction of the surface, potentially impacting estimates of stellar parameters. The combination of these efforts provides a start to a new era of

  18. Evolution of dislocation structure and modelling of deformation resistance in CaF2 single crystals


    Sadrabadi, Peiman


    he evolution of dislocation structure during plastic deformation in pure 111}-oriented CaF2 single crystals was investigated at constant strain rate (10−5 s−1) and constant stress (1 < / MPa < 22) in the temperature range of 0.5 < T/Tm < 0.8. The steady state and transient deformation behavior of the material is described by the composite model on the basis of microstructural data. In the following sections the important conclusions are briefly summarized. Microstructure evolution...

  19. Evol and ProDy for bridging protein sequence evolution and structural dynamics


    Bakan, Ahmet; Dutta, Anindita; Mao, Wenzhi; Liu, Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Lezon, Timothy R.; Bahar, Ivet


    Correlations between sequence evolution and structural dynamics are of utmost importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of function and their evolution. We have integrated Evol, a new package for fast and efficient comparative analysis of evolutionary patterns and conformational dynamics, into ProDy, a computational toolbox designed for inferring protein dynamics from experimental and theoretical data. Using information-theoretic approaches, Evol coanalyzes conservation and coevolu...

  20. Small x nonlinear evolution with impact parameter and the structure function data

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Jeffrey


    Nonlinear evolution at small values of Bjorken x is evaluated numerically using the dipole framework with impact parameter dependence. Confinement effects are modeled by including masses into the evolution. Sensitivity of the predictions due to different prescriptions of the cuts on large dipole sizes is investigated. Running coupling effects are taken into account in this analysis. Finally, a comparison with the inclusive data from HERA on the structure functions F2 and FL is performed.

  1. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution. (United States)

    Jacobs, T M; Williams, B; Williams, T; Xu, X; Eletsky, A; Federizon, J F; Szyperski, T; Kuhlman, B


    Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. We describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. This method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds.

  2. Malate dehydrogenase: a model for structure, evolution, and catalysis.



    Malate dehydrogenases are widely distributed and alignment of the amino acid sequences show that the enzyme has diverged into 2 main phylogenetic groups. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments of malate dehydrogenases also show that there is a low degree of primary structural similarity, apart from in several positions crucial for nucleotide binding, catalysis, and the subunit interface. The 3-dimensional structures of several malate dehydrogenases are similar, despite their low amino acid s...

  3. Subsurface defects structural evolution in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quanlong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bai, Qingshun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Jiaxuan, E-mail: [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Yazhou [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Yongbo [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liang, Yingchun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)


    Highlights: • An innovative analysis method is adopted to analyze nano-cutting process accurately. • A characteristic SFT and stair-rod dislocation are found in subsurface defect layer. • The formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated. • The local atomic structure of subsurface defects is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the subsurface defects structural distribution and its evolution during nano-cutting process of single crystal copper. The formation mechanism of chip and machined surface is interviewed by analyzing the dislocation evolution and atomic migration. The centro-symmetry parameter and spherical harmonics method are adopted to characterize the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures and local atomic structures. The results show that stacking faults, dislocation loops, “V-shaped” dislocation loops, and plenty of point defects are formed during the machined surface being formed in shear-slip zone. In subsurface damage layers, stair-rod dislocation, stacking fault tetrahedra, atomic cluster defect, and vacancy defect are formed. And the formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated by atomic-scale structure evolution. The local atomic structures of subsurface defects are icosahedrons, hexagonal close packed, body-centered cubic, and defect face center cubic, and the variations of local atomic structures are investigated.

  4. The tRNA Elbow in Structure, Recognition and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Prominent in the L-shaped three-dimensional structure of tRNAs is the “elbow” where their two orthogonal helical stacks meet. It has a conserved structure arising from the interaction of the terminal loops of the D- and T-stem-loops, and presents to solution a flat face of a tertiary base pair between the D- and T-loops. In addition to the ribosome, which interacts with the elbow in all three of its tRNA binding sites, several cellular RNAs and many proteins are known to recognize the elbow. At least three classes of non-coding RNAs, namely 23S rRNA, ribonuclease P, and the T-box riboswitches, recognize the tRNA elbow employing an identical structural motif consisting of two interdigitated T-loops. In contrast, structural solutions to tRNA-elbow recognition by proteins are varied. Some enzymes responsible for post-transcriptional tRNA modification even disrupt the elbow structure in order to access their substrate nucleotides. The evolutionary origin of the elbow is mysterious, but, because it does not explicitly participate in the flow of genetic information, it has been proposed to be a late innovation. Regardless, it is biologically essential. Even some viruses that hijack the cellular machinery using tRNA decoys have convergently evolved near-perfect mimics of the tRNA elbow.

  5. Local atomic structure modulations activate metal oxide as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water. (United States)

    Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Peng Fei; Pan, Lin Feng; Wang, Hai Feng; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Zheng, Li Rong; Hu, P; Zhao, Hui Jun; Gu, Lin; Yang, Hua Gui


    Modifications of local structure at atomic level could precisely and effectively tune the capacity of materials, enabling enhancement in the catalytic activity. Here we modulate the local atomic structure of a classical but inert transition metal oxide, tungsten trioxide, to be an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water, which has shown promise as an alternative to platinum. Structural analyses and theoretical calculations together indicate that the origin of the enhanced activity could be attributed to the tailored electronic structure by means of the local atomic structure modulations. We anticipate that suitable structure modulations might be applied on other transition metal oxides to meet the optimal thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, which may pave the way to unlock the potential of other promising candidates as cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution in industry.

  6. Evolution of the Alboran Sea hydrographic structures during July 1993 (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Cano, Natalio; Vargas, Manuel; Rubín, Juan P.; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso


    During the ICTIOALBORAN-0793 multidisciplinary oceanographic survey carried out in July 1993 by the Instituto Español de Oceanografı´a (IEO) in the Alboran Sea, some anomalous features were detected. One was the presence of a small cyclonic eddy in the western Alboran Basin, close to the African coast. The upper layer of the eddy consisted of Mediterranean Surface Water and was separated from its supposed source (the northern Alboran Sea) by the Atlantic Jet. Another feature was the probable temporary interruption of the flow of fresh Atlantic Water (S≈36.5) into the eastern Alboran Basin and its replacement by a modified (saltier) Atlantic Water. These features can be explained assuming a time evolution of the surface circulation in the Alboran Sea forced by speed variations in the inflowing Atlantic Water through the Strait of Gibraltar. A collection of satellite images covering the survey period and across-strait sea level difference data, indicative of the geostrophic velocity of the inflow through the Strait, were used to check this assumption. Both sets of data supplied independent but compatible information in the sense that they complemented each other and gave support to the proposed evolving model. Finally, some speculative ideas attempting to correlate the inferred variability in the Alboran Sea with the state of the baroclinic water exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar (maximal or submaximal) are discussed.

  7. Quasar Evolution Driven by Galaxy Encounters in Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Vittorini, V


    We link the evolution of the galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario with the changing accretion rates of cold gas onto the central massive black holes that power the quasars. We base on galaxy interactions as main triggers of accretion; the related scaling laws are taken up from Cavaliere & Vittorini (2000), and grafted to a semi-analytic code for galaxy formation. As a result, at high $z$ the protogalaxies grow rapidly by hierarchical merging; meanwhile, much fresh gas is imported and also destabilized, so the holes are fueled at their full Eddington rates. At lower $z$ the galactic dynamical events are mostly encounters in hierarchically growing groups; now the refueling peters out, as the residual gas is exhausted while the destabilizing encounters dwindle. So, with no parameter tuning other than needed for stellar observables, our model uniquely produces at $z>3$ a rise, and at $z\\lesssim 2.5 $ a decline of the bright quasar population as steep as observed. In addition, our results closely f...

  8. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying


    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems.

  9. Total Lightning Characteristics and Electric Structure Evolution in a Hailstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dong; ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; LU Weitao; YI Xiaoyuan


    In this paper, total lightning data observed by SAFIR3000 3-D Lightning Locating System was combined with radar data to analyze characteristics of the lightning activity and electric structure of a hailstorm that occurred in Beijing on 31 May 2005. The results indicated that there were two active periods for the lightning activity during the hailstorm process. The hail shooting was found in the first period. After the end of the hail shooting, lightning frequency decreased suddenly. However, more active lightning activities occurred in the second period with lots of them appearing in the cloud anvil region. The peak of the lightning frequency came about 5 rain prior to the hail shooting. Only 6.16% of the total lightning was cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, among which 20% had positive polarity. This percentage was higher than that in normal thunderstorms. In addition, heavier positive CG lightning discharge occurred before rather than after the hail shooting. In the stage of the hail shooting, the electric structure of the hailstorm was inverted, with the main negative charge region located around the -40℃ level and the main positive charge region around the -15℃ level. In addition, a weak negative charge region existed below the positive charge region transitorily. After the hail shooting, the electric structure underwent fast and persistent adjustments and became a normal tripole, with positive charge in the upper and lower levels and negative charge in the middle levels. However, the electric structure was tilted under the influence of the westerly wind in the middle and upper levels. The lightning activity and electric structure were closely related to the dynamic and microphysical processes of the hailstorm. It was believed that severe storms with stronger updrafts were more conducive to an inverted tripolar electric structure than normal thunderstorms, and the inverted distribution could then facilitate more positive CG lightning in the severe storms.

  10. Correlation between atomic structure evolution and strength in a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperature. (United States)

    Tan, J; Wang, G; Liu, Z Y; Bednarčík, J; Gao, Y L; Zhai, Q J; Mattern, N; Eckert, J


    A model Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) is selected to explore the structural evolution on the atomic scale with decreasing temperature down to cryogenic level using high energy X-ray synchrotron radiation. We discover a close correlation between the atomic structure evolution and the strength of the BMG and find out that the activation energy increment of the concordantly atomic shifting at lower temperature is the main factor influencing the strength. Our results might provide a fundamental understanding of the atomic-scale structure evolution and may bridge the gap between the atomic-scale physics and the macro-scale fracture strength for BMGs.

  11. Structural constraints on the evolution of the collagen fibril: convergence on a 1014-residue COL domain. (United States)

    Slatter, David Anthony; Farndale, Richard William


    Type I collagen is the fundamental component of the extracellular matrix. Its α1 gene is the direct descendant of ancestral fibrillar collagen and contains 57 exons encoding the rod-like triple-helical COL domain. We trace the evolution of the COL domain from a primordial collagen 18 residues in length to its present 1014 residues, the limit of its possible length. In order to maintain and improve the essential structural features of collagen during evolution, exons can be added or extended only in permitted, non-random increments that preserve the position of spatially sensitive cross-linkage sites. Such sites cannot be maintained unless the twist of the triple helix is close to 30 amino acids per turn. Inspection of the gene structure of other long structural proteins, fibronectin and titin, suggests that their evolution might have been subject to similar constraints.

  12. Primary retention following nuclear recoil in β-decay: Proposed synthesis of a metastable rare gas oxide ((38)ArO4) from ((38)ClO4(-)) and the evolution of chemical bonding over the nuclear transmutation reaction path. (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F


    Argon tetroxide (ArO4) is the last member of the N=50 e(-) isoelectronic and isosteric series of ions: SiO4(4-), PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and ClO4(-). A high level computational study demonstrated that while ArO4 is kinetically stable it has a considerable positive enthalpy of formation (of ~298kcal/mol) (Lindh et al., 1999. J. Phys. Chem. A 103, pp. 8295-8302) confirming earlier predictions by Pyykkö (1990. Phys. Scr. 33, pp. 52-53). ArO4 can be expected to be difficult to synthesize by traditional chemistry due to its metastability and has not yet been synthesized at the time of writing. A computational investigation of the changes in the chemical bonding of chlorate (ClO4(-)) when the central chlorine atom undergoes a nuclear transmutation from the unstable artificial chlorine isotope (38)Cl to the stable rare argon isotope (38)Ar through β-decay, hence potentially leading to the formation of ArO4, is reported. A mathematical model is presented that allows for the prediction of yields following the recoil of a nucleus upon ejecting a β-electron. It is demonstrated that below a critical angle between the ejected β-electron and that of the accompanying antineutrino their respective linear momentums can cancel to such an extent as imparting a recoil to the daughter atom insufficient for breaking the Ar-O bond. As a result, a primary retention yield of ~1% of ArO4 is predicted following the nuclear disintegration. The study is conducted at the quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations [QCISD/6-311+G(3df)] level of theory followed by an analysis of the electron density by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Crossed potential energy surfaces (PES) were used to construct a PES from the metastable ArO4 ground singlet state to the Ar-O bond dissociation product ArO3+O((3)P) from which the predicted barrier to dissociation is ca. 22kcal/mol and the exothermic reaction energy is ca. 28kcal/mol [(U)MP2/6-311+G(d)].

  13. Structure and tectonic evolution of the northeastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    , (3) identification of the Cretaceous magnetic smooth zone and the boundary of the late Cretaceous crust in the distal part of the Bengal Fan, (4) structure and origin of the 85 degrees E Ridge, seismic stratigraphy, the presence of carbonate buildup...

  14. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    of the Christian faith. He soon discovered that the main challenge was to explain the divine Trinity to non Christians. Furthermore, he realised that culture and language barriers must be taken into account when he tried to explain the Christian faith. In-stead of focussing on the differences, Llull sought out...... might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned......Ramon Llull’s Ars Magna Thessa Jensen Institute for Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University Aalborg, Denmark The Great Art of Ramon Llull — the Ars Magna — must be seen as one of the basic philosophical approaches to formalisation of thought, language, and knowledge...

  15. Combined K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the upper Jaramillo reversal (United States)

    Guillou, Herve; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Nomade, Sebastien; Perez Torrado, Francisco Jose; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wandres, Camille


    The Jaramillo subchron was first evidenced in 1966 (Doell and Dalrymple) through the Rhyolotic domes of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico (USA). 40Ar/39Ar studies achieved by Spell et McDougall (1992), Spell et Harrison (1993), Izett and Obradovich (1994) and Singer et al. (1994) defined the base of this subchron at 1053±6 ka, and the ceiling at 986±5 ka. Channell et al. (2009) delimited the age of the Jaramillo subchron by astronomic calibration (base 1071 ka, top 990 ka). To provide additional absolute ages on this geomagnetic period, which is critical to improve our knowledge of the earth magnetic field behaviour, we have carried out a study combining paleomagnetism and isotopic dating of a lava sequence from Tenerife island. This sequence of basaltic lava flows is some 500 m thick. The first 400 m present, based on field magnetometer measurements, normal polarity lavas, with dykes of normal and reverse polarity, passing at the top to reverse polarity lavas. Preliminary K-Ar ages bracketed this sequence between 1018 ± 18 ka and 978 ± 17 ka. Therefore, the upper Jaramillo reversal at least appeared to be potentially recorded in this sequence. A more detailed paleomagnetic study was then carried out to more precisely delimit the reversal itself (see Laj et al., session EMRP3.4). We have undertaken 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and unspiked K-Ar experiments on groundmass from four transitionally magnetized flows. The first transitional flow is K-Ar dated at 993 ± 18 ka and 40Ar/39Ar dated at 991 ± 13 ka, the second at 981 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 1000 ± 13 ka (40Ar/39Ar), the third at 950 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 1000 ± 8 ka (40Ar/39Ar) and the fourth at 984 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 977 ± 12 (40Ar/39Ar). 40Ar/39Ar ages and K-Ar ages (relative to FCT 28.02 Ma) are indistinguishable at 2σ. The age of the upper boundary of the Jaramillo event calculated combining 40Ar/39Ar ages and K-Ar ages is 992 ± 6 ka, in agreement with previous estimates.

  16. Photoionization of Ar VIII (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Jiang, Wen-xian; Zhou, Chao


    The photoionization cross section, energy levels and widths of 22 Rydberg series (in the autoionization region) for Na-like Ar VIII were investigated by using of R-matrix method. The relativistic distorted-wave method is used to calculate the radial functions, and QB method of Quigly-Berrington [Quigley et al. 1998] is employed to calculate the resonance levels and widths. We have identified the formant in the figure of the photoionization cross section.

  17. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  19. The structure and evolution of cold dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Diemand, Jürg


    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the formation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in th...

  20. Structural evolution of the Vuotso area, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Nironen


    Full Text Available The Vuotso area is structurally interesting because the fold interference pattern in rocks of central Lapland changes into thrust-related foliation of the Lapland Granulite Belt. A felsic volcanic rock yielded a 2.45 Ga age and conformed that the volcanic rocks in the Vuotso area are (mainly Paleoproterozoic. A structural sequence with recumbent F2 folding and predominant S2 foliation, and an interference pattern of F3 and F4 foldings could be discerned in the supracrustal rocks. A large D3 antiform is overprinted by mafic-intermediate gneisses that form the basal part of the thrust sequence. The curving of late D3 shear zones suggests that D3 deformation may be associated with thrusting from east-northeast, but thrusting of the granulites and adjacent mafic-intermediate gneisses to their present position is interpreted as a post-D3 event.

  1. Papain-like peptidases: structure, function, and evolution. (United States)

    Novinec, Marko; Lenarčič, Brigita


    Papain-like cysteine peptidases are a diverse family of peptidases found in most known organisms. In eukaryotes, they are divided into multiple evolutionary groups, which can be clearly distinguished on the basis of the structural characteristics of the proenzymes. Most of them are endopeptidases; some, however, evolved into exopeptidases by obtaining additional structural elements that restrict the binding of substrate into the active site. In humans, papain-like peptidases, also called cysteine cathepsins, act both as non-specific hydrolases and as specific processing enzymes. They are involved in numerous physiological processes, such as antigen presentation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and hormone processing. Their activity is tightly regulated and dysregulation of one or more cysteine cathepsins can result in severe pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Other organisms can utilize papain-like peptidases for different purposes and they are often part of host-pathogen interactions. Numerous parasites, such as Plasmodium and flukes, utilize papain-like peptidases for host invasion, whereas plants, in contrast, use these enzymes for host defense. This review presents a state-of-the-art description of the structure and phylogeny of papain-like peptidases as well as an overview of their physiological and pathological functions in humans and in other organisms.

  2. Evolution of polymer photovoltaic performances from subtle chemical structure variations. (United States)

    Yan, Han; Li, Denghua; Lu, Kun; Zhu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Yajie; Yang, Yanlian; Wei, Zhixiang


    Conjugated polymers are promising replacements for their inorganic counterparts in photovoltaics due to their low cost, ease of processing, and straightforward thin film formation. New materials have been able to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells up to 8%. However, rules for rational material design are still lacking, and subtle chemical structure variations usually result in large performance discrepancies. The present paper reports a detailed study on the crystalline structure, morphology, and in situ optoelectronic properties of blend films of polythiophene derivatives and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester by changing the alkyl side chain length and position of polythiophene. The correlation among the molecular structure, mesoscopic morphology, mesoscopic optoelectronic property and macroscopic device performance (highest efficiency above 4%) was directly established. Both solubility and intermolecular interactions should be considered in rational molecular design. Knowledge obtained from this study can aid the selection of appropriate processing conditions that improve blend film morphology, charge transport property, and overall solar cell efficiency.

  3. Chromatin structure and evolution in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Malcolm G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary rates are not constant across the human genome but genes in close proximity have been shown to experience similar levels of divergence and selection. The higher-order organisation of chromosomes has often been invoked to explain such phenomena but previously there has been insufficient data on chromosome structure to investigate this rigorously. Using the results of a recent genome-wide analysis of open and closed human chromatin structures we have investigated the global association between divergence, selection and chromatin structure for the first time. Results In this study we have shown that, paradoxically, synonymous site divergence (dS at non-CpG sites is highest in regions of open chromatin, primarily as a result of an increased number of transitions, while the rates of other traditional measures of mutation (intergenic, intronic and ancient repeat divergence as well as SNP density are highest in closed regions of the genome. Analysis of human-chimpanzee divergence across intron-exon boundaries indicates that although genes in relatively open chromatin generally display little selection at their synonymous sites, those in closed regions show markedly lower divergence at their fourfold degenerate sites than in neighbouring introns and intergenic regions. Exclusion of known Exonic Splice Enhancer hexamers has little affect on the divergence observed at fourfold degenerate sites across chromatin categories; however, we show that closed chromatin is enriched with certain classes of ncRNA genes whose RNA secondary structure may be particularly important. Conclusion We conclude that, overall, non-CpG mutation rates are lowest in open regions of the genome and that regions of the genome with a closed chromatin structure have the highest background mutation rate. This might reflect lower rates of DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair processes in regions of open chromatin. Our results also indicate that dS is a poor

  4. Evolution, structure and function of hydrologic subsystems in hillslopes (United States)

    Troch, P. A.; Brooks, P.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T.; McDonnell, J. J.; Rasmussen, C.; Sivapalan, M.


    Hillslopes offer a useful elementary scale to construct catchment hydrologic models, and to understand the role of water in the landscape. However, hillslopes exhibit enormous complexity and heterogeneity, much of which is not easily observable. The complexity is driven by the interactions between water, biogeochemistry, ecology and soils, within the constraints set by the climate and the geologic history of the system. These interactions create complex, non-random patterns and structures in space-time. Current models have difficulty accounting for these interactions and unobserved structural complexity. A new approach may ask: why do the complex structures exist at all? Taking the view that the hydrology of a landscape has evolved along with its soils, ecology and geomorphology, we may ask if the hydrologic subsystem of a hillslope has a functional role in the maintenance of the overall system. This functional role may be expressed as an organizing principle - a constraint on possible ways that the hydrologic flowpaths may be organized such that the functional role is met. If a relationship can be established between an organizing principle and the structure of hydrologic flow-paths and storages, it can form the basis for developing closure relations at the hillslope scale that have meaningful relationships to the underlying dynamics. In this way, heterogeneity and complexity of hillslopes are no longer problems to be overcome, but rather are keys to making meaningful predictions. Formulating and testing organizing principles will necessarily require the synthesis of knowledge from many disciplines. One approach is to construct artificial hillslopes in a controlled environment, and use them to ask, given a set of observable constraints (climate, soil, ecologic and biogeochemical parameters) which structures and responses are "behavioral" - in the sense that they fulfill the function set by the organizing principle. Such artificial hillslopes will be constructed at

  5. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Kwan Wee


    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  6. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells. (United States)

    Tan, Kwan Wee; Moore, David T; Saliba, Michael; Sai, Hiroaki; Estroff, Lara A; Hanrath, Tobias; Snaith, Henry J; Wiesner, Ulrich


    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  7. Identification, characterization and evolution of non-local quasi-Lagrangian structures in turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Yang


    The recent progress on non-local Lagrangian and quasi-Lagrangian structures in turbulence is reviewed. The quasi-Lagrangian structures, e.g., vortex surfaces in vis-cous flow, gas-liquid interfaces in multi-phase flow, and flame fronts in premixed combustion, can show essential Lagrangian following properties, but they are able to have topological changes in the temporal evolution. In addition, they can represent or influence the turbulent flow field. The challenges for the investigation of the non-local structures include their identification, characterization, and evolution. The improving understanding of the quasi-Lagrangian struc-tures is expected to be helpful to elucidate crucial dynamics and develop structure-based predictive models in turbulence.

  8. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase R3 receptors: Origin, evolution and structural diversification (United States)

    Chicote, Javier U.; DeSalle, Rob; García-España, Antonio


    Subtype R3 phosphotyrosine phosphatase receptors (R3 RPTPs) are single-spanning membrane proteins characterized by a unique modular composition of extracellular fibronectin repeats and a single cytoplasmatic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain. Vertebrate R3 RPTPs consist of five members: PTPRB, PTPRJ, PTPRH and PTPRO, which dephosphorylate tyrosine residues, and PTPRQ, which dephosphorylates phophoinositides. R3 RPTPs are considered novel therapeutic targets in several pathologies such as ear diseases, nephrotic syndromes and cancer. R3 RPTP vertebrate receptors, as well as their known invertebrate counterparts from animal models: PTP52F, PTP10D and PTP4e from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and F44G4.8/DEP-1 from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, participate in the regulation of cellular activities including cell growth and differentiation. Despite sharing structural and functional properties, the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate and invertebrate R3 RPTPs are not fully understood. Here we gathered R3 RPTPs from organisms covering a broad evolutionary distance, annotated their structure and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We show that R3 RPTPs (i) have probably originated in the common ancestor of animals (metazoans), (ii) are variants of a single ancestral gene in protostomes (arthropods, annelids and nematodes); (iii) a likely duplication of this ancestral gene in invertebrate deuterostomes (echinodermes, hemichordates and tunicates) generated the precursors of PTPRQ and PTPRB genes, and (iv) R3 RPTP groups are monophyletic in vertebrates and have specific conserved structural characteristics. These findings could have implications for the interpretation of past studies and provide a framework for future studies and functional analysis of this important family of proteins. PMID:28257417

  9. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard


    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.

  10. Structure evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy in SIMA process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; ZHANG Fa-yun; JIE Xiao-ping


    The effect of prior compressive deformation, isothermal temperature and holding time on the structure of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by strain-induced melt activation(SIMA) processing was investigated. The specimens were subjected under deformation ratios of 0%, 22% and 40% and various heat treatment time and temperature regions. The results indicate that the ideal technological parameters of semi-solid AZ61 alloy produced with non-dendrites are recommended as 22% (prior compressive deformation), 595 ℃ (heat treatment temperature) and 40 min(time). The as-cast AZ61 magnesium alloy isn't fit for semi-solid forming.

  11. Review: Evolution of GnIH structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eOsugi


    Full Text Available Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminus and inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides were diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs were MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as

  12. Structure and Function Evolution of Thiolate Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Grant Alvin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The use of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on gold has blossomed in the past few years. These systems have functioned as models for common interfaces. Thiolate monolayers are ideal because they are easily modified before or after deposition. The works contained within this dissertation include interfacial characterization (inbred reflection absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle, scanning probe microscopy, and heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics) and various modeling scenarios. The results of these characterizations present ground-breaking insights into the structure, function, and reproducible preparation of these monolayers. Surprisingly, three interfacial properties (electron-transfer, contact angle, and ellipsometry) were discovered to depend directly on the odd-even character of the monolayer components. Molecular modeling was utilized to investigate adlayer orientation, and suggests that these effects are adlayer structure specific. Finally, the electric force microscopy and theoretical modeling investigations of monolayer samples are presented, which show that the film dielectric constant, thickness, and dipole moment directly affect image contrast. In addition, the prospects for utilization of this emerging technique are outlined.

  13. Structure and function evolution of thiolate monolayers on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Grant Alvin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The use of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on gold has blossomed in the past few years. These systems have functioned as models for common interfaces. Thiolate monolayers are ideal because they are easily modified before or after deposition. The works contained within this dissertation include interfacial characterization (infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle, scanning probe microscopy, and heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics) and various modeling scenarios. The results of these characterizations present ground-breaking insights into the structure, function, and reproducible preparation of these monolayers. Surprisingly, three interfacial properties (electron-transfer, contact angle, and ellipsometry) were discovered to depend directly on the odd-even character of the monolayer components. Molecular modeling was utilized to investigate adlayer orientation, and suggests that these effects are adlayer structure specific. Finally, the electric force microscopy and theoretical modeling investigations of monolayer samples are presented, which show that the film dielectric constant, thickness, and dipole moment directly affect image contrast. In addition, the prospects for utilization of this emerging technique are outlined.

  14. Kinematic and Structural Evolution of Field and Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Bodo L; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Peletier, Reynier F; Verdugo, Miguel


    To understand the processes that build up galaxies we investigate the stellar structure and gas kinematics of spiral and irregular galaxies out to redshift 1. We target 92 galaxies in four cluster (z = 0.3 & 0.5) fields to study the environmental influence. Their stellar masses derived from multiband VLT/FORS photometry are distributed around but mostly below the characteristic Schechter-fit mass. From HST/ACS images we determine morphologies and structural parameters like disk length, position angle and ellipticity. Combining the spectra of three slit positions per galaxy using the MXU mode of VLT/FORS2 we construct the two-dimensional velocity field from gas emission lines for 16 cluster members and 33 field galaxies. The kinematic position angle and flatness are derived by a Fourier expansion of elliptical velocity profiles. To trace possible interaction processes, we define three irregularity indicators based on an identical analysis of local galaxies from the SINGS project. Our distant sample display...

  15. Impact origin of the Sudbury structure: Evolution of a theory (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.


    This paper reviews the origin, development, and present status of the widely accepted theory, proposed by Robert S. Dietz in 1962, that the Sudbury structure was formed by meteoritic or asteroidal impact. The impact theory for the origin of the Sudbury structure seems supported by a nearly conclusive body of evidence. However, even assuming an impact origin to be correct, at least three major questions require further study: (1) the original size and shape of the crater, before tectonic deformation and erosion; (2) the source of the melt now forming the Sudbury Igneous Complex; and (3) the degree, if any, to which the Ni-Cu-platinum group elements are meteoritic. The history of the impact theory illustrates several under-appreciated aspects of scientific research: (1) the importance of cross-fertilization between space research and terrestrial geology; (2) the role of the outsider in stimulating thinking by insiders; (3) the value of small science, at least in the initial stages of an investigation, Dietz's first field work having been at his own expense; and (4) the value of analogies (here, between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the maria), which although incorrect in major aspects, may trigger research on totally new lines. Finally, the Sudbury story illustrates the totally unpredictable and, by implication, unplannable nature of basic research, in that insight to the origin of the world's then-greatest Ni deposit came from the study of tektites and the Moon.

  16. Nanoscale structural oscillations in perovskite oxides induced by oxygen evolution (United States)

    Han, Binghong; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Gamalski, Andrew D.; Stach, Eric A.; Shao-Horn, Yang


    Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. Here, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF. SrCoO3-δ was found to exhibit small oscillations, while none were observed for La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ and LaCoO3. The structural oscillations of BSCF can be attributed to the fact that its oxygen 2p-band centre is close to the Fermi level, which leads to a low energy penalty for oxygen vacancy formation, high ion mobility, and high water uptake. This work provides surprising insights into the interaction between water and oxides under electron-beam irradiation.

  17. Structures, kinematics, thermochronology and tectonic evolution of the Ramba gneiss dome in the northern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Guo; Jinjiang Zhang; Bo Zhang


    The Ramba gneiss dome, one of the north Himalayan gneiss domes, is composed of three tectono-lithologic units separated by an upper and a lower detachment fault. Low-grade metamorphic Tethyan Himalayan sedimentary sequence formed the upper unit above the brittle upper detachment fault. Mylonitic gneiss and a leucogranite pluton made up the lower unit beneath the ductile lower detach-ment fault. Mylonitic middle-grade garnet-, staurolite- and andalusite-schist constituted the middle unit between the two faults, which may be that the basal part of the upper unit experienced detachment shear. The Ramba dome underwent three episodes of deformationin its tectonic evolution. The first episode was a top-down-to-north-northwest sliding possibly related to the activity of the south Tibetan detachment system (STDS). The second episode was the dominant deformation related to a east-west extension, which resulted in a unique top-down-to-east kinematics and the major tectonic features of the dome. The third episode was a collapse sliding toward the outsides of the dome. The Ramba gneiss dome is possibly a result of the east-west extension and magmatic diapir. The lower detachment fault is probably the main detachment fault separating the sedimentary sequence from the crystalline basement during the east-west extension in the dominant deformation episode. The diapir of the leucogranite pluton formed the doming shape of the Ramba gneiss dome. This pluton intruded in the core of the dome in a late stage of the dominant deformation, and its Ar-Ar cooling ages are about 6 Myr. This indicates that the dominant deformation of the dome happened at the same time of the east-west extension represented by the north-south trending riffs throughout the northern Himalaya and southern Tibet. Therefore, the formation of the Ramba gneiss dome should be related to this east-west extension.

  18. Kinematic Morphology of Large-scale Structure: Evolution from Potential to Rotational Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Neyrinck, Mark C; Eyink, Gregory L


    As an alternative way of describing the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. Before shell-crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with cosmic web structure, because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell-crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatia...

  19. Time dependent couplings in the dark sector: from background evolution to nonlinear structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Marco


    We present a complete numerical study of cosmological models with a time dependent coupling between the dark energy component driving the present accelerated expansion of the Universe and the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) fluid. Depending on the functional form of the coupling strength, these models show a range of possible intermediate behaviors between the standard LCDM background evolution and the widely studied case of interacting dark energy models with a constant coupling. These different background evolutions play a crucial role in the growth of cosmic structures, and determine strikingly different effects of the coupling on the internal dynamics of nonlinear objects. By means of a suitable modification of the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2 we have performed a series of high-resolution N-body simulations of structure formation in the context of interacting dark energy models with variable couplings. Depending on the type of background evolution, the halo density profiles are found to be either less or more...

  20. Fine structure of flare ribbons and evolution of electric currents

    CERN Document Server

    Sharykin, I N


    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains the flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of C2.1 flare of August 15, 2013, observed with New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GOES and FERMI spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of the flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe red-blue asymmetry of H alpha flare ribbons with a width as small as 100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be r...

  1. Halo formation and evolution: unification of structure and physical properties (United States)

    Ernest, Allan D.; Collins, Matthew P.


    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.

  2. Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, J K; Flambaum, V V; Dzuba, V A; Barrow, John D; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X; Wolfe, A M


    We summarise the results of a search for time variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, using absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. Three large optical datasets and two 21cm/mm absorption systems provide four independent samples, spanning approximately 23% to 87% of the age of the universe. Each sample yields a negative Delta(alpha)/alpha (smaller alpha in the past) and the whole optical sample shows a 4-sigma deviation: Delta(alpha)/alpha = -0.72 +/- 0.18 x 10^{-5} over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. A comprehensive search for systematic effects reveals none which can explain our results. The only potentially significant systematic effects push Delta(alpha)/alpha towards positive values, i.e. our results would become more significant were we to correct for them.

  3. Alpha-synuclein gene structure,evolution,and protein aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Xiong; Peng Zhao; Zhiyun Guo; Jianhua Zhang; Diqiang Li; Canquan Mao


    α-synuclein,a member of the synuclein family,is predominately expressed in brain tissues,where it is the major component of Lewy bodies,the major hallmark of Parkinson's disease.We analyzed the phylogenetics,gene structure,and effects of different forms of α-synuclein on in vitro protein aggregation.The synuclein phylogenetic tree showed that sequences could be classified into α,β,and γ protein groups.The orthologous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein showed similar evolutionary distance to the paralogous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein.Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the amino-acid sequence of human α-synuclein can be divided into three regions: N-terminal amphipathic region(1-60),central hydrophobic non-amyloid beta component segment(61-95),and the C-terminal acidic part(96-140).The mutant site of A30P is at the second exon of α-synuclein,whereas E46K is located at the third exon of α-synuclein.α-synuclein alternative splicing results in four isomers,and five exons,all of which participate in protein coding,comprising 140 amino acids to produce the major α-synuclein in vivo.The threeα-synuclein isoforms are products of alternative splicing,α-synuclein 126,112 and 98.We also review the genetic and cellular factors that affect the aggregation of α-synuclein and compounds that inhibit aggregation.A better understanding of α-synuclein sequences,structure,and function may allow better targeted therapy and diagnosis of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. The structural evolution of carbonaceous material during metamorphism : a geothermometer (United States)

    Beyssac, O.; Goffe, B.; Brunet, F.; Bollinger, L.; Avouac, J.; Rouzaud, J.


    With increasing metamorphic temperature, the organic matter present in sedimentary rocks is progressively transformed into graphite (graphitization). The degree of organization of this carbonaceous material (CM) as characterized by Raman spectroscopy (RSCM), can be used as a geothermometer which yields the maximum temperature reached during the metamorphic cycle (Beyssac et al., 2002). We used this RSCM geothermometer to map the maximum metamorphic temperatures through the Lesser Himalaya (LH) in Nepal. This study provides a large dataset (80 samples) to estimate uncertainty of this method and to ascertain its reliability by comparison with conventional petrological investigations. We show that the RSCM geothermometer might be used to detect inter-samples temperature variations as small as 10° C or so, but absolute temperatures are only loosely determined to +/- 50° C due to the uncertainty on the calibration. This successful application of the RSCM geothermometer confirms that, at the timescale of regional metamorphism (several My), the transformation of CM is mainly controlled by temperature. However, laboratory investigations suggest that, in addition to temperature, pressure should also play a role (Beyssac et al. 2003). As a matter of fact, high degree of organizations encountered in natural CM cannot be reproduced in laboratory without pressure, even at temperatures as high as 3000° C. In addition to the data acquired on natural CM, we will discuss laboratory experiments performed up to 8 GPa which show that (1) a few kbar of hydrostatic pressure are required to initiate microtextural and subsequent structural transformations within CM and (2) the overall effect of increasing pressure is to speed up graphitization process. Beyssac, O., Goffe, B., Chopin, C., and Rouzaud, J.N., 2002, Raman spectra of carbonaceous material in metasediments: a new geothermometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 20, 859-871. Beyssac, O., Brunet, F., Petitet, J.P., Goffe, B

  5. Observational constraints on the structure and evolution of quasars (United States)

    Kelly, Brandon C.


    I use X-ray and optical data to investigate the structure of quasars, and its dependence on luminosity, redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington ratio. In order to facilitate my work, I develop new statistical methods of accounting for measurement error, non-detections, and survey selection functions. The main results of this thesis follow. (1) The statistical uncertainty in the broad line mass estimates can lead to significant artificial broadening of the observed distribution of black hole mass. (2) The z = 0.2 broad line quasar black hole mass function falls off approximately as a power law with slope ~ 2 for M BH [Special characters omitted.] 10 8 [Special characters omitted.] . (3) Radio-quiet quasars become more X-ray quiet as their optical/UV luminosity, black hole mass, or Eddington ratio increase, and more X-ray loud at higher redshift. These correlations imply that quasars emit a larger fraction of their bolometric luminosity through the accretion disk component, as compared to the corona component, as black hole mass and Eddington ratio increase. (4) The X- ray spectral slopes of radio-quiet quasars display a non-monotonic trend with Eddington ratio, where the X-ray continuum softens with increasing Eddington ratio until L/L Edd ~ 0.3, and then begins to harden. This observed non- monotonic trend may be caused by a change in the structure of the disk/corona system at L/L Edd ~ 0.3, possibly due to increased radiation pressure. (5) The characteristic time scales of quasar optical flux variations increase with increasing M BH , and are consistent with disk orbital or thermal time scales. In addition the amplitude of short time scale variability decreases with increasing M BH . I interpret quasar optical light curves as being driven by thermal fluctuations, which in turn are driven by some other underlying stochastic process with characteristic time scale long compared to the disk thermal time scale. The stochastic model I use is able to explain both short

  6. Structural Evolution in Photoactive Yellow Protein Studied by Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa M.


    Full Text Available Ultrafast structural evolution in photoactive yellow protein (PYP is studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. A comparison between wild-type PYP and E46Q mutant reveals that the hydrogen-bonding network surrounding the chromophore of PYP is immediately rearranged in the electronic excited state.

  7. Structural Analysis and Visualization of C++ Code Evolution using Syntax Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, Fanny; Auber, David; Telea, Alexandru


    We present a method to detect and visualize evolution patterns in C++ source code. Our method consists of three steps. First, we extract an annotated syntax tree (AST) from each version of a given C++ source code. Next, we hash the extracted syntax nodes based on a metric combining structure and typ

  8. Combined Visualization of Structural and Metric Information for Software Evolution Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Theron, Roberto; Telea, Alexandru; Garcia, Francisco J.


    This paper discusses a proposal for the visualization of software evolution, with a focus on combining insight on changes that affect software metrics at project and class level, the project structure, the class hierarchy and the viewing of source code correlated to indirect class coupling. The prop

  9. Techniques of Turnovers’ Evolution and Structure Analysis Using SQL Server 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manole


    Full Text Available The turnovers’ evolution and structure analysis can provide many useful information for the construction of a viable set of policies for products, prices and retail network. When the analysis deals with large quantities of raw data, one of the solutions that guarantees the rigorous treatment of the data is the use of a software system based on a data warehouse.

  10. From fast to slow processes in the evolution of urban and regional settlement structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Weidlich


    Full Text Available Complex systems consist of many intertwined organizational levels starting from micro-structures and ending with macrostructures. Their evolution takes place on different time scales: Micropatterns exhibit a fast dynamics whereas macropatterns develop slowly. Urban and regional science can make use of this fact by constructing a hierarchy of models on different spatio-temporal scales.

  11. Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Gregory F; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai


    From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z~1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.

  12. Structure and evolution of low-mass Population II stars (United States)

    Montalbán, J.; D'Antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.


    The focus of the present paper is on the detailed description of the internal structures of low mass, population II stars, to clarify some issues about these stellar models and, mainly, their present reliability for observational comparisons. We then explore 1) the role of the local convective model; 2) the differences between "grey" and "non grey" models, and between models in which the photospheric boundary conditions are set at different optical depths (τph = 3 or 100); 3) the role of the equation of state (EoS), both in the atmospheric models and in the interior. One of the major conclusions of the paper is a cautionary note about the usage of the additive volume law in EoS calculations. The dependence of the HR diagram locations and mass luminosity relations on metal and helium content are also discussed. A few comparisons with globular cluster stars show that: 1) general consistency of distance scales and morphologies in the HR diagram is found, when comparing ground based measurements in the Johnson B and V bands and observations in the HST bands; 2) a discrepancy between models and observations may exist for more metal rich clusters; 3) the plausible hypothesis that the mass function in the globular cluster NGC 6397 behaves smoothly until the lower limit of the main sequence poses constraints on the mass-luminosity relation at the lowest end of the main sequence. The evolutionary tracks are available at the WEB location

  13. Surnames and dialects in France: population structure and cultural evolution. (United States)

    Scapoli, C; Goebl, H; Sobota, S; Mamolini, E; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I


    To study the isonymy structure of France as related to local language variations, the surname distributions of 6.03 million telephone users registered for the year 2002 were analysed in the 21 conterminous regions, their 94 departments and in 809 towns of the Country. For regions and departments the differences among local dialects were quantified according to the dialecto-metrization of the Atlas Linguistique Français. We found that Lasker's distance between regions was correlated with geographic distance with r=0.692+/-0.040, while Euclidean (r=0.546+/-0.058) and Nei's (r=0.610+/-0.048) distances were less correlated. Slightly lower correlations were observed for departments. Also, dialectometric distance was correlated with geography (r=0.582+/-0.069 for regions and r=0.617+/-0.015 for departments). The correlations between Lasker and dialectometric matrix distances for regions and departments are r=0.625+/-0.046 and 0.544+/-0.014, respectively, indicating that the common cause generating surname and language diversity accounts for about 35% of the differentiation. Both Lasker and dialectometric distances identify very similar boundaries between Poitou, Centre, Bourgogne and Franche Comptée at the North, and Aquitaine, Limousin, Auvergne, Rhône-Alpes in the South. Average Fisher's alpha for France was 7877 the highest value observed for the European countries studied to date. The size of alpha in most French towns indicates considerable recent immigration.

  14. Electronic- and band-structure evolution in low-doped (Ga,Mn)As


    Yastrubchak, O.; J. Sadowski; Krzyzanowska, H.; Gluba, L.; Zuk, J.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.


    Modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been applied to study the electronic- and band-structure evolution in (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers with increasing Mn doping in the range of low Mn content, up to 1.2%. Structural and magnetic properties of the layers were characterized with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and SQUID magnetometery, respectively. The revealed results of decrease in the band-gap transition energy with increasing Mn content in very low-doped ...

  15. Magnetic structure evolution in mechanically milled nanostructured ZnFe2O4 particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wynn, P.; Mørup, Steen;


    Nanostructured partially-inverted ZnFe2O4 particles have been prepared from bulk ZnFe2O4 by high-energy ball milling in an open container. The grain size reduction, cation site distributions, and the evolution of magnetic structures have been studied by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld structure...... refinements, transmission electron microscopy, and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It is found that a change of magnetic structure from an antiferromagnetic to a ferrimagnetic (or ferromagnetic) structure occurs in the milled samples. This change is correlated with the redistribution of the cations, Zn and Fe...

  16. Simulated evolution of the dark matter large-scale structure of the Universe (United States)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A.; Pilipenko, S.; Gottlöber, S.


    We analyse the evolution of the basic properties of the simulated elements of the large-scale structure of the Universe (LSS) formed by dark matter (DM), and we confront it with the observed evolution of the Lyman α forest. In three high-resolution simulations, we have selected samples of compact DM clouds of moderate overdensity. Clouds are selected at redshifts 0 ≤z≤ 3 with the minimal spanning tree technique. The main properties of the clouds selected in this way are analysed in three-dimensional space and with the core-sampling approach. This allows us to compare estimates of the DM LSS evolution obtained with two different techniques, and to clarify some important aspects of the LSS evolution. In both cases, we find that regular redshift variations of the mean characteristics of the DM LSS are accompanied only by small variations of their probability distribution functions (PDFs), which indicates the self-similar characteristic of the DM LSS evolution. A high degree of relaxation of DM particles, compressed within the LSS, is found along the shortest principal axis of the clouds. We see that the internal structure of the selected clouds depends upon the mass resolution and scale of the perturbations achieved in the simulations. It is found that the low-mass tail of the PDFs of the LSS characteristics depends upon the procedure of cloud selection.

  17. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians (United States)

    Altig, Ronald; McDiarmid, Roy W.


    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs?the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution.

  18. Evol and ProDy for bridging protein sequence evolution and structural dynamics (United States)

    Mao, Wenzhi; Liu, Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Lezon, Timothy R.; Bahar, Ivet


    Correlations between sequence evolution and structural dynamics are of utmost importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of function and their evolution. We have integrated Evol, a new package for fast and efficient comparative analysis of evolutionary patterns and conformational dynamics, into ProDy, a computational toolbox designed for inferring protein dynamics from experimental and theoretical data. Using information-theoretic approaches, Evol coanalyzes conservation and coevolution profiles extracted from multiple sequence alignments of protein families with their inferred dynamics. Availability and implementation: ProDy and Evol are open-source and freely available under MIT License from Contact: PMID:24849577

  19. Time evolution of electron structure in femtosecond heated warm dense molybdenum. (United States)

    Recoules, V.; Dorchies, F.; Bouchet, J.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P. M.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Tshentscher, T.; Harmand, M.; Toleikis, S.; Stormer, M.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P. A.; Gaudin, J.


    The time evolution of the electron structure is investigated in a molybdenum foil heated up to the warm dense matter regime by a femtosecond laser pulse, through time-resolved XANES spectroscopy. Spectra are measured with independent control of temperature and density. They are successfully compared with ab initio quantum molecular dynamic calculations and an analytical model. We demonstrate that the observed white line in the L3-edge reveals the time evolution of the electron density of state from the solid to the hot (a few eV) and expanding liquid.

  20. Refinement of the time-space evolution of the giant Mio-Pliocene Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry Cu-Mo cluster, Central Chile: new U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Re-Os geochronology and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology data (United States)

    Deckart, Katja; Clark, Alan H.; Cuadra, Patricio; Fanning, Mark


    Representing one of the largest known (estimated >5 Gt at 1 % Cu and 0.02 % Mo) porphyry system, the Río Blanco-Los Bronces deposit incorporates at least five hypabyssal intrusive and hydrothermal centres, extending for about 5 km from the Río Blanco and Los Bronces mines in the north, through the Don Luis mine, to the Sur Sur mine, La Americana and Los Sulfatos in the south. The new geochronology data, which now include data on different molybdenite vein types, confirm the U-Pb ages of the pre-mineralisation intrusions but slightly increase their age range from 8.8 to 8.2 Ma. The distinct magmatic pulses of the mineralisation-associated porphyritic intrusives (Late Porphyries) indicate an age interval instead of the previously suggested individual ages: the quartz monzonite porphyry ranges from 7.7 to 6.1 Ma (Sur Sur 5.74 ± 0.13 Ma), the feldspar porphyry shows an interval from 5.8 to 5.2 Ma and the Don Luis porphyry from 5.2 to 5.0 Ma. The new Re-Os data on distinct molybdenite vein types confirm the protracted history of Cu(-Mo) mineralisation, inferred previously. The vein development occurred at least from 5.94 to 4.50 Ma, indicating a time-span of 1.5 Ma for the hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal minerals dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method are generally too young to record the age of early, high-temperature mineralisation. The majority of the 40Ar/39Ar data in the Río Blanco porphyry cluster record reheating by either the youngest member of the Late Porphyry suite or the post-mineralisation dacite or rhyolite plug formations at around 4.9-4.7 Ma.

  1. Conservation of mRNA secondary structures may filter out mutations in Escherichia coli evolution. (United States)

    Chursov, Andrey; Frishman, Dmitrij; Shneider, Alexander


    Recent reports indicate that mutations in viral genomes tend to preserve RNA secondary structure, and those mutations that disrupt secondary structural elements may reduce gene expression levels, thereby serving as a functional knockout. In this article, we explore the conservation of secondary structures of mRNA coding regions, a previously unknown factor in bacterial evolution, by comparing the structural consequences of mutations in essential and nonessential Escherichia coli genes accumulated over 40 000 generations in the course of the 'long-term evolution experiment'. We monitored the extent to which mutations influence minimum free energy (MFE) values, assuming that a substantial change in MFE is indicative of structural perturbation. Our principal finding is that purifying selection tends to eliminate those mutations in essential genes that lead to greater changes of MFE values and, therefore, may be more disruptive for the corresponding mRNA secondary structures. This effect implies that synonymous mutations disrupting mRNA secondary structures may directly affect the fitness of the organism. These results demonstrate that the need to maintain intact mRNA structures imposes additional evolutionary constraints on bacterial genomes, which go beyond preservation of structure and function of the encoded proteins.

  2. The evolution of alternative cryptic female choice strategies in age-structured populations. (United States)

    Jones, Adam G


    Cryptic female choice is a potentially important aspect of the sexual selection process. According to the theory of sexual dialectics, postcopulation manipulation of relative male fertilization success can provide an avenue by which females can circumvent attempts by males to control female reproduction. Here I use stochastic models to investigate the evolution of cryptic female choice in populations with and without age structure. In populations without age structure, cryptic female choice will evolve only when (1) precopulatory mate choice by females is inefficient, (2) variation in male fitness is correlated with a trait upon which a female can base her choice of mates, and (3) the cost of multiple mating is not too high. In populations with age structure, similar conditions apply. However, selection sometimes favors females that employ alternative strategies of female choice at different ages. These results help to define the types of biological systems in which we should expect to see the evolution of cryptic female choice. They also illustrate that the evolution of choice strategies in females may be complex and may mirror in some important respects the evolution of alternative mating tactics in males.

  3. Design of Robust Optimal Fixed Structure Controller Using Self Adaptive Differential Evolution (United States)

    Joe Amali, S. Miruna; Baskar, S.

    This paper presents a design of robust optimal fixed structure controller for systems with uncertainties and disturbance using Self Adaptive Differential Evolution (SaDE) algorithm. PID controller and second order polynomial structure are considered for fixed structure controller. The design problem is formulated as minimization of maximum value of real part of the poles subject to the robust stability criteria and load disturbance attenuation criteria. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with a test system. SaDE self adapts the trial vector generation strategy and crossover rate (CR) value during evolution. Self adaptive Penalty (SP) method is used for constraint handling. The results are compared with constrained PSO and mixed Deterministic/Randomized algorithms. It is shown experimentally that the SaDE adapts automatically to the best strategy and CR value. Performance of the SaDE-based controller is superior to other methods in terms of success rate, robust stability, and disturbance attenuation.

  4. The Structure and Evolution of Magnetized Cloud Cores in a Zero--Density Background

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, C L; Curry, Charles L.; Stahler, Steven W.


    Molecular-line observations of star-forming cloud cores indicate that they are not the flattened structures traditionally considered by theory. Rather, they are elongated, perhaps in the direction of their internal magnetic field. We are thus motivated to consider the structure and evolution of axisymmetric, magnetized clouds that start from a variety of initial states, both flattened (oblate) and elongated (prolate). We devise a new technique, dubbed the $q$-method, that allows us to construct magnetostatic equilibria of any specified shape. We find, in agreement with previous authors, that the field lines in oblate clouds bend inward. However, those in prolate clouds bow outward, confining the structures through magnetic tension. We next follow the quasi-static evolution of these clouds via ambipolar diffusion, under the assumption of constant core mass. An oblate cloud either relaxes to a magnetically force-free sphere or, if sufficiently massive, flattens along its polar axis as its central density runs a...

  5. Fidelity of parent-offspring transmission and the evolution of social behavior in structured populations. (United States)

    Débarre, F


    The theoretical investigation of how spatial structure affects the evolution of social behavior has mostly been done under the assumption that parent-offspring strategy transmission is perfect, i.e., for genetically transmitted traits, that mutation is very weak or absent. Here, we investigate the evolution of social behavior in structured populations under arbitrary mutation probabilities. We consider populations of fixed size N, structured such that in the absence of selection, all individuals have the same probability of reproducing or dying (neutral reproductive values are the all same). Two types of individuals, A and B, corresponding to two types of social behavior, are competing; the fidelity of strategy transmission from parent to offspring is tuned by a parameter μ. Social interactions have a direct effect on individual fecundities. Under the assumption of small phenotypic differences (implying weak selection), we provide a formula for the expected frequency of type A individuals in the population, and deduce conditions for the long-term success of one strategy against another. We then illustrate our results with three common life-cycles (Wright-Fisher, Moran Birth-Death and Moran Death-Birth), and specific population structures (graph-structured populations). Qualitatively, we find that some life-cycles (Moran Birth-Death, Wright-Fisher) prevent the evolution of altruistic behavior, confirming previous results obtained with perfect strategy transmission. We also show that computing the expected frequency of altruists on a regular graph may require knowing more than just the graph's size and degree.

  6. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  7. Effect of Ar+ ion post-irradiation on crystal structure, magnetic behavior and optical band gap of Co-implanted ZnO wafers (United States)

    Xu, N. N.; Li, G. P.; Lin, Q. L.; Liu, H.; Bao, L. M.


    Single crystals wurtzite ZnO with (001) orientation were implanted with Co+ ions at room temperature (RT). To tune their magnetic behavior as well as the band gap of the implanted wafers, Ar+ ion post-irradiation (PI) was performed using the calculated energy and ion dose. The formed Co clusters present in the high dose Co-implanted ZnO wafer were observed to be absent after the PI, which is quite different from the low dose doped one. It is found that all the implanted samples showed a giant magnetic moment and a narrowing optical band gap, and that the post-irradiated ones exhibited an even further redshifted absorption edge and ferromagnetic behavior but with saturation magnetization (MS) drastically decreased.

  8. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P. V., E-mail: [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, I. V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)


    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  9. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V.


    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  10. Late Paleozoic deformation and exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): 40Ar/39Ar-feldspar dating constraints (United States)

    Löbens, Stefan; Oriolo, Sebastián; Benowitz, Jeff; Wemmer, Klaus; Layer, Paul; Siegesmund, Siegfried


    Systematic 40Ar/39Ar feldspar data obtained from the Sierras Pampeanas are presented, filling the gap between available high- (>~300 °C) and low-temperature (Pie de Palo regions, whereas the Sierras de San Luis and the Sierra de Comechingones regions record exhumation during the Carboniferous. Comparison between new and available data points to a Carboniferous tectonic event in the Sierras Pampeanas, which represents a key period to constrain the early evolution of the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. This event was probably transtensional and played a major role during the evolution of the Paganzo Basin as well as during the emplacement of alkaline magmatism in the retroarc.

  11. A conceptual approach to model co-evolution of urban structures

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, Frank


    Urban structures encompass settlements, characterized by the spatial distribution of built-up areas, but also transportation structures, to connect these built-up areas. These two structures are very different in their origin and function, fulfilling complementary needs: (i) to access space, and (ii) to occupy space. Their evolution cannot be understood by looking at the dynamics of urban aggregations and transportation systems separately. Instead, existing built-up areas feed back on the further development of transportation structures, and the availability of the latter feeds back on the future growth of urban aggregations. To model this co-evolution, we propose an agent-based approach that builds on existing agent-based models for the evolution of trail systems and of urban settlements. The key element in these separate approaches is a generalized communication of agents by means of an adaptive landscape. This landscape is only generated by the agents, but once it exists, it feeds back on their further act...

  12. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny


    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  13. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw: adaptations and novel structures. (United States)

    Anthwal, Neal; Joshi, Leena; Tucker, Abigail S


    Having three ossicles in the middle ear is one of the defining features of mammals. All reptiles and birds have only one middle ear ossicle, the stapes or columella. How these two additional ossicles came to reside and function in the middle ear of mammals has been studied for the last 200 years and represents one of the classic example of how structures can change during evolution to function in new and novel ways. From fossil data, comparative anatomy and developmental biology it is now clear that the two new bones in the mammalian middle ear, the malleus and incus, are homologous to the quadrate and articular, which form the articulation for the upper and lower jaws in non-mammalian jawed vertebrates. The incorporation of the primary jaw joint into the mammalian middle ear was only possible due to the evolution of a new way to articulate the upper and lower jaws, with the formation of the dentary-squamosal joint, or TMJ in humans. The evolution of the three-ossicle ear in mammals is thus intricately connected with the evolution of a novel jaw joint, the two structures evolving together to create the distinctive mammalian skull.

  14. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail:


    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  15. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole


    worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...

  16. SANS study of the structural evolution in NIPA/SA gel on dehydration

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiyama, M; Maeda, Y; Hara, K


    Mesoscopic structures of N-isopropylacryl-amide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gels with several water contents were investigated with a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) method in order to make clear their structural evolution on dehydration. The evolution of the SANS profile with a decrease in the water content in the gel could be classified into three stages. In the beginning, there was no peak in the SANS profile except for the central part, which steadily intensified. With the further water dissipation, a side peak appeared at around 0.02 A sup - sup 1 , the intensity of which increased up to a certain water content and then decreased. These results indicate that the water dissipation in the NIPA/SA gel occurs inhomogeneously. (orig.)

  17. Media as the mechanism behind structural coupling and the evolution of the mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    Luhmann (2002, 275), in his introduction to the systems theory, explicitly writs, that language is the mechanism behind the structural coupling between psychic – and social systems. This paper, in its first part, provides an interpretative and selective presentation of Luhmann’s argumentation...... of the becoming of the psychic self. After this becoming other media of communication, as mechanisms behind the structural coupling, through the history of evolution has made a continuous increase of complexity, on both sides of the distinction between the psychic and the social, possible. This would be too much...... to elaborate for this paper, why it in its second part focuses on the psychic system. It tries to elaborate how, not only language, but also later media, through the history of evolution, generate the contemporary self. In doing that the paper describes five media revolutions (speech, writing, printing...

  18. Understanding the Global Structure and Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind (United States)

    Riley, Pete


    This report summarizes the technical progress made during the first six months of the second year of the NASA Living with a Star program contract Understanding the global structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period November 18, 2003 - May 17,2004. Under this contract SAIC has conducted numerical and data analysis related to fundamental issues concerning the origin, intrinsic properties, global structure, and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind. During this working period we have focused on a quantitative assessment of 5 flux rope fitting techniques. In the following sections we summarize the main aspects of this work and our proposed investigation plan for the next reporting period. Thus far, our investigation has resulted in 6 refereed scientific publications and we have presented the results at a number of scientific meetings and workshops.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng; Wei Yu; Hong-bin Zhang; Chi-xing Zhou


    Finite element method is used to simulate the high-speed melt spinning process, based on the equation system proposed by Doufas et al. Calculation predicts a neck-like deformation, as well as the related profiles of velocity, diameter, temperature, chain orientation, and crystallinity in the fiber spinning process. Considering combined effects on the process such as flow-induced crystallization, viscoelasticity, filament cooling, air drag, inertia, surface tension and gravity, the simulated material flow behaviors are consistent with those observed for semi-crystalline polymers under various spinning conditions. The structure change of polymer coils in the necking region described by the evolution of conformation tensor is also investigated. Based on the relaxation mechanism of macromolecules in flow field different types of morphology change of polymer chains before and in the neck are proposed, giving a complete prospect of structure evolution and crystallization of semi-crystalline polymer in the high speed fiber spinning process.

  20. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of Bacillus sp. CDB3 arsenic-resistance operon ars1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Yu


    Full Text Available Bacillus sp. CDB3 possesses a novel eight-gene ars cluster (ars1, arsRYCDATorf7orf8 with some unusual features in regard to expression regulation. This study demonstrated that the cluster is a single operon but can also produce a short three-gene arsRYC transcript. A hairpin structure formed by internal inverted repeats between arsC and arsD was shown to diminish the expression of the full operon, thereby probably acting as a transcription attenuator. A degradation product of the arsRYC transcript was also identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that ArsR interacts with the ars1 promoter forming a protein-DNA complex that could be impaired by arsenite. However, no interaction was detected between ArsD and the ars1 promoter, suggesting that the CDB3 ArsD protein may not play a regulatory role. Compared to other ars gene clusters, regulation of the Bacillus sp. CDB3 ars1 operon is more complex. It represents another example of specific mRNA degradation in the transporter gene region and possibly the first case of attenuator-mediated regulation of ars operons.

  1. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach


    Pierfrancesco Nardi; Giovanni Di Matteo; Marc Palahi; Giuseppe Scarascia Mugnozza


    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1%...

  2. The Structure, Evolution, and Dynamics of Coastally Trapped Phenomena of Western North America (United States)


    mesoscale model, version 5 (MM5).. Two papers are now near completion. 5. The PI and students have examined several gap flow situations in the Strait of...mountains during COAST IOP5 and the structural and evolution of gap flows in coastal terrain. To illustrate, the figure below shows a series of horizontal...cuts at increasing altitude across the Strait of Juan de Fuca during an easterly jet event. The shallow nature of the gap flow is apparent, as is its

  3. Internal Structure of Elementary Particle and Possible Deterministic Mechanism of Biological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Melkikh


    Full Text Available The possibility of a complicated internal structure of an elementary particle was analyzed. In this case a particle may represent a quantum computer with many degrees of freedom. It was shown that the probability of new species formation by means of random mutations is negligibly small. Deterministic model of evolution is considered. According to this model DNA nucleotides can change their state under the control of elementary particle internal degrees of freedom.

  4. Structural Analysis and Visualization of C++ Code Evolution using Syntax Trees


    Chevalier, Fanny; Auber, David; Telea, Alexandru


    International audience; We present a method to detect and visualize evolution patterns in C++ source code. Our method consists of three steps. First, we extract an annotated syntax tree (AST) from each version of a given C++ source code. Next, we hash the extracted syntax nodes based on a metric combining structure and type information, and construct matches (correspondences) between similar-hash subtrees. Our technique detects code fragments which have not changed, or changed little, during ...

  5. Measurement of reaction rates of interest in stellar structure and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, F.; D`Onofrio, A. [Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Caserta (Italy)]|[INFN, Napoli (Italy); Campajola, L.; Imbriani, G. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Gialanella, L. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy)]|[Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Greife, U.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F.; Trautvetter, H.P. [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Roca, V.; Romano, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Straniero, O. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy)


    Accurate determinations of reaction rates at astrophysical energies are very important in stellar structure and evolution studies. The cases of two key reactions, namely {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O are discussed, both from the point of view of their astrophysical interest and of the experimental difficulties in the measurement of their cross section. (orig.)

  6. Bi-Hamiltonian Structure of a Third-Order Nonlinear Evolution Equation on Plane Curve Motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the present paper, we identify the integrability of the third-order nonlinear evolution equation ut = (1/2)((uxx + u)-2)x in a Hamiltonian viewpoint. We prove that the recursion operator obtained by S. Yu. Sakovich is hereditary, and then deduce a bi-Hamiltonian structure of the equation by using some decomposition of the hereditary operator. A hierarchy associated to the equation is also shown.

  7. Monitoring Data-Structure Evolution in Distributed Message-Passing Programs (United States)

    Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Beers, Andrew; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)


    Monitoring the evolution of data structures in parallel and distributed programs, is critical for debugging its semantics and performance. However, the current state-of-art in tracking and presenting data-structure information on parallel and distributed environments is cumbersome and does not scale. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically tracks memory bindings (not the actual contents) of static and dynamic data-structures of message-passing C programs, using PVM. With the help of a number of examples we show that in addition to determining the impact of memory allocation overheads on program performance, graphical views can help in debugging the semantics of program execution. Scalable animations of virtual address bindings of source-level data-structures are used for debugging the semantics of parallel programs across all processors. In conjunction with light-weight core-files, this technique can be used to complement traditional debuggers on single processors. Detailed information (such as data-structure contents), on specific nodes, can be determined using traditional debuggers after the data structure evolution leading to the semantic error is observed graphically.

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; S Chodankar; J Kohlbrecher; R Vavrin; A G Wagh


    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein{surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar.

  9. Studies on 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of strike-slip time of the Tan-Lu fault zone and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guang


    [1]Xu, J. W., Ma, G. E, Ten years review on studies on the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1992, 38(4):316-324.[2]Xu, J. W., The Tancheng-Lujiang Wrench Fault System, Chichester(UK): John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1993, 177-183.[3]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Tectonic relationships between the Tan-Lu fault zone and the Dabie-Jiaonan orogenic belt, in Research Progress in Structural Geology and Lithosphere Dynamics (ed., Ma. Z. J.) (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Publishing House, 1999,164-170.[4]Dou, L. R., Song, J. G., Wang, Y., Chronology of formation of the northern part of the Tan-Lu fault zone and its implications, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1996,42(6): 508-512.[5]Yin, A., Nie, S. Y., An indendation model for the North and South China collision and the development of the Tan-Lu and Honam fault system, eastern Asia, Tectonics, 1993, 12(4): 801-813.[6]Wan, T. F., Zhu, H., The maximum sinistral strike-slip displacement and formation time of the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Journal of China Universities (in Chinese), 1996, 2(1): 14-27.[7]Wang, X. F., Li, Z. J., Chen, B. L. et al., Formation and evolution of the Tan-Lu strike-slip fault system and its geological significance, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. Z.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 176-196.[8]Xu, J. W., Zhu, G., Tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone,eastern China, International Geology Review, 1994,36:771-784.[9]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Displacement, timing and tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. D.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 167-175.[10]Zhang, Z. M., Liou, J. G., Coleman, R. G., An outline of the plate tectonics of China, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1984, 95:295-312.[11]Watson, M. P., Hayward, A. B., Parkinson, D. N. et al., Plate tectonics history, basin development and petroleum source rock

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure evolutions of Cu-Zr metallic glasses under irradiation (United States)

    Lang, Lin; Tian, Zean; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng; Hu, Wangyu


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structural evolution of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glasses under irradiation. The largest standard cluster analysis (LSCA) method was used to quantify the microstructure within the collision cascade regions. It is found that the majority of clusters within the collision cascade regions are full and defective icosahedrons. Not only the smaller structures (common neighbor subcluster) but also primary clusters greatly changed during the collision cascades; while most of these radiation damages self-recover quickly in the following quench states. These findings indicate the Cu-Zr metallic glasses have excellent irradiation-resistance properties.

  11. Structural evolution in Ti-Cu-Ni metallic glasses during heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargarella, P., E-mail: [IFW Dresden, Institut für Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstraße 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauly, S.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U. [IFW Dresden, Institut für Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstraße 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Vaughan, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Afonso, C. R. M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Institut für Komplexe Materialien, Helmholtzstraße 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)


    The structural evolution of Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 43}Ni{sub 7} and Ti{sub 55}Cu{sub 35}Ni{sub 10} metallic glasses during heating was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width of the most intense diffraction maximum of the glassy phase decreases slightly during relaxation below the glass transition temperature. Significant structural changes only occur above the glass transition manifesting in a change in the respective peak positions. At even higher temperatures, nanocrystals of the shape memory B2-Ti(Cu,Ni) phase precipitate, and their small size hampers the occurrence of a martensitic transformation.

  12. Structural evolution in Ti-Cu-Ni metallic glasses during heating (United States)

    Gargarella, P.; Pauly, S.; Stoica, M.; Vaughan, G.; M. Afonso, C. R.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.


    The structural evolution of Ti50Cu43Ni7 and Ti55Cu35Ni10 metallic glasses during heating was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width of the most intense diffraction maximum of the glassy phase decreases slightly during relaxation below the glass transition temperature. Significant structural changes only occur above the glass transition manifesting in a change in the respective peak positions. At even higher temperatures, nanocrystals of the shape memory B2-Ti(Cu,Ni) phase precipitate, and their small size hampers the occurrence of a martensitic transformation.

  13. Structural evolution in Ti-Cu-Ni metallic glasses during heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gargarella


    Full Text Available The structural evolution of Ti50Cu43Ni7 and Ti55Cu35Ni10 metallic glasses during heating was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width of the most intense diffraction maximum of the glassy phase decreases slightly during relaxation below the glass transition temperature. Significant structural changes only occur above the glass transition manifesting in a change in the respective peak positions. At even higher temperatures, nanocrystals of the shape memory B2-Ti(Cu,Ni phase precipitate, and their small size hampers the occurrence of a martensitic transformation.

  14. The Evolution of Unpolarized and Polarized Structure Functions at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Blümlein, Johannes; Vogt, A


    A survey is given of recent developments on the resummed small-$x$ evol= ution, in a framework based on the renormalization group equation, of non--singl= et and singlet structure functions in both unpolarized and polarized deep--inela= stic scattering. The available resummed anomalous dimensions are discussed for= all these cases, and the most important analytic and numerical results are compiled. The quantitative effects of these small-$x$ resummations on the evolution of the various parton densities and structure functions are presented, and their present uncertainties are investigated. An applicati= on to QED radiative corrections is given.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ge Tan; Zi-yu Wang; Wen-fang Zhu; Qing-gong Song; Hui Li; Cui-qin Bai


    In the weak segregation limit,the structure evolution of the hexagonal cylindrical phase of diblock copolymers in films was investigated.Employing the Landau-Brazovskii mean field theory,we obtained three amplitude parameters as functions of temperature,surface field strength and film thickness.By controlling confinement size and surface field strength,lamellae and undulated lamellae appear in the cylindrical bulk phase of diblock copolymers."Phase diagrams" of confinement-induced structures are constructed at different surface field strengths.The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with relevant theoretical and experimental results.

  16. A model for the evolution of the Earth's mantle structure since the Early Paleozoic (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhong, Shijie; Leng, Wei; Li, Zheng-Xiang


    Seismic tomography studies indicate that the Earth's mantle structure is characterized by African and Pacific seismically slow velocity anomalies (i.e., superplumes) and circum-Pacific seismically fast anomalies (i.e., a globally spherical harmonic degree 2 structure). However, the cause for and time evolution of the African and Pacific superplumes and the degree 2 mantle structure remain poorly understood with two competing proposals. First, the African and Pacific superplumes have remained largely unchanged for at least the last 300 Myr and possibly much longer. Second, the African superplume is formed sometime after the formation of Pangea (i.e., at 330 Ma) and the mantle in the African hemisphere is predominated by cold downwelling structures before and during the assembly of Pangea, while the Pacific superplume has been stable for the Pangea supercontinent cycle (i.e., globally a degree 1 structure before the Pangea formation). Here, we construct a proxy model of plate motions for the African hemisphere for the last 450 Myr since the Early Paleozoic using the paleogeographic reconstruction of continents constrained by paleomagnetic and geological observations. Coupled with assumed oceanic plate motions for the Pacific hemisphere, this proxy model for the plate motion history is used as time-dependent surface boundary condition in three-dimensional spherical models of thermochemical mantle convection to study the evolution of mantle structure, particularly the African mantle structure, since the Early Paleozoic. Our model calculations reproduce well the present-day mantle structure including the African and Pacific superplumes and generally support the second proposal with a dynamic cause for the superplume structure. Our results suggest that while the mantle in the African hemisphere before the assembly of Pangea is predominated by the cold downwelling structure resulting from plate convergence between Gondwana and Laurussia, it is unlikely that the bulk of

  17. Spatial structure, transmission modes and the evolution of viral exploitation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Berngruber


    Full Text Available Spatial structure and local migration are predicted to promote the evolution of less aggressive host exploitation strategies in horizontally transmitted pathogens. Here we explore the effect of spatial structure on the evolution of pathogens that can use both horizontal and vertical routes of transmission. First, we analyse theoretically how vertical transmission can alter evolutionary trajectories and confirm that space can impede the spread of virulent pathogens. Second, we test this prediction using the latent phage λ which transmits horizontally and vertically in Escherichia coli populations. We show that the latent phage λ wins competition against the virulent mutant λcI857 in spatially structured epidemics, but loses when spatial structure is eroded. The vertical transmission of phage λ immunizes its local host pool against superinfection and prevents the spread of the virulent λcI857. This effect breaks down when mixing facilitates horizontal transmission to uninfected hosts. We thus confirm the importance of spatial structure for the evolutionary maintenance of prudent infection strategies in latent viruses.

  18. Structural evolution of Ga-Ge-Te glasses by combined EXAFS and XPS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee 37044 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Calvez, L.; Bureau, B. [Laboratoire des Verres et Ceramiques, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS6226, University of Rennes 1 (France); Jain, H. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)


    The structural evolution of Ga{sub x}Ge{sub y}Te{sub 100−x−y} glasses in the vicinity of GeTe{sub 4}-GaTe{sub 3} pseudo-binary tie-line is determined with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. The analysis of XPS data is complicated by similar electronegativity values for the constituent chemical elements, but then the interpretation is facilitated by information from complementary EXAFS analysis of the structure around each element independently. The results show 4/4/2 coordination for Ga/Ge/Te atoms and absence of Ga(Ge)-Ge(Ga) bonds or extended Te clusters in significant concentrations within the whole range of studied composition. The observed structural features correlate well with the measured basic physical properties of Ga-containing germanium telluride glasses.

  19. Growth Rate Estimates of Supergene Manganese Nodule by 40Ar/39Ar Isotopic Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianwei; Vasconcelos P M


    Increasing world-class, high-grade, and metals-enriched supergene manganese ore deposits have been discovered in the last two decades, making them more and more economically important. However, data on the timing and duration of their formation are sparse, mainly due to the difficulties extracting datable minerals suited to traditional radiometric dating methods. Hollandite, cryptomelane, coronadite, todorokite, and manjiroite are common manganese oxide minerals in supergene environments. These minerals host potassium of variable amounts from 0.1 wt% to 5.0 wt% in their structural sites. This geochemical property provides possibility to date supergene manganese ores by using K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar methods. In this study, we perform 40Ar/39Ar dating on a 7.1-cm-thick botryoidal manganese nodule from an ancient weathering profile at Mount Tabor, central Queensland, Australia. Laser microprobe incremental analyses of distinct growth bands, from the inner core through the intermediate bands to the outermost crusts of the nodule, have yielded high quality 40Ar/39Ar ages at 27.3 Ma, 20.9 Ma, 19.2 Ma, and 16.1 Ma, respectively. The age results permit preliminary estimates on the average growth rates of the nodule varying from 4.7×10-3 mm/ka to 7.6×10-3 mm/ka to 9.0×10-3 mm/ka, from the core to the rim. Results of this study are of significance in our understanding of the mode, mechanism, process, and climatic conditions in the formation of supergene manganese ore deposits.

  20. The structure and evolution of the stratospheric vortex in response to natural forcings (United States)

    Mitchell, D. M.; Gray, L. J.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.


    The structure and evolution of the Arctic stratospheric polar vortex is assessed during opposing phases of, primarily, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), but the 11 year solar cycle and winters following large volcanic eruptions are also examined. The analysis is performed by taking 2-D moments of vortex potential vorticity (PV) fields which allow the area and centroid of the vortex to be calculated throughout the ERA-40 reanalysis data set (1958-2002). Composites of these diagnostics for the different phases of the natural forcings are then considered. Statistically significant results are found regarding the structure and evolution of the vortex during, in particular, the ENSO and QBO phases. When compared with the more traditional zonal mean zonal wind diagnostic at 60°N, the moment-based diagnostics are far more robust and contain more information regarding the state of the vortex. The study details, for the first time, a comprehensive sequence of events which map the evolution of the vortex during each of the forcings throughout an extended winter period.

  1. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Charlotte A.L.; Kavanagh, Christopher M. [School of Chemistry and EaStCHEM, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Knight, Kevin S.; Kockelmann, Winfried [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Morrison, Finlay D. [School of Chemistry and EaStCHEM, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Lightfoot, Philip, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and EaStCHEM, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)


    The thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the prototypical orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} has been studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction in the temperature range 25evolution of lattice metrics in the perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} is rationalized from a detailed powder neutron diffraction study. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of the perovskite LaFeO{sub 3} studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction. • Unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics rationalized. • Contrasting behavior to Bi-doped LaFeO{sub 3}. • Octahedral distortion/tilt parameters explain unusual a and c lattice parameter behavior.

  2. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures (United States)

    Masera, D.; Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.


    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a "damage-gauge" for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  3. {sup 3}He retention and structural evolution in erbium tritides: Phase and aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.S., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.; Wang, W.D.; Liu, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, S.M., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ding, W.; Long, X.G.; Cheng, G.J.; Liang, J.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Fu, Y.Q. [Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He retention of Er tritide films were investigated. • The α phase in Er tritide films had no apparent effect on {sup 3}He release/retention. • Tritium content in the β phase showed significant effects on {sup 3}He retention. • Evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase. • Effects of phase changes on structure evolution of Er tritides were investigated. - Abstract: Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He release/retention and crystal lattice evolution during aging of erbium (Er) tritide films were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The contents of α phase and γ phase in the Er tritide films showed significant different effects on {sup 3}He release/retention. The initial tritium stoichiometry or excess tritium atoms accommodated in the octahedral sites and the microstructure (i.e., the texture and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide inclusions) played an important role for the {sup 3}He release and the evolution of {sup 3}He bubbles in the β phase Er tritide films. In the β + γ region, evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase, which could result in a strongly anisotropic lattice dilation and an earlier inflection point of the expansion rate of (1 1 1) lattice parameter. A preferred occupation of {sup 3}He in basal plane of the hexagonal γ phase and the lattice expansion along the hexagonal direction were identified.

  4. The impact of nonlinear functional responses on the long-term evolution of food web structure. (United States)

    Drossel, Barbara; McKane, Alan J; Quince, Christopher


    We investigate the long-term web structure emerging in evolutionary food web models when different types of functional responses are used. We find that large and complex webs with several trophic layers arise only if the population dynamics is such that it allows predators to focus on their best prey species. This can be achieved using modified Lotka-Volterra or Holling/Beddington functional responses with effective couplings that depend on the predator's efficiency at exploiting the prey, or a ratio-dependent functional response with adaptive foraging. In contrast, if standard Lotka-Volterra or Holling/Beddington functional responses are used, long-term evolution generates webs with almost all species being basal, and with additionally many links between these species. Interestingly, in all cases studied, a large proportion of weak links result naturally from the evolution of the food webs.

  5. Evolution of eutectic structures in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys during heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xi-gang; JIANG Da-ming; MENG Qing-chang; ZHANG Bao-you; WANG Tao


    The evolution of the eutectic structures in the alloys with different copper contents during heat treatment was studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). The as cast microstructures involve α(Al), eutectic(α(Al) + Mg(Al, Cu, Zn)2) and Al7Cu2Fe. The Al2CuMg particles form during heat treatment. The volume of coarse phases decreases quickly in the initial 12 h during heat treatment. The volume of coarse phases change a little at 400 and 420 ℃. Copper content has a great influence on the evolution of the eutectic. The coarse phases dissolve slowly in alloy with higher copper content.

  6. Intron phase correlations and the evolution of the intron/exon structure of genes. (United States)

    Long, M; Rosenberg, C; Gilbert, W


    Two issues in the evolution of the intron/exon structure of genes are the role of exon shuffling and the origin of introns. Using a large data base of eukaryotic intron-containing genes, we have found that there are correlations between intron phases leading to an excess of symmetric exons and symmetric exon sets. We interpret these excesses as manifestations of exon shuffling and make a conservative estimate that at least 19% of the exons in the data base were involved in exon shuffling, suggesting an important role for exon shuffling in evolution. Furthermore, these excesses of symmetric exons appear also in those regions of eukaryotic genes that are homologous to prokaryotic genes: the ancient conserved regions. This last fact cannot be explained in terms of the insertional theory of introns but rather supports the concept that some of the introns were ancient, the exon theory of genes. PMID:8618928

  7. Evolution and mechanism of the periodical structures formed on Ti plate under femtosecond laser irradiation (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Chuansong; Man, Baoyuan; Meng, Xue; Sun, Yanna; Li, Feifei


    This work investigates the femtosencond laser (fs-laser) induced periodical surface structures (FLIPSS) on titanium plate including the concentric rings, microgrooves and subwavelength ripples. The evolution of the three types of the structures at different laser fluence and shot number is investigated experimentally in detail. The competition mechanisms exist among the different FLIPSS. A processing window for each resulting FLIPSS is obtained. In order to give an overall understanding of the FLIPSS, the formation mechanisms of each type of FLIPSS are discussed. The formation of the ripples is well explained by the propagating of the surface plasma wave (SPW) on the air/Ti interface. The evolutions of the ripple distribution are well understood according to this model as well. It is concluded that the interaction of the scattered wave of the laser light with the surface wave is concluded to give rise to the microgroove structure. According to our observation, the shape of the concentric rings does not change with the variation of the laser fluence and pulse number. The structure could be originated from the optical interference between the transmitted and reflected laser beams by the two surfaces of the biconvex lens. This investigation could not only make a further understanding of the formations of FLIPSS but also provide the possibility to control the surface morphologies in laser processing.

  8. The correlated evolution of three-dimensional reproductive structures between male and female damselflies. (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A; Shen, Li; Farid, Hany


    For many taxa, species are defined by the morphologies of reproductive structures. In many odonates, these structures are the cerci of males (used to hold females during mating) and the thoracic plates of females where the male cerci contact the females' bodies. A previous study showed that the shapes of cerci of Enallagma males (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae) are best explained by an evolutionary model of punctuated change at the time of speciation, with a homogeneous rate of change across the entire phylogeny of the genus. In the present study, we examine the evolution of shape change in the corresponding female plates. We found that, like male cerci, the shapes of Enallagma female thoracic plates could best be explained by an evolutionary model of punctuated change at the time of speciation, with a homogeneous rate of change across the clade. Moreover, the evolutionary contrasts quantifying the rates of change in male cerci and female thoracic plates were positively related across the history of the clade, demonstrating that these male and female structures evolve in a correlated fashion. This pattern of evolution suggests that these structures are primary signals of species identity during mating.

  9. Evolution of microwave ferromagnetic resonance with magnetic domain structure in FeCoBSi antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peiheng, E-mail:; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Tao; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang


    Magnetic domain structure of FeCoBSi antidot array thin films of varying thickness were characterized using surface magneto-optic Kerr effect. Vibrating sample magnetometry and microstrip transmission line measurements helped to associate the microwave magnetic analysis of the antidot arrays with hysteresis studies. The domain structure evolution from quasi-continuous domains to strip domains induced by the competing exchange and dipolar interaction resulted in the change of ferromagnetic resonance from multi-band to single-band. Hence, the mechanisms of multi-resonance are proposed to be related to domain wall motion, natural resonance and spin wave modes. This phenomenon can be used to control the magnetization dynamics in spin wave devices. - Highlights: • A multiresonance mechanism for ferromagnetic antidot array is proposed. • The mechanism relies on the domain structure evolution of antidote arrays. • Domain structure of antidot arrays changes from quasi-continuous patterns to strip domains. • Resonance of domain wall motion is discriminated from the natural resonance and spin wave modes.

  10. The tempo and mode of three-dimensional morphological evolution in male reproductive structures. (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A; Shen, Li; Torrey, John Z; Farid, Hany


    Various evolutionary forces may shape the evolution of traits that influence the mating decisions of males and females. Phenotypic traits that males and females use to judge the species identify of potential mates should evolve in a punctuated fashion, changing significantly at the time of speciation but changing little between speciation events. In contrast, traits experiencing sexual selection or sexually antagonistic interactions are generally expected to change continuously over time because of the directional selection pressures imposed on one sex by the actions of the other. To test these hypotheses, we used spherical harmonic representations of the shapes of male mating structures in reconstructions of the evolutionary tempo of these structures across the history of the Enallagma damselfly clade. Our analyses show that the evolution of these structures is completely consistent with a punctuated model of evolutionary change and a constant evolutionary rate throughout the clade's history. In addition, no interpopulation variation in shape was detected across the range of one species. These results indicate that male mating structures in this genus are used primarily for identifying the species of potential mates and experience little or no selection from intraspecific sexual selection or sexual antagonism. The implications of these results for speciation are discussed.

  11. Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants. (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen


    Various biotic and abiotic factors are known to exert selection pressures on floral traits, but the influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the evolution of flower structure remains relatively unexplored. We have examined the effectiveness of flower structure in blocking radiation and the effects of UV-B on pollen viability in 42 species of alpine plants in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Floral forms were categorized as either protecting or exposing pollen grains to UV-B. The floral materials of plants with exposed and protected pollen grains were able to block UV-B at similar levels. Exposure to UV-B radiation in vitro resulted in a significantly greater loss of viability in pollen from plant species with protective floral structures. The pronounced sensitivity of protected pollen to UV-B radiation was associated with the type of flower structure. These findings demonstrate that UV-B plays an important role in the evolution of protective floral forms in alpine plants.

  12. Protein structure and evolution: are they constrained globally by a principle derived from information theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hatton

    Full Text Available That the physicochemical properties of amino acids constrain the structure, function and evolution of proteins is not in doubt. However, principles derived from information theory may also set bounds on the structure (and thus also the evolution of proteins. Here we analyze the global properties of the full set of proteins in release 13-11 of the SwissProt database, showing by experimental test of predictions from information theory that their collective structure exhibits properties that are consistent with their being guided by a conservation principle. This principle (Conservation of Information defines the global properties of systems composed of discrete components each of which is in turn assembled from discrete smaller pieces. In the system of proteins, each protein is a component, and each protein is assembled from amino acids. Central to this principle is the inter-relationship of the unique amino acid count and total length of a protein and its implications for both average protein length and occurrence of proteins with specific unique amino acid counts. The unique amino acid count is simply the number of distinct amino acids (including those that are post-translationally modified that occur in a protein, and is independent of the number of times that the particular amino acid occurs in the sequence. Conservation of Information does not operate at the local level (it is independent of the physicochemical properties of the amino acids where the influences of natural selection are manifest in the variety of protein structure and function that is well understood. Rather, this analysis implies that Conservation of Information would define the global bounds within which the whole system of proteins is constrained; thus it appears to be acting to constrain evolution at a level different from natural selection, a conclusion that appears counter-intuitive but is supported by the studies described herein.

  13. Protein structure and evolution: are they constrained globally by a principle derived from information theory? (United States)

    Hatton, Leslie; Warr, Gregory


    That the physicochemical properties of amino acids constrain the structure, function and evolution of proteins is not in doubt. However, principles derived from information theory may also set bounds on the structure (and thus also the evolution) of proteins. Here we analyze the global properties of the full set of proteins in release 13-11 of the SwissProt database, showing by experimental test of predictions from information theory that their collective structure exhibits properties that are consistent with their being guided by a conservation principle. This principle (Conservation of Information) defines the global properties of systems composed of discrete components each of which is in turn assembled from discrete smaller pieces. In the system of proteins, each protein is a component, and each protein is assembled from amino acids. Central to this principle is the inter-relationship of the unique amino acid count and total length of a protein and its implications for both average protein length and occurrence of proteins with specific unique amino acid counts. The unique amino acid count is simply the number of distinct amino acids (including those that are post-translationally modified) that occur in a protein, and is independent of the number of times that the particular amino acid occurs in the sequence. Conservation of Information does not operate at the local level (it is independent of the physicochemical properties of the amino acids) where the influences of natural selection are manifest in the variety of protein structure and function that is well understood. Rather, this analysis implies that Conservation of Information would define the global bounds within which the whole system of proteins is constrained; thus it appears to be acting to constrain evolution at a level different from natural selection, a conclusion that appears counter-intuitive but is supported by the studies described herein.

  14. Myosin MyTH4-FERM structures highlight important principles of convergent evolution. (United States)

    Planelles-Herrero, Vicente José; Blanc, Florian; Sirigu, Serena; Sirkia, Helena; Clause, Jeffrey; Sourigues, Yannick; Johnsrud, Daniel O; Amigues, Beatrice; Cecchini, Marco; Gilbert, Susan P; Houdusse, Anne; Titus, Margaret A


    Myosins containing MyTH4-FERM (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin, or MF) domains in their tails are found in a wide range of phylogenetically divergent organisms, such as humans and the social amoeba Dictyostelium (Dd). Interestingly, evolutionarily distant MF myosins have similar roles in the extension of actin-filled membrane protrusions such as filopodia and bind to microtubules (MT), suggesting that the core functions of these MF myosins have been highly conserved over evolution. The structures of two DdMyo7 signature MF domains have been determined and comparison with mammalian MF structures reveals that characteristic features of MF domains are conserved. However, across millions of years of evolution conserved class-specific insertions are seen to alter the surfaces and the orientation of subdomains with respect to each other, likely resulting in new sites for binding partners. The MyTH4 domains of Myo10 and DdMyo7 bind to MT with micromolar affinity but, surprisingly, their MT binding sites are on opposite surfaces of the MyTH4 domain. The structural analysis in combination with comparison of diverse MF myosin sequences provides evidence that myosin tail domain features can be maintained without strict conservation of motifs. The results illustrate how tuning of existing features can give rise to new structures while preserving the general properties necessary for myosin tails. Thus, tinkering with the MF domain enables it to serve as a multifunctional platform for cooperative recruitment of various partners, allowing common properties such as autoinhibition of the motor and microtubule binding to arise through convergent evolution.

  15. Eruptive history, geochronology, and post-eruption structural evolution of the late Eocene Hall Creek Caldera, Toiyabe Range, Nevada (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.


    The magmatic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of what is now the northern Great Basin remains controversial, notably the temporal and spatial relation between magmatism and extensional faulting. This controversy is exemplified in the northern Toiyabe Range of central Nevada, where previous geologic mapping suggested the presence of a caldera that sourced the late Eocene (34.0 mega-annum [Ma]) tuff of Hall Creek. This region was also inferred to be the locus of large-magnitude middle Tertiary extension (more than 100 percent strain) localized along the Bernd Canyon detachment fault, and to be the approximate location of a middle Tertiary paleodivide that separated east and west-draining paleovalleys. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar dating, and geochemical analyses document the geologic history and extent of the Hall Creek caldera, define the regional paleotopography at the time it formed, and clarify the timing and kinematics of post-caldera extensional faulting. During and after late Eocene volcanism, the northern Toiyabe Range was characterized by an east-west trending ridge in the area of present-day Mount Callaghan, probably localized along a Mesozoic anticline. Andesite lava flows erupted around 35–34 Ma ponded hundreds of meters thick in the erosional low areas surrounding this structural high, particularly in the Simpson Park Mountains. The Hall Creek caldera formed ca. 34.0 Ma during eruption of the approximately 400 cubic kilometers (km3) tuff of Hall Creek, a moderately crystal-rich rhyolite (71–77 percent SiO2) ash-flow tuff. Caldera collapse was piston-like with an intact floor block, and the caldera filled with thick (approximately 2,600 meters) intracaldera tuff and interbedded breccia lenses shed from the caldera walls. The most extensive exposed megabreccia deposits are concentrated on or close to the caldera floor in the southwestern part of the caldera. Both silicic and intermediate post-caldera lavas were locally erupted within 400 thousand

  16. A theoretical model for the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 马良


    By a proper combination of the modified weakly nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic stability and the energy method, the spatial evolution of the large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer has been calculated. The results are satisfactory.

  17. Structure and evolution of the Afanasy Nikitin seamount, buried hills and 85 degrees E Ridge in the northeastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    Geophysical data of the Afanasy Nikitin seamount (ANS), partly buried hills and 85 degrees E Ridge in the northeastern Indian Ocean were studied together with published seismic refraction results to understand genesis and evolution of the structures...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-mei; TAO Wei


    The growing attention on urban tourism was very widespread. There are two angles to study urban tourism: supply-side and demand-side. And the supply-side of the tourism remains very important. The RBD (Recreation Business District) is a useful framework to understand the components of urban tourism and how they fit together. The paper begins with a review on the RBD and the spatial structure of tourism in urban areas and then attempts to develop a more general understanding of the spatial structure evolution of RBDs in a tourist-historic citySuzhou. The spatial structures and functions of the RBDs in Suzhou are examined, based on field observations, interviews with city officials and industry leaders, and a review of available documents. The urban tourism of Suzhou has developed in a range of contexts, that various types of RBDs have emerged as a result of different urban development strategies. The spatial structure has evolved from the past "Single-cored Structure" to "Double-cored Structure"at present, and then to "Chain Structure" in the future. The spatial form and evolution of RBD in Suzhou are closely relative with its urban spatial expansion. Urban area dispersal is the prerequisite of the emergence of the RBD. Planning and constructing the RBD becomes a new impetus to urban growth or renewal. Finally, a number of strategies for planning and developing the RBD in Suzhou are suggested. The different RBDs should adopt different strategies.Intensification can be the possible strategy for the RBDs in the ancient city. Accreting with the urban theme park or engrafting on the Jinji Lake is suggested respectively for the RBD in the Suzhou New District and the Suzhou Industrial Park.

  19. Structural Evolution of Core-Shell Gold Nanoclusters: Aun(-) (n = 42-50). (United States)

    Pande, Seema; Huang, Wei; Shao, Nan; Wang, Lei-Ming; Khetrapal, Navneet; Mei, Wai-Ning; Jian, Tian; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Gold nanoclusters have attracted great attention in the past decade due to their remarkable size-dependent electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, the structures of large gold clusters are still not well-known because of the challenges in global structural searches. Here we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical study of the structural evolution of negatively charged core-shell gold nanoclusters (Aun(-)) for n = 42-50. Photoelectron spectra of size-selected Aun(-) clusters are well resolved with distinct spectral features, suggesting a dominating structural type. The combined PES data and density functional calculations allow us to systematically identify the global minimum or candidates of the global minima of these relatively large gold nanoclusters, which are found to possess low-symmetry structures with gradually increasing core sizes. Remarkably, the four-atom tetrahedral core, observed first in Au33(-), continues to be highly robust and is even present in clusters as large as Au42(-). Starting from Au43(-), a five-atom trigonal bipyramidal core appears and persists until Au47(-). Au48(-) possesses a six-atom core, while Au49(-) and Au50(-) feature seven- and eight-atom cores, respectively. Notably, both Au46(-) and Au47(-) contain a pyramidal Au20 motif, which is stacked with another truncated pyramid by sharing a common 10-atom triangular face. The present study sheds light on our understanding of the structural evolution of the medium-sized gold nanoclusters, the shells and core as well as how the core-shell structures may start to embrace the golden pyramid (bulk-like) fragment.

  20. Magnetic Structure of Continental Crust:Implications for Crustal Structure and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magnetic structure of the continental crust is one of the important geophysical aspects of continental lithosphere. This paper reviews the achievements in the research into the magnetic structure and its significance for crustal tectonics, composition, metamorphic facies, crust-mantle interaction and magnetization of deep crust. Further studies are suggested according to the basic principles of rock and mineral magnetism in terms of petrology, geochemistry and structural geol ogy. Emphasis is placed on new geological ideas and synthetic studies of the relationship between deep geological processes and interpretation of gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic data. The relationships between magnetic, density, electricity, velocity, geothermal structures and deep geodynamic processes are taken as a system for the research into the deep geology.

  1. The organization of Jupiter's upper tropospheric temperature structure and its evolution, 1996-1997 (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan M.; Orton, Glenn S.; Liu, Junjun; Schneider, Tapio; Ressler, Michael E.; Hoffman, William F.


    High signal-to-noise images of Jupiter were made at wavelengths between 13.2 and 22.8 μm in five separate observing runs between 1996 June and 1997 November at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Maps of Jupiter's upper-tropospheric temperatures at pressures of 100 and 400 mbar were made from these images. We use the relatively frequent, well sampled data sets to examine in detail the short-term evolution of the temperature structure. Our 2-6 month sampling periods demonstrate that the longitudinal temperature structures evolve significantly in these short periods and exhibit wave features. Using a three-dimensional general circulation model simulation of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, we show that the thermal structures are consistent with convectively generated Rossby waves that propagate upward from the lower to the upper atmosphere.

  2. Highly efficient light-trapping structure design inspired by natural evolution. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yu, Shuangcheng; Chen, Wei; Sun, Cheng


    Recent advances in nanophotonic light trapping open up the new gateway to enhance the absorption of solar energy beyond the so called Yablonovitch Limit. It addresses the urgent needs in developing low cost thin-film solar photovoltaic technologies. However, current design strategy mainly relies on the parametric approach that is subject to the predefined topological design concepts based on physical intuition. Incapable of dealing with the topological variation severely constrains the design of optimal light trapping structure. Inspired by natural evolution process, here we report a design framework driven by topology optimization based on genetic algorithms to achieve a highly efficient light trapping structure. It has been demonstrated that the optimal light trapping structures obtained in this study exhibit more than 3-fold increase over the Yablonovitch Limit with the broadband absorption efficiency of 48.1%, beyond the reach of intuitive designs.

  3. Evolution of Fungal U3 snoRNAs: Structural Variation and Introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Canzler


    Full Text Available The U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA is an essential player in the initial steps of ribosomal RNA biogenesis which is ubiquitously present in Eukarya. It is exceptional among the small nucleolar RNAs in its size, the presence of multiple conserved sequence boxes, a highly conserved secondary structure core, its biogenesis as an independent gene transcribed by polymerase III, and its involvement in pre-rRNA cleavage rather than chemical modification. Fungal U3 snoRNAs share many features with their sisters from other eukaryotic kingdoms but differ from them in particular in their 5’ regions, which in fungi has a distinctive consensus structure and often harbours introns. Here we report on a comprehensive homology search and detailed analysis of the evolution of sequence and secondary structure features covering the entire kingdom Fungi.

  4. Structural evolution and strength change of a metallic glass at different temperatures (United States)

    Tong, X.; Wang, G.; Stachurski, Z. H.; Bednarčík, J.; Mattern, N.; Zhai, Q. J.; Eckert, J.


    The structural evolution of a Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 metallic glass is investigated in-situ by high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation upon heating up to crystallization. The structural rearrangements on the atomic scale during the heating process are analysed as a function of temperature, focusing on shift of the peaks of the structure factor in reciprocal space and the pair distribution function and radial distribution function in real space which are correlated with atomic rearrangements and progressing nanocrystallization. Thermal expansion and contraction of the coordination shells is measured and correlated with the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion. The characteristics of the microstructure and the yield strength of the metallic glass at high temperature are discussed aiming to elucidate the correlation between the atomic arrangement and the mechanical properties.

  5. The importance of structural softening for the evolution and architecture of passive margins (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Schenker, F. L.; Müntener, O.


    Lithospheric extension can generate passive margins that bound oceans worldwide. Detailed geological and geophysical studies in present and fossil passive margins have highlighted the complexity of their architecture and their multi-stage deformation history. Previous modeling studies have shown the significant impact of coarse mechanical layering of the lithosphere (2 to 4 layer crust and mantle) on passive margin formation. We built upon these studies and design high-resolution (~100–300 m) thermo-mechanical numerical models that incorporate finer mechanical layering (kilometer scale) mimicking tectonically inherited heterogeneities. During lithospheric extension a variety of extensional structures arises naturally due to (1) structural softening caused by necking of mechanically strong layers and (2) the establishment of a network of weak layers across the deforming multi-layered lithosphere. We argue that structural softening in a multi-layered lithosphere is the main cause for the observed multi-stage evolution and architecture of magma-poor passive margins.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗纪生; H.E, Fiedler


    In this paper, several mathematical models for the large scale structures in some special kinds of mixing layers, which might be practically useful for enhancing the mixing, are proposed. First, the linear growth rate of the large scale structures in the mixing layers was calculated. Then, using the much improved weakly non-linear theory, combined with the energy method, the non-linear evolution of large scale structures in two special mixing layer configurations is calculated. One of the mixing layers has equal magnitudes of the upstream velocity vectors, while the angles between the velocity vectors and the trailing edge were π/2 - and π/2 + ,respectively. The other mixing layer was generated by a splitter-plate with a 45-degree-sweep trailing edge.

  7. Evolution of Prolate Molecular Clouds at HII Boundaries: I. Formation of fragment-core structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnear, Timothy M; White, Glenn J; Goodwin, Simon


    The evolution of a prolate cloud at an Hii boundary is investigated using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The prolate molecular clouds in our investigation are set with their semi-major axis perpendicular to the radiative direction of a plane parallel ionising Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) flux. Simulations on three high mass prolate clouds reveal that EUV radiation can trigger distinctive high density core formation embedded in a final linear structure. This contrasts with results of the previous work in which only an isotropic Far Ultraviolet (FUV) interstellar background flux was applied. A systematic investigation on a group of prolate clouds of equal mass but different initial densities and geometric shapes finds that the distribution of the cores over the final linear structure changes with the initial conditions of the prolate cloud and the strength of the EUV radiation flux. These highly condensed cores may either scatter over the full length of the final linear structure or form two groups of high...

  8. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)


    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  9. Neutron-hole states in 45Ar from p(46Ar,d)45Ar reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, F; Tsang, M B; Bazin, D; Coupland, D; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Rogers, A M; Sanetullaev, A; Sun, Z Y; Youngs, M; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G; Famiano, M; Hudan, S; Horoi, M; Ye, Y L


    To improve the effective interactions in the pf shell, it is important to measure the single particle- and hole- states near the N=28 shell gap. In this paper, the neutron spectroscopic factors of hole-states from the unstable neutron-rich 45Ar (Z=18, N=27) nucleus have been studied using 1H(46Ar, 2H)45Ar transfer reaction in inverse kinematics. Comparison of our results with the particle-states of 45Ar produced in 2H(44Ar, H)45Ar reaction shows that the two reactions populate states with different angular momentum. Using the angular distributions, we are able to confirm the spin assignments of four low-lying states of 45Ar. These are the ground state (f7/2), the first-excited (p3/2), the s1/2 and the d3/2 states. While large basis shell model predictions describe spectroscopic properties of the ground and p3/2 states very well, they fail to describe the s1/2 and d3/2 hole-states.

  10. Ars Poetica : [luuletused] / Mats Traat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traat, Mats, 1936-


    Sisu: Ars poetica ; Veepeegel ; Kontrollõed ; Mandariiniriik ; Nikolai Siamashvili (1888-1911) ; Kolmekümne kolmas aasta ; Kiri linast 1966 ; Italmaz Nuriyev ; Rudolf Rimmelile mõeldes ; Gennadi Aigi

  11. Pulsed discharge production Ar* metastables (United States)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C.; Emmons, Daniel; Perram, Glen P.; Weeks, David E.; Bailey, William F.


    The production of relatively high densities of Ar* metastables (>1012 cm-3) in Ar/He mixtures, at total pressures close to 1 atm, is essential for the efficient operation of an optically pumped Ar* laser. We have used emission spectroscopy and diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to observe the production and decay of Ar* in a parallel plate pulsed discharge. With discharge pulses of 1 μs duration we find that metastable production is dominated by processes occurring within the first 100 ns of the gas break-down. Application of multiple, closely spaced discharge pulses yields insights concerning conditions that favor metastable production. This information has been combined with time-resolved measurements of voltage and current. The experimental results and preliminary modeling of the discharge kinetics are presented.

  12. Structural evolution of fault zones in sandstone by multiple deformation mechanisms: Moab fault, southeast Utah (United States)

    Davatzes, N.C.; Eichhubl, P.; Aydin, A.


    Faults in sandstone are frequently composed of two classes of structures: (1) deformation bands and (2) joints and sheared joints. Whereas the former structures are associated with cataclastic deformation, the latter ones represent brittle fracturing, fragmentation, and brecciation. We investigated the distribution of these structures, their formation, and the underlying mechanical controls for their occurrence along the Moab normal fault in southeastern Utah through the use of structural mapping and numerical elastic boundary element modeling. We found that deformation bands occur everywhere along the fault, but with increased density in contractional relays. Joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections and extensional relays. In all locations , joints consistently overprint deformation bands. Localization of joints and sheared joints in extensional relays suggests that their distribution is controlled by local variations in stress state that are due to mechanical interaction between the fault segments. This interpretation is consistent with elastic boundary element models that predict a local reduction in mean stress and least compressive principal stress at intersections and extensional relays. The transition from deformation band to joint formation along these sections of the fault system likely resulted from the combined effects of changes in remote tectonic loading, burial depth, fluid pressure, and rock properties. In the case of the Moab fault, we conclude that the structural heterogeneity in the fault zone is systematically related to the geometric evolution of the fault, the local state of stress associated with fault slip , and the remote loading history. Because the type and distribution of structures affect fault permeability and strength, our results predict systematic variations in these parameters with fault evolution. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  13. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution (United States)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.


    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  14. Statistical characteristics of formation and evolution of structure in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M


    An approximate statistical description of the formation and evolution of structure of the universe based on the Zel'dovich theory of gravitational instability is proposed. It is found that the evolution of DM structure shows features of self-similarity and the main structure characteristics can be expressed through the parameters of initial power spectrum and cosmological model. For the CDM-like power spectrum and suitable parameters of the cosmological model the effective matter compression reaches the observed scales $R_{wall}\\sim $20 -- 25$h^{-1}$Mpc with the typical mean separation of wall-like elements $D_{SLSS}\\sim $50 -- 70$h^{-1}$Mpc. This description can be directly applied to the deep pencil beam galactic surveys and absorption spectra of quasars. For larger 3D catalogs and simulations it can be applied to results obtained with the core-sampling analysis. It is shown that the interaction of large and small scale perturbations modulates the creation rate of early Zel'dovich pancakes and generates bia...

  15. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands (United States)

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C.


    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops.

  16. Correlating cycling history with structural evolution in commercial 26650 batteries using in operando neutron powder diffraction (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Hagan, Mackenzie; Al Bahri, Othman K.; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Groot, Jens; Berg, Helena; Sharma, Neeraj


    Ex situ and time-resolved in operando neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been used to study the structural evolution of the graphite negative electrode and LiFePO4 positive electrode within ANR26650M1A commercial batteries from A123 Systems, in what to our knowledge is the first reported NPD study investigating a 26650-type battery. Batteries with different and accurately-known electrochemical and storage histories were studied, enabling the tell-tale signs of battery degradation to be elucidated using NPD. The ex-situ NPD data revealed that the intensity of the graphite/lithiated graphite (LixC6 or LiyC) reflections was affected by battery history, with lower lithiated graphite (LiC12) reflection intensities typically corresponding to more abused batteries. This indicates that the lithiation of graphite is less progressed in more abused batteries, and hence these batteries have lower capacities. In operando NPD allows the rate of structural evolution in the battery electrode materials to be correlated to the applied current. Interestingly, the electrodes exhibit different responses to the applied current that depend on the battery cycling history, with this particularly evident for the negative electrode. Therefore, this work illustrates how NPD can be used to correlate a battery history with electrode structure.

  17. Evolution of the upper-level thermal structure in tropical cyclones (United States)

    Rivoire, Louis; Birner, Thomas; Knaff, John A.


    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are associated with tropopause-level cooling above tropospheric warming. We collect temperature retrievals from 2007 to 2014 near worldwide hurricane-strength TCs using three remote sensing platforms: the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), and geostationary infrared (IR) imagery. These retrievals are composited about the lifetime maximum intensity (LMI) to examine the evolution of the fine-scale temperature structure within TCs. The convective structure evolves highly asymmetrically about LMI, while intensity evolution shows a much weaker degree of asymmetry. Relative to the far-field structure, tropopause-level cooling occurs before a tropospheric warm core is established. We speculate that the associated convective destabilization exerts a positive feedback on TC development by increasing the depth of existing convection. Tropopause-level cold anomalies move away from the storm after LMI, potentially increasing the near-surface horizontal pressure gradient toward the storm center and increasing the maximum winds.

  18. The molecular clock of neutral evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure. (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Sample, Christine; Dementieva, Yulia; Medeiros, Ruben C; Paoletti, Christopher; Nowak, Martin A


    Over time, a population acquires neutral genetic substitutions as a consequence of random drift. A famous result in population genetics asserts that the rate, K, at which these substitutions accumulate in the population coincides with the mutation rate, u, at which they arise in individuals: K = u. This identity enables genetic sequence data to be used as a "molecular clock" to estimate the timing of evolutionary events. While the molecular clock is known to be perturbed by selection, it is thought that K = u holds very generally for neutral evolution. Here we show that asymmetric spatial population structure can alter the molecular clock rate for neutral mutations, leading to either Ku. Our results apply to a general class of haploid, asexually reproducing, spatially structured populations. Deviations from K = u occur because mutations arise unequally at different sites and have different probabilities of fixation depending on where they arise. If birth rates are uniform across sites, then K ≤ u. In general, K can take any value between 0 and Nu. Our model can be applied to a variety of population structures. In one example, we investigate the accumulation of genetic mutations in the small intestine. In another application, we analyze over 900 Twitter networks to study the effect of network topology on the fixation of neutral innovations in social evolution.

  19. The Influence of Outer Solar System Architecture on the Structure and Evolution of the Oort Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Alexia R; Kaib, Nathan A


    We study the influence of outer Solar System architecture on the structural evolution of the Oort Cloud (OC) and the flux of Earth-crossing comets. In particular, we seek to quantify the role of the giant planets as "planetary protectors". To do so, we have run simulations in each of four different planetary mass configurations to understand the significance of each of the giant planets. Because the outer planets modify the structure of the OC throughout its formation, we integrate each simulation over the full age of the Solar System. Over this time, we follow the evolution of cometary orbits from their starting point in the protoplanetary disk to their injection into the OC to their possible re-entry into the inner planetary region. We find that the overall structure of the OC, including the location of boundaries and the relative number of comets in the inner and outer parts, does not change significantly between configurations; however, as planetary mass decreases, the trapping efficiency (TE) of comets i...

  20. The molecular clock of neutral evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allen


    Full Text Available Over time, a population acquires neutral genetic substitutions as a consequence of random drift. A famous result in population genetics asserts that the rate, K, at which these substitutions accumulate in the population coincides with the mutation rate, u, at which they arise in individuals: K = u. This identity enables genetic sequence data to be used as a "molecular clock" to estimate the timing of evolutionary events. While the molecular clock is known to be perturbed by selection, it is thought that K = u holds very generally for neutral evolution. Here we show that asymmetric spatial population structure can alter the molecular clock rate for neutral mutations, leading to either Ku. Our results apply to a general class of haploid, asexually reproducing, spatially structured populations. Deviations from K = u occur because mutations arise unequally at different sites and have different probabilities of fixation depending on where they arise. If birth rates are uniform across sites, then K ≤ u. In general, K can take any value between 0 and Nu. Our model can be applied to a variety of population structures. In one example, we investigate the accumulation of genetic mutations in the small intestine. In another application, we analyze over 900 Twitter networks to study the effect of network topology on the fixation of neutral innovations in social evolution.

  1. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)


    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  2. Evolution of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field sector structure during the last 15 solar cycles (United States)

    Vokhmyanin, Mikhail

    We have inferred for the first time Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) polarities from ground-based geomagnetic observations back to 1844. Reconstructions are reliable enough to study sector structure of the IMF in the past. The inferred daily polarities demonstrate solar-cycle changes during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We have analyzed statistics of the sector boundaries and found recurrences that reflect evolution of the solar wind sources. Additionally, seasonal variations of the ratio of positive and negative sectors provide evidence of solar magnetic field reversals during the last 15 solar cycles.

  3. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins


    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  4. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vielzeuf, P.E., E-mail: [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Martinelli, M., E-mail: [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Calabrese, E., E-mail: [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pandolfi, S., E-mail: [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)


    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  5. Boltzmann, Lotka and Volterra and spatial structural evolution: an integrated methodology for some dynamical systems. (United States)

    Wilson, Alan


    It is shown that Boltzmann's methods from statistical physics can be applied to a much wider range of systems, and in a variety of disciplines, than has been commonly recognized. A similar argument can be applied to the ecological models of Lotka and Volterra. Furthermore, it is shown that the two methodologies can be applied in combination to generate the Boltzmann, Lotka and Volterra (BLV) models. These techniques enable both spatial interaction and spatial structural evolution to be modelled, and it is argued that they potentially provide a much richer modelling methodology than that currently used in the analysis of 'scale-free' networks.

  6. Investigation of thermal evolution of nanodomain structures in nonlinear barium sodium niobate crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By the 90°elastic light scattering investigation and far field observation in the range of 20-800℃,the relation between behavior of light scattering anomalies and evolution of nanodomain structures in lattice of barium sodium niobate(Ba2NaNb5O15,BSN)crystal was clarified.The correlation between anomalies on the temperature curves of the elastic light scattering intensity and temperature transformations of nanodomains was studied by X-ray and electron microscope methods.Phase transition near 500℃ and movement in field of scattering light could be explained by appearance of a new incommensurate phase.

  7. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Martinelli, M; Calabrese, E; Pandolfi, S


    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent $\\alpha$ measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying $\\alpha$. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive $\\alpha$ measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  8. Physical Properties and Evolution of Gravitationally Bound Halo Structures in Cosmological Dark Matter Simulations (United States)

    Lin, David; Rocha, Miguel E.; Primack, Joel R.


    Dark matter halos existing around visible galaxies are important for studies of galaxy formation and evolution. Since dark matter does not interact with light and cannot be observed directly, studies of dark matter halos are advanced by computer simulations. Normally, halos are defined by their virialized regions; however, regions that are non-virialized can still be gravitationally bound, like the collision-bound Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. Our project is the first comprehensive characterization of gravitationally bound halo structures, their properties, and their evolution. This study found the bound regions surrounding every dark matter halo from a 100 Mpc cube of the Bolshoi Simulation at redshifts 0, 1, and 2. We optimized computation by removing subhalos, implementing a search radius, and parallelizing code across 160 supercomputer cores. Then, we created a mass function, circular velocity function, and correlation function to describe these regions. The evolution of these properties was consistent with predictions from a ΛCDM universe model. We characterized the sizes and shapes of these bound regions across different mass intervals and redshifts. Most bound regions are elongated, although they become more spheroidal with time. The results enable astronomers to predict how dark matter halos behave in non-virialized regions of space and deepen our understanding of galaxy formation.

  9. The structural and size evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs

    CERN Document Server

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Buitrago, Fernando; Afonso, Jose


    We present new results on the evolution of rest-frame blue/UV sizes and Sersic indices of H$\\alpha$-selected star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyrs. We investigate how the perceived evolution can be affected by a range of biases and systematics such as cosmological dimming and resolution effects. We use GALFIT and an artificial redshifting technique, which includes the luminosity evolution of H$\\alpha$-selected galaxies, to quantify the change on the measured structural parameters with redshift. We find typical sizes of 2 to 3 kpc and Sersic indices of n~1.2, close to pure exponential disks all the way from z=2.23 to z=0.4. At z=0 we find typical sizes of 4-5 kpc. Our results show that, when using GALFIT, cosmological dimming has a negligible impact on the derived effective radius for galaxies with <10 kpc, but we find a ~20% bias on the estimate of the median Sersic indices, rendering galaxies more disk-like. Star-forming galaxies have grown on average by a factor of 2-3 in the last 11 Gyrs with $r_e...

  10. The structural and size evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyr (United States)

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Sobral, David; Buitrago, Fernando; Afonso, José


    We present new results on the evolution of rest-frame blue/UV sizes and Sérsic indices of Hα-selected star-forming galaxies over the last 11 Gyr. We investigate how the perceived evolution can be affected by a range of biases and systematics such as cosmological dimming and resolution effects. We use GALFIT and an artificial redshifting technique, which includes the luminosity evolution of Hα-selected galaxies, to quantify the change on the measured structural parameters with redshift. We find typical sizes of 2-3 kpc and Sérsic indices of n ∼ 1.2, close to pure exponential discs all the way from z = 2.23 to z = 0.4. At z = 0, we find typical sizes of 4-5 kpc. Our results show that, when using GALFIT, cosmological dimming has a negligible impact on the derived effective radius for galaxies with frame blue/UV, we are likely witnessing the growth of discs where star formation is ongoing in galaxies while their profiles remain close to exponential discs, n ≲ 1.5, across the same period.

  11. Plausible mechanisms for brain structural and size changes in human evolution. (United States)

    Blazek, Vladimir; Brùzek, Jaroslav; Casanova, Manuel F


    Encephalization has many contexts and implications. On one hand, it is concerned with the transformation of eating habits, social relationships and communication, cognitive skills and the mind. Along with the increase in brain size on the other hand, encephalization is connected with the creation of more complex brain structures, namely in the cerebral cortex. It is imperative to inquire into the mechanisms which are linked with brain growth and to find out which of these mechanisms allow it and determine it. There exist a number of theories for understanding human brain evolution which originate from neurological sciences. These theories are the concept of radial units, minicolumns, mirror neurons, and neurocognitive networks. Over the course of evolution, it is evident that a whole range of changes have taken place in regards to heredity. These changes include new mutations of genes in the microcephalin complex, gene duplications, gene co-expression, and genomic imprinting. This complex study of the growth and reorganization of the brain and the functioning of hereditary factors and their external influences creates an opportunity to consider the implications of cultural evolution and cognitive faculties.

  12. Telomerase and telomere-associated proteins: structural insights into mechanism and evolution. (United States)

    Lewis, Karen A; Wuttke, Deborah S


    Recent advances in our structural understanding of telomerase and telomere-associated proteins have contributed significantly to elucidating the molecular mechanisms of telomere maintenance. The structures of telomerase TERT domains have provided valuable insights into how experimentally identified conserved motifs contribute to the telomerase reverse transcriptase reaction. Additionally, structures of telomere-associated proteins in a variety of organisms have revealed that, across evolution, telomere-maintenance mechanisms employ common structural elements. For example, the single-stranded 3' overhang of telomeric DNA is specifically and tightly bound by an OB-fold in nearly all species, including ciliates (TEBP and Pot1a), fission yeast (SpPot1), budding yeast (Cdc13), and humans (hPOT1). Structures of the yeast Cdc13, Stn1, and Ten1 proteins demonstrated that telomere maintenance is regulated by a complex that bears significant similarity to the RPA heterotrimer. Similarly, proteins that specifically bind double-stranded telomeric DNA in divergent species use homeodomains to execute their functions (human TRF1 and TRF2 and budding yeast ScRap1). Likewise, the conserved protein Rap1, which is found in budding yeast, fission yeast, and humans, contains a structural motif that is known to be critical for protein-protein interaction. In addition to revealing the common underlying themes of telomere maintenance, structures have also elucidated the specific mechanisms by which many of these proteins function, including identifying a telomere-specific domain in Stn1 and how the human TRF proteins avoid heterodimerization. In this review, we summarize the high-resolution structures of telomerase and telomere-associated proteins and discuss the emergent common structural themes among these proteins. We also address how these high-resolution structures complement biochemical and cellular studies to enhance our understanding of telomere maintenance and function.

  13. Compensatory evolution of a precursor messenger RNA secondary structure in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Stephan, Wolfgang


    Evidence for the evolutionary maintenance of a hairpin structure possibly involved in intron processing had been found in intron 1 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) in diverse Drosophila species. In this study, the putative hairpin structure was evaluated systematically in Drosophila melanogaster by elimination of either side of the stem using site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of these mutations and the compensatory double mutant on intron splicing efficiency and ADH protein production were assayed in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider L2 cells and germ-line transformed adult flies. Mutations that disrupt the putative hairpin structure right upstream of the intron branch point were found to cause a significant reduction in both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. In contrast, the compensatory double mutant that restores the putative hairpin structure was indistinguishable from the WT in both splicing efficiency and ADH level. It was also observed by mutational analysis that a more stable secondary structure (with a longer stem) in this intron decreases both splicing efficiency and ADH protein production. Implications for RNA secondary structure and intron evolution are discussed. PMID:12972637

  14. Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison with natural evolution. (United States)

    Wasik, Bethany R; Liew, Seng Fatt; Lilien, David A; Dinwiddie, April J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui; Monteiro, Antónia


    Brilliant animal colors often are produced from light interacting with intricate nano-morphologies present in biological materials such as butterfly wing scales. Surveys across widely divergent butterfly species have identified multiple mechanisms of structural color production; however, little is known about how these colors evolved. Here, we examine how closely related species and populations of Bicyclus butterflies have evolved violet structural color from brown-pigmented ancestors with UV structural color. We used artificial selection on a laboratory model butterfly, B. anynana, to evolve violet scales from UV brown scales and compared the mechanism of violet color production with that of two other Bicyclus species, Bicyclus sambulos and Bicyclus medontias, which have evolved violet/blue scales independently via natural selection. The UV reflectance peak of B. anynana brown scales shifted to violet over six generations of artificial selection (i.e., in less than 1 y) as the result of an increase in the thickness of the lower lamina in ground scales. Similar scale structures and the same mechanism for producing violet/blue structural colors were found in the other Bicyclus species. This work shows that populations harbor large amounts of standing genetic variation that can lead to rapid evolution of scales' structural color via slight modifications to the scales' physical dimensions.

  15. Evolution of crystalline target rocks and impactites in the chesapeake bay impact structure, ICDP-USGS eyreville B core (United States)

    Horton, J.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Belkin, H.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Jackson, J.C.; Chou, I.-Ming


    The 1766-m-deep Eyreville B core from the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure includes, in ascending order, a lower basement-derived section of schist and pegmatitic granite with impact breccia dikes, polymict impact breccias, and cataclas tic gneiss blocks overlain by suevites and clast-rich impact melt rocks, sand with an amphibolite block and lithic boulders, and a 275-m-thick granite slab overlain by crater-fill sediments and postimpact strata. Graphite-rich cataclasite marks a detachment fault atop the lower basement-derived section. Overlying impactites consist mainly of basement-derived clasts and impact melt particles, and coastalplain sediment clasts are underrepresented. Shocked quartz is common, and coesite and reidite are confirmed by Raman spectra. Silicate glasses have textures indicating immiscible melts at quench, and they are partly altered to smectite. Chrome spinel, baddeleyite, and corundum in silicate glass indicate high-temperature crystallization under silica undersaturation. Clast-rich impact melt rocks contain ??- cristobalite and monoclinic tridymite. The impactites record an upward transition from slumped ground surge to melt-rich fallback from the ejecta plume. Basement-derived rocks include amphibolite-facies schists, greenschist(?)-facies quartz-feldspar gneiss blocks and subgreenschist-facies shale and siltstone clasts in polymict impact breccias, the amphibolite block, and the granite slab. The granite slab, underlying sand, and amphibolite block represent rock avalanches from inward collapse of unshocked bedrock around the transient crater rim. Gneissic and massive granites in the slab yield U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon dates of 615 ?? 7 Ma and 254 ?? 3 Ma, respectively. Postimpact heating was 7lt;~350 ??C in the lower basementderived section based on undisturbed 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of muscovite and <~150 Ar/39Ar age spectra of detrital microcline

  16. N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)aryloxytrifluoromethylsulfoximines [ArO-SO(CF3)=NTf] and N-aryltriflimides Ar-N(Tf)2 by thermal and photolytic dediazoniation of [ArN2][BF4] in [BMIM][Tf2N] ionic liquid: exploiting the ambident nucleophilic character of a "nonnucleophilic" anion. (United States)

    Laali, Kenneth K; Okazaki, Takao; Bunge, Scott D


    Arenediazonium tetrafluoroborate salts undergo metathesis on immobilization in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonato)amide [BMIM][Tf(2)N]. The "noncoordinating", "nonnucleophilic" [Tf(2)N] anion acts as an ambident nucleophile toward the aryl cations, formed via thermal dediazoniation, to give predominantly the oxy anion quenching products [ArO-SO(CF(3))=NTf], with minimal formation of ArN(Tf)(2), irrespective of the nature of the substituent(s) on the ArN(2)+. Strong preference for the formation of oxygen trapping products did not change under photolytic conditions, where dediazoniation occurs at room temperature. A minimal amount of the Schiemann product ArF is also formed in both thermal and photolytic dediazoniation, depending on the substituent(s). Progress of dediazoniation in the IL (both thermal and photolytic) and the evolution of the products were directly monitored by (1)H and (19)F NMR. According to DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, PhN(Tf)(2) is more stable than PhO-SO(CF(3))=NTf by 15-17 kcal/mol, depending on the basis set. Inclusion of solvation effects (PCM, with acetone and with CH(2)ClCH(2)Cl as solvent) did not change this preference. The [ArN(2)][BF(4)] dediazoniation in [BMIM][Tf(2)N] resulted in synthesis and characterization of a series of hitherto unknown [ArO-SO(CF(3))=NTf] compounds. The X-ray structure of MesO-SO(CF(3))=NTf (Mes = mesityl) is reported. On the basis of extraction studies, suitable solvent systems have been identified that remove the products without dissolving [BMIM][NTf(2)], thus overcoming product recovery difficulties typically associated with the use of this IL.

  17. Structure build-up and evolution in the drying of sessile blood droplets (United States)

    Craster, Richard; Uppal, Aran; Matar, Omar


    Experimental observations have recorded blood undergoing a sol-gel transition during the evaporation process. Consequently, the rheology becomes non-uniform throughout the droplet and exhibits transitional complex phenomena that we must capture if we wish to accurately model the evaporative/cracking process. We propose a model where thixotropy is introduced to capture the evolving rheology as evaporation occurs. Thixotropy is often used to describe fluids which exhibit a decrease in viscosity due to flow and subsequent slow recovery of viscosity after the cessation of the flow. We introduce an additional parameter to describe the internal structure of the fluid at each point and consider a droplet in the limit of the lubrication approximation. We present a discussion of our results that demonstrates the dependence of structure build-up, which accompanies the spatio-temporal evolution of the drop, on system parameters. EPSRC UK Centre for Doctoral Training.

  18. Sex in smut fungi: Structure, function and evolution of mating-type complexes. (United States)

    Bakkeren, Guus; Kämper, Jörg; Schirawski, Jan


    Smut fungi are basidiomycete plant pathogens that pose a threat to many important cereal crops. In order to be pathogenic on plants, smut fungal cells of compatible mating-type need to fuse. Fusion and pathogenicity are regulated by two loci, a and b, which harbor conserved genes. The functions of the encoded mating-type complexes have been well-studied in the model fungus Ustilago maydis and will be briefly reviewed here. Sequence comparison of the mating-type loci of different smut and related fungi has revealed that these loci differ substantially in structure. These structural differences point to an evolution from tetrapolar to bipolar mating behavior, which might have occurred several independent times during fungal speciation.

  19. Structure and evolution of a European Parliament via a network and correlation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, Elena; Piilo, Jyrki; Tumminello, Michele


    We present a study of the network of relationships among elected members of the Finnish parliament, based on a quantitative analysis of initiative co-signatures, and its evolution over 16 years. To understand the structure of the parliament, we constructed a statistically validated network of members, based on the similarity between the patterns of initiatives they signed. We looked for communities within the network and characterized them in terms of members' attributes, such as electoral district and party. To gain insight on the nested structure of communities, we constructed a hierarchical tree of members from the correlation matrix. Afterwards, we studied parliament dynamics yearly, with a focus on correlations within and between parties, by also distinguishing between government and opposition. Finally, we investigated the role played by specific individuals, at a local level. In particular, whether they act as proponents who gather consensus, or as signers. Our results provide a quantitative background...

  20. Structure and evolution of solar supergranulation using SDO/HMI data

    CERN Document Server

    Roudier, Th; Rieutord, M; Malherbe, J M; Burston, R; Gizon, L


    Context: Studying the motions on the solar surface is fundamental for understanding how turbulent convection transports energy and how magnetic fields are distributed across the solar surface. Aims: From horizontal velocity measurements all over the visible disc of the Sun and using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI), we investigate the structure and evolution of solar supergranulation. Methods: Horizontal velocity fields were measured by following the proper motions of solar granules using a newly developed version of the coherent structure tracking (CST) code. With this tool, maps of horizontal divergence were computed. We then segmented and identified supergranular cells and followed their histories by using spatio-temporal labelling. With this dataset we derived the fundamental properties of supergranulation, including their motion. Results: We find values of the fundamental parameters of supergranulation similar to previous studies: a mean lifetime of 1.5 ...

  1. Structure, dynamics and evolution of disk galaxies in a hierarchical formation scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C


    Using galaxy evolutionary models in a hierarchical formation scenario, we predict the structure, dynamics and evolution of disk galaxies in a LCDM universe. Our models include star formation and hydrodynamics of the ISM. We find that the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) in the I and H bands is an imprint of the mass-velocity relation of the cosmological dark halos. The scatter of the TFR originates mainly from the scatter in the dark halo structure and, to a minor extension, from the dispersion of the primordial spin parameter lambda. Our models allow us to explain why low and high surface brightness galaxies have the same TFR. The disk gas fractions predicted agree with the observations. The disks formed within the growing halos have nearly exponential surface brightness and flat rotation curves. Towards high redshifts, the zero-point of the TFR in the H band increases while in the B-band it slightly decreases.

  2. Unified QCD evolution equations and the dominant behaviour of structure functions at low x

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R; Peschanski, R; Wallon, S


    We consider a system of evolution equations for quark and gluon structure functions satisfying the leading-logarithmic behaviour due to both QCD collinear \\left(LLQ^2 \\right) and infrared (LL1/x) singularities. We show that these equations leave undetermined an arbitrary regular function of j in the Mellin-transformed weights. We consider the constraints resulting from energy-momentum conservation and from the decoupling of quark loops in the leading j -plane singularity. These constraints can be fulfilled without influencing the leading-log terms. As a particular consequence of the second constraint, the location of the leading singularity is determined in terms of the (LL1/x) and \\left(LLQ^2 \\right) kernels. It leads to a value significantly lower than the LL1/x evaluation, while remaining at j > 1, and compatible with the behaviour of structure functions observed at HERA.

  3. Evolution of integrated panel structural design and interfaces for PV power plants (United States)

    Arnett, J. C.; Anderson, A. J.; Robertson, R. E.


    The evolution of integrated photovoltaic (PV) panel design at ARCO Solar is discussed. Historically, framed PV modules of about 1 x 4-ft size were individually mounted in the field on fixed support structures and interconnected electrically with cables to build higher-power arrays. When ARCO Solar saw the opportunity in 1982 to marry its PV modules with state-of-the-art heliostat trackers developed by ARCO Power Systems, it became obvious that mounting individual modules was impractical. For this project, the framed modules were factory-assembled into panels and interconnected with cables before being mounted on the trackers. Since then, ARCO Solar made considerable progress and gained substantial experience in the design and fabrication of large PV panels. Constraints and criteria considered in these design activities included static and dynamic loads; assembly and transportation equipment and logistics, structural and electrical interfaces, and safety and grounding concerns.

  4. Focused Evolution of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Revealed by Structures and Deep Sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xueling; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Baoshan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wang, Charlene; Chen, Xuejun; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Perfetto, Stephen; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Shi, Wei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Zhenhai; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Simek, Melissa; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Connors, Mark; Mullikin, James C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R. (Tumaini); (NIH); (Duke); (Kilimanjaro Repro.); (IAVI)


    Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse antibodies to the same CD4-binding-site epitope. A functional genomics analysis of expressed heavy and light chains revealed common pathways of antibody-heavy chain maturation, confined to the IGHV1-2*02 lineage, involving dozens of somatic changes, and capable of pairing with different light chains. Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 immunity associated with VRC01-like antibodies thus involves the evolution of antibodies to a highly affinity-matured state required to recognize an invariant viral structure, with lineages defined from thousands of sequences providing a genetic roadmap of their development.

  5. Processes of lithosphere evolution: New evidence on the structure of the continental crust and uppermost mantle (United States)

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.; Perchuc, E.; Thybo, H.


    We discuss the structure of the continental lithosphere, its physical properties, and the mechanisms that formed and modified it since the early Archean. The structure of the upper mantle and the crust is derived primarily from global and regional seismic tomography studies of Eurasia and from global and regional data on seismic anisotropy. These data as documented in the papers of this special issue of Tectonophysics are used to illustrate the role of different tectonic processes in the lithospheric evolution since Archean to present. These include, but are not limited to, cratonization, terrane accretion and collision, continental rifting (both passive and active), subduction, and lithospheric basal erosion due to a relative motion of cratonic keels and the convective mantle. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggregate size and structure determination of nanomaterials in physiological media: importance of dynamic evolution (United States)

    Afrooz, A. R. M. Nabiul; Hussain, Saber M.; Saleh, Navid B.


    Most in vitro nanotoxicological assays are performed after 24 h exposure. However, in determining size and shape effect of nanoparticles in toxicity assays, initial characterization data are generally used to describe experimental outcome. The dynamic size and structure of aggregates are typically ignored in these studies. This brief communication reports dynamic evolution of aggregation characteristics of gold nanoparticles. The study finds that gradual increase in aggregate size of gold nanospheres (AuNS) occurs up to 6 h duration; beyond this time period, the aggregation process deviates from gradual to a more abrupt behavior as large networks are formed. Results of the study also show that aggregated clusters possess unique structural conformation depending on nominal diameter of the nanoparticles. The differences in fractal dimensions of the AuNS samples likely occurred due to geometric differences, causing larger packing propensities for smaller sized particles. Both such observations can have profound influence on dosimetry for in vitro nanotoxicity analyses.

  7. Structural evolution under uniaxial drawing of Poly(D, L-lactide) Films (United States)

    Stoclet, Grégory; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc; Seguela, Roland


    Aliphatic polyesters are an important class of biodegradable polymers. They have drawn particular attention in the last few years as food packaging materials because they can be derived from renewable resources. Among this family, polylactide (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ``green'' polymer for use as a substitute to petroleum-based polymers. In the present work, we investigate the mechanical behaviour of amorphous poly(D, L-lactide) films in relation to the structural evolution upon stretching at various draw temperatures (Td) above the glass transition temperature. Examination of the drawing behaviour shows that PLA initially behaves like a rubbery material until a true strain of the order of 1. Strain hardening occurs beyond this strain level, up to film fracture. Such strain hardening is generally ascribed to a strain induced crystallization phenomenon. In the present case, it is clearly more pronounced for Td = 90 C than for Td = 70 C. The corresponding structural evolutions are investigated by means of WAXS. The diffraction patterns reveal the marked influence of draw temperature. Indeed for Td = 70 C a mesophase is induced whereas strain-induced crystallisation takes place at Td = 90 C. Further work is in progress, in order to elucidate mesophase development and mechanical response.

  8. Liquid-Mercury-Supported Langmuir Films of Ionic Liquids: Isotherms, Structure, and Time Evolution. (United States)

    Elfassy, Eitan; Mastai, Yitzhak; Pontoni, Diego; Deutsch, Moshe


    Ionic liquids have been intensively developed for the last few decades and are now used in a wide range of applications, from electrochemistry to catalysis and nanotechnology. Many of these applications involve ionic liquid interfaces with other liquids and solids, the subnanometric experimental study of which is highly demanding, and has been little studied to date. We present here a study of mercury-supported Langmuir films of imidazolium-based ionic liquids by surface tensiometry and X-ray reflectivity. The charge-delocalized ionic liquids studied here exhibit no 2D lateral order but show diffuse surface-normal electron density profiles exhibiting gradual mercury penetration into the ionic liquid film, and surface-normal structure evolution over a period of hours. The effect of increasing the nonpolar alkyl chain length was also investigated. The results obtained provide insights into the interactions between these ionic liquids and liquid mercury and about the time evolution of the structure and composition of their interface.

  9. Development of a cyber physical apparatus for investigating fluid structure interaction on leading edge vortex evolution (United States)

    Raghu Gowda, Belagumba Venkatachalaiah

    This dissertation examines how simple structural compliance impacts a specific transient vortex phenomenon that occurs on high angle of attack lifting surfaces termed dynamic stall. In many Fluid structure interaction (FSI) research efforts, a purely physical or purely computational approach is taken. In this work a low cost cyber-physical (CPFD) system is designed and developed for representing the FSI in the leading edge vortex (LEV) development problem. The leading edge compliance appears to be favorable in a specific spring constant range for a given wing. When the leading edge compliance prescribed via CPFD system is too low compared with the moment due to dynamic pressure or fluid unsteady effect, the LEV behavior is similar to that of a rigid wing system. When the leading edge compliance is too high, excessive compliance is introduced into the wing system and the leading edge vortex evolution is affected by the large change in wing angle. At moderate leading edge compliance, a balance appears to be achieved in which the leading edge vorticity shedding rate supports the long term evolution of the leading edge vortex. Further investigation is required to determine specific parameters governing these leading edge compliance ranges.

  10. Evolutions of fluctuation modes and inner structures of global stock markets (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Maoxin; Chen, Xiaosong


    The paper uses empirical data, including 42 globally main stock indices in the period 1996-2014, to systematically study the evolution of fluctuation modes and inner structures of global stock markets. The data are large in scale considering both time and space. A covariance matrix-based principle fluctuation mode analysis (PFMA) is used to explore the properties of the global stock markets. It has been ignored by previous studies that covariance matrix is more suitable than the correlation matrix to be the basis of PFMA. It is found that the principle fluctuation modes of global stock markets are in the same directions, and global stock markets are divided into three clusters, which are found to be closely related to the countries’ locations with exceptions of China, Russia and Czech Republic. A time-stable correlation network constructing method is proposed to solve the problem of high-level statistical uncertainty when the estimated periods are very short, and the complex dynamic network (CDN) is constructed to investigate the evolution of inner structures. The results show when the clusters emerge and how long the clusters exist. When the 2008 financial crisis broke out, the indices form one cluster. After these crises, only the European cluster still exists. These findings complement the previous studies, and can help investors and regulators to understand the global stock markets.

  11. Evolution and dynamics of shear-layer structures in near-wall turbulence (United States)

    Johansson, Arne V.; Alfredsson, P. H.; Kim, John


    Near-wall flow structures in turbulent shear flows are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the study of their space-time evolution and connection to turbulence production. The results are obtained from investigation of a database generated from direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow at a Reynolds number of 180 based on half-channel width and friction velocity. New light is shed on problems associated with conditional sampling techniques, together with methods to improve these techniques, for use both in physical and numerical experiments. The results clearly indicate that earlier conceptual models of the processes associated with near-wall turbulence production, based on flow visualization and probe measurements need to be modified. For instance, the development of asymmetry in the spanwise direction seems to be an important element in the evolution of near-wall structures in general, and for shear layers in particular. The inhibition of spanwise motion of the near-wall streaky pattern may be the primary reason for the ability of small longitudinal riblets to reduce turbulent skin friction below the value for a flat surface.

  12. The Structural Evolution of Milky Way-like Star Forming Galaxies since z~1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter G; van der Wel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammer, Gabriel; Skelton, Rosalind E; Momcheva, Ivelina; Whitaker, Katherine E; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A; Rix, Hans-Walter


    We follow the structural evolution of star forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to z~1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HST survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of z=0 SFGs with stellar mass M=10^{10.5} Msun are ~2 times less massive at z~1. This late-time stellar mass assembly is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at z~0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of ~1.4 since z~1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r_e M^{0.29}. While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges ...

  13. Ultrafast colorimetric determination of predominant protein structure evolution with gold nanoplasmonic particles (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Choi, Inhee


    The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of disordered proteins and aggregated proteins occurs in many protein conformational diseases, such as aging-related neurodegeneration and alcoholic liver diseases. However, the conventional methods to study protein structural changes are limited for the rapid detection and monitoring of protein aggregation because of long incubation times (i.e., usually several days), complicated sample pretreatment steps, and expensive instrumentation. Here, we describe an ultrafast colorimetric method for the real-time monitoring of protein structure evolution and the determination of predominant structures via nanoparticle-assisted protein aggregation. During the aggregation process, nanoparticles act as nucleation cores, which form networks depending on the structures of the protein aggregates, and accelerate the kinetics of the protein aggregation. Simultaneously, these nanoparticles exhibit colorimetric responses according to their embedded shapes (e.g., fibrillar and amorphous) on the protein aggregates. We observed distinct spectral shifts and concomitant colorimetric responses of concentration- and type-dependent protein aggregation with the naked eye within a few minutes (pH levels, high temperature, and chemicals. These findings suggest that the proposed method is an easy way to study the molecular biophysics of protein aggregation and to rapidly screen anti-aggregation drugs for protein conformational diseases.The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of disordered proteins and aggregated proteins occurs in many protein conformational diseases, such as aging-related neurodegeneration and alcoholic liver diseases. However, the conventional methods to study protein structural changes are limited for the rapid detection and monitoring of protein aggregation because of long incubation times (i.e., usually several days), complicated sample pretreatment steps, and expensive instrumentation. Here, we describe an

  14. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil (United States)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa


    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  15. Structural evolution of Ti50Cu50 on rapid cooling by molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Pang, J. J.; Tan, M. J.; Liew, K. M.


    The structural evolution and atomic structure of the Ti50Cu50 compound have been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulation using the generalized embedded-atom model (GEAM) potential. Gibbs free energy calculation manifests the large driving force of undercooled Ti50Cu50 for crystallization and thus the poor glass-forming ability. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) within the temperature range from 2000 K to 300 K are analyzed and reveal the increasing degree of short-range order and reducing periodic length between peaks on cooling. Atomic arrangement is characterized by the Voronoi tessellation method, showing that the frequency of icosahedral configurations is most sensitive to temperature and grows upon quenching while that of the others remains relatively stable. The thermal behavior of the structure factors follows the Debye model up to the supercooled liquid temperature. The structural investigation of amorphous Ti50Cu50 demonstrates that there exist a variety of polyhedral configurations in Ti50Cu50 amorphous alloy, where icosahedral and bcc clusters are the major types. Due to the existence of bcc clusters and the other distorted polyhedra other than full icosahedra, the structural analysis reconfirms the inference from the Gibbs free energy calculation.

  16. Importance of initial buoyancy field on evolution of mantle thermal structure: Implications of surface boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Glišović


    Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique

  17. The formation and evolution of large- and superlarge-scale structure in the universe; 1, general theory

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G; Gottlöber, S; Mücket, J P; Müller, V


    A quantitative theory, based on the Zeldovich approximation, to provide an approximate description of the evolution of structure is presented. We give an expression for the characteristic scale of superlarge-scale structure which can also be applied to power spectra with a Harrison-Zeldovich asymptotic. The evolution of the characteristic scale of large-scale structure is described with an analytical expression. It corresponds to the mean separation of filaments or chains of galaxies. We apply the theory to some simulations and show that the theoretically defined characteristic scale for LSS does also correspond to the 'physical measurement' of the mean separation of dark matter LSS elements. This supports our claim for a new theory for the quantitative description of the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe.

  18. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Turku migmatite complex, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, M.


    Full Text Available The Turku migmatite complex in southwestern Finland is a representative area for the type of tectonic and metamorphic evolution seen within the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Orogen in southern Finland. The orogeny can be divided into early, late and postorogenic stages. The early orogenic structural evolution of the crust is expressed by a D1/D2 deformation recorded as bedding-parallel S1 mica foliation deformed by tight to isoclinal D2 folds with subhorizontal axial planes and a penetrative S2 axial plane foliation. Syntectonic ca. 1890-1870 Ma tonalites were emplaced during D2 as sheet intrusions. This deformation is attributed to thrust tectonics and thickening of the crust. The late orogenic structural evolution produced the main D3 folding, which transposed previous structures into a NE-SW trend. The doubly plunging fold axis produced dome-and-basin structures. The attitude of the F3 folds varies from upright or slightly overturned to locally recumbent towards the NW. Granite dikes were intruded along S3 axial planes. Large D3 fold limbs are often strongly deformed, intensively migmatized and intruded by garnet- and cordierite-bearing granites. These observations suggest that these potassium-rich granites, dated at 1840-1830 Ma, were emplaced during D3. This late orogenic NW-SE crustal shortening further contributed to crustal thickening. Subvertical D4 shear zones that cut all previous rock types possibly controlled the emplacement of postorogenic granitoids. Steeply plunging lineations on D4 shear planes suggest vertical displacements during a regional uplift stage. Metamorphic grade increases from cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar gneisses in the northwest and from muscovite-quartz±andalusite rocks in the southeast to high-temperature granulite facies migmatites in the middle of the study area. Block movements during D4 caused the observed differences in metamorphic grade. Garnet and cordierite are mostly breakdown products of biotite

  19. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9,,,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  20. The structural evolution and diffusion during the chemical transformation from cobalt to cobalt phosphide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung


    We report the structural evolution and the diffusion processes which occur during the phase transformation of nanoparticles (NPs), ε-Co to Co 2P to CoP, from a reaction with tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) investigations were used to elucidate the changes in the local structure of cobalt atoms which occur as the chemical transformation progresses. The lack of long-range order, spread in interatomic distances, and overall increase in mean-square disorder compared with bulk structure reveal the decrease in the NP\\'s structural order compared with bulk structure, which contributes to their deviation from bulk-like behavior. Results from EXAFS show both the Co2P and CoP phases contain excess Co. Results from EXAFS, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations reveal that the inward diffusion of phosphorus is more favorable at the beginning of the transformation from ε-Co to Co2P by forming an amorphous Co-P shell, while retaining a crystalline cobalt core. When the major phase of the sample turns to Co 2P, the diffusion processes reverse and cobalt atom out-diffusion is favored, leaving a hollow void, characteristic of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. For the transformation from Co2P to CoP theory predicts an outward diffusion of cobalt while the anion lattice remains intact. In real samples, however, the Co-rich nanoparticles continue Kirkendall hollowing. Knowledge about the transformation method and structural properties provides a means to tailor the synthesis and composition of the NPs to facilitate their use in applications. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Investigation impact of stressed state conditions and thermomechanical parameters on the texture and structure evolution in 1565ph aluminium alloy (United States)

    Yashin, V. V.; Aryshensky, E. V.; Kawalla, R. F.; Serebryany, V. N.; Rushchits, S. V.


    The paper is devoted to study of the impact stress condition and thermomechanical treatment parameters on the structure and texture evolution of new 1565 ph aluminum alloy. For that purposes, we use test on Gleeble equipment, FM calculation, optical microscopy and x ray diffraction texture analysis. The dependency between the deformation texture components development and strain rate value was established. Differences in the texture evolution at uniaxial compression stress and plain strain mode were revealed.

  2. Development of 3D beach evolution model for sand nourishments and its application to morphodynamics around coastal structures


    Kuroiwa, M.; Matsubara, Y.; Fujitani, H.; H. Mase


    A numerical model to predict three-dimensional (3D) beach evolution after sand nourishment was developed. The injection process of sand to near shoreline or offshore area was expressed by the sediment flux in the conservation equation associated with sediment transports and water depth changes, furthermore, sand dredging process was considered. In this study, First, computation of beach evolution around a coastal structure with and without nourishment was carried out. Secondly, the develop...

  3. The Geophysics of Mercury: Shape, Interior Structure and Thermal Evolution from MESSENGER (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Hauck, S. A.; Head, J. W.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Peale, S. J.; Margot, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Oberst, J.; Purucker, M. E.; Mazarico, E.; Perry, M. E.; Barnouin, O. S.; McNutt, R. L.


    The surface and interior of Mercury preserve collectively the record of processes that contributed to the planet's thermal evolution: accretion, differentiation, orbital, rotational and internal dynamics, impact cratering, tectonics and volcanism. Reconstructing Mercury's evolution requires relating internal structure and planetary dynamics to topography, chemistry and surface geology. Observations from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and Radio Science (RS) experiments from the flyby and orbital phases of the MESSENGER mission are being analyzed in support of that goal. The MLA obtains returns from the surface at slant ranges fit of low-latitude topography confirms the ellipsoidal shape and orientation of the equator and a 0.015o downward to east slope indicative of an offset between the center of mass and center of figure in the equatorial plane. This distinctive feature of the planetary shape reflects an east-west hemispheric difference in internal structure that could potentially arise from crustal thickness or crustal density variations, large-scale mantle density variations, or topography along the Mercury's core-mantle boundary. The floor of the major impact basin Caloris has been significantly modified, with the northern sections rising above the basin rim. The north polar region shows an irregular topographic depression of 2-4 km depth centered on the north pole. The feature may have migrated to the pole due to reorientation of the planet's inertia axes. The depression could represent a non-hydrostatic contribution to the planetary flattening that must be isolated and removed prior to interpreting the flattening in the context of the radial distribution of interior mass. Analysis of X-band Doppler tracking of MESSENGER has resulted in a 20th degree and order global gravity field, with high degree and order coefficients resolved only in the north. Present are mass anomalies that correlate with some impact basins that hold the promise of modeling to

  4. Structural Evolution of a Fold-And-Thrust Belt in Hsinchu-Miaoli area, Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, T. W.; Huang, S. T.; Hu, J. C.


    Hsinchu-Miaoli area is the major hydrocarbon producing fields in Taiwan. Oil and gas production in the area have been explored and produced since 1861, and the oldest gas field is still producing gas until now. To understand the nature and the geometry of the reservoirs in this area, 82 wells were drilled in the Chinshui Field, which is one of the important gas fields in the Hsinchu-Miaoli area. However, the subsurface structures and fracture distribution of these fields are still unclear, and the reason for the long time producing is also unknown. Fractures in the oil-bearing reservoir might be one of the important factors of the long time gas producing, but the fracture reservoirs attaining hydrocarbons associated with fault-related folding need to be further clarified. First, we represent a new structural interpretation of Chinshui and adjacent Chuhuangkeng anticlines by a geological cross section across from Miaoli offshore to inner foothills. By comparing the total shortening distances among several published cross sections and the profile in this study, we construct the deformation pattern model in Hsinchu-Miaoli area. Furthermore, we then use Discrete Element Method (DEM) to reconstruct the evolution model of the Chinshui anticline based on the cross sections in the study area. This model can provide fracture densities of Chinshui anticline and also the geometry of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. According to the result of our restoration, the total shortening distance of the geological cross section is about 20.3km and the entire slip of the deep thrust faults in Chinshui anticline is 5.8 km. This result is similar with previous published cross sections around this region. And the structural evolution of Chinshui anticline would further apply in the model of fracture distribution and densities.

  5. The diverse crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the Manihiki Plateau, central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hochmuth


    Full Text Available The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP in the central Pacific. It was emplaced as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui and experienced fragmentation into three sub-plateaus, possibly during the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this "Super-LIP" and its investigation can therefore decipher the break-up mechanisms as well as the evolution of the plateau after its initial emplacement. By analyzing two seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the High Plateau and the Western Plateaus, we give new insights into their crustal structure and magmatic evolution. The High Plateau shows a crustal structure of 20 km thickness and a seismic P wave velocity distribution, which is comparable to other LIPs. The High Plateau experienced a strong secondary volcanism, which can be seen in relicts of seamount chain volcanism. The Western Plateaus on the other hand show no extensive secondary volcanism and are mainly structured by fault systems and sedimentary basins. A constant decrease in Moho depth (9–17 km is a further indicator of crustal stretching on the Western Plateaus. Those findings lead to the conclusion, that the two sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different magmatic and tectonic history. Whereas the High Plateau experienced a secondary volcanism, the Western Plateaus underwent crustal stretching during and after the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. This indicates, that the sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau play an individual part in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  6. Thermoplastics Reinforced with Self-Welded Short Carbon Fibers: Nanoparticle-Promoted Structural Evolution. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongge; Liu, Yaohua; Lin, Yu; Wu, Guozhang


    The large volume of currently available fiber-reinforced polymer composites critically limits the intrinsic versatility of fibers such as high mechanical strength, heat resistance, and excellent thermal/electrical conductivity. We proposed a facile and widely applicable strategy to promote self-organization of randomly dispersed short carbon fibers (CFs) into a three-dimensionally continuous scaffold. The morphological evolution and structural reinforcement of the self-welded CF-polyamide 6 (PA6) scaffold in polystyrene (PS) matrix were investigated, with carbon black (CB) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively localized in the PA6 domains. Surprisingly, all of the PA6 droplets once dispersed in the PS matrix can migrate and evenly encapsulate onto the CF surface when 5.8 wt % CB is incorporated, whereas in the TiO2-filled system, the PA6 droplets preferentially segregate at the junction point of CFs to fasten the self-welded CF structure. In addition, a remarkable increase in the interfacial adhesive work between PA6 and CF was observed only when TiO2 is added, and a loading of even less than 0.8 wt % can effectively abruptly strengthen the self-welded CF scaffold. We clarified that the structural evolution is promoted by the nature of self-agglomeration of NPs. CB is highly capable of self-networking in the PA6 domain, resulting in high encapsulation of PA6, although the capillary force for preferential segregation of PA6 at the junction point of CFs is reduced. By contrast, the TiO2 particles tend to form compact aggregates. Such an agglomeration pattern, together with enhanced interfacial affinity, must contribute to a strong capillary force for the preferential segregation of PA6.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugas Sandra L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the γ-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (γ-Proteobacteria possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms.

  8. Table of Contents of: "Red Giants as Probes of the Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way"

    CERN Document Server

    Miglio, Andrea; Noels, Arlette


    We give here the Table of Contents of the proceedings from the workshop "Red Giants as Probes of the Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way", held in Roma, 15-17 November 2010. Exciting results are blooming, thanks to a convergence between unprecedented asteroseismic data obtained by the satellites CoRoT and Kepler, and state-of-the-art models of the internal structure of red giants and of galactic evolution. The pulsation properties now available for thousands of red giants promise to add valuable and independent constraints to current models of structure and evolution of our galaxy. Such a close connection between these domains opens a new very promising gate in our understanding of stars and galaxies. Scientists specialised in galactic evolution, in stellar structure, and in asteroseismology, gathered together in this workshop to discuss the current status and uncertainties involved in modelling the structure and evolution of red giants, as well as open questions regarding the study of stellar population...

  9. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations I: Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Burns, Jack O; Motl, Patrick M


    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian AMR/N-body code including non-gravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, T_X-M and Y_X-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depen...

  10. Structure and magnetic anisotropy evolution in Au/Co/Au sandwiches upon thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawro, A.; Kurant, Z.; Baczewski, L.T.; Pankowski, P.; Pelka, J.B.; Maneikis, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Bojko, A.; Zablotskii, V.; Maziewski, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Bialystok, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)


    The correlation between structural and magnetic properties of Au(111)/Co(0001)/Au(111) sandwiches with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, has been studied in details. Thermal treatment in the range between room temperature and 300 C at various stages of samples growth process as well as after its completion is applied as a factor modifying the structure of studied specimens. Annealing at 150 C does not affect substantially either crystalline structure or perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. At 250 C the RHEED pattern of Co layers reveals the loss of the lattice coherence with Au underlayer and the analysis of synchrotron radiation reflectometry leads to the conclusion that the continuity of Co layers is lost. Structural evolution upon thermal treatment is well correlated with changes of magnetic anisotropy studied by magnetooptical Kerr effect. After annealing at 250 C magnetization switches from out-of-plane to in-plane orientation, which is explained in terms of interfacial and magnetoelastic contributions to the sample magnetic anisotropy. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Structural dynamics flexibility informs function and evolution at a proteome scale (United States)

    Nevin Gerek, Zeynep; Kumar, Sudhir; Banu Ozkan, Sefika


    Protein structures are dynamic entities with a myriad of atomic fluctuations, side-chain rotations, and collective domain movements. Although the importance of these dynamics to proper functioning of proteins is emerging in the studies of many protein families, there is a lack of broad evidence for the critical role of protein dynamics in shaping the biological functions of a substantial fraction of residues for a large number of proteins in the human proteome. Here, we propose a novel dynamic flexibility index (dfi) to quantify the dynamic properties of individual residues in any protein and use it to assess the importance of protein dynamics in 100 human proteins. Our analyses involving functionally critical positions, disease-associated and putatively neutral population variations, and the rate of interspecific substitutions per residue produce concordant patterns at a proteome scale. They establish that the preservation of dynamic properties of residues in a protein structure is critical for maintaining the protein/biological function. Therefore, structural dynamics needs to become a major component of the analysis of protein function and evolution. Such analyses will be facilitated by the dfi, which will also enable the integrative use of structural dynamics with evolutionary conservation in genomic medicine as well as functional genomics investigations. PMID:23745135

  12. Adaptive potential of genomic structural variation in human and mammalian evolution. (United States)

    Radke, David W; Lee, Charles


    Because phenotypic innovations must be genetically heritable for biological evolution to proceed, it is natural to consider new mutation events as well as standing genetic variation as sources for their birth. Previous research has identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that underlie a subset of adaptive traits in organisms. However, another well-known class of variation, genomic structural variation, could have even greater potential to produce adaptive phenotypes, due to the variety of possible types of alterations (deletions, insertions, duplications, among others) at different genomic positions and with variable lengths. It is from these dramatic genomic alterations, and selection on their phenotypic consequences, that adaptations leading to biological diversification could be derived. In this review, using studies in humans and other mammals, we highlight examples of how phenotypic variation from structural variants might become adaptive in populations and potentially enable biological diversification. Phenotypic change arising from structural variants will be described according to their immediate effect on organismal metabolic processes, immunological response and physical features. Study of population dynamics of segregating structural variation can therefore provide a window into understanding current and historical biological diversification.

  13. Syntheses and solid state structures of zinc (II) complexes with Bi-dentate -(Aryl)imino-acenapthenone (Ar-BIAO) ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivas Anga; Supriya Rej; Kishor Naktode; Tigmansu Pal; Tarun K Panda


    We have synthesized five zinc complexes of molecular formulae [ZnCl2(2,6-dimethylphenyl-BIAO)]2 (1a), [ZnBr2(2,6-dimethylphenyl-BIAO)]2 (1b), [ZnI2(2,6-dimethylphenyl-BIAO)]2(1c), [ZnBr2(mes-BIAO)]2(2b) and [ZnBr2(dipp-BIAO)] (3b) with rigid unsymmetrical iminoacenaphthenone ligands, (2,6-dimethylphenyl-BIAO) (1), (mesityl-BIAO) (2) and (2,6-diisopropylphenyl-BIAO) (3). The zinc complex 1a was prepared by the reaction of ZnCl2 and neutral (mesityl-BIAO) (1). However, complexes 1b, 2b and 3b were obtained by the treatment of ZnBr2 and neutral ligands 1-3 respectively in 1:1 molar ratio in dichloromethane at ambient temperature. In a similar reaction of ZnI2 with (2,6-dimethylphenyl-BIAO) (1) in dichloromethane the corresponding iodo-complex 1c was obtained in good yield. All the zinc (II) complexes are characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopic techniques. The solid state structures of the complexes 1a, 1b, 1c, 2b and 3b are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The molecular structures of complexes 1a, 1b, 1c and 2b reveal the dimeric nature of the complexes and subsequently the centre atom zinc is penta-coordinated to adopt distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around it. In contrast, the complex 3b is in monomeric in nature due to bulkier size of the ligand and zinc ion is tetra coordinated to adopt distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  14. Coupled stratigraphic and structural evolution of a glaciated orogenic wedge, offshore St. Elias orogen, Alaska (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Pavlis, Terry L.


    The St. Elias orogen is the result of ˜10 Myr of oblique convergence and flat-slab subduction in the Gulf of Alaska between North America and the Yakutat microplate. Extensive glaciation and a complex tectonic environment make this region a unique case study in which to examine the details of terrane accretion and the possible coupled influence of climate and tectonic drivers on the structural and topographic evolution of an orogenic wedge. Reflection seismic profiles across the offshore Pamplona zone fold-thrust belt, the frontal St. Elias orogenic wedge, provide constraints for quantifying Pleistocene deformation recorded in the glaciomarine Yakataga formation. The total amount of Pleistocene shortening observed varies from ˜3 to 5 mm/yr, compared to the current GPS-derived Yakutat-North America convergence rate across the St. Elias orogen of ˜45 mm/yr. Growth strata and kinematic fold analysis allow comparison of relative timing of fault activity, which reveals temporal and spatial shifting of active deformation during the glacial period: faulting localized adjacent to the coastline and at the current submarine deformation front. The abandoned, currently inactive region is colocated with the major glacial depocenter in the region, the Bering Trough. These observations imply that glacial processes such as sediment loading and focused erosion during advance-retreat cycles has a direct effect on the evolution of individual faults within the Pamplona zone and the overall deformation pattern in the offshore St. Elias margin. This information provides key constraints for understanding how climatic shifts may have affected the evolution of margin architecture during Pleistocene glacial-interglacial periods.

  15. Tunable far infrared laser spectroscopy of van der Waals bonds: Ar-NH sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Hyperfine resolved vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra of Ar--NH{sub 3} and (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}, generated in a planar supersonic jet, have been measured with the Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometer. Among the seven rotationally assigned bands, one band belongs to Ar--NH{sub 3}, and the other six belong to (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}. To facilitate the intermolecular vibrational assignment for Ar--NH{sub 3}, a dynamics study aided by a permutation-inversion group theoretical treatment is performed on the rovibrational levels. The rovibrational quantum number correlation between the free internal rotor limit and the semi-rigid limit is established to provide a basic physical picture of the evolution of intermolecular vibrational component states. An anomalous vibronically allowed unique Q branch vibrational band structure is predicted to exist for a near prolate binary complex containing an inverting subunit. According to the model developed in this work, the observed band of Ar--NH{sub 3} centered at 26.470633(17) cm{sup {minus}1} can correlate only to either the fundamental dimeric stretching band for the A{sub 2} states with the NH{sub 3} inversional quantum number v{sub i} = 1, or the K{sub a} = 0 {l arrow} 0 subband of the lowest internal-rotation-inversion difference band. Although the estimated nuclear quadrupole coupling constant favors a tentative assignment in terms of the first possibility, a definitive assignment will require far infrared data and a dynamical model incorporating a potential surface.

  16. Na2高位振动态与Ar,N2碰撞中模温度的变化%Mode temperature evolution in collisions of highly rovibrationally excited Na2 with Ar and N2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 封丽; 戴康; 沈异凡


    利用受激发射泵浦激发Na2分子,使Na2[X1∑g+(ν″=33,J″=11)]得到布居,研究了高振动激发态Na*2与Ar和N2的碰撞弛豫过程。由激光诱导荧光得到Na2(ν≤33)各振动能级的时间分辨布居分布,从而得到Boltzmann振动温度和转动温度随时间的变化。对于Na*2与Ar碰撞,在泵浦-探测延迟时间tD=8μs前,振动温度Tvib减小很慢;在8-12μs间, Tvib迅速下降并达到平衡。而转动温度Trot和平移温度Ttran在Tvib迅速下降时才开始缓慢增加。对于Na*2与N2碰撞, Tvib存在三个变化阶段,先是迅速下降,然后下降减缓,最后减小很慢并达到平衡。而在整个过程中, Trot和Ttran一直是很缓慢地增加。实验数据说明了弛豫过程是分阶段进行的,单一速率系数不能正确解释复杂的弛豫过程,并会丢失平衡过程中的关键特点。%Stimulated emission pumping was used to excite Na2 [ X1∑g+(ν″=33,J″=11) ] via A-X transition. Laser induced fluorescence was used to follow the collision dynamics.Relaxation processes induced by collisions with Ar and N2 were investigated.For Na*2 in a bath of Ar gas, the equilibration takes place via distinct phases, main features of which are a very slow initial vibrational relaxation up to tD =8 μs,that then speeds up before reaching a quasiequilibrium soon after tD=12 μs.Trot and Ttran begin to increase at the onset of faster decline in Tvib.For Na*2 in a bath of N2 gas, the variation of Tvib indicates the existence of three principal change regions in this equilibration process.The initial phase consists of very rapid fall in Tvib.This phase of major vibrational en-ergy exchange is followed by one of slightly rapid Tvib decline that precedes a third phase of much slower change. The data demonstrate that single rate coefficient measurements are unlikely to capture the complex nature of processes that generally are multistage with different

  17. Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-scale Structures of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Juhan; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Hong, Sungwook E


    The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological $N$-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using $6300^3$ gravitating particles in a cubic box of $L_{\\rm box} = 3150 ~h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}$, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to $M_s = 2.7 \\times 10^{11} h^{-1}{\\rm M_\\odot}$. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of $\\ln (1/\\sigma)$. We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation function of mock ga...

  18. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)


    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  19. Recent Structural Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies: Size Growth from z=1 to z=0

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, Arjen; Zirm, Andrew W; Franx, Marijn; Rettura, Alessandro; Illingworth, Garth D; Ford, Holland C


    Strong size and internal density evolution of early-type galaxies between z~2 and the present has been reported by several authors. Here we analyze samples of nearby and distant (z~1) galaxies with dynamically measured masses in order to confirm the previous, model-dependent results and constrain the uncertainties that may play a role. Velocity dispersion measurements are taken from the literature for 50 morphologically selected 0.8structural difference between the nearby and distant samples, regardless of sample selection effects. The implied evolution ...

  20. STREGA: STRucture and Evolution of the GAlaxy. I. Survey Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, M; Di Criscienzo, M; Cignoni, M; Dall'Ora, M; Bono, G; Ripepi, V; Brocato, E; Raimondo, G; Grado, A; Limatola, L; Coppola, G; Moretti, M I; Stetson, P B; Calamida, A; Cantiello, M; Capaccioli, M; Cappellaro, E; Cioni, M -R L; Degl'Innocenti, S; De Martino, D; Di Cecco, A; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Silvotti, R; Buonanno, R; Getman, F; Napolitano, N R; Pulone, L; Schipani, P


    STREGA (STRucture and Evolution of the GAlaxy) is a Guaranteed Time survey being performed at the VST (the ESO VLT Survey Telescope) to map about 150 square degrees in the Galactic halo, in order to constrain the mechanisms of galactic formation and evolution. The survey is built as a five-year project, organized in two parts: a core program to explore the surrounding regions of selected stellar systems and a second complementary part to map the southern portion of the Fornax orbit and extend the observations of the core program. The adopted stellar tracers are mainly variable stars (RR~Lyraes and Long Period Variables) and Main Sequence Turn-off stars for which observations in the g,r,i bands are obtained. We present an overview of the survey and some preliminary results for three observing runs that have been completed. For the region centered on $\\omega$~Cen (37 deg^2), covering about three tidal radii, we also discuss the detected stellar density radial profile and angular distribution, leading to the ide...

  1. Turbulent Compressible Convection with Rotation. Part 1; Flow Structure and Evolution (United States)

    Brummell, Nicholas H.; Hurlburt, Neal E.; Toomre, Juri


    The effects of Coriolis forces on compressible convection are studied using three-dimensional numerical simulations carried out within a local modified f-plane model. The physics is simplified by considering a perfect gas occupying a rectilinear domain placed tangentially to a rotating sphere at various latitudes, through which a destabilizing heat flux is driven. The resulting convection is considered for a range of Rayleigh, Taylor, and Prandtl (and thus Rossby) numbers, evaluating conditions where the influence of rotation is both weak and strong. Given the computational demands of these high-resolution simulations, the parameter space is explored sparsely to ascertain the differences between laminar and turbulent rotating convection. The first paper in this series examines the effects of rotation on the flow structure within the convection, its evolution, and some consequences for mixing. Subsequent papers consider the large-scale mean shear flows that are generated by the convection, and the effects of rotation on the convective energetics and transport properties. It is found here that the structure of rotating turbulent convection is similar to earlier nonrotating studies, with a laminar, cellular surface network disguising a fully turbulent interior punctuated by vertically coherent structures. However, the temporal signature of the surface flows is modified by inertial motions to yield new cellular evolution patterns and an overall increase in the mobility of the network. The turbulent convection contains vortex tubes of many scales, including large-scale coherent structures spanning the full vertical extent of the domain involving multiple density scale heights. Remarkably, such structures align with the rotation vector via the influence of Coriolis forces on turbulent motions, in contrast with the zonal tilting of streamlines found in laminar flows. Such novel turbulent mechanisms alter the correlations which drive mean shearing flows and affect the

  2. Phylogeography, population structure and evolution of coral-eating butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae, genus Chaetodon , subgenus Corallochaetodon )

    KAUST Repository

    Waldrop, Ellen


    Aim This study compares the phylogeography, population structure and evolution of four butterflyfish species in the Chaetodon subgenus Corallochaetodon, with two widespread species (Indian Ocean – C. trifasciatus and Pacific Ocean – C. lunulatus), and two species that are largely restricted to the Red Sea (C. austriacus) and north-western (NW) Indian Ocean (C. melapterus). Through extensive geographical coverage of these taxa, we seek to resolve patterns of genetic diversity within and between closely related butterflyfish species in order to illuminate biogeographical and evolutionary processes. Location Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Methods A total of 632 individuals from 24 locations throughout the geographical ranges of all four members of the subgenus Corallochaetodon were sequenced using a 605 bp fragment (cytochrome b) of mtDNA. In addition, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess population structure in the two widespread species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the Pacific Ocean C. lunulatus diverged from the Indian Ocean C. trifasciatus approximately 3 Ma, while C. melapterus and C. austriacus comprise a cluster of shared haplotypes derived from C. trifasciatus within the last 0.75 Myr. The Pacific C. lunulatus had significant population structure at peripheral locations on the eastern edge of its range (French Polynesia, Johnston Atoll, Hawai\\'i), and a strong break between two ecoregions of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The Indian Ocean C. trifasciatus showed significant structure only at the Chagos Archipelago in the central Indian Ocean, and the two range-restricted species showed no population structure but evidence of recent population expansion. Main conclusions Patterns of endemism and genetic diversity in Corallochaetodon butterflyfishes have been shaped by (1) Plio-Pleistocene sea level changes that facilitated evolutionary divergences at biogeographical barriers between Indian and Pacific Oceans, and the Indian

  3. Structure Evolution of Graphene Oxide during Thermally Driven Phase Transformation: Is the Oxygen Content Really Preserved?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Pengzhan; Liu, He; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Hongwei


    A mild annealing procedure was recently proposed for the scalable enhancement of graphene oxide (GO) properties with the oxygen content preserved, which was demonstrated to be attributed to the thermally driven phase separation. In this work, the structure evolution of GO with mild annealing is closely investigated. It reveals that in addition to phase separation, the transformation of oxygen functionalities also occurs, which leads to the slight reduction of GO membranes and further the enhancement of GO properties. These results are further supported by the density functional theory based calculations. The results also show that the amount of chemically bonded oxygen atoms on graphene decreases gradually and we propose that the strongly physisorbed oxygen species constrained in the holes and vacancies on GO lattice might be responsible for the preserved oxygen content during the mild annealing procedure. The present experimental results and calculations indicate that both the diffusion and transformation of...

  4. Structural evolution and stability of mechanically alloyed Fe-Ni nanocrystalline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi; LIU Qi-zheng; MENG Qing-ping; RONG Yong-hua


    The structural evolution and stability of Fe100-xNix(x=10, 20, 35, 50) alloys prepared by mechanical alloying were investigated through X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The intrinsic conditions of preparation determining phase stability in nanocrystalline were clarified. After being milled for 120 h, the powders of Fe90Ni10 and Fe80Ni20 consist of a single α(bcc) phase, Fe30Ni30 powders are a single γ(fcc), and for Fe65Ni35 powders there is co-existence of α and γ phases. The as-milled Fe80Ni20 powders annealed at 680 ℃ exhibits the stability of high-temperature γ phase at room temperature, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  5. The Q$^2$ evolution of the Hadronic Photon Structure Function $F^\\gamma_2$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brochu, F; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Gong, Z F; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pedace, M; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C


    New measurements at a centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV of the hadronic photon structure function F2(x) in the Q2 interval, 9 GeV2 < Q2 < 30 GeV2, are presented. The data, collected in 1997, with the L3 detector, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51.9 pb-1. Combining with the data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 91 GeV, the evolution of F2 with Q2 is measured in the Q2 range from 1.2 GeV2 to 30 GeV2. F2 shows a linear growth with ln(Q2); the value of the slope (alpha-1)dF2(Q2)/dln(Q2) is measured in two x bins from 0.01 to 0.2 and is higher than predictions.

  6. Structures vibration control via Tuned Mass Dampers using a co-evolution Coral Reefs Optimization algorithm (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Camacho-Gómez, C.; Magdaleno, A.; Pereira, E.; Lorenzana, A.


    In this paper we tackle a problem of optimal design and location of Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) for structures subjected to earthquake ground motions, using a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. Specifically, the Coral Reefs Optimization (CRO) with Substrate Layer (CRO-SL) is proposed as a competitive co-evolution algorithm with different exploration procedures within a single population of solutions. The proposed approach is able to solve the TMD design and location problem, by exploiting the combination of different types of searching mechanisms. This promotes a powerful evolutionary-like algorithm for optimization problems, which is shown to be very effective in this particular problem of TMDs tuning. The proposed algorithm's performance has been evaluated and compared with several reference algorithms in two building models with two and four floors, respectively.

  7. Community structure and the evolution of interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's scientific collaboration network. (United States)

    Lužar, Borut; Levnajić, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaž


    Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from 1960 to 2010. Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall growth of the network. Although marginal improvements in favor of interdisciplinarity are inferable during the 70s and 80s, the overall trends during the past 20 years are constant and indicative of stalemate. We conclude that the flow of knowledge between different fields of research in Slovenia is in need of further stimulation.

  8. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.


    . These structures have in the last decades been an integrated part of the discussions about subsidence and uplift of not only the interior of the basin but also of the basin margin. Abundant 2D and 3D seismic data and new depositional models enable detailed analysis and reinterpretation of where and when basement......Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between......). Furthermore, prograding Oligocene and Miocene units in combination with thermal and loading induced differential subsidence between the basins and the Ringkøbing-Fyn High controlled the Cenozoic reactivations of the main coverfaults. The detaching cover faults generated additional accommodation space, which...

  9. Relation between structural evolution of the Longmenshan orogenic zone and sedimentation of its foreland basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Tai-ping; HU Jing-jing; ZHANG Fu-rong; CHEN Hong-kai; SUN Hong-quan


    In order to determine the area for oil and gas exploration in China's north Sichuan basin, we have divided the time during which the Longmenshan foreland basin was formed into five periods, based on the sedimentary response relationship of the fore-land basin to structural evolution: 1) a late Triassic Noric period; 2) an early-Middle Jurassic period; 3) a late Jurassic to early Cre-taceous period; 4) a late Cretaceous to Paleogene-Neogene period and 5) the Quaternary period. As well, we analyzed the sedimen-tary environment and lithologic features of every basin-forming period. The results show that there are several favorable source-reservoir-cap assemblages in our study area, making it a major region for future oil and gas exploration in China's northern Sichuan basin.

  10. Complex temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2 (United States)

    Adhikary, Ganesh; Biswas, Deepnarayan; Sahadev, Nishaina; Bindu, R.; Kumar, Neeraj; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Maiti, Kalobaran


    Employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy, we investigate the temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2, which is a parent compound of high temperature superconductors—CaFe2As2 exhibits superconductivity under pressure as well as doping of charge carriers. Photoemission results of CaFe2As2 in this study reveal a gradual shift of an energy band, α away from the chemical potential with decreasing temperature in addition to the spin density wave (SDW) transition induced Fermi surface reconstruction across SDW transition temperature. The corresponding hole pocket eventually disappears at lower temperatures, while the hole Fermi surface of the β band possessing finite p orbital character survives till the lowest temperature studied. These results, thus, reveal signature of complex charge redistribution among various energy bands as a function of temperature.

  11. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits “0” and “1”, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly.

  12. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits “0” and “1”, respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly. PMID:28195209

  13. Grayscale image recording on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through laser-induced structural evolution. (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Wei, Jingsong; Zhang, Kui; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Long


    Chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films have been widely exploited as binary bit recording materials in optical and non-volatile electronic information storage, where the crystalline and amorphous states are marked as the information bits "0" and "1", respectively. In this work, we demonstrate the use of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films as multi-level grayscale image recording materials. High-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through taking advantage of laser-induced structural evolution characteristic. Experimental results indicate that the change of laser energy results in the structural evolution of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films. The structural evolution induces the difference of electronic polarizability and reflectivity, and high-resolution grayscale images are recorded on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films through direct laser writing method, accordingly.

  14. The Structure Evolution of Fused Silica Induced by CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-Ming; LV Hai-Bing; ZHENG Wan-Guo; ZU Xiao-Tao; JIANG Yong; LUO Cheng-Si; SHI Xiao-Yan; REN Wei; XIANG Xia; WANG Hai-Jun; HE Shao-Bo; YUAN Xiao-Dong


    The structure evolution of fused silica induced by CO2 laser irradiation (with a wavelength of 10.6 μm) is studied in detail.In the non-evaporation mitigation process,the irradiation time should be long enough to completely eliminate damage.However,there is a raised rim around the mitigated site.The rim height is enhanced when the irradiation time increases,and the mitigated site can lead to off-axis and on-axis downstream light intensification.Volume shrinkage occurs during the irradiation and rapid cooling processes,and this may be due to a decrease in the Si O Si bond angle.The distribution of debris overlaps with the maximum phase retardance induced by stress.The debris arouses an enhanced light absorption in the region from 220nm to 800nm.%The structure evolution of fused silica induced by CO2 laser irradiation (with a wavelength of 10.6 μm) is studied in detail. In the non-evaporation mitigation process, the irradiation time should be long enough to completely eliminate damage. However, there is a raised rim around the mitigated site. The rim height is enhanced when the irradiation time increases, and the mitigated site can lead to off-axis and on-axis downstream light intensification. Volume shrinkage occurs during the irradiation and rapid cooling processes, and this may be due to a decrease in the Si-O-Si bond angle. The distribution of debris overlaps with the maximum phase retardance induced by stress. The debris arouses an enhanced light absorption in the region from 220 nm to 800 nm.

  15. Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey D Nadell


    Full Text Available On its own, a single cell cannot exert more than a microscopic influence on its immediate surroundings. However, via strength in numbers and the expression of cooperative phenotypes, such cells can enormously impact their environments. Simple cooperative phenotypes appear to abound in the microbial world, but explaining their evolution is challenging because they are often subject to exploitation by rapidly growing, non-cooperative cell lines. Population spatial structure may be critical for this problem because it influences the extent of interaction between cooperative and non-cooperative individuals. It is difficult for cooperative cells to succeed in competition if they become mixed with non-cooperative cells, which can exploit the public good without themselves paying a cost. However, if cooperative cells are segregated in space and preferentially interact with each other, they may prevail. Here we use a multi-agent computational model to study the origin of spatial structure within growing cell groups. Our simulations reveal that the spatial distribution of genetic lineages within these groups is linked to a small number of physical and biological parameters, including cell growth rate, nutrient availability, and nutrient diffusivity. Realistic changes in these parameters qualitatively alter the emergent structure of cell groups, and thereby determine whether cells with cooperative phenotypes can locally and globally outcompete exploitative cells. We argue that cooperative and exploitative cell lineages will spontaneously segregate in space under a wide range of conditions and, therefore, that cellular cooperation may evolve more readily than naively expected.

  16. Structure and evolution of electron "zebra stripes" in the inner radiation belt (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Foster, J. C.; Rankin, R.


    "Zebra stripes" are newly found energetic electron energy-spatial (L shell) distributed structure with an energy between tens to a few hundreds keV in the inner radiation belt. Using high-quality measurements of electron fluxes from Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on board the twin Van Allen Probes, we carry out case and statistical studies from April 2013 to April 2014 to study the structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes below L = 3. It is revealed that the zebra stripes can be transformed into evenly spaced patterns in the electron drift frequency coordinate: the detrended logarithmic fluxes in each L shell region can be well described by sinusoidal functions of drift frequency. The "wave number" of this sinusoidal function, which corresponds to the reciprocal of the gap between two adjacent peaks in the drift frequency coordinate, increases in proportion to real time. Further, these structural and evolutionary characteristics of zebra stripes can be reproduced by an analytic model of the evolution of the particle distribution under a single monochromatic or static azimuthal electric field. It is shown that the essential ingredient for the formation of multiple zebra stripes is the periodic drift of particles. The amplitude of the zebra stripes shows a good positive correlation with Kp index, which indicates that the generation mechanism of zebra stripes should be related to geomagnetic activities.

  17. Evolution of the Busbar Structure in Large-Scale Aluminum Reduction Cells (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Liang, Jinding; Li, Jie; Sun, Kena; Xiao, Jin


    Studies of magnetic field and magneto-hydro-dynamics are regarded as the foundation for the development of large-scale aluminum reduction cells, while due to the direct relationship between the busbar configuration and magnetic compensation, the actual key content is the configuration of the busbar. As the line current has been increased from 160 kA to 600 kA, the configuration of the busbar was becoming more complex. To summarize and explore the evolution of busbar configuration in aluminum reduction cells, this paper has reviewed various representative large-scale pre-baked aluminum reduction cell busbar structures, such as end-to-end potlines, side-by-side potlines and external compensation current. The advantages and disadvantages in the magnetic distribution or technical specifications have also been introduced separately, especially for the configurations of the mainstream 400-kA potlines. In the end, the development trends of the bus structure configuration were prospected, based on the recent successful applications of super-scale cell busbar structures in China (500-600 kA).

  18. Identification of structure and parameters of rheological constitutive model for rocks using differential evolution algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏国韶; 张小飞; 陈光强; 符兴义


    To determine structure and parameters of a rheological constitutive model for rocks,a new method based on differential evolution(DE) algorithm combined with FLAC3D(a numerical code for geotechnical engineering) was proposed for identification of the global optimum coupled of model structure and its parameters.At first,stochastic coupled mode was initialized,the difference in displacement between the numerical value and in-situ measurements was regarded as fitness value to evaluate quality of the coupled mode.Then the coupled-mode was updated continually using DE rule until the optimal parameters were found.Thus,coupled-mode was identified adaptively during back analysis process.The results of applications to Jinping tunnels in China show that the method is feasible and efficient for identifying the coupled-mode of constitutive structure and its parameters.The method overcomes the limitation of the traditional method and improves significantly precision and speed of displacement back analysis process.

  19. Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma: new perspectives on vertebrate genome structure and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss S Randal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because amphibians arise from a branch of the vertebrate evolutionary tree that is juxtaposed between fishes and amniotes, they provide important comparative perspective for reconstructing character changes that have occurred during vertebrate evolution. Here, we report the first comparative study of vertebrate genome structure that includes a representative amphibian. We used 491 transcribed sequences from a salamander (Ambystoma genetic map and whole genome assemblies for human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, zebrafish, and the freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis to compare gene orders and rearrangement rates. Results Ambystoma has experienced a rate of genome rearrangement that is substantially lower than mammalian species but similar to that of chicken and fish. Overall, we found greater conservation of genome structure between Ambystoma and tetrapod vertebrates, nevertheless, 57% of Ambystoma-fish orthologs are found in conserved syntenies of four or more genes. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal extensive conservation of segmental homology for 57% of the presumptive Ambystoma-amniote orthologs. Conclusion Our analyses suggest relatively constant interchromosomal rearrangement rates from the euteleost ancestor to the origin of mammals and illustrate the utility of amphibian mapping data in establishing ancestral amniote and tetrapod gene orders. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal some of the key events that have structured the human genome since diversification of the ancestral amniote lineage.

  20. Natural evolution inspired design of light trapping structure in thin film organic solar cells (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yu, Shuangcheng; Chen, Wei; Sun, Cheng


    Light trapping has been developed to effectively enhance the efficiency of the thin film solar cell by extending the pathlength for light interacting with the active materials. Searching for optimal light trapping design requires a delicate balance among all the competing physical processes, including light refraction, reflection, and absorption. The existing design methods mainly depend on engineers' intuition to predefine the topology of the light-trapping structure. However, these methods are not capable of handling the topological variation in reaching the optimal design. In this work, a systematic approach based on Genetic Algorithm is introduced to design the scattering pattern for effective light trapping. Inspired by natural evolution, this method can gradually improve the performance of light trapping structure through iterative procedures, producing the most favorable structure with minimized reflection and substantial enhancement in light absorption. Both slot waveguide based solar cell and a more realistic organic solar with a scattering layer consisting of nano-scale patterned front layer is optimized to maximize absorption by strongly coupling incident sun light into the localized photonic modes supported by the multilayer system. Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is implemented to evaluate the absorbance. The optimized slot waveguide cell achieves a broadband absorption efficiency of 48.1% and more than 3-fold increase over the Yablonovitch limit and the optimized realistic organic cell exhibits nearly 50% average absorbance over the solar spectrum with short circuit current density five times larger than the control case using planar ITO layer.

  1. Evolution of grain structure in AA2195 Al-Li alloy plate during recrystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-xuan; ZHANG Xin-ming; YE Ling-ying; LIU Sheng-dan


    The evolution of the grain structures in AA2195 Al-Li alloy plate warm-rolled by 80% reduction during recrystallization annealing at 500 ℃ was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the elongated grain structures are caused by the lamellar distribution of recrystallization nucleation sites,being lack of large second phase particles (> 1 μm), and dispersive coherent particles (such as δ'andβ) concentrated in planar bands.The recrystallization process may be separated into three stages: firstly, recrystallization nucleation occurs heterogeneously, and the nuclei are concentrated in some planar zones parallel to rolling plane. Secondly, the grain boundaries interacted with small particles concentrate in planar bands, which is able to result in the elongated grain structures. The rate of the grain growth is controlled by the dissolution of these small particles. Thirdly, after most of small particles are dissolved, their hindrance to migration of the grain boundaries fades away, and the unrecrystallized zones are consumed by adjacent recrystallized grains. The migration of high angle grain boundaries along normal direction leads a gradual transformation from the elongated grains to the nearly equiaxed, which is driven by the tension of the grain boundaries.

  2. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter


    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  3. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-


    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  4. Structures of Hydrated Alkali Metal Cations, M+(H2O)nAr (m = Li, Na, K, rb and Cs, n = 3-5), Using Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy and Thermodynamic Analysis (United States)

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M.


    Alkali metal cations play vital roles in chemical and biochemical systems. Lithium is widely used in psychiatric treatment of manic states and bipolar disorder; Sodium and potassium are essential elements, having major biological roles as electrolytes, balancing osmotic pressure on body cells and assisting the electroneurographic signal transmission; Rubidium has seen increasing usage as a supplementation for manic depression and depression treatment; Cesium doped compounds are used as essential catalysts in chemical production and organic synthesis. Since hydrated alkali metal cations are ubiquitous and the basic form of the alkali metal cations in chemical and biochemical systems, their structural and thermodynamic properties serve as the foundation for modeling more complex chemical and biochemical processes, such as ion transport and ion size-selectivity of ionophores and protein channels. By combining mass spectrometry and infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, we have characterized the structures and thermodynamic properties of the hydrated alkali metal cations, i.e. M+(H2O)nAr, (M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, n = 3-5). Ab initio calculations and RRKM-EE (evaporative ensemble) calculations were used to assist in the spectral assignments and thermodynamic analysis. Results showed that the structures of hydrated alkali metal cations were determined predominantly by the competition between non-covalent interactions, i.e. the water---water hydrogen bonding interactions and the water---cation electrostatic interactions. This balance, however, is very delicate and small changes, i.e. different cations, different levels of hydration and different effective temperatures clearly impact the balance.

  5. Structural and Molecular Evidence Suggesting Coronavirus-driven Evolution of Mouse Receptor. (United States)

    Peng, Guiqing; Yang, Yang; Pasquarella, Joseph R; Xu, Liqing; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V; Li, Fang


    Hosts and pathogens are locked in an evolutionary arms race. To infect mice, mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) has evolved to recognize mouse CEACAM1a (mCEACAM1a) as its receptor. To elude MHV infections, mice may have evolved a variant allele from the Ceacam1a gene, called Ceacam1b, producing mCEACAM1b, which is a much poorer MHV receptor than mCEACAM1a. Previous studies showed that sequence differences between mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b in a critical MHV-binding CC' loop partially account for the low receptor activity of mCEACAM1b, but detailed structural and molecular mechanisms for the differential MHV receptor activities of mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b remained elusive. Here we have determined the crystal structure of mCEACAM1b and identified the structural differences and additional residue differences between mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b that affect MHV binding and entry. These differences include conformational alterations of the CC' loop as well as residue variations in other MHV-binding regions, including β-strands C' and C'' and loop C'C''. Using pseudovirus entry and protein-protein binding assays, we show that substituting the structural and residue features from mCEACAM1b into mCEACAM1a reduced the viral receptor activity of mCEACAM1a, whereas substituting the reverse changes from mCEACAM1a into mCEACAM1b increased the viral receptor activity of mCEACAM1b. These results elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism for how mice may have kept pace in the evolutionary arms race with MHV by undergoing structural and residue changes in the MHV receptor, providing insight into this possible example of pathogen-driven evolution of a host receptor protein.

  6. Evolution lignite mesopore structure during drying. Effect of temperature and heating time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmas, C.E.; Tsetsekou, A.H.; Hatzilyberis, K.S.; Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Lab.


    The knowledge of the intrinsic pore structure of coals is significant in elucidating the kinetics of mass transport and chemical reaction that leads to design of more efficient coal combustion and conversion equipment. The results of pore structure studies of Greek lignite are reported in this work. Isothermal drying of Greek lignite samples, under vacuum, caused mesopore structure evolution despite the severe (similar to 50%) particle size contraction due to heating. Mesopore volume and surface area were increased as the drying temperature was raised to 200{degree}C while further drying up to 250 {degree}C caused a mesopore volume and surface area decrease. Lignite drying at 100{degree}C for up to 3 h resulted in a monotonic increase of the mesopore structure properties while heating for a longer period i.e., 6 h, despite a slight increase of weight loss, caused pore volume and surface area reduction. Nitrogen sorption (77 K) hysteresis data obtained for partially dried samples have been processed to deduce BET surface area and pore size distributions (PSD) by using both the Roberts and a new method based on a Corrugated Pore Structure Model (CPSM-nitrogen) methods. Bimodal PSD have been detected with one peak at 3 nm and the second at 20 nm while surface area varied over the range 2.98-5.30 m{sup 2}/g, Dry Greek lignite has shown a higher mesopore volume than that of several American and Canadian coals of varying rank. Mesopore volume distribution of dry Greek lignite, obtained from nitrogen sorption data, agree well with those deduced from mercury penetration data corrected for coal compressibility.

  7. Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets (United States)

    Violato, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio


    The three-dimensional behavior of flow transition in circular and 6-chevron jets at Re = 5000 is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. The emphasis is on the unsteady organization of coherent flow structures, which play a role in the generation of acoustic noise. Shedding and pairing of vortices are the most pronounced phenomena observed in the near field of the circular jet. The first and second pairing amplify the axial pulsatile motion in the jet column and lead to the growth of azimuthal waves culminating in the breakup of the vortex ring. Streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity are observed in the outer region and move inward and outward under the effect of the vortex rings. In the jet with chevrons, the axisymmetric ring-like coherence of the circular jet is not encountered. Instead, streamwise flow structures of azimuthal vorticity emanate from the chevron apices, and counter-rotating streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity develop from the chevron notches. The decay of streamwise vortices is accompanied by the formation of C-shaped structures. The three-dimensional analysis allows quantifying the vortex stretching and tilting activity, which, for the circular jet exit, is related to the azimuthal instabilities and the streamwise vortices connecting the vortex rings. In the chevron jet, stretching and tilting peak during the formation of C-structures. Following Powell's aeroacoustic analogy, the spatial distribution of the source term is mapped, evaluating the temporal derivative of the Lamb vector. The spatio-temporal evolution of such source term is visualized revealing that the events of highest activity are associated with the processes of vortex-ring pairing and vortex-ring disruption for the circular jet, and with the decay of streamwise instabilities and the formation of C-shaped structures for the chevron case.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela LAZĂR


    Full Text Available The contradictory evolutions of the indicators of labour force in Romania after 1900, with a trend hard to define, are sometimes difficult to explain using the classic statistical methods which show in certain cases surprising, atypical correlations. In this context, our paper presents the evolution of the employed population in Romania between 2002 and 2010, outlining the main dynamics and structural aspects. As a reinforcement of what was stated above, we realised a short-term forecast of the employed population and of the working age population , as well as a forecast of the structural changes of the employed population by development regions, using Markov’s chain method.

  9. Structural evolution during fragile-to-strong transition in CuZr(Al) glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, C.; Hu, L.N.; Sun, Q.J.


    the hyperquenching-annealing-x-ray scattering approach, we have observed a three-stage evolution pattern of medium-range ordering (MRO) structures during the F-S transition, indicating a dramatic change of the MRO clusters around Tf-s upon cooling. The F-S transition in CuZr(Al) GFLs is attributed to the competition...... among the MRO clusters composed of different locally ordering configurations. A phenomenological scenario has been proposed to explain the structural evolution from the fragile to the strong phase in the CuZr(Al) GFLs....

  10. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith


    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  11. Structural Evolution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in Anoxic Co2+Soultion : Interactional Performance and Mechanism (United States)

    Dai, C.; Zhang, Y.


    The nanoscale particle and low oxidation reduction potential make nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) an efficient sorbent and reductant for treating many kinds of organic contaminants and heavy metals.The structures of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are evolving in reactions, and the reactions are influenced by the evolved structures. In order to understand the detail removal process, it is important to investigate the interactions between reactions and structural evolution. In this work, reactions between nZVI and Co2+ at different initial concentrations in anoxic aqueous solutions (to eliminate the effects of O2) were tracked for 10 days using a variety of methods including inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Continuous removal and reduction of Co2+ by nZVI caused by structural evolution were revealed in reaction processes. The system pH (pH measured in mixture), which controls the stability of coprecipitation and the corrosion rate of nZVI, was deemed as the determining factors of structural evolutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the formation and dissolution of sheet structure impacts on the ratio of Fe (0) on nZVI's surface and the surface reduction of Co2+. The cavity structure provides the possibility of Co migrating from surface to inside of nZVI leading a continuous removal. A subacidity condition could accelerate the evolution to improve the removal of Co2+ and the results of structural controlled reactions further indicated that the removal was suspended by sheet structure and enhanced by cavity structure. The results in this study revealed "structural influence" for fully and dynamically understanding nZVI's reactions.

  12. the role of magmatism and segmentation in the structural evolution of the Afar Rift (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Quidelleur, Xavier; Ayalew, Dereje; Leroy, Sylvie


    A common issue at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is the lack of observation of the structures that accommodate stretching and thinning. Indeed, the most distal parts and the Ocean-Continent Transition is often masked by thick seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) sequences. Some current challenges are then to know if the observed thinning fit the divergence (thinning vs dyking); and what is the rheological effect of magma supply that re-thickens the crust during extension? In the Central Afar magmatic rift (Ethiopia), the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are cropping out onshore and are well preserved. We present here a new structural model based on field data and lavas (U-Th/He and K/Ar) datings along a balanced cross-section of the Central Afar Western Margin. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series (29-30 Ma) unconformably overlain by tilted Oligo-Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. The Pliocene flood basalt (Stratoid series) is erupted over an already thinned crust. The bulk extension for the Afar Western Margin is ß ~ 2.50. Our main findings are: - Oligo-Miocene deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time ("magmatic wide rift"). It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient plate boundary during the whole rifting history until the formation of present-day magmatic segments. There is a period of tectonic quiescence accompanied with few magma erupted at the surface between 25 Ma and 7 Ma. We suggest that tectonic and magmatic activity was focused at that time on the highly faulted Danakil block and Southern Red Sea, away from our study zone. - ß ~ 2.50 is higher than the thinning factor of ~1.30 observed in geophysical studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened during extension by the syn

  13. Eruptive history of western and central Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): temporal evolution of magmatism and of morphological structures (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.; Peccerillo, A.


    The Aeolian Island archipelago is a complex volcanic province located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. It emplaced in a geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on the western and central volcanoes that are respectively Alicudi-Filicudi-Salina and Lipari-Vulcano. They erupted the whole range of magmas typical of convergence settings : from calc-alkaline (CA) to potassic series (KS) through high-K CA (HKCA) and shoshonitic series (SHO). All these magma products were emitted in a span time of less than 300 ka that attests to the complexity of the volcano-tectonic evolution of this province. We report new geochronological data, based on the K/Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique, which is well suited for dating Quaternary volcanic materials. New geochemical analyses were realized on the dated samples in order to study the temporal evolution of the magmatism. These data sets were coupled with geomorphological analysis to study the relation between main morphological structures and eruptive styles. Before 180 ka, only the Filicudi, Salina and Lipari volcanoes had emerged activity. Their magmas have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously at the extremities of the archipelago. Alicudi products are less various and have the more primitive composition. SHO and HKCA products were emitted on Lipari and Vulcano, while only CA magmas were emplaced on Filicudi and Salina. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi is characterized by mafic magmas of HKCA affinity. To the other extremity, similar products of SHO affinity were emplaced in southern Lipari and northern Vulcano. At this period, explosive activity with dacitic pumices occurred in Salina. The degree of differentiation and the K enrichment increase from western sector to central sector volcanoes and through time except at

  14. Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) activities (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.


    A review on the activities and achievements of Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) and Armenian astronomy in general during the last years is given. ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, Annual Meetings, Annual Prize for Young Astronomers (Yervant Terzian Prize) and other awards, international relations, presence in international organizations, local and international summer schools, science camps, astronomical Olympiads and other events, matters related to astronomical education, astronomical heritage, amateur astronomy, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are described and discussed.

  15. Combined Structural and Compositional Evolution of Planetary Rings Due to Micrometeoroid Impacts and Ballistic Transport (United States)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.


    We introduce improved numerical techniques for simulating the structural and compositional evolution of planetary rings due to micrometeoroid bombardment and subsequent ballistic transport of impact ejecta. Our current, robust code is capable of modeling structural changes and pollution transport simultaneously over long times on both local and global scales. In this paper, we describe the methodology based on the original structural code of Durisen et al. (1989, Icarus 80, 136-166) and on the pollution transport code of Cuzzi and Estrada (1998, Icarus 132, 1-35). We provide demonstrative simulations to compare with, and extend upon previous work, as well as examples of how ballistic transport can maintain the observed structure in Saturn's rings using available Cassini occultation optical depth data. In particular, we explicitly verify the claim that the inner B (and presumably A) ring edge can be maintained over long periods of time due to an ejecta distribution that is heavily biased in the prograde direction through a balance between the sharpening effects of ballistic transport and the broadening effects of viscosity. We also see that a "ramp"-like feature forms over time just inside that edge. However, it does not remain linear for the duration of the runs presented here unless a less steep ejecta velocity distribution is adopted. We also model the C ring plateaus and find that their outer edges can be maintained at their observed sharpness for long periods due to ballistic transport. We hypothesize that the addition of a significant component of a retrograde-biased ejecta distribution may help explain the linearity of the ramp and is probably essential for maintaining the sharpness of C ring plateau inner edges. This component would arise for the subset of micrometeoroid impacts which are destructive rather than merely cratering. Such a distribution will be introduced in future work.

  16. Taxadiene Synthase Structure and Evolution of Modular Architecture in Terpene Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Köksal; Y Jin; R Coates; R Croteau; D Christianson


    With more than 55,000 members identified so far in all forms of life, the family of terpene or terpenoid natural products represents the epitome of molecular biodiversity. A well-known and important member of this family is the polycyclic diterpenoid Taxol (paclitaxel), which promotes tubulin polymerization and shows remarkable efficacy in cancer chemotherapy. The first committed step of Taxol biosynthesis in the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) is the cyclization of the linear isoprenoid substrate geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to form taxa-4(5),11(12)diene, which is catalysed by taxadiene synthase. The full-length form of this diterpene cyclase contains 862 residues, but a roughly 80-residue amino-terminal transit sequence is cleaved on maturation in plastids. We now report the X-ray crystal structure of a truncation variant lacking the transit sequence and an additional 27 residues at the N terminus, hereafter designated TXS. Specifically, we have determined structures of TXS complexed with 13-aza-13,14-dihydrocopalyl diphosphate (1.82 {angstrom} resolution) and 2-fluorogeranylgeranyl diphosphate (2.25 {angstrom} resolution). The TXS structure reveals a modular assembly of three {alpha}-helical domains. The carboxy-terminal catalytic domain is a class I terpenoid cyclase, which binds and activates substrate GGPP with a three-metal ion cluster. The N-terminal domain and a third 'insertion' domain together adopt the fold of a vestigial class II terpenoid cyclase. A class II cyclase activates the isoprenoid substrate by protonation instead of ionization, and the TXS structure reveals a definitive connection between the two distinct cyclase classes in the evolution of terpenoid biosynthesis.

  17. Structure evolution of poly(3-hexylthiophene) on Si wafer and poly(vinylphenol) sublayer. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhongjie; Liu, Junteng; Takahashi, Isao; Yan, Shouke


    The structure evolution of P3HT thin films on Si wafer and PVPh covered Si wafer during heating, thermal annealing, and melt recrystallization processes has been studied in detail using X-ray analysis techniques. The effect of substrate on the crystallization behavior and interface structure of P3HT films was explored. For the P3HT films deposited on the Si substrate, it was found that the stability of P3HT crystals is orientation dependent. The crystals oriented with b-axis normal to the substrate, that is, a face-on molecular orientation, are less stable than those with the a-axis arranged normal to the substrate (side-on molecular orientation). Thermal annealing temperature plays an important role in the molecular structure of P3HT including crystal structure, film thickness, and surface roughness. After annealing at relatively high temperature, new crystals form during the cooling process accompanied by the shrinking of a-axis. Moreover, the melt recrystallization favors the formation of more stable P3HT crystals with side-on molecular orientation. The PVPh substrate does not affect the crystallization behavior of solution cast P3HT significantly but inhibits the formation of P3HT crystal with face-on molecular orientation. However, the interfacial morphology of P3HT and PVPh changes by annealing at elevated temperature. The P3HT/PVPh interface changes from a sharply defined one into a diffused one at around 160 °C. The PVPh sublayer inhibits the melt recrystallization of P3HT to some extent, leading to a slight expansion of the a-axis.

  18. Structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite composites and removal of aqueous lead by composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusmin, Ruhaida, E-mail: [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Negeri Sembilan, Kuala Pilah 72000 (Malaysia); Sarkar, Binoy, E-mail: [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Liu, Yanju [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); McClure, Stuart [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile preparation of chitosan–palygorskite composite beads demonstrated. • Components’ mass ratio impacted structural characteristics of composites. • Mechanism of composite formation and structure of composite beads proposed. • Composite beads adsorbed significantly greater amount of Pb than pristine materials. • In-depth investigation done on Pb adsorption mechanisms. - Abstract: This paper investigates the structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite (CP) composites in relation to variable mass ratios of their individual components. The composite beads’ performance in lead (Pb) adsorption from aqueous solution was also examined. The composite beads were prepared through direct dispersion of chitosan and palygorskite at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mass ratios (CP1, CP2 and C2P, respectively). Analyses by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the dependence of the composites’ structural characteristics on their composition mass ratio. The chitosan–palygorskite composite beads exhibited a better Pb adsorption performance than the pristine materials (201.5, 154.5, 147.1, 27.7 and 9.3 mg g{sup −1} for CP1, C2P, CP2, chitosan and palygorskite, respectively). Adsorption of Pb by CP1 and CP2 followed Freundlich isothermal model, while C2P fitted to Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption by all the composites fitted to the pseudo-second order model with pore diffusion also acting as a major rate governing step. The surface properties and specific interaction between chitosan and palygorskite in the composites were the most critical factors that influenced their capabilities in removing toxic metals from water.

  19. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourasse Nicolas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. Methods In the present study, we conducted combined sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of introns, host gene, plasmid and chromosome of host strains in order to gain insights into mobility, dispersal, and evolution of the unusual introns and their extension. We also performed in vitro mutational and kinetic experiments to investigate possible functional features related to the extension. Results We report the identification of novel copies of group II introns carrying a 3' extension including the first two copies in bacteria not belonging to the B. cereus group, Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2, an uncharacterized species phylogenetically close to B. firmus. Interestingly, the B. pseudofirmus intron has a longer extension of 70 bases. From sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, several possible separate events of mobility involving the atypical introns could be identified, including both retrohoming and retrotransposition events. In addition, identical extensions were found in introns that otherwise exhibit little sequence conservation in the rest of their structures, with the exception of the conserved and catalytically critical domains V and VI, suggesting either separate acquisition of the extra segment by different group II introns or a strong selection pressure acting on the extension. Furthermore, we show by in vitro splicing experiments that the 3' extension affects the splicing properties differently in

  20. Structure and evolution of the mouse pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg gene locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Katsuzumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (Psg genes encode proteins of unknown function, and are members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (Cea gene family, which is a member of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig superfamily. In rodents and primates, but not in artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates / hoofed mammals, there have been independent expansions of the Psg gene family, with all members expressed exclusively in placental trophoblast cells. For the mouse Psg genes, we sought to determine the genomic organisation of the locus, the expression profiles of the various family members, and the evolution of exon structure, to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this locus, and to determine whether expansion of the gene family has been driven by selection for increased gene dosage, or diversification of function. Results We collated the mouse Psg gene sequences currently in the public genome and expressed-sequence tag (EST databases and used systematic BLAST searches to generate complete sequences for all known mouse Psg genes. We identified a novel family member, Psg31, which is similar to Psg30 but, uniquely amongst mouse Psg genes, has a duplicated N1 domain. We also identified a novel splice variant of Psg16 (bCEA. We show that Psg24 and Psg30 / Psg31 have independently undergone expansion of N-domain number. By mapping BAC, YAC and cosmid clones we described two clusters of Psg genes, which we linked and oriented using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH. Comparison of our Psg locus map with the public mouse genome database indicates good agreement in overall structure and further elucidates gene order. Expression levels of Psg genes in placentas of different developmental stages revealed dramatic differences in the developmental expression profile of individual family members. Conclusion We have combined existing information, and provide new information concerning the evolution of mouse Psg exon organization, the mouse

  1. Stress field evolution law of mining environment reconstructing structure with change of filling height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; WANG Li-li


    For improving global stability of mining environment reconstructing structure,the stress field evolution law of the structure with the filling height change of low-grade backfill was studied by ADINA finite element analysis code.Three kinds of filling schemes were designed and calculated,in which the filling heights were 2,4,and 7 m,separately.The results show that there are some rules in the stress field with the increase of the filling height as follows:(1)the maximum value of tension stress of the roof decreases gradually,and stress conditions are improved gradually;(2)the tension stress status in the vertical pillar is transformed into the compressive stress status,and the carrying capacity is improved gradually; however,when the filling height is beyond 2.8 m,the carrying capacity of the vertical pillar grows very slowly,so,there is little significance to continue to fill the low-grade backfill;(3)the bottom pillar suffers the squeezing action from the vertical pillars at first and then the gravity action of the low-grade backfill,and the maximum value of tension stress of the bottom pillar firstly increases and then decreases.Considering the economic factor,security and other factors,the low-grade backfill has the most reasonable height(2.8 m)in the scope of all filling height.

  2. Rogers' paradox recast and resolved: population structure and the evolution of social learning strategies. (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N


    We explore the evolution of reliance on social and asocial learning using a spatially explicit stochastic model. Our analysis considers the relative merits of four evolved strategies, two pure strategies (asocial and social learning) and two conditional strategies (the "critical social learner," which learns asocially only when copying fails, and the "conditional social learner," which copies only when asocial learning fails). We find that spatial structure generates outcomes that do not always conform to the finding of earlier theoretical analyses that social learning does not enhance average individual fitness at equilibrium (Rogers' paradox). Although we describe circumstances under which the strategy of pure social learning increases the average fitness of individuals, we find that spatial structure introduces a new paradox, which is that social learning can spread even when it decreases the average fitness of individuals below that of asocial learners. We also show that the critical social learner and conditional social learner both provide solutions to the aforementioned paradoxes, although we find some conditions in which pure (random) social learning out-competes both conditional strategies. Finally, we consider the relative merits of critical and conditional social learning under various conditions.

  3. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  4. Phase-Field Methods for Structure Evolution in Sheared Multiphase Systems (United States)

    Badalassi, Vittorio; Ceniceros, Hector; Banerjee, Sanjoy


    A homogeneous disordered phase separates into ordered structures when quenched into a broken-symmetry phase. The competition of broken-symmetry phases to select an equilibrium state may be studied in terms of coarse-grained order parameters described by a suitable Landau free-energy function. A network of equilibrium-phase domains develops on quenching and coarsens with time with a topology that may be controlled by shear. We use three-dimensional simulations, in which time-dependent models for conserved-order parameters coupled to Navier-Stokes fluid models are solved, to investigate the evolution of such domains, e.g. spinodal decompositions of polymeric materials under shear. The numerical problems are formidable because of the strong nonlinearities inherent in the coupled model, and these are amongst the first 3D calculations undertaken. In linear shear fields we find stable nanostrings, also recently seen in experiments. The affinity of the ordered phases to boundaries plays a role in the form of the structures that develop, with stacked plate-like phase distributions emerging under certain conditions. Such methods appear quite promising for design and analysis of multiphase and complex fluid formulations. The behavior of foams in such conditions is of particular interest in microgravity environments. Additional information can be found in the original extended abstract.

  5. Structural evolution of amino acid crystals under stress from a non-empirical density functional (United States)

    Sabatini, Riccardo; Küçükbenli, Emine; Kolb, Brian; Thonhauser, T.; de Gironcoli, Stefano


    Use of the non-local correlation functional vdW-DF (from ‘van der Waals density functional’ Dion M et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 246401) has become a popular approach for including van der Waals interactions within density functional theory. In this work, we extend the vdW-DF theory and derive the corresponding stress tensor in a fashion similar to the LDA and GGA approach, which allows for a straightforward implementation in any electronic structure code. We then apply our methodology to investigate the structural evolution of amino acid crystals of glycine and l-alanine under pressure up to 10 GPa—with and without van der Waals interactions—and find that for an accurate description of intermolecular interactions and phase transitions in these systems, the inclusion of van der Waals interactions is crucial. For glycine, calculations including the vdW-DF (vdW-DF-c09x) functional are found to systematically overestimate (underestimate) the crystal lattice parameters, yet the stability ordering of the different polymorphs is determined accurately, at variance with the GGA case. In the case of l-alanine, our vdW-DF results agree with recent experiments that question the phase transition reported for this crystal at 2.3 GPa, as the a and c cell parameters happen to become equal but no phase transition is observed.

  6. The Small-Scale Structure of the Magellanic Stream as a Foundation for Galaxy Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigra, L.


    Full Text Available The Magellanic Stream (MS is the nearest example of agaseous trail formed by interacting galaxies. While the substantial gas masses in these kinds of circumgalactic structures are postulated to represent important sources of fuel for future star formation, the mechanisms whereby this material might be accreted back into galaxies remain unclear. Recent neutral hydrogen (HI observations have demonstrated that the northern portion of the MS, which probably has been interacting with the Milky Way's hot gaseous halo for close to 1000~Myr, has a larger spatial extent than previously recognized, while also containing significant amounts of small-scale structure. After a brief consideration of the large-scale kinematics of the MS as traced by the recently-discovered extension of the MS, we explore the aging process of the MS gas through the operation of various hydrodynamic instabilities and interstellar turbulence. This in turn leads to consideration of processes whereby MS material survives as cool gas, and yet also evidently fails to form stars.Parallels between the MS and extragalactic tidal features are briefly discussed with an emphasis on steps toward establishing what the MS reveals about the critical role of local processes in determining the evolution of these kinds of systems.

  7. The evolution of continuous learning of the structure of the environment. (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon; Lotem, Arnon


    Continuous, 'always on', learning of structure from a stream of data is studied mainly in the fields of machine learning or language acquisition, but its evolutionary roots may go back to the first organisms that were internally motivated to learn and represent their environment. Here, we study under what conditions such continuous learning (CL) may be more adaptive than simple reinforcement learning and examine how it could have evolved from the same basic associative elements. We use agent-based computer simulations to compare three learning strategies: simple reinforcement learning; reinforcement learning with chaining (RL-chain) and CL that applies the same associative mechanisms used by the other strategies, but also seeks statistical regularities in the relations among all items in the environment, regardless of the initial association with food. We show that a sufficiently structured environment favours the evolution of both RL-chain and CL and that CL outperforms the other strategies when food is relatively rare and the time for learning is limited. This advantage of internally motivated CL stems from its ability to capture statistical patterns in the environment even before they are associated with food, at which point they immediately become useful for planning.

  8. Evolution of gel structure during thermal processing of Na-geopolymer gels. (United States)

    Duxson, Peter; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J


    The present work examines how the gel structure and phase composition of Na-geopolymers derived from metakaolin with varied Si/Al ratio evolve with exposure to temperatures up to 1000 degrees C. Gels were thermally treated and characterized using quantitative XRD, DTA, and FTIR to elucidate the changes in gel structure, phase composition, and porosity at each stage of heating. It is found that the phase stability, defined by the amount and onset temperature of crystallization, is improved at higher Si/Al ratios. Two different mechanisms of densification have been isolated by FTIR, related to viscous flow and collapse of the highly distributed pore network in the gel. Gels with low Si/Al ratio only experience viscous flow that correlates with low thermal shrinkage. Gels at a higher Si/Al ratio, which have a homogeneous microstructure composed of a highly distributed porosity, undergo both densification processes corresponding to a large extent of thermal shrinkage during densification. This work elucidates the intimate relationship between gel microstructure, chemistry, and thermal evolution of Na-geopolymer gels.

  9. Structure and evolution of a European Parliament via a network and correlation analysis (United States)

    Puccio, Elena; Pajala, Antti; Piilo, Jyrki; Tumminello, Michele


    We present a study of the network of relationships among elected members of the Finnish parliament, based on a quantitative analysis of initiative co-signatures, and its evolution over 16 years. To understand the structure of the parliament, we constructed a statistically validated network of members, based on the similarity between the patterns of initiatives they signed. We looked for communities within the network and characterized them in terms of members' attributes, such as electoral district and party. To gain insight on the nested structure of communities, we constructed a hierarchical tree of members from the correlation matrix. Afterwards, we studied parliament dynamics yearly, with a focus on correlations within and between parties, by also distinguishing between government and opposition. Finally, we investigated the role played by specific individuals, at a local level. In particular, whether they act as proponents who gather consensus, or as signers. Our results provide a quantitative background to current theories in political science. From a methodological point of view, our network approach has proven able to highlight both local and global features of a complex social system.

  10. Structure and evolution of strange attractors in non-elastic triangular billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, Aubin; Sanders, David P


    We study pinball billiard dynamics in an equilateral triangular table. In such dynamics, collisions with the walls are non-elastic: the outgoing angle with the normal vector to the boundary is a uniform factor $\\lambda < 1$ smaller than the incoming angle. This leads to contraction in phase space for the discrete-time dynamics between consecutive collisions, and hence to attractors of zero Lebesgue measure, which are almost always fractal strange attractors with chaotic dynamics, due to the presence of an expansion mechanism. We study the structure of these strange attractors and their evolution as the contraction parameter $\\lambda$ is varied. For $\\lambda$ in the interval (0, 1/3), we prove rigorously that the attractor has the structure of a Cantor set times an interval, whereas for larger values of $\\lambda$ the billiard dynamics gives rise to nonaccessible regions in phase space. For $\\lambda$ close to 1, the attractor splits into three transitive components, the basins of attraction of which have fra...

  11. Structural evolution beneath Sakurajima Volcano, Japan, revealed through rounds of controlled seismic experiments (United States)

    Tsutsui, Tomoki; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Haruhisa


    Structural evolution beneath an active volcano is detected as the variation of seismic reflectivity through controlled seismic experiments, which is interpreted as being associated with discharging magma. The target of the present study is Sakurajima Volcano, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. Six rounds of seismic experiments with controlled sources have been conducted annually at the volcano. Two seismic reflection profiles are obtained from the datasets for each successful round of experiments. The experiments reveal clear annual variation in seismic reflectivity at a depth of 6.2 km in the northeastern part of Sakurajima. The reflectivity is maximum in December 2009 upon the first intrusion of magma and decreases gradually until December 2013, which coincides with the inflation and deflation cycle of Sakurajima Volcano. Reflectivity variation occurred in the embedded clear reflector at depth. An evolving sandwiched structure in the intermediate layer is used as the reflector model. Lower-velocity magma embedded in the intermediate layer and its succeeding velocity increment explain the variation range of reflectivity. This is interpreted as a temperature decrease associated with discharging magma at depth. The present study describes a new approach for instantaneously sensing magma properties and for monitoring active volcanoes.

  12. The Evolution of Carbon Nanotube Network Structure in Unidirectional Nanocomposites Resolved by Quantitative Electron Tomography. (United States)

    Natarajan, Bharath; Lachman, Noa; Lam, Thomas; Jacobs, Douglas; Long, Christian; Zhao, Minhua; Wardle, Brian L; Sharma, Renu; Liddle, J Alexander


    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymers are next-generation, high-performance, multifunctional materials with a wide array of promising applications. The successful introduction of such materials is hampered by the lack of a quantitative understanding of process-structure-property relationships. These relationships can be developed only through the detailed characterization of the nanoscale reinforcement morphology within the embedding medium. Here, we reveal the three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale morphology of high volume fraction (V(f)) aligned CNT/epoxy-matrix nanocomposites using energy-filtered electron tomography. We present an automated phase-identification method for fast, accurate, representative rendering of the CNT spatial arrangement in these low-contrast bimaterial systems. The resulting nanometer-scale visualizations provide quantitative information on the evolution of CNT morphology and dispersion state with increasing V(f), including network structure, CNT alignment, bundling and waviness. The CNTs are observed to exhibit a nonlinear increase in bundling and alignment and a decrease in waviness as a function of increasing V(f). Our findings explain previously observed discrepancies between the modeled and measured trends in bulk mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. The techniques we have developed for morphological quantitation are applicable to many low-contrast material systems.

  13. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Zhang, Hong-Guo; Liu, Dan-Min; Zhang, Jiu-Xing


    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51171003, 51071007, and 51401002).

  14. A game theoretical approach to the evolution of structured communication codes. (United States)

    Fontanari, José F; Perlovsky, Leonid I


    Structured meaning-signal mappings, i.e., mappings that preserve neighborhood relationships by associating similar signals with similar meanings, are advantageous in an environment where signals are corrupted by noise and sub-optimal meaning inferences are rewarded as well. The evolution of these mappings, however, cannot be explained within a traditional language evolutionary game scenario in which individuals meet randomly because the evolutionary dynamics is trapped in local maxima that do not reflect the structure of the meaning and signal spaces. Here we use a simple game theoretical model to show analytically that when individuals adopting the same communication code meet more frequently than individuals using different codes-a result of the spatial organization of the population-then advantageous linguistic innovations can spread and take over the population. In addition, we report results of simulations in which an individual can communicate only with its K nearest neighbors and show that the probability that the lineage of a mutant that uses a more efficient communication code becomes fixed decreases exponentially with increasing K. These findings support the mother tongue hypothesis that human language evolved as a communication system used among kin, especially between mothers and offspring.

  15. Evolution of graphene molecules: structural and functional complexity as driving forces behind nanoscience. (United States)

    Müllen, Klaus


    The evolution of nanoscience is based on the ability of the fields of chemistry and physics to share competencies through mutually beneficial collaborations. With this in mind, in this Perspective, I describe three classes of compounds: rylene dyes, polyphenylene dendrimers, as well as nanographene molecules and graphene nanoribbons, which have provided a superb platform to nurture these relationships. The synthesis of these complex structures is demanding but also rewarding because they stimulate unique investigations at the single-molecule level by scanning tunneling microscopy and single-molecule spectroscopy. There are close functional and structural relationships between the molecules chosen. In particular, rylenes and nanographenes can be regarded as honeycomb-type, discoid species composed of fused benzene rings. The benzene ring can thus be regarded as a universal modular building block. Polyphenylene dendrimers serve, first, as a scaffold for dyes en route to multichromophoric systems and, second, as chemical precursors for graphene synthesis. Through chemical design, it is possible to tune the properties of these systems at the single-molecule level and to achieve nanoscale control over their self-assembly to form multifunctional (nano)materials.

  16. Structure and evolution of the sea star egg receptor for sperm bindin. (United States)

    Hart, Michael W


    Selection on coevolving sperm- and egg-recognition molecules is a potent engine of population divergence leading to reproductive isolation and speciation. The study of receptor-ligand pairs can reveal co-evolution of male- and female-expressed genes or differences between their evolution in response to selective factors such as sperm competition and sexual conflict. Phylogeographical studies of these patterns have been limited by targeted gene methods that favour short protein-coding sequences amplifiable by PCR. Here, I use high-throughput transcriptomic methods to characterize the structure and divergence of full-length coding sequences for the gene encoding the protein component of a large complex egg surface glycopeptide receptor for the sperm acrosomal protein bindin from the sea star Patiria miniata. I used a simple but effective method for resolving nucleotide polymorphisms into haplotypes for phylogeny-based analyses of selection. The protein domain organization of sea star egg bindin receptor (EBR1) was similar to sea urchins and included a pair of protein-recognition domains plus a series of tandem repeat domains of two types. Two populations separated by a well-characterized phylogeographical break included lineages of EBR1 alleles under positive selection at several codons (similar to selection on sperm bindin in the same populations). However, these populations shared the same alleles that were under selection for amino acid differences at multiple codons (unlike the pattern of selection for population divergence in sperm bindin). The significance of positively selected EBR1 domains and alleles could be tested in functional analyses of fertilization rates associated with EBR1 (and bindin) polymorphisms.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the change of geopolitical pattern of the world, pacific rim area increases economic cooperation, instead of military antagonism. After reform and open to outside world, the southern China takes in an amount of investment from Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan, taking advantage of superior geo-environment and thus forms a topical model of core-periphery in the southern China. The core-periphery model in the southern China is territorially made of three parts: core area-Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan; peripherial area Zhujiang delta; second core area-parts of Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Fujian Province and Hainan Province and Cuangxi Zhnang Autonomous Region. Its evolutional stage of this model can be divided into four stages: (1) the stage of polarization of core area; (2) the stage of the second core area strongly controlled by core area; (3) the transitional stage of the second area; (4) the stage of the southern China space integrity. Taking the core-periphrial model in the southern China as an integrity of interrelational and rational division, its whole functional organized system is “input-product-assemble-output”, core area is mainly then as the managed and transported center, the second area plays a product and productive control function and becomes center of manufacturing, study and development, periphrial area constructs as the center of material and raw material and the base of agricultural and side-line products. Based on the analysis of the formative structure, evolutional law and the design of territorial function, we suggust the way of territerial optimazation as follows: (1) establishing the large hinterland which takes Xijiang basin as its core; (2) construct the high and renewed technological corridor; (3) constructing stable and varied material and raw material base; (4) reinforcing the organization and adjustment and managment between core area,periphrial area and second periphrial area. (5) constucting the varied corridor among core area

  18. Thermal structure, composition, atmospheric dynamics and long-term evolution of irradiated exoplanets (United States)

    Parmentier, Vivien


    More than a thousand exoplanets have been discovered over the last decade. Perhaps more excitingly, probing their atmospheres has become possible. We now have spectra of hot Jupiters like HD 189733b and HD 209458b, of Neptune-like planets like GJ1214b and even smaller planets are within reach. Most exoplanet atmospheric observations are averaged spatially, often over a hemi- sphere (during secondary eclipse) or over the limb of the planet (during transit). For favorable targets, longitudinal and latitudinal resolution can also be obtained with phase curve and secondary eclipse mapping techniques respectively. The closer the planet orbits to its star, the easier it is to observe. These hot planets strongly differ from the examples we have in our solar-system. Proper models of their atmospheres are challenging yet necessary to understand current and future observations. In this thesis, I use a hierarchy of atmospheric models to understand the interactions between the thermal structure, the composition, the atmospheric circulation and the long-term evolution of irradiated planets. In these planets, the large stellar irradiation dominates the energy budget of the atmosphere. It powers a strong atmospheric circulation that transports heat and material around the planet, driving the atmosphere out of thermal and chemical equilibrium and affecting its long-term evolution. Future instruments (Gaia, SPIRou, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO etc) will discover many more planets that the next generation of telescopes (GMT, TMT, E-ELT or JWST) will characterize with an unprecedented accuracy. Models will be tested on a large sample of planets, extending the study of climates to exoplanets.

  19. "LPO Lite" : Representing Lattice Preferred Orientation and its Evolution Using Structured Basis Functions (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.; Castelnau, O.


    Current methods for calculating the evolution of flow-induced seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle describe Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO) using ensembles of 103-104 individual grains, and are nowaday too computationally expensive to be incorporated into three-dimensional time-dependent convection models. We propose a much faster (by a factor ~ 103) method wherein LPO is described by a small number of 'structured basis functions' (SBFs.) The number of SBFs required is equal to the number of active slip systems (= 3 for olivine), and each SBF represents the 'virtual' LPO that would be produced by the action of just one of those systems. Analytical expressions for the SBFs are obtained using a simple 'single-slip' (SS) model, and are then tested against the predictions of the second-order (SO) self-consistent model of Ponte-Castaneda (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50, 737-757, 2002) in which several slip systems act simultaneously. Remarkably, the SS model reproduces exactly (99.9% variance reduction) the orientation- dependence of the slip rate ·γ predicted by the SO model for each active slip system, once the overall amplitude of the SS expression for ·γ has been determined by least-squares fitting to the SO prediction. Having thus demonstrated that the analytical SBFs are physically realistic, we develop a scheme for representing an arbitrary LPO as a superposition of the SBFs and for determining the evolution equations satisfied by the expansion coefficients. We illustrate the method both for simple uniform deformations (uniaxial compression, simple shear) and for more geophysically realistic nonuniform deformation histories.

  20. ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fanlo

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el pulmón es el órgano diana por excelencia de la tuberculosis, cualquier otro órgano y sistema puede verse afectado. En este trabajo se revisan las formas de tuberculosis extrapulmonar a excepción de la pleural que requieren del facultativo, en ocasiones, su más valiosa pericia diagnóstica. Desde la temida meningitis tuberculosa, pasando por la afectación insidiosa de la espondilodiscitis, la llamativa afectación ganglionar, la afectación genitourinaria, la pericarditis, para terminar las formas menos frecuentes como la ocular o la cutánea. En cada apartado indicaremos lo más característico con la finalidad de que pueda servir de orientación diagnóstica y terapéutica.

  1. The evolution of galaxies at constant number density: a less biased view of star formation, quenching, and structural formation (United States)

    Ownsworth, Jamie R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Mundy, Carl J.; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, William G.; Duncan, Kenneth; Almaini, Omar


    Due to significant galaxy contamination and impurity in stellar mass selected samples (up to 95 per cent from z = 0-3), we examine the star formation history, quenching time-scales, and structural evolution of galaxies using a constant number density selection with data from the United Kingdom Infra-Red Deep Sky Survey Ultra-Deep Survey field. Using this methodology, we investigate the evolution of galaxies at a variety of number densities from z = 0-3. We find that samples chosen at number densities ranging from 3 × 10-4 to 10-5 galaxies Mpc-3 (corresponding to z ˜ 0.5 stellar masses of M* = 1010.95-11.6 M0) have a star-forming blue fraction of ˜50 per cent at z ˜ 2.5, which evolves to a nearly 100 per cent quenched red and dead population by z ˜ 1. We also see evidence for number density downsizing, such that the galaxies selected at the lowest densities (highest masses) become a homogeneous red population before those at higher number densities. Examining the evolution of the colours for these systems furthermore shows that the formation redshift of galaxies selected at these number densities is zform > 3. The structural evolution through size and Sérsic index fits reveal that while there remains evolution in terms of galaxies becoming larger and more concentrated in stellar mass at lower redshifts, the magnitude of the change is significantly smaller than for a mass-selected sample. We also find that changes in size and structure continues at z < 1, and is coupled strongly to passivity evolution. We conclude that galaxy structure is driving the quenching of galaxies, such that galaxies become concentrated before they become passive.

  2. Structure and multiphased evolution of the Demerara plateau (offshore Suriname, French Guiana) (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Basile, Christophe; Loncke, Lies; Maillard, Agnès; Grall, Céline; Roest, Walter R.; de Clarens, Philippe


    Offshore Suriname and French Guiana, the Demerara plateau is a continental indentation at the intersection of two oceanic domains : the Jurassic Central Atlantic and the Early Cretaceous Equatorial Atlantic. Its three borders are passive margins. The northern one is a transform margin, the two others are rifted margins, thinned during Trias/Jurassic (westward), and a second time during Early Cretaceous (eastward). The main stratigraphic feature of the Demerara plateau is the major upper Albian angular erosive unconformity, synchronous to the Equatorial Atlantic break-up. We here focus on the sedimentary records observed below the upper Albian discordance, where seismic data show more than 13 km of layered units. The aim of this study is to give new insights about the evolution of the Demerara plateau during Mesozoic times, in order to constrain vertical displacements especially in relation with the transform margin. We use mostly structural interpretation of industrial and academic seismic lines (GUYAPLAC, 2003 and IGUANES, 2013), calibrated by industrial wells down to Berriasian times. It allows us to propose structural maps and regional interpretative cross-sections of the plateau and its three borders. On seismic lines, undated prominent seismic units are characterized by important thickness variations, and weak continuity of intern reflectors. They thicken westward (toward the Central Atlantic ocean). One possible interpretation is to relate these units to trias/jurassic syn-rift sediments deposition associated to a continentward dipping fault. But the complex is formed by a repetition of several layer fans. Hence one alternative interpretation would be that these units were seaward dipping reflectors stacked during Trias/Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the role of magmatism should have been predominant during the first phase of the plateau formation. All the sediments of the plateau, including Aptian sediments, are deformed with numerous structures (strike

  3. Ars Industrialis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Mingant


    Full Text Available The website was created in 2005, when the association Ars Industrialis came into being. The association was founded by a group of philosophers and jurists, on the initiative of philosopher Bernard Stiegler, the former director of the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique–Institute of Research and Coordination on Acoustic/Music and the current director of the Department of cultural development at the Centre Georges Pompidou (French National Arts C...

  4. Ars Industrialis,


    Frédérique Mingant


    The website was created in 2005, when the association Ars Industrialis came into being. The association was founded by a group of philosophers and jurists, on the initiative of philosopher Bernard Stiegler, the former director of the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique–Institute of Research and Coordination on Acoustic/Music) and the current director of the Department of cultural development at the Centre Georges Pompidou (French National Arts C...

  5. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina


    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  6. Influence of Game Evolution and the Phase of Competition on Temporal Game Structure in High-Level Table Tennis Tournaments. (United States)

    Leite, Jorge Vieira de Mello; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Miyagi, Willian; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura


    The aims of this study were: a) to investigate the game temporal structure in high-level table tennis competitions; b) to verify the influence of game evolution in international competitions from 2009 to 2012 (World Table Tennis Championships and the Olympic Games) on game temporal structure; c) to compare game temporal structure according to the phase of competition. Comparisons between the three international tournaments demonstrated that rally duration decreased significantly (p game evolution and the competition phase influenced the game temporal structure of table tennis, considering longer rest periods adopted by elite athletes in relation to non-elite athletes, the reduction in rally duration and an increase in rest time over the 2009-2012 period and through the competition phases (quarterfinals to finals).

  7. Recent Advances on the Understanding of Structural and Composition Evolution of LMR Cathode for Li ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eYan


    Full Text Available Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR cathode materials have been regarded as very promising for lithium (Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several barriers such as their limited electrochemical stability and rate capability. In this work, we present recent progress on the understanding of structural and compositional evolution of LMR cathode materials, with an emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of pristine materials and their dependence on the material-processing history, cycling-induced structural degradation/chemical partition, and their correlation with electrochemical performance degradation. The fundamental understanding that resulted from this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on the ternary system of transitional metal oxides.

  8. Temporal evolution of surface structure and morphology in thin-film growth and etching processes (United States)

    Drotar, Jason Todd

    The temporal evolution of surface structure and morphology in growth and etching processes is of great importance to the understanding of such processes. For example, by looking at the time dependence of the surface roughness, one can often discover the scaling symmetries inherent in a process. In addition to providing clues about what mechanisms might be at work, these symmetries are also of practical interest. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the basic mechanisms that influence the temporal scaling of such systems, many systems still cannot be explained in terms of the known universality classes. Studies of both continuum and discrete models of surface roughening are presented. The temporal scaling of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation has been studied using direct numerical integration, and the existence of two distinct scaling regimes is observed. The results are discussed in the context of previous computational and analytical results and compared to existing experimental studies of ion sputtering. It is found that low-energy ion sputtering experiments are consistent with the early-time KS scaling regime; while high-energy ion sputtering experiments are consistent with asymptotic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) behavior. Next, the temporal scaling behavior of a line-of-sight model of surface roughening has been studied. The model can be applied to both growth and etching processes. Several different limiting cases for the sticking coefficients have been examined using analytical arguments and computational techniques, and it is found that the scaling exponents are, in some cases, universal. The predicted scaling exponents, in some cases, do not belong to any of the known universality classes and therefore define a new universality class. In another case, the exponents are identical to the exponents predicted by the Edwards-Wilkinson equation. The newly discovered universality classes are used to explain experimentally observed behavior of

  9. The structures, stratigraphy and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth rift, Greece (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Weiss, Jonathan R.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Laigle, Mireille; Hirn, Alfred


    A multichannel seismic and bathymetry survey of the central and eastern Gulf of Corinth (GoC), Greece, reveals the offshore fault geometry, seismic stratigraphy and basin evolution of one of Earths most active continental rift systems. Active, right-stepping, en-echelon, north-dipping border faults trend ESE along the southern Gulf margin, significantly overlapping along strike. The basement offsets of three (Akrata-Derveni, Sithas and Xylocastro) are linked. The faults are biplanar to listric: typically intermediate angle (˜35° in the centre and 45-48° in the east) near the surface but decreasing in dip and/or intersecting a low- or shallow-angle (15-20° in the centre and 19-30° in the east) curvi-planar reflector in the basement. Major S-dipping border faults were active along the northern margin of the central Gulf early in the rift history, and remain active in the western Gulf and in the subsidiary Gulf of Lechaio, but unlike the southern border faults, are without major footwall uplift. Much of the eastern rift has a classic half-graben architecture whereas the central rift has a more symmetric w- or u-shape. The narrower and shallower western Gulf that transects the >40-km-thick crust of the Hellenides is associated with a wider distribution of overlapping high-angle normal faults that were formerly active on the Peloponnesus Peninsula. The easternmost sector includes the subsidiary Gulfs of Lechaio and Alkyonides, with major faults and basement structures trending NE, E-W and NW. The basement faults that control the rift architecture formed early in the rift history, with little evidence (other than the Vrachonisida fault along the northern margin) in the marine data for plan view evolution by subsequent fault linkage. Several have maximum offsets near one end. Crestal collapse graben formed where the hanging wall has pulled off the steeper onto the shallower downdip segment of the Derveni Fault. The dominant strikes of the Corinth rift faults

  10. Internal Structure of Virtual Communications in Communities of Inquiry in Higher Education: Phases, Evolution and Participants' Satisfaction (United States)

    Gutierrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gallego-Arrufat, Maria-Jesus


    This study investigates the phases of development of synchronous and asynchronous virtual communication produced in a community of inquiry (CoI) by analyzing the internal structure of each intervention in the forum and each chat session to determine the evolution of their social, cognitive and teaching character. It also analyzes the participating…

  11. Microrheology: Structural evolution under static and dynamic conditions by simultaneously analysis of confocal microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Paques, M.; Knaebel, A.; Steyer, A.; Munch, J.P.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Aken, van G.A.


    An oscillatory shear configuration was developed to improve understanding of structural evolution during deformation. It combines an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a special sample holder that can apply to the sample specific deformation: oscillatory shear or steady strain. I

  12. High Resolution Structure of Deinococcus Bacteriophytochrome Yields New Insights into Phytochrome Architecture and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jeremiah R.; Zhang, Junrui; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Vierstra, Richard D.; Forest, Katrina T. (NWU); (UW)


    Phytochromes are red/far red light photochromic photoreceptors that direct many photosensory behaviors in the bacterial, fungal, and plant kingdoms. They consist of an N-terminal domain that covalently binds a bilin chromophore and a C-terminal region that transmits the light signal, often through a histidine kinase relay. Using x-ray crystallography, we recently solved the first three-dimensional structure of a phytochrome, using the chromophore-binding domain of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome assembled with its chromophore, biliverdin IX{alpha}. Now, by engineering the crystallization interface, we have achieved a significantly higher resolution model. This 1.45 {angstrom} resolution structure helps identify an extensive buried surface between crystal symmetry mates that may promote dimerization in vivo. It also reveals that upon ligation of the C3{sup 2} carbon of biliverdin to Cys{sup 24}, the chromophore A-ring assumes a chiral center at C2, thus becoming 2(R),3(E)-phytochromobilin, a chemistry more similar to that proposed for the attached chromophores of cyanobacterial and plant phytochromes than previously appreciated. The evolution of bacterial phytochromes to those found in cyanobacteria and higher plants must have involved greater fitness using more reduced bilins, such as phycocyanobilin, combined with a switch of the attachment site from a cysteine near the N terminus to one conserved within the cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenyl cyclase/FhlA domain. From analysis of site-directed mutants in the D. radiodurans phytochrome, we show that this bilin preference was partially driven by the change in binding site, which ultimately may have helped photosynthetic organisms optimize shade detection. Collectively, these three-dimensional structural results better clarify bilin/protein interactions and help explain how higher plant phytochromes evolved from prokaryotic progenitors.

  13. Lithospheric structure of the Gorringe Bank: Insights into its origin and tectonic evolution (United States)

    JiméNez-Munt, I.; Fernã Ndez, M.; VergéS, J.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Fullea, J.


    The Gorringe Bank is a 5000 m high seamount near the Atlantic coast of Iberia characterized by a 9 m high geoid anomaly and a ˜120 mGal Bouguer anomaly relative to the surrounding abyssal plains. It has been linked to a NW directed thrust carrying exhumed upper mantle rocks and transitional crust on top of flexed-down Eurasian oceanic crust along the Tagus Abyssal Plain. However, estimations of crustal shortening have yielded dissimilar results, and the deep structure of the ridge remains highly unknown. We present a restored cross section and a new model of the lithospheric structure based on gravity, geoid, elevation, and the presence of serpentinized peridotites. At least 20 km of shortening took place along a flat-ramp-flat thrust fault, and the density structure of the lithosphere is consistent with mantle serpentinization varying from 70% at the surface to 20% at 14 km depth and 0% at 40 km. The topographic relief and gravity anomalies are explained by assuming a flexural isostatic model with an elastic thickness Te of ˜30 km. The evolution of the Gorringe Bank since the Late Jurassic is interpreted in relation to Eurasia-Africa-North America plate motion in four stages: (1) transtension between Newfoundland-Iberia and Africa, which generated small oceanic basins and mantle exhumation; (2) opening of the North Atlantic and seafloor spreading at the NW side of the exhumed Gorringe, which produced gabbro intrusions and serpentinization; (3) a quiescent tectonic period dominated by subsidence and sediment accumulation; and (4) a transpressional plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa with NW directed subcrustal thrusting and generation of the present Gorringe relief.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A model experiment was done to clear the formation mechanism of protective layers during combustion of polypropylene(PP)/organically modified montmorillonite(OMMT) nanocomposites.The investigation was focused on the effects of annealing temperature on the structural changes and protective layer formation.The decomposition of OMMT and degradation of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis(TGA).The structural evolution and composition change in the surface region of...