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Sample records for ar kr xe

  1. Composition of Ar-Kr, Kr-Xe, and N2-Ar clusters produced by supersonic expansion of gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Konotop, O P; Danylchenko, O G; Samovarov, V N

    2014-01-01

    An electron-diffraction study is made of the composition of binary Ar-Kr, Kr-Xe, and N2-Ar clusters of various size produced by expansion through a supersonic nozzle of gas mixtures with various component concentrations. The resulting clusters are shown to have compositions substantially different from those of the primary gas mixtures and dependent on cluster size. We have found that the key parameters needed for an analysis of cluster composition are the critical cluster radius and the heavier component concentration in the gas mixture which can be used to establish the regions of existence of homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters. These critical values determine the coefficient of the enrichment of clusters with the heavier component with respect to its concentration in the primary gas mixture. Theoretical relations are obtained which provide a good quantitative description of the experimental results and can be expected to be also valid for finding the composition of binary clusters of other van der Waal...

  2. Impact parameter moments for ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by protons, considering different initial states and impact energies

    CERN Document Server

    Miraglia, J E

    2016-01-01

    Tables of ab-initio total cross sections, probabilities at zero impact parameter, and impact parameter moments are presented concerning the ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by proton impact in the energy range (0.1-10) MeV. Calculations correspond to the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS) for energies up to 1MeV, and to the first Born approximation for larger energies. Results displayed in the tables are disaggregated for the different initial bound states, considering all shells for Ne and Ar, L-M-N shells of Kr and M-N-O shells of Xe. Our inner-shell ionization cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and with the ECPSSR results.

  3. A long-term change of the AR/KR/XE fractionation in the solar corpuscular radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Solar noble gases in an ilmenite separate from breccia 79035 (antiquity greater than 1 Ga) were analyzed by closed system stepped etching (CSSE). All five gases show the familiar two-component structure: first solar-wind (SW) gases are released, followed by gases from solar energetic particles (SEP). Element patterns in 79035 are similar to those of 71501 ilmenite. SW-He-Ne were partly lost, but SEP-He-Ne-Ar are retained (nearly) unfractionated. Constant Ar/Kr/Xe ratios indicate that ilmenites contain an unfractionated sample of the heavy SW-SEP noble gases. Ar/Kr/Xe ratios in the solar corpuscular radiation are, however, different from 'solar system' values, whereby the Kr/Xe difference in 79035 is about twice as large as in 71501. We propose that Xe is less fractionated than Kr and Ar, though its first ionization potential (FIP) is higher than the 'cutoff' at approximately 11.5 eV, above which all elements in SEP are usually assumed to be depleted by a roughly constant factor. SW-Ne may be isotopically slightly heavier in the ancient SW trapped by 79035, as proposed earlier. In this work we extend our previous CSSE studies of solar noble gases including Kr and Xe to a lunar sample irradiated at least 1 Ga ago (breccia 79035, ilmenite separate, 42-64 microns). This sample was particularly gently etched in the first steps. Surprisingly, the first three steps, each releasing less than or equal to 0.5% of the total 36-Ar, showed an SEP-like trapped component plus relatively large concentrations of cosmogenic gases. Steps 4ff contain much less cosmogenic and more solar gas with a SW-like isotope pattern. Thus, a very minor easily etchable phase that has completely lost its SW-gases must be responsible for steps 1-3. We will not discuss these steps here and refer to the actual step 4 as the 'initial' etching step.

  4. Perturbed Coupled-Cluster theory to calculate dipole polarizabilities of closed shell systems: Application to Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Angom, D

    2012-01-01

    We use perturbed relativistic coupled-cluster (PRCC) theory to calculate the electric dipole polarizability of noble gas atoms Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. We also provide a detailed description of the nonlinear terms in the PRCC theory and consider the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit atomic Hamiltonian for the calculations. We find that the largest contribution from Breit interaction to the electric dipole polarizability is 0.1%, in the case of Rn. As we go from Ar to Rn, based on the pattern in the random phase approximation effects, the contraction of the outermost $p_{1/2}$ due to relativistic corrections is discernible without any ambiguity.

  5. Escape factors for Paschen 2p–1s emission lines in low-temperature Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Pu, Yi-Kang; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Radiation trapping phenomenon is often observed when investigating low-temperature plasmas. Photons emitted from the upper excited states may be reabsorbed by the lower states before they leave the plasmas. In order to account for this effect in the modelling and optical diagnostics of plasmas, either an ‘escape factor’ of a function of the optical depth or a strict solution of the radiation transfer equation can be employed. However, the former is more convenient in comparison and thus is widely adopted. Previous literatures have provided several simple expressions of the escape factor for the uniform plasmas. The emission line profiles are assumed to be dominated by the Doppler broadening, and the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure is not considered. This kind of expression is only valid for small atoms, e.g. Ar in low-pressure uniform discharges. Actually, the excited state density in many of the low-temperature plasmas is non-uniform and the emission line profile can be significantly influenced by the collisional broadening at medium and high pressures. In these cases, a new escape factor equation should be calculated. In this work, we study the escape factor equations for the often used 2p–1s transitions (Paschen’s notation) of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms. Possible non-uniform density profiles are considered. In addition, we include the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure for Kr and Xe. For the low-pressure plasmas, an escape factor expression mainly based on the Gaussian line profile is given and particularly verified by an experiment in a low-pressure capacitive discharge. For the high-pressure plasmas, an equation based on the Voigt line profile is also calculated. In this way, the new escape factor expression is ready for use in the modelling of the Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas from low to atmospheric pressure.

  6. Dissociation energies of Ag–RG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) and AgO molecules from velocity map imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The near ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of silver atom—rare gas dimers have been studied by velocity map imaging. Ag–RG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) species generated by laser ablation are excited in the region of the C (2Σ+)←X (2Σ+) continuum leading to direct, near-threshold dissociation generating Ag* (2P3/2) + RG (1S0) products. Images recorded at excitation wavelengths throughout the C (2Σ+)←X (2Σ+) continuum, coupled with known atomic energy levels, permit determination of the ground X (2Σ+) state dissociation energies of 85.9 ± 23.4 cm−1 (Ag–Ar), 149.3 ± 22.4 cm−1 (Ag–Kr), and 256.3 ± 16.0 cm−1 (Ag–Xe). Three additional photolysis processes, each yielding Ag atom photoproducts, are observed in the same spectral region. Two of these are markedly enhanced in intensity upon seeding the molecular beam with nitrous oxide, and are assigned to photodissociation of AgO at the two-photon level. These features yield an improved ground state dissociation energy for AgO of 15 965 ± 81 cm−1, which is in good agreement with high level calculations. The third process results in Ag atom fragments whose kinetic energy shows anomalously weak photon energy dependence and is assigned tentatively to dissociative ionization of the silver dimer Ag2

  7. Dissociation energies of AgRG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) and AgO molecules from velocity map imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Graham A; Gentleman, Alexander S; Iskra, Andreas; van Wijk, Robert; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2015-01-01

    The near ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of silver atom rare gas dimers have been studied by velocity map imaging. AgRG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) species generated by laser ablation are excited in the region of the C <- X continuum leading to direct, near threshold dissociation generating Ag* (2P3/2) + RG (1S0) products. Images recorded at excitation wavelengths throughout the C <- X continuum, coupled with known atomic energy levels, permit determination of the ground X (2SIGMA+) state dissociation energies of 85.9 +/- 23.4 cm-1 (AgAr), 149.3 +/- 22.4 cm-1 (AgKr) and 256.3 +/- 16.0 cm-1 (AgXe). Three additional photolysis processes, each yielding Ag atom photoproducts, are observed in the same spectral region. Two of these are markedly enhanced in intensity upon seeding the molecular beam with nitrous oxide, and are assigned to photodissociation of AgO at the two photon level. These features yield an improved ground state dissociation energy for AgO of 15965 +/- 81 cm-1, which is in good agreement with ...

  8. Dissociation energies of Ag–RG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) and AgO molecules from velocity map imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Graham A.; Gentleman, Alexander S.; Iskra, Andreas; Wijk, Robert van; Mackenzie, Stuart R., E-mail: stuart.mackenzie@chem.ox.ac.uk [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford Chemistry, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Kartouzian, Aras [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford Chemistry, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physical Chemistry, Catalysis Research Center, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-09-28

    The near ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of silver atom—rare gas dimers have been studied by velocity map imaging. Ag–RG (RG = Ar, Kr, Xe) species generated by laser ablation are excited in the region of the C ({sup 2}Σ{sup +})←X ({sup 2}Σ{sup +}) continuum leading to direct, near-threshold dissociation generating Ag* ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + RG ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) products. Images recorded at excitation wavelengths throughout the C ({sup 2}Σ{sup +})←X ({sup 2}Σ{sup +}) continuum, coupled with known atomic energy levels, permit determination of the ground X ({sup 2}Σ{sup +}) state dissociation energies of 85.9 ± 23.4 cm{sup −1} (Ag–Ar), 149.3 ± 22.4 cm{sup −1} (Ag–Kr), and 256.3 ± 16.0 cm{sup −1} (Ag–Xe). Three additional photolysis processes, each yielding Ag atom photoproducts, are observed in the same spectral region. Two of these are markedly enhanced in intensity upon seeding the molecular beam with nitrous oxide, and are assigned to photodissociation of AgO at the two-photon level. These features yield an improved ground state dissociation energy for AgO of 15 965 ± 81 cm{sup −1}, which is in good agreement with high level calculations. The third process results in Ag atom fragments whose kinetic energy shows anomalously weak photon energy dependence and is assigned tentatively to dissociative ionization of the silver dimer Ag{sub 2}.

  9. Laser optogalvanic observations and MQDT analysis of mp5nd J = 3 autoionizing resonances in Ar, Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report new measurements of the spectra of argon, krypton and xenon in the autoionization region using a two-step resonant laser excitation and optogalvanic detection technique. By selecting (m)p5(m + 1)p'[3/2]2 as an intermediate state (m = 4, 5 and 6 for Ar, Kr and Xe, respectively), we have been able to single out the (m)p5nd[5/2]3 autoionizing resonances in their spectra. The MQDT parameters have been derived from the analysis of the series perturbations among the (m)p5nd[5/2]3 (m)p5nd[7/2]3 and (m)p5nd'[5/2]3 series in the discrete region using the phase shifted formulation of the three-channel quantum defect theory and from the line profile analysis of the autoionizing resonances above the first ionization threshold. The predicted reduced widths for the autoionizing resonances based on the series perturbation analysis show good agreement with those of the experimentally observed profiles. Accurate values of the resonance energies, quantum defects and reduced widths are reported

  10. Energy loss effect on color center creation in LiF crystals under irradiation with 12C, 14N, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 130Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color center creation in LiF crystals irradiated with 12C, 14N, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 130Xe MeV ions were studied as a function of the absorbed energy (fluence). For light ions (12C, 14N) the saturation of single F centers takes place at higher absorbed energy (5 × 1023 eV/cm3) than that for 40Ar, 84Kr and 130Xe ions (∼1023 eV/cm3). The saturation concentration of F centers for 12C and 14N (2 × 1019 cm−3) is twice of that for the heavier ions. Further irradiation with light ions decreases concentration of F centers, presumably due to aggregation, whereas for heavy ions the saturation concentration remains approximately the same that can be explained by much stronger recombination losses within single tracks

  11. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  12. Noble Gas Inserted Protonated Silicon Monoxide Cations: HNgOSi(+) (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Pooja; Ghosh, Ayan; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2015-11-25

    The existence of noble gas containing protonated silicon monoxide complexes have been predicted theoretically through ab initio quantum chemical methods. The predicted HNgOSi(+) ions are obtained by insertion of a noble gas atom (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) between the H and O atoms in SiOH(+) ion. The structural parameters, energetics, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and charge distributions have been analyzed by optimizing the minima and the transition state structures using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), density functional theory (DFT), and coupled-cluster theory (CCSD(T)) based techniques. The predicted HNgOSi(+) ions are found to be stable with respect to all possible 2-body and 3-body dissociation channels, except the dissociation path leading to the respective global minimum products. However, these ions are found to be kinetically stable with respect to the global minimum dissociation process as revealed from the finite barrier heights, which in turn can prevent the transformation of these metastable species to the global minimum products. Furthermore, the computed bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and force constant values suggest that a strong covalent bond exists between the H and Ng atoms in HNgOSi(+) ions while the Ng and O atoms share a strong van der Waals kind of interaction. Charge distributions and bonding analysis indicate that HNgOSi(+) ions can be best represented as strong complexes between the [HNg](+) ions and OSi molecule. All the computational results suggest that the predicted species, HNgOSi(+), may be prepared and characterized by suitable experimental technique at cryogenic temperature. PMID:26501440

  13. Noble-Gas-Inserted Fluoro(sulphido)boron (FNgBS, Ng = Ar, Kr, and Xe): A Theoretical Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ayan; Dey, Sourav; Manna, Debashree; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of the existence of a new series of neutral noble gas compound, FNgBS (where Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe), is explored theoretically through the insertion of a Ng atom into the fluoroborosulfide molecule (FBS). Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theory based methods have been employed to predict the structure, stability, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and charge distribution of FNgBS molecules. Through energetics study, it has been found that the molecules could dissociate into global minima products (Ng + FBS) on the respective singlet potential energy surface via a unimolecular dissociation channel; however, the sufficiently large activation energy barriers provide enough kinetic stability to the predicted molecules, which, in turn, prevent them from dissociating into the global minima products. Moreover, the FNgBS species are thermodynamically stable, owing to very high positive energies with respect to other two two-body dissociation channels, leading to FNg + BS and F(-) + NgBS(+), and two three-body dissociation channels, corresponding to the dissociation into F + Ng + BS and F(-) + Ng + BS(+). Furthermore, the Mulliken and NBO charge analysis together with the AIM results reveal that the Ng-B bond is more of covalent in nature, whereas the F-Ng bond is predominantly ionic in character. Thus, these compounds can be better represented as F(-)[NgBS](+). This fact is also supported by the detail analysis of bond length, bond dissociation energy, and stretching force constant values. All of the calculated results reported in this work clearly indicate that it might be possible to prepare and characterize the FNgBS molecules in cryogenic environment through matrix isolation technique by using a mixture of OCS/BF3 in the presence of large quantity of noble gas under suitable experimental conditions. PMID:25928588

  14. Solubility of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in a basalt melt in the range 1250-16000C. Geochemical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility constant of Henry's law has been experimentally determined in a tholeiitic basalt melt. Equilibrium with air, a noble gas mix, and various mixtures of the two permitted us to assess the validity of Henry's law under 1 bar ambient pressure in the temperature range 1250-16000C. Mass spectrometric analyses of quenched products yield solubilities decreasing with increasing atomic size as: 56(11.), 25(3.), 5.9(0.9), 3.0(0.7) and 1.7(0.4) in units of 10-5 cm3 STP/g-bar (with standard deviation) for He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, respectively (14000C). Partial pressures were varied by factors between 100 and 2 x 104. The data permit calculation of the distribution of noble gases between melt and coexisting vesicles. Comparison with data obtained on MORB glasses shows that He, Ne, and Ar display an equilibrium distribution while Kr and Xe in the vesicle-free glass are probably below analytical detection. The strong fractionation effects implied by the very different solubilities can explain most of the variations observed in MORB-glasses for He/Ne and He/Ar ratios. (author)

  15. Desorption Kinetics of Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, Methane, Ethane, and Propane from Graphene and Amorphous Solid Water Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Scott; May, R Alan; Kay, Bruce D

    2016-03-01

    The desorption kinetics for Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, methane, ethane, and propane from graphene-covered Pt(111) and amorphous solid water (ASW) surfaces are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The TPD spectra for all of the adsorbates from graphene have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent the zero-order desorption for all of the adsorbates. An Arrhenius analysis is used to obtain desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from graphene for all of the adsorbates. In contrast, the leading desorption edges for the adsorbates from ASW do not align (for coverages < 2 ML). The nonalignment of TPD leading edges suggests that there are multiple desorption binding sites on the ASW surface. Inversion analysis is used to obtain the coverage dependent desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from ASW for all of the adsorbates. PMID:26595145

  16. Desorption Kinetics of Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, Methane, Ethane, and Propane from Graphene and Amorphous Solid Water Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. Scott; May, Robert A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-03-03

    The desorption kinetics for Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, methane, ethane, and propane from grapheme covered Pt(111) and amorphous solid water (ASW) surfaces are investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The TPD spectra for all of the adsorbates from graphene have well-resolved first, second, third, and multi- layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent the zero-order desorption for all of the adsorbates. An Arrhenius analysis is used to obtain desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from graphene for all of the adsorbates. In contrast, the leading desorption edges for the adsorbates from ASW do not align (for coverages < 2 ML). The non-alignment of TPD leading edges suggests that there are multiple desorption binding sites on the ASW surface. Inversion analysis is used to obtain the coverage dependent desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from ASW for all of the adsorbates.

  17. High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Kyung-Han; Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Huang, Shu-Wei; Moses, Jeffrey; Granados, Eduardo; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically study the atomic response and pulse propagation effects of high-order harmonics generated in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m infrared femtosecond light source. The light source is an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier, and a modified strong-field approximation and 3-dimensional pulse propagation code are used for the numerical simulations. The extended cutoff in the long-wavelength driven high-harmonic generation has revealed the spectral shaping of high-order harmonics due to the atomic structure (or photo-recombination cross-section) and the macroscopic effects, which are the main factors of determining the conversion efficiency besides the driving wavelength. Using precise numerical simulations to determine the macroscopic electron wavepacket, we are able to extract the photo-recombination cross-sections from experimental high-order harmonic spectra in the presence of macroscopic effects. We have experimentally observed that the macroscopic effects shift the o...

  18. The state dependence of the interaction of metastable rare gas atoms Rg sup * (ms sup 3 P sub 2 , sup 3 P sub 0 ) (Rg=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) with ground state sodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schohl, S.; Mueller, M.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Ruf, M.W.; Hotop, H. (Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Physik); Morgner, H. (Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik)

    1990-08-01

    Using crossed beams of metastable rare gas atoms Rg{sup *}(ms {sup 3}P{sub 2}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}) (Rg=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) and ground state sodium atoms Na(3s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}), we have measured the energy spectra of electrons released in the respective Penning ionization processes at thermal collision energies. For Rg{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2})+Na(3s), the spectra are quite similar for the different rare gases, both in width and shape; they reflect attractive interactions in the entrance channel with well depths D{sub e}{sup *} (meV) decreasing slowly from Rg=Ne to Xe as follows: 676(18); 602(23); 565(26); 555(30). For Rg{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0})+Na(3 s), the spectra vary strongly with the rare gas, indicating a change in the character of the interaction from van der Waals type attraction (Ne) to chemical binding for Kr and Xe with well depths D{sub e}{sup *} (meV) of: 51(19); 107(25); 432(30); 530(50). These findings are explained through model calculations of the respective potential curves, in which the exchange and the spin orbit interaction in the excited rare gas and the molecular interaction between the two valence s-electrons in terms of suitably chosen singlet and triplet potentials are taken into account. These calculations also explain qualitatively the experimental finding that the ratios q{sub 2}/q{sub 0} of the ionization cross sections for Rg{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2})+Na and Rg{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0})+Na vary strongly with the rare gas from Ne to Xe as follows: 15.8(3.2); 2.6(4); 1.4(2); 1.6(4). (orig.).

  19. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  20. Ordering and growth of rare gas films (Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne) on the pseudo-ten-fold quasicrystalline approximant Al13Co4(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of the rare gases Kr, Ar, and Ne on the complex alloy surface Al13Co4(100) was studied using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) computer simulations. This surface is an approximant to the ten-fold decagonal Al–Ni–Co quasicrystalline surface, on which rare gas adsorption was studied previously. Comparison of adsorption results on the periodic Al13Co4(100) surface with those of the quasiperiodic Al–Ni–Co surface indicates some similarities, such as layer-by-layer growth, and some dissimilarities, such as the formation of Archimedes tiling phases (Mikhael et al 2008 Nature 454 501, Shechtman et al 1984 Phys. Rev. Lett. 53 1951, Macia 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 397, Schmiedeberg et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. E 32 25–34, Kromer et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 218301, Schmiedeberg and Stark 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 218302). The conditions under which Archimedes tiling phases (ATP) emerge on Al13Co4(100) are examined and their presence is related to the gas–gas and gas–surface interaction parameters. (paper)

  1. Operation of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) in Ar, Xe and Ar-Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our recent studies of a Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM)-based detector, operated in Ar, Xe and Ar:Xe (95:5) at various gas pressures. Avalanche-multiplication properties and energy resolution were investigated with soft x-rays for different detector configurations and parameters. Gains above 104 were reached in a double-THGEM detector, at atmospheric pressure, in all gases, in almost all the tested conditions; in Ar:Xe (95:5) similar gains were reached at pressures up to 2 bar. The energy resolution dependence on the gas, pressure, hole geometry and electric fields was studied in detail, yielding in some configurations values below 20% FWHM with 5.9 keV x-rays

  2. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas - surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  3. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  4. Accurate ab initio structural parameters of the diatomic and triatomic van der Waals molecules (11)BNg (X(2)Π, A(2)Σ(+)) and (11)BNg2 (X̃(2)B1), Ng = (4)He, (20)Ne, (40)Ar, (84)Kr, and (132)Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulas, Ilias; Papakondylis, Aristotle; Mavridis, Aristides

    2014-06-01

    The weakly interacting BNg and BNg2 molecular systems, Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, have been thoroughly studied through coupled-cluster RCCSD(T) calculations and large correlation consistent basis sets. For the BNg diatomics, the states examined are the X(2)Π and A(2)Σ(+), and the X̃(2)B1 state for the C2v BNg2 triatomics. A series of corrections render our final results reliable, judging as well from the (limited) experimental numbers available. Both BHe and BHe2 are marginally unbound, whereas the attractive interactions of the BNg X(2)Π states, where Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, are D0 = 19.8, 98.2, 141.9, and 209.1 cm(-1), respectively. For the BRn (Rn = radon) species, an estimated value of interaction energy D0 ≈ 280 cm(-1) is obtained by a D0 versus static polarizability (α) extrapolation. Corresponding atomization energies of the BNg2 (X̃(2)B1) molecules are AE0 = 52.0 (BNe2), 263.4 (BAr2), 384.6 (BKr2), and 576.9 (BXe2) cm(-1). PMID:24806885

  5. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  6. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  7. Fission-fragment nuclear lasing of Ar/He/-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Shiu, Y. J.; Williams, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear-pumped lasing of Ar-Xe and He-Xe has been demonstrated using (U-235)F6 fission-fragment excitation. Fission fragments were created by absorption of thermal neutrons in a combination of gaseous (U-235)F6 and laser-tube wall coatings formed from UF6 chemical reaction products. At a pressure of 600 torr Ar-(3%)Xe, lasing occurred at 2.65 microns in Xe. Up to 3 torr of gaseous (U-235)F6 was added to 600 torr Ar-Xe before serious laser quenching occurred. With 3 torr of (U-235)F6 added, 38% of the energy deposition came from gaseous UF6 and the remainder from the uranium wall coating. The neutron flux at lasing threshold was found to be 4 x 10 to the 15th n/sq cm sec.

  8. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Watson, Tony

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  9. Regional ventilation studies with Kr-81m and Xe-133: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton-81m and Xe-133 ventilation scintigrams, and particulate perfusion scintigrams with Tc-99m, were obtained on the same day in 41 patients. Of 14 studies demonstrating pulmonary embolism, Kr-81m complemented the perfusion study better than Xe-133 in seven and was judged essential for that diagnosis in two. Xenon-133 was better in none. On the other hand, in 29 studies with obstructive or parenchymal lung disease, Kr-81m was essential for the diagnosis in only one of seven cases in which it was judged superior to Xe-133, whereas Xe-133 was essential in six of nine studies in which it was judged superior. Ventilation scintigraphy with Kr-81m offers important advantages over Xe-133 in the diagnosis of embolic lung disease due to its improved spatial resolution and capacity to provide superimposable ventilation and perfusion images in multiple projections, so that defects can be accurately matched. Obstructive pulmonary disease may be more easily diagnosed with Xe-133 ventilation images, because areas of gaseous retention, not visible with Kr-81m, can be seen on Xe-133 washout images

  10. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  11. A high efficiency ion source for Kr and Xe isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microwave plasma ion source shows considerable promise for generating large ion beams of noble gases for highly accurate isotopic analyses. Advantages include high ionization efficiency, operation without gas separation, and simplicity of the source. Measurements of the isotopic compositions of Kr and Xe from air indicate that ion beam stability and isobaric interferences do not pose major problems. 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  13. 85Kr and 133Xe monitoring at MRI, Tsukuba and its importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric 85Kr and 133Xe have continuously been monitored since 1995 (weekly averages) at the Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba. Elevated 85Kr concentrations observed in spring and fall of 1995-1997 are the result of two factors, the operation of the PNC Tokai nuclear plant and secondly the seasonal change of prevailing wind directions. Elevated 85Kr levels arising from releases of the Tokai plant are interpreted in a semi-quantitative fashion using the daily 85Kr release data and available meteorological data. During periods without the influence of the Tokai plant, 85Kr background concentrations (1.3 Bq/m3 of air) are similar to those for latitudes between 35 and 40 deg. N. Background concentrations show a continuous increase with time and pronounced seasonal variations. The yearly increase rate of about 2.5% observed between 1996 and 1998 is very similar to European observations. The features of the seasonal variations are minimum values during summer and maximum values during winter. 133Xe concentrations are not influenced by major local sources. One observation of a high 133Xe concentration in June 1996 can be interpreted as originating from a Chinese underground nuclear test conducted earlier in the same month

  14. Electron capture into the 3s state of atomic hydrogen by H+ on Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute cross sections for electron capture into the 3s state of atomic hydrogen have been measured for 10-150-keV proton impact on Kr and Xe. The experimental procedure involved the quantitative measurement of the Balmer-alpha radiation emitted by the spontaneous decay of fast hydrogen atoms in flight. The 3s-state radiation was identified by its characteristic lifetime. The cross sections for both target gases reach a maximum in the projectile energy range under consideration. The Xe cross sections are approximately 40% higher than those for Kr near 25 keV but are similar above 80 keV. These values are consistent with existing 3s cross-section measurements and with an n-3 scaling of existing total electron-capture cross sections in accordance with Born-approximation predictions

  15. Effective emission of Xe{sub 2}* and Kr{sub 2}* excited by a pulsed corona discharge bounded by a dielectric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, A A; Lomaev, M I; Skakun, V S; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute SB RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-15

    Experimental time-amplitude and spectral emission curves from B({sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}{sub u})-X ({sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}{sub g}), A({sup 3}{sigma}{sup +}{sub u})-X ({sup 1}{sigma}{sup +}{sub g}) transitions in Xe{sub 2}*({lambda} = 172 nm), Kr{sub 2}* ({lambda} = 146 nm), and Ar{sub 2}* ({lambda} =126 nm) molecules excited by a dielectric barrier bounded pulsed corona discharge are presented as a function of gas pressure, pulse repetition rate, and average excitation power. Experimentally, under optimal conditions, the Xe and Kr dimers emission efficiency were 45-50 and 25-28%, respectively.

  16. Isoscaling and fission modes in the yields of the Kr and Xe isotopes from photofission of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnoyan, J.; Zhemenik, V. I.; Mishinsky, G. V.

    2016-05-01

    Yields of Kr and Xe isotopes in photofission of 232Th, 238U, 237Np, 244Pu, 243Am, and 248Cm were tested for isoscaling dependence. Isoscaling for Kr is revealed. For Xe, isoscaling is found to be affected by the STI and STII fission modes governed by the N = 82 and N = 88 neutron shells. The work was performed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR).

  17. 3c/4e [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding competes with ω-bonding in noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I): a NBO/NRT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Li, Hong; Weinhold, Frank; Chen, Dezhan

    2016-03-01

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY are frequently described as a single ionic form (H-Ng)(+)Y(-). We apply natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural resonance theory (NRT) analyses to a series of noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I) to gain quantitative insight into the resonance bonding of these hypervalent molecules. We find that each of the studied species should be better represented as a resonance hybrid of three leading resonance structures, namely, H-Ng(+ -):Y (I), H:(- +)Ng-Y (II), and H^Y (III), in which the "ω-bonded" structures I and II arise from the complementary donor-acceptor interactions nY → σ*HNg and nH → σ*NgY, while the "long-bond" ([small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type) structure III arises from the nNg → [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]*HY/[small sigma, Greek, circumflex]HY interaction. The bonding for all of the studied molecules can be well described in terms of the continuously variable resonance weightings of 3c/4e ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding motifs. Furthermore, we find that the calculated bond orders satisfy a generalized form of "conservation of bond order" that incorporates both ω-bonding and long-bonding contributions [viz., (bHNg + bNgY) + bHY = bω-bonding + blong-bonding = 1]. Such "conservation" throughout the title series implies a competitive relationship between ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding, whose variations are found to depend in a chemically reasonable manner on the electronegativity of Y and the outer valence-shell character of the central Ng atom. The calculated bond orders are also found to exhibit chemically reasonable correlations with bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and bond dissociation energies, in accord with Badger's rule and related empirical relationships. Overall, the results provide electronic principles and chemical insight that may prove useful in the rational design of noble-gas hydrides of

  18. Intense Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Ar-Xe Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, A; Heindl, T; Himpsl, A; Hagn, H; Hofmann, M; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Roth, S; Schönert, S; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A

    2015-01-01

    Intense infrared (IR) light emission from liquid Ar-Xe mixtures has been observed using 12 keV electron-beam excitation. The emission peaks at a wavelength of 1.18 $\\mu$m and the half-width of the emission band is 0.1 $\\mu$m. Maximum intensity has been found for a 10 ppm xenon admixture in liquid argon. The conversion efficiency of electron beam-power to IR-light is about 1% (10000 photons per MeV electron energy deposited). A possible application of this intense IR emission for a new particle discrimination concept in liquid noble gas detectors is discussed. No light emission was found for perfectly purified liquid argon in the wavelength range from 0.5 to 3.5 $\\mu$m on the current level of sensitivity.

  19. Tabletop Ultrabright Kiloelectronvolt X-Ray Sources from Xe and Kr Hollow Atom States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Poopalasingam

    Albert Einstein, the father of relativity, once said, "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better". Today available higher resolution tabletop tool to look deep into matters and living thing is an x-ray source. Although the available tabletop x-rays sources of the 20th century, such as the ones used for medical or dental x-rays are tremendously useful for medical diagnostics and industry, a major disadvantage is that they have low quality skillful brightness, which limits its resolution and accuracy. In the other hand, x-ray free-electrons laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation sources provided extreme bright x-rays. However, number of applications of XFEL and synchrotron such as medical and industrials, has been hampered by their size, complexity, and cost. This has set a goal of demonstrating x-ray source with enough brightness for potential applications in an often-called tabletop compact x-ray source that could be operated in university laboratory or hospitals. We have developed two tabletop ultrabright keV x-ray sources, one from a Xe hollow-atom states and the other one from Kr hollow-atom stares with a unique characteristic that makes them complementary to currently-available extreme-light sources; XFEL, and synchrotron x-ray source. Upgraded tabletop ultra-fast KrF* pump-laser interacts with target rare-gas clusters and produces hollow-atom states, which later coherently collapse to the empty inner-shell and thereby generate keV x-ray radiation. The KrF* pump-laser beam is self-focused and forms a self-channel to guide the generated x-ray radiation in the direction of the pump-laser beam to produce directed x-ray beam. Xe (M) x-ray source operates at 1.2-1.6 nm wavelength while the Kr(L) x-ray source operates in 600-800 pm wavelength. System is mounted upon 3 optical-tables (5´x12´) with two KrF amplifiers at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A lower bound for brightness value for both Xe and Kr x-ray sources is 1026 photons s-1mm-2

  20. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Hyperpolarized (hp)(83)Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of(83)Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp(83)Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp(83)Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp(129)Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations wereP =29% for(83)Kr andP= 63% for(129)Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either(83)Kr or(129)Xe. Highly spin-polarized(83)Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp(83)Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp(129)Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp(129)Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized(129)Xe. PMID:26961001

  1. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J.; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F.; Six, Joseph S.; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P.; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of 83Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp 83Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp 83Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp 129Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations were P = 29% for 83Kr and P = 63% for 129Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2 was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either 83Kr or 129Xe. Highly spin-polarized 83Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp 83Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp 129Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp 129Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized 129Xe.

  2. Kr and Xe irradiations in lanthanum (La) doped ceria: Study at the high dose regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Xe and Kr bubble formation and growth were studied in La doped CeO2 by ion irradiation. → Evolution of cavity/gas bubble has two stages: an initial nucleation stage and a coarsening stage. → La dopant was shown to play an important role in influencing the cavity/gas bubble growth behaviors. → Solid state Xe precipitates were observed in irradiated 5% La doped CeO2 at very high dose. - Abstract: In order to understand cavity and bubble formation and growth in oxide nuclear fuel materials, ion beam irradiation experiments were conducted with two common fission gas species: Kr and Xe. Ceria (CeO2) was selected as a surrogate material for uranium dioxide (UO2) due to its many similar properties to UO2. Ion beam energies were chosen such that both cavities and gas bubbles structures were induced by ion irradiations. The ion irradiation experiments were carried out at 600 deg. C, at which temperature, cavity/gas bubble structures are believed to be immobile in this material. Lanthanum (La) was chosen as a dopant in CeO2 to investigate the effect of impurities. The presence of La in the CeO2 lattice also introduces a predictable initial concentration of oxygen vacancies, similar to the introduction of oxygen vacancies by the existence of Pu3+ in MOX fuel . The influence of two La concentrations, 5% and 25%, were examined. The study focused on the high dose regime where cavity/gas bubble structures were clearly identifiable with their sizes and number densities readily measurable. Cavity/gas bubble coarsening by coalescence was identified with TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) characterizations of as-irradiated La doped CeO2 specimens. The results revealed that lanthanum trapping has significant influence on the cavity/bubble growth in the material lattice by comparing the cavity/gas bubble size distributions between 5% La doped ceria and 25% La doped ceria. Lattice and kinetic Monte Carlo calculations described in a previous work have provided

  3. Electron correlation effects on photoionization time delay in atomic Ar and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A.; Saha, S.; Decshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Time delay studies in photoionization processes have stimulated much interest as they provide valuable dynamical information about electron correlation and relativistic effects. In a recent work on Wigner time delay in the photoionization of noble gas atoms, it was found that correlations resulting from interchannel coupling involving shells with different principal quantum numbers have significant effects on 2s and 2p photoionization of Ne, 3s photoionization of Ar, and 3d photoionization of Kr. In the present work, photoionization time delay in inner and outer subshells of the noble gases Ar and Xe are examined by including electron correlations using different many body techniques: (i) the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA), (ii) RRPA with relaxation, to include relaxation effects of the residual ion and (iii) the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (RMCTD) approximation. The (sometimes substantial) effects of the inclusion of non-RPA correlations on the photoionization Wigner time delay are reported. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences and DST (India).

  4. Isotopic fractionation of Kr and Xe implanted in solids at very low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Hagee, Bryan E.

    1987-01-01

    Results on the implantation of Kr and Xe in W under closed system conditions at very low energies (50-500 eV) are reported. Investigation of the fraction of gas trapped as a function of time reveals the existence of competing trapping and release mechanisms, and analysis of recovered trapped gas and residual gas phases shows that both elemental and isotropic fractionation result from these mechanisms. It is determined that the mass dependence for the overall implantation process is at or near m exp 1, with heavier isotopes enriched in the implanted gas. This mass dependence is inferred to result from implantation and a combination of diffusive and gas sputtering release mechanisms. These results reaffirm the conclusion of Bernatowicz and Fahey (1986) that previously observed isotopic fractionation of Kr and Xe in carbonaceous material synthesized in electrical discharges owes its origin to low-energy ion implantation, and also suggest that this process may be relevant to incorporation of noble gases in early solar system materials. The implication of these results for noble gas mass spectrometry are discussed.

  5. Light emission from heteronuclear Ar-Kr doubly ionized excimer molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshchalov, Alexey B.; Lissovski, Alexander A.; Ulrich, Andreas. F.

    2013-02-01

    Light emission from a ~100 mbar Ar-Kr mixture excited by a pulsed discharge is described. The discharge was arranged to form a homogeneous cathode layer and spatial filtering was used to measure time-dependent spectra emitted from a region where electrons accelerated in the cathode sheath induce the light emission. Novel excimer bands were observed around a wavelength of 315 nm in addition to the better known so called third excimer continua of Ar and Kr. A tentative assignment for these bands to charge-transfer transitions: ArKr2+ → Kr+ + Ar+ + h ν is provided and discussed in the context of earlier works on heteronuclear ionic excimer molecules. Predictions for the wavelength positions of similar emission bands are provided for other combinations of noble gases. The rate constants for the formation of heteronuclear ArKr2+ excimers in three-body reactions and two-body collisional quenching of Kr2+∗ ions by Ar atoms have been determined from the time dependence of the ArKr2+ emission.

  6. Energy resolution in liquid Ar or Xe ionization chamber doped with photo-ionizing molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy resolution for γ-rays and conversion electrons from 207Bi has been studied with a liquid Ar or Xe ionization chamber. As a photoionizing dopant, allene was added to liquid Ar or TEA to liquid Xe. Although the improvement in the resolution was significant at a low electric field by the doping in both cases, it was small at a high electric field in marked contrast to a 'δ-ray combination model'. (orig.)

  7. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2015-05-01

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the and directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  8. Photoionization cross section calculations for the halogen-like ions Kr$^+$ and Xe$^+$

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, B M

    2012-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections calculations on the halogen-like ions; Kr$^+$ and Xe$^+$ have been performed for a photon energy range from each ion threshold to 15 eV, using large-scale close-coupling calculations within the Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix approximation. The results from our theoretical work are compared with recent measurements made at the ASTRID merged-beam set-up at the University of Aarhus in Denmark and from the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) trap method at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility in Saint-Aubin, France and the Advanced Light Soure (ALS). For each of these complex ions our theoretical cross section results over the photon energy range investigated are seen to be in excellent agreement with experiment. Resonance energy positions and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg resonances series identified in the spectra are compared with experiment for these complex halogen like-ions.

  9. Resonance Ionization of Heavy Noble Gases: The Potential of KR and Xe Measurements from Single Pre-Solar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnard, N.

    1995-09-01

    Since the first reliable indication of the existence of non-terrestrial composition of Xe isotopes in meteorites by Reynolds [1,2], anomalies have been found in the isotopic composition of many elements in meteorites, implying a plurality of nucleosynthetic processes, and indicating that the initial conditions leading to the formation of the solar system were quite diverse [3]. Noble gases provide a unique window into the composition of the progenitor material to the solar system [4]. Stellar evolution may contribute by the s-process, r-process, p-process, etc., each with its own isotopic distribution. Kr and Xe are especially useful as the large number of isotopes (7 in the 78Kr to 86Kr range, and 9 in the 124Xe to 136Xe range) provide many clues to help unravel the multiple sources to the measured abundances. Although Xe has been measured and analyzed considerably more frequently than Kr in meteorite studies, this has only partially been due to the wealth of information derivable from Xe studies, but also, due to experimental difficulties encountered in Kr measurements. Early in the development of stellar nucleosynthesis, 86Kr was proposed as a chronometer of the s-process [5], but until recently has provided unreliable results [6]. Other interesting properties derivable from Kr isotope measurements include 78Kr as an indication of spallation history, 80Kr as a stellar thermometer, and 81Kr and 83Kr to determine cosmic ray exposure ages. Studies of highly refractory microscopic grains (diamond, graphite and SiC) separated from the much more abundant carbonaceous matrix in primitive meteorites have shown a remarkable isotopic composition diversity in a small fraction of single grains from the same meteorite, implying multiple stellar sources [4]. Ion microprobe measurements have been possible of the major constituents of single interstellar grains [7,8] and of He and Ne using a state-of-the-art static noble gas mass spectrometer [9-11]. But, a recent attempt to

  10. Chemical activity of noble gases Kr and Xe and its impact on fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that most of the insoluble inert gas atoms Xe and Kr produced during fissioning are retained in the fuel irradiated at a temperature lower than the threshold. Experimental data imply that we can assume that after irradiation exposure in excess of 1018 fissions/cm3 the single gas atom diffusion can be disregarded in description of fission gas behaviour. It is assumed that the vicinity of the fission fragment trajectory is the place of intensive irradiation induced chemical interaction of the fission gas products with UO2. Significant part of fission gas product is thus expected to be chemically bound in the matrix of UO2. Experiments with mixture of noble gases, coupled with theoretical calculations, provide strong evidence for direct bonds between Ar, Kr, or Xe atoms and the U atom of the CUO molecule. Because of its positive charge, the UO22+ ion, which is isoelectronic with CUO, should form even stronger bonds with noble gas atoms, which could lead to a growing number of complexes that contain direct noble gas - to - actinide bonds. Considering the huge amount of gas immobilised in the UO2 fuel the solution process and in consequence the re-solution process of rare gases is to be replaced by the chemical bonding process. This explains the fission gas accumulation in the irradiated UO2 fuel. (author)

  11. A first-principles study of He, Xe, Kr and O incorporation in thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Thorium-based materials are currently being investigated in relation with their potential utilization in Generation-IV reactors as nuclear fuels. Understanding the incorporation of fission products and oxygen is very important to predict the behavior of nuclear fuels. A first approach to this goal is the study of the incorporation energies and stability of these elements in the material. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we calculate the incorporation energies of He, Xe, Kr and O atoms in Th and C vacancy sites, in tetrahedral interstitials and in Schottky defects along the 〈1 1 1〉 and 〈1 0 0〉 directions. We also analyze atomic displacements, volume modifications and Bader charges. This kind of results for ThC, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been obtained previously, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. This should deal as a starting point towards the study of the complex behavior of fission products in irradiated ThC.

  12. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  13. I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar dating of silicate from Weekeroo Station and Netschaevo IIE iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicate inclusions from two IIE iron meteorites were dated by the I-Xe and 40Ar-39Ar techniques. Weekeroo Station, a 'normal' IIE iron, shows no loss of radiogenic 40Ar at low temperature, and the well defined 40Ar-39Ar plateau yields an age of 4.54 +- 0.03 Byr. The xenon data define a good I-Xe correlation with an age of + 10.9 +- 0.5 Myr relative to Bjurbole. Despite its relatively young age, Weekeroo Station's (129Xe/132Xe)sub(trapped) ratio (= 0.84 +- 0.05) lies significantly below the solar value. Netschaevo silicate has a chondritic composition, unlike 'normal' IIE silicate which is more differentiated. Nevertheless Netschaevo gives a 40Ar-39Ar plateau-age of only 3.79 +- 0.03 Byr, with the xenon data failing to define an I-Xe isochron. Only irons from the IAB and IIE groups contain silicate inclusions, but these two groups differ in many other respects, mostly suggesting that IAB meteorites are more primitive. The I-Xe chronology supports this suggestion inasmuch as Weekeroo Station formed well after IAB silicates. The four silicate-bearing IIE irons which have now been dated can be subdivided into distinct pairs: Weekeroo Station and Colomera formed near the beginning of the solar system, while Netschaevo and Kodaikanal both formed only 3.8 Byr ago. A review of other properties of these meteorites generally supports this subdivision. This work underscores the complexity of the history of IIE meteorites; in particular, an adequate model must account for the formation of two IIE irons at 3.8 Byr without disturbing rare gases in Weekeroo Station. All formation models are quite speculative, but the one which seems best to fit the available evidence postulates two parent bodies: the 3.8 Byr old silicate formed on one parent body, all other IIE material resided in a separate body, and subsequent collision(s) mixed the young silicate with IIE metal. (author)

  14. Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system and experimental preparation of its initial state: Four-photon resonant excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Ying; Lu Zhen-Zhong; Fan Rong-Wei; Chen De-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel one-colour Xe-Kr laser induced collisional ionization system. Considering the level scheme of the system, it finds that the initial state of the reaction-the four 4f levels with even J of Xe-can be prepared through method of four-photon resonant excitation by dye laser with wavelength of ~440 nm. Absorption of an additional photon (the transfer laser) of the same wavelength will complete the laser induced collisional ionization process. The resonance enhanced ionization spectrum of Xe by four laser photons at ~ 440 nm is measured through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, this aims at the preparation of the initial state of the system proposed. The Stark broadening of the measured spectrum is observed and consistent with the previous study. Analysis of the measured resonance ionization spectrum implies the feasibility of ~ 440 nm four-photon resonant excitation of the initial 4f state of the Xe-Kr system proposed in this paper, which prepares for a further experiment of laser induced collisional ionization.

  15. Electron swarm and transport coefficients for the binary mixtures of SF6 with Ar and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed Townsend technique was used to measure the electron drift velocity, the longitudinal diffusion, and the effective ionization coefficients, and the limiting field strength for the binary mixtures of SF6 with Ar and Xe. This paper covered a wide range of the density-reduced electric field strength E/N between 50 and 700 Td (1 Townsend (Td) = 10-17 V cm2). The content of SF6 in the gas mixtures was varied over the range 1-90%. For the SF6-Ar mixture, the electron drift velocities were found to be higher than those for pure SF6, and conversely for the SF6-Xe mixture. The above can be explained in terms of the larger momentum transfer cross-section for electrons in Xe than in Ar. The limiting field strength for the SF6-Xe mixture was found to be higher than that for the SF6-Ar one, but still lower than that for the SF6-N2 mixture

  16. Collision induced dissociation of CsI and Cs2I2 to ion pairs by Kr, Xe, and SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, E. K.; Inoue, M.; Wexler, S.

    1982-02-01

    Absolute cross sections as functions of collision energy have been determined for collision induced dissociation of cesium iodide monomer and dimer to ion pairs. In these studies a beam of accelerated Xe, Kr, or SF6 projectiles was crossed with a thermal beam of cesium iodide. The partial cross sections for each product-ion channel were determined by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For the rare gas-monomer collisions, the dependence of each partial cross section on the internal temperature of the CsI was also obtained. Collisions of Xe with CsI produced three-body dissociation as well as the formation of the molecular ions CsXe+ and IXe-. The formation of both the positive and negative molecular ions is primarily a reflection of the similar masses of Cs+ and I-, and was not observed in previously studied systems. For the same reason, Cs2I+ and CsI-2 resulting from collisions of Xe with Cs2I2 were formed with comparable intensities. At energies well above threshold, the total dissociation cross section for the rare gases colliding with CsI or Cs2I2 is large (≳10 Å2). Those for SF6 are approximately a factor of 5 smaller for the monomer, but only slightly smaller for the dimer. No ions containing SF6 were observed. The cross sections for three-body dissociation as well as molecular ion formation are relatively small in the region of the thermodynamic threshold (decreasing in the series Xe, Kr, and Ar). Analysis of the experimental results indicates that dissociation in this region only occurs for CsI molecules having considerable internal excitation, an effect related almost entirely to the projectile-target relative masses. A model which takes into account the coupling of internal motion with relative translational motion is shown to give an excellent description of the dissociation in the threshold region. Collinear trajectory calculations of the rare gases colliding with CsI were also performed in order to determine the threshold for dissociation as a

  17. Applications of 37Ar, 39Ar and 85Kr in hydrology, oceanography and atmospheric studies. Current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the atmospheric concentrations of 37Ar, 39Ar and 85Kr is required to apply these isotopes in hydrology and oceanography; these concentrations are reported on in the paper. It is demonstrated in a general way, and for specific examples, how 39Ar and 85Kr results can be used for groundwater dating. The combination of these isotope results with 3H and 14C data is discussed. Subsurface production of 39Ar may limit its application in dating, but could yield information about underground processes, particularly if the results are combined with other isotope data such as 37Ar and 222Rn. Argon-39 is applied in oceanography as a steady state tracer and allows valuable conclusions to be reached on the formation and ventilation rates of deep ocean water. Examples from the deep North Atlantic and for a depth profile in the Pacific illustrate how conclusions on the mixing, ageing and flow rates can be drawn from 39Ar results. The origin of measured 37Ar activity values in tropospheric air is described, and selected time series are used to discuss atmospheric circulation processes. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  19. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  20. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lyon, Kevin Lawrence [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)ry

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  1. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  2. Understanding the Adsorption Mechanism of Xe and Kr in a Metal-Organic Framework from X-ray Structural Analysis and First- Principles Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, Sanjit K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Yan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yakovenko, Andrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dooryhee, Eric [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ehm, Lars [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ecker, Lynne E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dippel, Ann-Christin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halder, Gregory J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Strachan, Denis M. [DM Strachan, LLC., Bend, OR (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Enhancement of adsorption capacity and separation of radioactive Xe/Kr at room temperature and above is a challenging problem. Here, we report a detailed structural refinement and analysis of the synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of Ni-DODBC metal organic framework with in situ Xe and Kr adsorption at room temperature and above. Our results reveal that Xe and Kr adsorb at the open metal sites, with adsorption geometries well reproduced by DFT calculations. The measured temperature-dependent adsorption capacity of Xe is substantially larger than that for Kr, indicating the selectivity of Xe over Kr and is consistent with the more negative adsorption energy (dominated by van der Waals dispersion interactions) predicted from DFT. Our results reveal critical structural and energetic information about host–guest interactions that dictate the selective adsorption mechanism of these two inert gases, providing guidance for the design and synthesis of new MOF materials for the separation of environmentally hazardous gases from nuclear reprocessing applications.

  3. Optimizing the Ar-Xe infrared laser on the Naval Research Laboratory's Electra generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ar-Xe infrared laser has been investigated in several series of experiments carried out on the Naval Research Laboratory's Electra generator. Our primary goals were to optimize the efficiency of the laser (within Electra's capabilities) and to gain understanding of the main physical processes underlying the laser's output as a function of controllable parameters such as Xe fraction, power deposition, and gas pressure. We find that the intrinsic efficiency maximizes at ∼3% at a total pressure of 2.5 atm, Xe fraction of 1%, and electron beam power deposition density of 50-100 kW cm-3. We deployed an interferometer to measure the electron density during lasing; the ionization fractions of 10-5-10-4 that it detected well exceed previous theoretical estimates. Some trends in the data as a function of beam power and xenon fraction are not fully understood. The as-yet incomplete picture of Ar-Xe laser physics is likely traceable in large part to significant uncertainties still present in many important rates influencing the atomic and molecular kinetics

  4. Sequential multiphoton multiple ionization of Ar and Xe by X-ray free electron laser pulses at SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated multiphoton multiple ionization of Ar and Xe atoms irradiated by intense X-ray pulses using the new X-ray free electron laser facility SACLA. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results.

  5. Deactivation of two-photon excited Xe(5p56p,6p',7p) and Kr(4p55p) in xenon and krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetimes and bimolecular quenching rate constants have been determined for two-photon laser excited states of Xe*(5p56p,5p56p',5p57p) and Kr*(4p55p) in krypton and xenon buffer gases. Collisional mixing between Kr*5p[5/2]2 and Kr*5p[5/2]3 in krypton is observed and analyzed using a coupled two-state model to obtain the rate of mixing. The measured rate constants for quenching of Xe*(6p',7p) by krypton are 15%--20% smaller than those measured previously in xenon while bimolecular rates for the Kr*(5p) states are an order of magnitude larger in xenon than those in a krypton buffer. Measurements of state-to-state rate constants for deactivation and excitation transfer are also reported for these states in krypton and xenon buffer gases

  6. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors

  7. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  8. A study of capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, N [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk, Institutskaja str. 4/1 (Russian Federation); Gavare, Z; Revalde, G; Skudra, Ja; Veilande, R [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-04-20

    Low-pressure capillary discharge lamps in Ar-Hg and Xe-Hg mixtures are studied. The discharge size is 0.5 mm (500 {mu}m) in radius. According to the literature, such types of plasma sources are classified as microplasmas. The studies include spectrally resolved optical measurements, tomographic reconstructions and numerical simulations using the collisional-radiative model for an Ar-Hg plasma. We discuss the problems of theoretical modelling and experimental diagnostics of microplasma sources. It is shown that the conventional collisional-radiative model, based on the assumption that transportation of atoms in the highly excited states can be neglected, has limitations in modelling a capillary discharge in an Ar-Hg mixture. It is found that diffusion of highly excited mercury atoms to the wall influences the emission properties of the capillary discharge. We have concluded that applications of the emission tomography method to microplasmas require a special analysis in each particular case.

  9. Exploring "aerogen-hydride" interactions between ZOF2 (Z = Kr, Xe) and metal hydrides: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Mohammadian-Sabet, Fariba

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a new σ-hole interaction formed between ZOF2 (Z = Kr and Xe) as the Lewis acid and a series of metal-hydrides HMX (M = Be, Mg, Zn and X = H, F, CN, CH3) is reported. The nature of this interaction, called "aerogen-hydride" interaction, is unveiled by molecular electrostatic potential, non-covalent interaction, quantum theory of atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital analyses. Our results indicate that the aerogen-hydride interactions are quite strong and can be comparable in strength to other σ-hole bonds. An important charge-transfer interaction is also associated with the formation of OF2Z⋯HMX complexes.

  10. Collision-induced dissociation and dissociative capture of H2+ in Ar and Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the absolute total and differential cross sections for the production of protons and hydrogen atoms in the energy range of 1-5 keV for reactions of H2+ molecular ions in Ar and Kr targets are reported. The results show that the cross section for the dissociative capture (DC) proccess is about one order of magnitude higher than that for the collision-induced dissociation. The angular distribution of the fragments in both targets and for all acceleration energies shows a monotonic decrease in the differential cross section with increasing angle. A sharp increase in the angular distribution at scattering angles <1.6 deg. is observed for hydrogen atoms resulting from DC and in particular for the Kr target

  11. Experimental study of relative level populations in beam-foil excited Ar+7 and Kr+7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative level populations in beam-foil excited sodium-like argon (Ar VIII) and copper-like krypton (Kr VIII) have been studied at 2 MeV projectile energy. In Ar VIII, the 3p and the 3d terms are strongly excited. The level population decreases rapidly with increasing value of the principal quantum number n, reaches a minimum for levels with n = 5 or 6, but increases then and reaches a strong maximum for levels with n approximately 11. Also the Kr VIII data show a population maximum for levels with n = 11. The strong 3p and 3d level excitations in Ar VIII are explained as selective inner-shell processes which can be understood in the molecular-orbital electron-promotion picture. The preferential population of high-flying Rydberg states is explained as resulting from a near-resonance electron transfer from the valence band of the carbon foil to the projectile. This process takes place when the projectile leaves the back of the foil. (Auth.)

  12. Possibility of particle-beam-pumped Ar-Xe laser as an inertial confinement fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-product-beam pumped Ar-Xe laser as a candidate of the driver for a hybrid fission-fusion reactor is studied. Such hybrid reactor can reduce the power requirements for the laser driver. These Ar-Xe lasers have been realized as reactor pumped lasers (RPL) with pulsed reactors. However, high power RPL experiments often face the problem of premature termination of laser output power with respect to the pumping power. Several reasons, including temperature effects, outgassing of impurities from walls have been discussed. Two experiments, elucidating the influence of water vapor impurities in the lasing gas mixture and laser threshold, and the effects of temperature rise in the laser gas on laser output have been performed at the Munich Tandem accelerator, using 100 MeV 32S9+ beams, thus simulating RPL experiments at a pumping power density of ∼ 100 W/cm3. Using these experimental and theoretical results, these RPL-oscillations can be stabilized with high instinctive efficiency. Laser-gas-purification systems and breakeven conditions and related requirements on the hybrid reactor using RPL driver schematically discussed. (author)

  13. Ion-radical synergy in HfO2 etching studied with a XeF2/Ar+ beam setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain more insight into fundamental aspects of the etching behavior of Hf-based high-k materials in plasma etch reactors, HfO2 films were etched in a multiple-beam setup consisting of a low energy Ar+ ion beam and a XeF2 radical beam. The etch rate and etch products were monitored by real-time ellipsometry and mass spectrometry, respectively. Although etching of HfO2 in XeF2/Ar+ chemistry is mainly a physical effect, an unambiguous proof of the ion-radical synergistic effect for the etching of HfO2 is presented. The etch yield for 400 eV Ar+ ions at a substrate temperature of 300 deg. C was 0.3 atoms/ion for Ar+ sputtering and increased to 2 atoms/ion when XeF2 was also supplied. The etch yield proved to follow the common square root of ion energy dependence both for pure sputtering and radical enhanced etching, with a threshold energy at room temperature of 69±17 eV for Ar+ ions and 54±14 eV for Ar+ ions with XeF2

  14. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Heitz, J.; Barb, R. A.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  15. Production of doubly magic nucleus 100Sn in 72,74,76Kr+40Ca, 72,74,76Kr+40Ar and 72,74,76Kr+32S reactions at 4 − 6 MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko N.V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of production of evaporation residues in low energy fusion reactions is investigated within the dinuclear system model. The model predictions for the production cross sections of exotic nuclei are compared with the available experimental data. The possibilities of production of doubly magic nucleus 100Sn via particle evaporation channels and 12C emission channel in the reactions 72,74,76Kr+40Ca, 72,74,76Kr+40Ar and 72,74,76Kr+32S are investigated at bombarding energies 4 − 6 MeV/nucleon.

  16. Production of doubly magic nucleus 100Sn in 72,74,76Kr+40Ca, 72,74,76Kr+40Ar and 72,74,76Kr+32S reactions at 4-6 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of production of evaporation residues in low energy fusion reactions is investigated within the dinuclear system model. The model predictions for the production cross sections of exotic nuclei are compared with the available experimental data and the agreement is satisfactory. The possibilities of production of doubly magic nucleus 100Sn via particle evaporation channels and 12C emission channel in the reactions 72;74;76Kr+40Ca, 72;74;76Kr+40Ar and 72;74;76Kr+32S are investigated at bombarding energies 4-6 MeV/nucleon. The maximal yield for 100Sn corresponds to the reaction 72Kr+40Ca at 4,8 MeV/nucleon, which is as high as 500 nb

  17. Atomic scale mobility of the volatile fission products Xe, Kr and I in cubic SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M W D; Kelly, S; Bertolus, M

    2016-06-22

    The migration barriers for the vacancy-assisted migration of fission products in 3C-SiC are reported and analysed in the context of the five frequency model, which enables one to calculate an effective diffusion coefficient from elementary mechanisms. Calculations were carried out using the nudged elastic band method (NEB) with interatomic forces determined from density functional theory (DFT). Justification for treating vacancy-assisted fission product migration as limited to the FCC carbon sublattice is based on the stability of carbon vacancies, unfavourable silicon vacancy formation and the accommodation of fission products on the carbon sublattice. Results show that for most Fermi levels within the band gap the activation energy for I exceeds that of Xe which exceeds that of Kr. Results also indicate that activation energies are higher near the conduction edge, thus, implying that enhanced fission product retention can be achieved through n-type doping of 3C-SiC, which limits the availability of the migration mediating carbon vacancies. PMID:27282287

  18. Structure and Stability of Endohedral Complexes X@(HAlNH)12 (X = He, Ne, Ar, Kr)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cai-Yun; WU Hai-Shun

    2005-01-01

    The structures of closo-hedral cluster (HAlNH)12 and endohedral complexes X@(HAlNH)12 (X = He, Ne, Ar, Kr) have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometries, natural bond orbital (NBO), vibrational frequency, energetic parameters, magnetic shielding constants and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) were discussed. The potential surface of guest X shifting from the cage center to a face of six- membered ring was calculated at the same level. The exit transition state was demonstrated with IRC calculations. It is found that X@(HAlNH)12 complexes are dynamically stable, and Ne@(HAlNH)12 is more energetically favorable than the other complexes in thermodynamics.

  19. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for the nitrogen isoelectronic sequence (Ar XII through Kr XXX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscillator strengths, radiative decay rates, and electron collision strengths have been calculated for the N-like ions Ar XII, Ti XVI, Fe XX, Zn XXIV, and Kr XXX. Included in the calculation are the 72 levels of the configurations 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23s, 2s22p23p, and 2s22p23d. The level populations are calculated for the electron densities 1013, 1014, and 1015 cm-3, and the spectral line intensities of the transitions from these levels are presented. The calculated intensities are in good agreement with the relative intensities observed in the spectra from the PLT tokamak

  20. Electron-impact multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the multiple ionization cross sections of rare gases by electron-impact. We pay special attention to the high energy region (0.1–10 keV) where the direct ionization is a minor contribution and the post-collisional electron emission dominates the final target charge state. We report here electron-impact single to sextuple ionization cross sections and total ionization cross sections including direct and post-collisional processes, even in the total values. We use the continuum distorted wave and the first Born approximations adapted to describe light-particle impact, i.e. energy, mass and trajectory corrections are incorporated, the latter by considering the electron-target potential and by using the Abel transformation. Auger-type post-collisional contributions are included in the multinomial expansion through experimental branching ratios after single ionization events. Tabulations of these experimental branching ratios for all the orbitals of the four targets are included. Present results are compared with the large amount of electron-impact experimental data available. We have obtained a good description of the multiple-ionization measurements at high energies, where the post-collisional ionization dominates. At intermediate energies, our theoretical results show the correct tendency, with the electron-impact ionization cross sections being far below the proton-impact ones. (paper)

  1. dE/dx measurements in Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and pure hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization sampling resolution and relativistic rise at 15 GeV/c were compared at different pressures in neon, argon, krypton, xenon and pure hydrocarbons, using a detector consisting of 64 samples of 4 cm and a drift space of up to 50 cm. Best results were obtained for π/p separation in neon (>6,7sigma) and for e/π separation in xenon (>4.8sigma). Pure ethylene and propane were comparable to argon mixtures for π/p separation, but the corresponding e/π separation suffered from a lower relativistic rise. The signal attenuation by electron attachement was more pronounced in heavier hydrocarbons. Drift velocity measurements are presented and E/p limits imposed by requirements of dE/dx resolution are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of the polarizability of Ar+, Kr+, and Xe+ ions at a shock wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarizability of Argon ions, Krypton ions, and Xenon ions has been measured by two-wavelength-interferometry with plasmas produced in a shock-wave tube with a membrane. For Mach numbers from 11 to 25, electron densities in the range of 1016 up to some 1017 cm-3, neutral densities up to some 1018 cm-3 and plasma temperature between 9000 K and 13500 K were found. The ratio of the ion polarizability and the well known atom polarizability turned out to be 0.629 for argon, 0.577 for krypton, and 0.528 for xenon, with statistical error of approximately 5% and total error smaller than 10%. (orig./AH)

  3. Hyperfine frequencies of 87Rb and 133Cs atoms in Xe gas

    OpenAIRE

    McGuyer, B. H.; Xia, T.; Happer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state 87Rb and 133Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas are shown to have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of RbXe or CsXe van der Waals molecules. The nonlinear shifts for Xe are opposite in sign to the previously measured shifts for Ar and Kr, even though all three gases have negative linear shifts. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts. Most of this discrepancy is ...

  4. Dynamics of H+ + Kr and H+ + Xe elastic and charge-transfer collisions: State-selected differential cross sections at low collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic and charge-transfer scattering of protons by Kr and Xe targets has been investigated in a crossed-beam experiment at collision energies E/sub c.m./ = 30.6 and 51.7 eV. The charge-transfer collisions led to the formation of Kr+( 2P/sub 3/2/, 2P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1) and Xe+( 2P/sub 3/2/, 2P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1,n = 2) products respectively. Interference patterns in the state-selected relative differential cross sections were clearly resolved and have been ascribed to primary and secondary rainbows and/or Stueckelberg-type oscillations. The H++Xe collisions have also been investigated theoretically by the exact close-coupling method. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been found. A novel method for determining the absolute H-atom detection efficiency is suggested

  5. Van der Waals bond in dimers: H2Ne, H2Ar, H2Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H2-inert gas dimers H2X, and particularly H2Ne, H2Ar and H2Kr, form the subject of this thesis and are loosely bound van der Waals complexes, which is reflected in the low number of bound states and the small anisotropic interaction. The H2X dimers studied are formed in a supersonic nozzle expansion, in which the internal energy is converted into the macroscopic flow energy, establishing an internal temperature drop to 3 K, which favours dimer formation. Because of this cooling the H2X dimers relax to the lowest rotational states. The hyperfine transitions have been measured using magnetic beam resonance and yield information about the isotropic as well as the anisotropic intermolecular potential in the range between the classical turning points and in the adjacent part of the repulsive branch. The sensitivity of the method is very high and slight changes in the intermolecular potential cause significant effects. The analysis of the measured hyperfine transitions incorporates all interacting states of the molecule, bound as well as unbound (continuum) states. For H2Ne, which is the best studied H2-inert gas system from the experimental point of view, the author succeeded in establishing an intermolecular potential, that provides a solid ground for comparison with future ab initio calculations. (Auth.)

  6. Transfer and quenching rate constants for XeF(B) and XeF(C) state in low vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, H. C., Jr.; Setser, D. W.

    1982-05-01

    The relative XeF(B-X) and XeF(C-A) emission intensities from the steady-state vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of XeF2 have been used to measure the B-C transfer and quenching rate constants of XeF molecules in low vibrational levels. The rare gases N2, CF4, SF6, F2, NF3, CF3H, CF3Cl, HF, CO2, and XeF2 were investigated as buffer gases at room temperature. The transfer rate constants are much larger than the quenching rate constants for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, N2, CF4, and SF6. For Xe, NF3, CHF3, and CClF3 transfer is only 2-4 times faster than quenching and for F2, HF, and CO2 quenching is faster than B-C state transfer. Quenching for XeF(D) was studied for rare gases and for N2. No convincing evidence was found for three-body quenching by the rare gases and their quenching of the XeF(B, C) and XeF(D) states are reported as two-body processes for pressures below ˜5 atm. The XeF(D) quenching rate constants are of the same magnitude as the B-C state transfer rate constants. The photochemical and collisional (metastable rare gas atom) dissociative excitation of XeF2 and KrF2 are summarized in the Appendix.

  7. Study of x-rays produced from debris-free sources with Ar, Kr and Kr/Ar mixture linear gas jets irradiated by UNR Leopard laser beam with fs and ns pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petrov, G. M.; Moschella, J. J.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Weller, M. E.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Experiments of x-ray emission from Ar, Kr, and Ar/Kr gas jet mixture were performed at the UNR Leopard Laser Facility operated with 350 fs pulses at laser intensity of 2 × 1019 W/cm2 and 0.8 ns pulses at an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. Debris free x-ray source with supersonic linear nozzle generated clusters/monomer jet with an average density of ≥1019 cm-3 was compared to cylindrical tube subsonic nozzle, which produced only monomer jet with average density 1.5-2 times higher. The linear (elongated) cluster/gas jet provides the capability to study x-ray yield anisotropy and laser beam self-focusing with plasma channel formation that are interconnecting with efficient x-ray generation. Diagnostics include x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras and spectrometers. It was observed that the emission in the 1-9 keV spectral region was strongly anisotropic depending on the directions of laser beam polarization for sub-ps laser pulse and supersonic linear jet. The energy yield in the 1-3 keV region produced by a linear nozzle was an order of magnitude higher than from a tube nozzle. Non-LTE models and 3D molecular dynamic simulations of Ar and Kr clusters irradiated by sub-ps laser pulses have been implemented to analyze obtained data. A potential evidence of electron beam generation in jets' plasma was discussed. Note that the described debris-free gas-puff x-ray source can generate x-ray pulses in a high repetition regime. This is a great advantage compared to solid laser targets.

  8. Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons collision in Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Carbonaro, P.

    2016-04-01

    The solitons collision in nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) plasmas consisting of positive ions, two different negative ions, and isothermal electrons is studied. For this purpose, the Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method is used to obtain two-coupled nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (nKdV) equations. Also, the nonplanar phase shifts are calculated. The physical parameters of two plasma experiments; namely Xe+-F-- SF6- and Ar+-F-- SF6- are used to examine the properties of the localized pulses and their phase shifts after collision. It is found that the present model gives rise to the propagation of positive and negative pulses. The effects of the total negative ions concentration, the density ratio of the second-negative ions, the temperature ratio, and the geometrical effects on the behavior of solitons collisions and their phase shifts are investigated. Furthermore, it is found that the phase shifts in the case of the Ar+-F-- SF6- plasma are much larger than those of the Xe+-F-- SF6- plasma. Also, for fixed plasma parameters, the solitons collision received the largest phase shift in spherical geometry, followed by the cylindrical and planar geometries.

  9. Laser-induced front side and back side etching of fused silica with KrF and XeF excimer lasers using metallic absorber layers: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study laser-induced front and back side etching of fused silica with a KrF and a XeF excimer laser. ► Chromium layers as absorber are used. ► The LIFE method allows nm-precision etching with etching depths up to 300 nm. ► The measurement results are compared to the results calculated by a thermal model. - Abstract: Laser-induced front side (LIFE) and back side etching (LIBDE) are methods for nanometer-precision laser etching of transparent materials using thin absorber layers. The etching behaviour of fused silica at a laser wavelength of 248 nm (KrF) and 351 nm (XeF excimer laser) with a pulse duration of 25 ns using a chromium absorber layer was analysed and compared for front and back side etching geometry. For both wavelengths as well as for both processes the etching depth d increases almost linearly in dependence on the laser fluence (it is: d ≈ δ*(Φ − Φth)). The etching depth at the same laser fluence is higher for 248 nm compared to 351 nm as well as for back side etching compared to the front side etching process (LIFE: δ(248 nm) = 20 nm/(J/cm2), δ(351 nm) = 15 nm/(J/cm2), LIBDE: δ(248 nm) = 38 nm/(J/cm2), δ(351 nm) = 8 nm/(J/cm2) with Φth,m from 0.3 to 2.65 J/cm2). Furthermore, the measured depths were evaluated with the estimated etching depth calculated by a thermal model. The simple thermodynamic model allows a good qualitative description of the etching depth behaviour; however, the model does not allow the quantitative calculation of the etching depth.

  10. An overview of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) contents and isotope signals in terrestrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Jones, A. P.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Kelley, S. P.; Stuart, F. M.

    2013-11-01

    The noble gas geochemistry of different types of terrestrial diamond including coated stones, alluvial diamonds, framesites, carbonados and impact diamonds yields a wealth of information on the sources of volatiles responsible for diamond formation. We present an illustrated compilation of published analyses of noble gases in different types of natural diamond. Noble gases in diamond record primary signatures from the mantle indicative of their integrated sources, and, the contribution of different metasomatic agents including subducting fluids and kimberlitic melt sampled during diamond growth. In addition, they show evidence of secondary processes such as resorption. Most data are available for coated stones, which trap abundant volatile-rich microscopic inclusions in their rims. While the coated stones are dominated by Mid-Oceanic-Ridge-Basalt (MORB) type noble gas signatures, the other diamond types contain predominantly crustal and atmospheric components although some mantle gases may be present, the latter indicated in elevated 20Ne/22Ne and/or 129Xe/132Xe ratios relative to atmospheric values. Some alluvial diamonds have very high 3He/4He that may represent the presence of a solar component trapped during their formation, but are just as likely to be the result of cosmogenic 3He implantation during their prolonged residence at the Earth's surface. Oceanic-Island-Basalt (OIB) type noble gases occur in nanometer sized inclusions in metamorphic diamond from Kazakhstan, yet their significance as a fingerprint of mantle processes is not fully understood. Implanted noble gases occur near the outer surfaces of individual crystals, and are generally not a major hindrance for the study of mantle signatures, except for polycrystalline diamond like framesites with small grain size. Some diamonds including the polycrystalline carbonados, are dominated by crustal noble gases with no discernible mantle component evidenced by very low 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios, and very

  11. Experimental investigation of the chemistry of exccited states of rare gases. Fourth quarterly (and annual) progress report, July 15, 1978-October 15, 1978. [Reaction of Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) or Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) with XeO/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setser, D.W.

    1978-12-01

    A brief account is given of work on the quenching of XeF(B) and other excited rare-gas systems. A more detailed report is given of the studies of the vacuum uv photolysis of XeO/sub 4/ and reactions of Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) and Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) with XeO/sub 4/. (DLC)

  12. Electron scattering by Ne, Ar and Kr at intermediate and high energies, 0.5-10 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-empirical total cross sections for electron scattering of noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been obtained by combining transmission-beam measurements for impact energies up to 6 keV with an asymptotic behaviour at higher energies according to the Born-Bethe approximation. The influence of the forward electron scattering on the experimental system has been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo electron transport simulation. Theoretical values have also been obtained by applying the Born approximation in the case of inelastic processes and by means of an atomic scattering potential for the elastic part. The results of these calculations show an excellent agreement with the semi-empirical values in the above-mentioned energy range. (author)

  13. Electron scattering by Ne, Ar and Kr at intermediate and high energies, 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.; Roteta, M.; Manero, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-04-28

    Semi-empirical total cross sections for electron scattering of noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been obtained by combining transmission-beam measurements for impact energies up to 6 keV with an asymptotic behaviour at higher energies according to the Born-Bethe approximation. The influence of the forward electron scattering on the experimental system has been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo electron transport simulation. Theoretical values have also been obtained by applying the Born approximation in the case of inelastic processes and by means of an atomic scattering potential for the elastic part. The results of these calculations show an excellent agreement with the semi-empirical values in the above-mentioned energy range. (author)

  14. Nucleation and growth of a hcp phase in homogeneous (Ar) and heterogeneous(ArKr) clusters by the electron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron diffraction study of nucleation and growth of the hcp phase in homogeneous (Ar) and heterogeneous (Ar-Kr) clusters formed in adiabatically expanding supersonic jets is carried out. The average cluster size ranged from 2x103 to 1x105 atom/claster. The threshold cluster size corresponding to the appearance of an hcp phase in addition to the fcc structure is determined. It is found that the relative volume of the hcp phase in monocrystalline clusters increases with their size. In heterogeneous clusters, the hcp phase relative volume is greater than that in homoge-neous clusters of the same size. We established a correlation between the hcp phase relative volume and the number of ''defective'' planes contained in the fcc matrix, which were the nuclei of the hcp phase. It is found that in very large polycrystalline aggregations (delta>=150 A) fraction of the hcp phase reaches its maximum and does not change with further cluster growth. A mechanism of nucleation and growth of the hcp phase in rare gas clusters is proposed.

  15. Photon spectroscopy of X7+ ions (X= Ne, Ar, Kr). Applications to the study of the single electron capture in low energy X8+-Li collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the electronic core of the projectile ion on the single capture electron n1 final states during collisions between X8+ ions (X= Ne, Ar, Kr) and Li(2s). Experimental cross sections are obtained from X7+ emission line measurements and are compared to calculations using the Monte Carlo type classical trajectory method. 3 figs., 6 refs

  16. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, R; Barna, A; Suta, T; Bohus, J; Földes, I B; Szatmári, S; Mikołajczyk, J; Bartnik, A; Fiedorowicz, H; Verona, C; Verona Rinati, G; Margarone, D; Nowak, T; Rosiński, M; Ryć, L

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence. PMID:25554270

  17. Correlation consistent valence basis sets for use with the Stuttgart-Dresden-Bonn relativistic effective core potentials the atoms Ga-Kr and In-Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, J M L; Martin, Jan M.L.; Sundermann, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We propose large-core correlation-consistent pseudopotential basis sets for the heavy p-block elements Ga-Kr and In-Xe. The basis sets are of cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ quality, and have been optimized for use with the large-core (valence-electrons only) Stuttgart-Dresden-Bonn relativistic pseudopotentials. Validation calculations on a variety of third-row and fourth-row diatomics suggest them to be comparable in quality to the all-electron cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ basis sets for lighter elements. Especially the SDB-cc-pVQZ basis set in conjunction with a core polarization potential (CPP) yields excellent agreement with experiment for compounds of the later heavy p-block elements. For accurate calculations on Ga (and, to a lesser extent, Ge) compounds, explicit treatment of 13 valence electrons appears to be desirable, while it seems inevitable for In compounds. For Ga and Ge, we propose correlation consistent basis sets extended for (3d) correlation. For accurate calculations on organometallic complexes of interest to h...

  18. Development of Xe and Kr empirical potentials for CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2, combining DFT with high temperature MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M W D; Kuganathan, N; Burr, P A; Rushton, M J D; Grimes, R W; Stanek, C R; Andersson, D A

    2016-10-12

    The development of embedded atom method (EAM) many-body potentials for actinide oxides and associated mixed oxide (MOX) systems has motivated the development of a complementary parameter set for gas-actinide and gas-oxygen interactions. A comprehensive set of density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study Xe and Kr incorporation at a number of sites in CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2. These structures were used to fit a potential, which was used to generate molecular dynamics (MD) configurations incorporating Xe and Kr at 300 K, 1500 K, 3000 K and 5000 K. Subsequent matching to the forces predicted by DFT for these MD configurations was used to refine the potential set. This fitting approach ensured weighted fitting to configurations that are thermodynamically significant over a broad temperature range, while avoiding computationally expensive DFT-MD calculations. The resultant gas potentials were validated against DFT trapping energies and are suitable for simulating combinations of Xe and Kr in solid solutions of CeO2, ThO2, UO2 and PuO2, providing a powerful tool for the atomistic simulation of conventional nuclear reactor fuel UO2 as well as advanced MOX fuels. PMID:27549186

  19. Influence of Ar/Kr ratio and pulse parameters in a Cr-N high power pulse magnetron sputtering process on plasma and coating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton is sometimes used in physical vapor deposition processes due to its greater atomic mass and size compared to argon, which leads to a lower gas incorporation and may have beneficial effects on kinetics of the coating growth. In this paper, the authors investigate the plasma composition and properties of deposited high power pulse magnetron sputtering Cr-N coatings for discharges with various Ar/Kr ratios and for various pulse lengths of 40 μs, 80 μs, and 200 μs, keeping the average discharge power constant. The results show that an addition of Kr influences the discharge process by altering the ignition and peak values of the discharge current. This influences the metal ion generation and growth conditions on the substrate by reducing the nucleation site densities, leading to a predominantly columnar grow. However, the deposition rate is highest for an Ar/Kr ratio of 120/80. The integral of the metal ion and atom emission exhibits the same trend, having a maximum for Ar/Kr ratio of 120/80. By decreasing the pulse length, the deposition rate of coatings decreases, while the hardness increases

  20. Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite meteorites and relations to other planetary reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the interpretation of xenon that was measured in the Abee meteorite. Reported Xe isotopic abundances in enstatite chondrites (EC's) show some variability, and this makes comparisons to other solar system reservoirs rather difficult. In contrast, we find uniform Xe isotopic abundances in the EC chondrite Abee for a variety of clasts, except for 128Xe and 129Xe, the isotopes affected by neutron capture in I and by extinct 129I. We report averages for the studied clasts which are consistent within error limits with OC-Xe and with the Q-Xe signature. On the other hand, the elemental abundance ratios Ar/Xe are variable between clasts. A strongly reducing environment which is indicated for enstatite meteorites was generally assumed to be consistent with conditions existing in the early inner solar system. Xe isotopic abundances in SNC meteorites from Mars and also those in some terrestrial wells show that distinct isotopic reservoirs coexisted on the same planets. In particular, the Xe isotopic signatures in terrestrial well gases show the presence of a minor distinct component in two of the reported four well gases. These authors suggested that the extra component represents solar Xe, but we show that also a meteoritic xenon reservoir of the Abee-Xe structure is an option. The reported Xe data in Ar-rich (subsolar) EC's show isotopic abundances slightly lighter than those in Abee-Xe, but the relative abundances of Ar, Kr, and Xe indicate only a minor component of elementally unfractionated solar Xe. The elemental ratios suggest rather a different origin for these gases: the loading of solar particles into grain surfaces during exposure at elevated temperatures during accretion of matter in the inner solar system. A model of this type was suggested for the accretion of gases now observed in the atmosphere on Venus. We note that disks of crystalline silicates (including enstatite and olivine) have been observed in T Tauri stars during their early

  1. Ion and neutral energy flux distributions to the cathode in glow discharges in Ar/Ne and Xe/Ne mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdeville, H.; Pédoussat, C.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2002-02-01

    The work presented in the article is a study of the heavy particle (ion and neutral) energy flux distributions to the cathode in conditions typical of discharges used for luminous signs for advertising ("neon" signs). The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of the gas mixture on the sputtering of the cathode. We have combined two models for this study: a hybrid model of the electrical properties of the cathode region of a glow discharge and a Monte Carlo simulation of the heavy particle trajectories. Using known sputtering yields for Ne, Ar, and Xe on iron cathodes, we estimate the sputtered atom flux for mixtures of Ar/Ne and Xe/Ne as a function of the percent neon in the mixture.

  2. Hyperfine frequencies of 87Rb and 133Cs atoms in Xe gas

    CERN Document Server

    McGuyer, B H; Happer, W; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.030501

    2013-01-01

    The microwave resonant frequencies of ground-state 87Rb and 133Cs atoms in Xe buffer gas are shown to have a relatively large nonlinear dependence on the Xe pressure, presumably because of RbXe or CsXe van der Waals molecules. The nonlinear shifts for Xe are opposite in sign to the previously measured shifts for Ar and Kr, even though all three gases have negative linear shifts. The Xe data show striking discrepancies with the previous theory for nonlinear shifts. Most of this discrepancy is eliminated by accounting for the spin-rotation interaction in addition to the hyperfine-shift interaction in the molecules. To the limit of our experimental accuracy, the shifts of 87Rb and 133Cs in He, Ne, and N2 were linear with pressure.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the triple-differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Kr(4p) and Xe(5p) at 1-keV impact energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The triple-differential cross sections for the ionization of Kr(4p) and Xe(5p) by a fast electron where the exiting electrons have energies of 20 eV and 1 keV have been measured and compared with distorted-wave Born calculations. Difficulties were encountered when trying to place the relative data on an absolute scale by extrapolation to the optical limit: an extensive study of this normalization process is presented and it is argued that it is not applicable to the heavier atoms considered here, but can be used effectively for helium targets. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Study of the ArBr - , ArI - , and KrI - anions and the corresponding neutral van der Waals complexes by anion zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuexing; Yourshaw, Ivan; Reiser, Georg; Arnold, Caroline C.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    1994-10-01

    Three rare gas halide (RgX-) anions, ArBr-, ArI-, and KrI-, and the corresponding open-shell van der Waals complexes, ArBr, ArI, and KrI, were studied with anion zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Photodetachment of each anion accesses the three lowest-lying electronic states (the X1/2, I3/2, and II1/2 states) of the neutral complex. The spectra for each system reveal well-resolved progressions in the low frequency vibrations of the anion and the three neutral electronic states, providing a detailed spectroscopic probe of the RgṡX- and RgṡX interaction potentials. The line shapes observed in the ZEKE spectra are analyzed in terms of the line strengths of the underlying rotational transitions. From our data, we construct the potential energy curve for each neutral state as well as for the anion, and these interaction potentials are compared to potentials obtained from scattering and ion mobility experiments.

  5. Double beta decay searches of 134Xe, 126Xe and 124Xe with large scale Xe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity for double beta decay studies of 134Xe and 124Xe is investigated assuming a potential large scale Xe experiment developed for dark matter searches depleted in 136Xe. The opportunity for an observation of the 2νββ - decay of 134Xe is explored for various scenarios. A positive observation should be possible for all calculated nuclear matrix elements. The detection of 2ν ECEC of 124Xe can be probed in all scenarios covering the theoretical predicted half-life uncertainties and a potential search for 126Xe is discussed. The sensitivity to β+EC decay of 124Xe is discussed and a positive observation might be possible, while β+β+ decay still remains unobservable. The performed studies take into account solar pp–neutrino interactions, 85Kr beta decay and remaining 136Xe double beta decay as background components in the depleted detector. (paper)

  6. Theoretical Study of Decomposition Pathways for Rare-gas-containing Compounds HRgX (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr; X = Cl, Br)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Chun-Zhi; SUN Ren-An; YAN Jie

    2005-01-01

    Eight species, HRgX (Rg = He, Ne, Ar, Kr; X = Cl, Br), are predicted to have bending transition states at B3PW91/AUG-cc-PVTZ level, leading to 2-body decomposition pathway like . The reaction path has been obtained with Intricate Reaction Coordinates (IRC) method on identical theoretical level. Additionally, the linear transition states of HArCl, HArBr, HKrCl and HKrBr were obtained at MP2/6-311++G (2d, 2p) level, resulting in 3-body dissociation channel as.

  7. Dynamics of Vibrational Relaxation of Multiphoton Excited SF6 Molecules in Gaseous Mixtures Containing Ozone and Inert Gases (He, Ar, Kr)

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, V. V.; Lunin, B. S.; Mordkovich, N. Yu.; Zhitnev, Yu. N.

    1990-01-01

    SF6 at pressure of 0.6 Torr in gas mixtures with ozone (0 ÷ 5 Torr) and inert gases: He, Ar, Kr (0 ÷ 5 Torr) was vibrationally excited with and IR pulsed radiation of CO2 TEA laser at 10P20 laser line (F= 0.6 J/cm2). The vibrational energy transfer from multiphoton excited (MPE) molecules SF6 to the components of gaseous mixture was probed by UV absorption of ozone at λ = 253.6 nm band. The relaxation process of MPE molecules SF6 was proposed to occur through parallel V-V' and V-T collisional...

  8. A Study of the X(sup 2) Sigma(sup +) and A(sup 2) Pi States of MgAr(sup +) and MgKr(sup +)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The ground (sup 2)Sigma(sup +) and lowest excited (sup 2)Pi states of MgAr(sup +) and MgKr(sup +) are studied using the singles and doubles configuration interaction (SDCI) approach, in conjunction with large basis sets. The effect of Mg core correlation and core polarization are accounted for using the core-polarization potential (CPP) approach. Franck-Condon factors, oscillator strengths, radiative lifetimes, dissociation energies, bond lengths, and excitation energies are reported. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  9. Coherence of Auger and inter-Coulombic decay processes in the photoionization of Ar@C60 versus Kr@C60

    CERN Document Server

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Javani, Mohammad H; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2015-01-01

    For the asymmetric spherical dimer of an endohedrally confined atom and a host fullerene, an innershell vacancy of either system can decay through the continuum of an outer electron hybridized between the systems. Such decays, viewed as coherent superpositions of the single-center Auger and two-center inter-Coulombic (ICD) amplitudes, are found to govern leading decay mechanisms in noble-gas endofullerenes, and are likely omnipresent in this class of nanomolecules. A comparison between resulting autoionizing resonances calculated in the photoionization of Ar@C60 and Kr@C60 exhibits details of the underlying processes.

  10. Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH4, Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4 in the temperature range 673--973K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal rate constants for CH3O by CH4, Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4 were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N2, Xe, and CF4) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH3O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH4 exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp[(/minus/101070 +- 350)/T]cm3molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH4 and CF4, the reaction rate constant for CH3O /plus/ CH4 is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp[(/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T]cm3molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lyman-α radiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lyman-α radiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ. PMID:27137045

  12. Lifetime of inner-shell hole states of Ar (2p) and Kr (3d) using equation-of-motion coupled cluster method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger decay is an efficient ultrafast relaxation process of core-shell or inner-shell excited atom or molecule. Generally, it occurs in femto-second or even atto-second time domain. Direct measurement of lifetimes of Auger process of single ionized and double ionized inner-shell state of an atom or molecule is an extremely difficult task. In this paper, we have applied the highly correlated complex absorbing potential-equation-of-motion coupled cluster (CAP-EOMCC) approach which is a combination of CAP and EOMCC approach to calculate the lifetime of the states arising from 2p inner-shell ionization of an Ar atom and 3d inner-shell ionization of Kr atom. We have also calculated the lifetime of Ar2+(2p−13p−1) 1D, Ar2+(2p−13p−1) 1S, and Ar2+(2p−13s−1) 1P double ionized states. The predicted results are compared with the other theoretical results as well as experimental results available in the literature

  13. Major role of multielectronic K-L inter-shell resonant recombination processes in Li- to O-like ions of Ar, Fe, and Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Beilmann, C; Mokler, P H; Bernitt, S; Keitel, C H; Ullrich, J; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Dielectronic and higher-order resonant electron recombination processes including a K-shell excitation were systematically measured at high resolution in electron beam ion traps. Storing highly charged Ar, Fe, and Kr ions, the dependence on atomic number Z of the contribution of these processes to the total recombination cross section was studied and compared with theoretical calculations. Large higher-order resonant recombination contributions are found, especially for systems with 10

  14. High-resolution EPR and the origin of the spectrum anisotropy of CH3 radicals in Ar, Kr, and CO matrices at liquid helium temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution EPR spectra of CH3 radicals have been observed in Ar, Kr, and CO matrices in the temperature range 1.6-4.2 K. These spectra showed an anisotropy of both the A-tensor and the g-tensor. It is shown that the experimental spectrum can be simulated as a spectrum of a powder sample with axially symmetric g and A tensors. Comparing the spectra in various matrices and studying samples of both pure matrices and mixture matrices, we found a significant contribution of the radical-matrix interaction to the anisotropy. The contribution of the radical rotation at helium temperatures to the CH3 spectrum appearance and the role it plays in the spectrum averaging are also discussed

  15. Interaction of Ne(2p54p), Ar(3p54p) and Kr(4p55p) excited atoms with He and Ne atoms. Processes of collisional depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasimolecular terms Ne(2p54p)+He, Ar(3p54p)+He,Ne and Kr(4p55p)+He,Ne are calculated within the framework of one-configuration method of effective Hamiltonian. The results of calculations agree with the experimental data

  16. Recharge Rates to Deep Aquifer Layers Estimated with 39Ar, 85Kr and 14C Data: A Case Study in Odense (Denmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing pressure on groundwater resources due to overexploitation, contamination and also due to the effects of climate change leads to an increasing need and interest to investigate the recharge and flow dynamics of pre-modern groundwater (>50 a old). Knowledge about turnover times and groundwater age is crucial e.g. in vulnerability assessment studies as shallow and young groundwater is more susceptible to environmental changes than deeper and generally older groundwater. The presence and age of young water can be determined by a series of transient tracers (e.g. 3H/3He, CFC's, SF6, etc). However, with the need to exploit deeper unpolluted resources a tracer on timescales of hundreds of years is required. 39Ar (T1/2: 269 a), 85Kr (T1/2: 10.8 a) and 14C (T1/2: 5730 a) results from 35 wells around the city of Odense (Denmark) are presented. The determined age spectra range from a few years to several hundreds of years. Based on the space-depth distribution of age gradients, renewal/recharge rates to the deep aquifer layers have been estimated. The comparison of 39Ar and 14C activities reveals a remarkably good correlation but with a distinct difference in age scale suggesting mixing due to broad age distributions and activity shifts due to rock-water interaction. (author)

  17. Analysis of the insulation characteristics of CF3I gas mixtures with Ar, Xe, He, N2, and CO2 using Boltzmann equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunkun; Xiao, Dengming

    2014-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the calculation of electron swarm parameters, including the reduced effective ionization coefficient, electron mean energy, and electron drift velocity, for the gas mixtures of CF3I with Ar, Xe, He, N2, and CO2. These data are computed by employing the Boltzmann equation method with two-term approximation in the condition of steady-state Townsend (SST) discharge. For the purpose of evaluating the insulation strength of CF3I gas mixtures, values of the limiting field strength (E/N)lim for which the ionization exactly balances the electron attachment are determined from the variation curves of (α - η)/N. The results indicate that mixtures of CF3I-N2 present the greatest insulation strength among all the combinations for CF3I content varied from 20 to 90%. Furthermore, the gas mixture with 70% CF3I can achieve a very similar dielectric strength to that of SF6. The concerned liquefaction issues are also taken into account to fully assess the possibility of applying CF3I gas mixtures in power equipment as an insulation medium.

  18. Theoretical study of C−H⋯H−B dihydrogen bonded complexes between inert molecules FNgCCH (Ng = Ar and Kr) and borane-amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: C−H⋯H−B dihydrogen bonding in inert molecules have been explored by studying FNgCCH (Ng = Ar, Kr) complexes with BH3–NH3, BH3–NH2Me and BH3–NHMe2 at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theories. Further, strength of hydrogen bonding and dihydrogen bonding in inert complexes have been compared under identical condition and it has been found that strength of dihydrogen bonded complexes are ∼15% weaker as compared to hydrogen bonded complexes. Highlights: ► C–H⋯H–B dihydrogen bonding ability of rare gas inserted FNgCCH molecules. ► Comparison of strength of hydrogen bond and dihydrogen bond for inert complexes. ► Dihydrogen bonding is 15% weaker as compare to hydrogen bonding. - Abstract: C−H⋯H−B dihydrogen bonding in inert molecules have been explored by studying FNgCCH (Ng = Ar, Kr) complexes with BH3–NH3, BH3–NH2Me and BH3–NHMe2 at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theories. The H⋯H contact distances are found to be less than 2.4 Å while binding energies are in the range of 15–18 kJ mol−1. Furthermore, changes in C–H and B–H stretching frequencies authenticate to the formation of C−H⋯H−B dihydrogen bonding in these complexes. Moreover, properties of C−H⋯H−B dihydrogen bonding have also been supplemented by molecular electrostatic potential derived charge, natural population, natural bond order and atoms in molecules analysis. Strength of hydrogen bonding and dihydrogen bonding in inert complexes have been compared under identical condition and it has been found that strength of dihydrogen bonded complexes are ∼15% weaker as compared to hydrogen bonded complexes.

  19. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-α-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Bakule, Pavel; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-α (Ly-α) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-α generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-α radiation generation can achieve a value of ˜5×10-4 which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  20. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  1. Terrestrial 81Kr-Kr ages of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production rate of 38Ar in meteorites-P(38)-has been determined, as a function of the sample's chemical composition, from 81Kr-Kr exposure ages of four eucrite falls. The cosmogenic 78Kr/83Kr ratio is used to estimate the shielding dependence of P(38). From the ''true'' 38Ar exposure ages and the apparent 81Kr-Kr exposure ages of nine Antarctic eucrite finds, terrestrial ages are calculated. The distribution of terrestrial ages of Allan Hills meteorites is discussed. Meteorites from this blue ice field have two sources: Directly deposited falls and meteorites transported to the Allan Hills inside the moving Antarctic ice sheet. During the surface residence time meteorites decompose due to weathering processes. The weathering ''half-life'' is about 1.6 x 105 a. From the different age distributions of Allan Hills and Yamato meteorites, it is concluded that meteorite concentrations of different Antarctic ice fields need different explanations. (author)

  2. Dependence of the measured 38Ar/36Ar ratio on the total Ar amount and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of a mass spectrometer for different isotopes of an element usually is not the same and causes a systematic difference between measured and actual isotopic ratios and is defined as mass discrimination. In noble gas mass spectrometry, the correction factor for mass discrimination can be calculated using a reference gas (air in most cases) with known isotopic composition. The mass discrimination factor (mdf) is defined as the ratio of true isotopic ratio to the measured isotopic ratio. Usually, mdf values, determined using argon in air as standard, are nearly constant for a given element over long periods of time. Both mass discrimination and sensitivity remain the same over a certain range of total pressure in the mass spectrometer, during the measurement of a given gas. For the case of Xe, Kr and Ne, in general, the total gas pressure in the mass spectrometer during the analysis of a sample gas falls within this range and consequently, a fixed value of sensitivity and mdf are used. But in the case of argon and particularly in certain cases (like in ureilites), this may not be true as we deal with samples having a wide range of 40Ar/36Ar ratios (10-3 to 104). It was noticed that the values for 38Ar/36Ar in ureilites (having 40Ar/36Ar 40Ar/36Ar = 295.5. This was the motivation for investigating the pressure effect on the measured ratio of 38Ar/36Ar

  3. Competition between dynamical and statistical particle emissions in 3618Ar + 5828Ni reactions. Search for a critical phenomenon signal in central collisions of 12954Xe + nat50Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactions at the Fermi energy range provide a mean of studying nuclei interaction mechanisms, energy dissipation process and deexcitation phenomena. Heavy ion collisions offer an additional window to on the 'nuclear liquid' phase diagram, in particular its 'critical zone'. We study all these points by analysing the 3618Ar + 5828Ni and the 12954Xe + nat50Sn reactions, measured with the 4π INDRA detector. We study light particles production properties from 32 MeV/u to 95 MeV/u. Inclusive measurements show that increasing the incident energies leads to a linear increase of the maximum number of Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles, whereas that of Z ≥ 3 increases weakly. The transverse energy of the Z = 1 and Z = 2 corresponds to a constant fraction of the available energy, whereas this of Z ≥ 3 decreases between 30 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u, and then converges. The same trends appear in the 12954Xe + nat50Sn reactions, between 25 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u. The incident energy is mostly goes into producing more and more light particles. In addition, a more precise study of the reactions, selecting them according to the charge of the detected quasi-projectile residue (QPR). Whatever the incident energy is, the charge of the QPR is associated to the same mean impact parameter, and the production cross sections of QPR of a given charge also superimpose. These observations suggest a geometrical production mechanism of the QP. The transverse mean energy at a fixed parallel velocity reveals another emission source (MR) at an intermediate velocity between the remnants of the projectile (QP) and of the target (QT). The fit of two thermal surface emission (QP and QT) and one thermal volume emission (MR) on dσ/dνz and (E-perpendicular)(νz) establishes that the temperature of the QP depends essentially on the impact parameter, not on the incident energy, whereas the apparent temperature of MR increases strongly with the available energy. The MR source results from the

  4. Chemical evolution of InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP microstructures irradiated in air and deionized water with ArF and KrF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of quantum semiconductor microstructures with ultraviolet pulsed lasers could induce surface defects and modify chemical composition of the microstructure capping material that during high-temperature annealing leads to selected area bandgap engineering through the process known as quantum well intermixing (QWI). In this work, we investigate the role of both ArF and KrF excimer lasers in the QWI process of InP/InGaAs/InGaAsP microstructures irradiated in air and deionized (DI) water. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis was employed to study the chemical composition of the irradiated surface and investigate the chemical evolution of ArF and KrF laser irradiated microstructures. The results indicate that InPxOy oxides are the dominating surface products of the ArF and KrF lasers interaction with InP. Consistent with this observation is a relatively greater bandgap blue shift of ∼130 nm found in the microstructures irradiated in air, in comparison to a maximum of 60 nm blue shift observed in the microstructures irradiated in a DI water environment.

  5. Electronic spectroscopy of I2-Xe complexes in solid Krypton

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko, Eero; Ahokas, Jussi; Lindgren, Johan; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Pettersson, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we have studied ion-pair states of matrix-isolated I2 with vacuum-UV absorption and UV-vis-NIR emission, where the matrix environment is systematically changed by mixing Kr with Xe, from pure Kr to a more polarizable Xe host. Particular emphasis is put on low doping levels of Xe that yield a binary complex I2–Xe, as verified by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements. Associated with interaction of I2 with Xe we can observe strong new absorpt...

  6. Response to the critique to the paper ``The role of shallow traps on the mobility of electrons in liquid Ar, Kr, and Xe''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascarelli, G.

    1981-03-01

    In response to the critique of the previous papers by Freeman and some of the comments by Schnidt et al., it is shown that the electric field dependence of the drift velocity is inconsistent with the hot electron model. The information obtained from the addition of polyatomic impurities to the liquified rare gases is inconsistent with a picture of an average electron energy that is a large fraction of 1 eV. In the following paper it will be shown that the field dependence of the trapping rate constant of electrons with SF6 and O2 can be quantitatively explained with no reference to hot electrons. (AIP)

  7. State-of-the-art Correlated ab initio Potential Energy Curves for Heavy Rare Gas Dimers: Ar2, Kr2 and Xe2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíček, Petr; Kalus, R.; Paška, P.; Odvárková, I.; Hobza, Pavel; Malijevský, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 4 (2003), s. 2102-2119. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : density functional theory * ultraviolet-laser spectroscopy * acid base-pairs Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.950, year: 2003

  8. Intermolecular polarizabilities in H{sub 2}-rare-gas mixtures (H{sub 2}–He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe): Insight from collisional isotropic spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Głaz, Waldemar, E-mail: glaz@kielich.amu.edu.pl; Bancewicz, Tadeusz [Nonlinear Optics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Godet, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de photonique d’Angers, Université d’Angers, 2 boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Gustafsson, Magnus [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Maroulis, George; Haskopoulos, Anastasios [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2014-08-21

    The report presents results of theoretical and numerical analysis of the electrical properties related to the isotropic part of the polarizability induced by interactions within compounds built up of a hydrogen H{sub 2} molecule and a set of noble gas atoms, Rg, ranging from the least massive helium up to the heaviest xenon perturber. The Cartesian components of the collisional polarizabilities of the H{sub 2}–Rg systems are found by means of the quantum chemistry methods and their dependence on the intermolecular distance is determined. On the basis of these data, the spherical, symmetry adapted components of the trace polarizability are derived in order to provide data sets that are convenient for evaluating collisional spectral profiles of the isotropic polarized part of light scattered by the H{sub 2}–Rg mixtures. Three independent methods of numerical computing of the spectral intensities are applied at room temperature (295 K). The properties of the roto-translational profiles obtained are discussed in order to determine the role played by contributions corresponding to each of the symmetry adapted parts of the trace polarizability. By spreading the analysis over the collection of the H{sub 2}–Rg systems, evolution of the spectral properties with the growing masses of the supermolecular compounds can be observed.

  9. 4He stopping cross sections in H2, He, N2, O2, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4 and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium stopping powers were measured for ten gases in the energy range between 0.1 and 1.1 MeV with a total accuracy of about 2.5%. Additionally, the proton stopping powers in CO2 and CH4 were determined. Optimum parameters for the Andersen-Ziegler semi-empirical formula were deduced for all data sets by means of the last-squares method. Stopping-power ratios Ssub(He)/Ssub(p) were determined using proton stopping powers for H2, N2, O2 and five inert gases which were measured recently with the same experimental set-up; they show a strong dependence on the target atomic number. The low-energy helium stopping cross sections were fitted to the power function S=kEsup(p). Experimental shell corrections were deduced from the measured helium stopping powers and compared with the theoretical shell corrections of Bonderup, whereby different higher-order Z1 correction terms were included. The result show that in the energy range investigated it is not possible to obtain a consistent description for all gases. (orig.)

  10. Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-shell Ionization in Ne, Ar and Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne , Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values. (author)

  11. Computation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization In Ne, Ar And Kr Atoms Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic reorganization starts by filling the initially inner-shell vacancy by a radiative transition (x-ray) or by a non-radiative transition (Auger and Coster-Kronig processes). New vacancies created during this atomic reorganization may in turn be filled by further radiative and non-radiative transitions until all vacancies reach the outermost occupied shells. The production of inner-shell vacancy in an atom and the de-excitation decays through radiative and non-radiative transitions may result in a change of the atomic potential; this change leads to the emission of an additional electron in the continuum (electron shake-off processes). In the present work, the ion charge state distributions (CSD) and mean atomic charge ions produced from inner-shell vacancy de-excitation decay are calculated for neutral Ne, Ar and Kr atoms. The calculations are carried out using Monte Carlo (MC) technique to simulate the cascade development after primary vacancy production. The radiative and non-radiative transitions for each vacancy are calculated in the simulation. In addition, the change of transition energies and transition rates due to multi vacancies produced in the atomic configurations through the cascade development are considered in the present work. It is found that considering the electron shake--off process and closing of non-allowed non-radiative channels improves the results of both charge state distributions (CSD) and average charge state. To check the validity of the present calculations, the results obtained are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The present results are found to agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values.

  12. Transition from quantum to quasi-classical behaviour of the binary encounter peak in collisions of 0.6 to 3.6 MeV amu-1 I23+ and Xe21+ with He and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross sections are reported for the production of binary encounter electrons in collisions of 0.6 MeV amu-1 I23+ and 1.4, 2.4, and 3.6 MeV amu-1 Xe21+ projectiles incident on He and Ar targets. Electron energy spectra were measured between Oo and 45o in the case of the two lower projectile energies, and between 17.5o and 60o for the two higher projectile energies. The data are compared with quantum mechanical impulse approximation and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. (author)

  13. Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms (N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, As, Se, Br, Kr) between 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williart, A. [Univ. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de los Materiales; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-10-01

    Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms which are close to the noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr), for electron energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 keV, have been obtained in this study. We have shown, previously, that molecular total cross sections, at these energies, depend on target polarizability and the number of target electrons. A similar behaviour has been supposed for total cross sections of some atoms (N, O, F, P, S, Cl, As, Se and Br). The obtained expression depends on atomic parameters and it is based in some correlation derived from noble gases. The applicability of the formula has been checked by comparison with available data for atomic oxygen. (orig.)

  14. Electronic spectroscopy of I(2)-Xe complexes in solid Krypton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, Eero; Ahokas, Jussi; Lindgren, Johan; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Pettersson, Mika

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied ion-pair states of matrix-isolated I(2) with vacuum-UV absorption and UV-vis-NIR emission, where the matrix environment is systematically changed by mixing Kr with Xe, from pure Kr to a more polarizable Xe host. Particular emphasis is put on low doping levels of Xe that yield a binary complex I(2)-Xe, as verified by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements. Associated with interaction of I(2) with Xe we can observe strong new absorption in vacuum-UV, redshifted 2400 cm(-1) from the X → D transition of I(2). Observed redshift can be explained by symmetry breaking of ion-pair states within the I(2)-Xe complex. Systematic Xe doping of Kr matrices shows that at low doping levels, positions of I(2) ion-pair emissions are not significantly affected by complexation with Xe, but simultaneous increase of emissions from doubly spin-excited states indicates non-radiative relaxation to valence states. At intermediate doping levels ion-pair emissions shift systematically to red due to change in the average polarizability of the environment. We have conducted spectrally resolved ultrafast pump-probe ion-pair emission studies with pure and Xe doped Kr matrices, in order to reveal the influence of Xe to I(2) dynamics in solid Kr. Strikingly, relaxed emission from the ion-pair states shows no indication of complex presence. It further indicates that the complex escapes detection due to a non-radiative relaxation. PMID:22583243

  15. Deduction of interfering nuclides in radioactive measurement of 87Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of short-lived nuclide 87Kr is interfered by 85mKr and 125Xe when it is measured by internal gas proportional counting. It is difficult to separate interfering nuclides from the gas sample. In this work, a series of data were measured according to the characteristic that different nuclides have different half-life, the radioactivity of 87Kr is obtained by calculating coefficients of linear equations by the least square method. (authors)

  16. Ventilation imaging with Kr-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-five patients with suspected pulmonary embolism were studied prospectively with both Kr-81m and Xe-133 ventilation imaging and Tc-99m MAA perfusion imaging. The krypton images, perfusion scintigrams and chest radiographs were read independently of the xenon images, perfusion scintigrams and chest radiographs by three observers. The studies of 53 patients were interpreted as normal or as indicative of a low or intermediate probability for pulmonary embolism with both gases. One study indicated intermediate probability with Xe-133 due to diffuse, severe xenon retention but low probability with Kr-81m because of close ventilation-perfusion correspondence. The studies of 9 patients indicated a high probability of embolism with both gases, while those of two additional patients (one with emboli at angiography) indicated a high probability only with Kr-81m. While essential agreement between Xe-133 and Kr-81m ventilation imaging was found in most patients, the significant difference in interpretation in 2 of 11 patients with probable pulmonary embolism suggests that a controlled, prospective trial with pulmonary angiography is warranted before Kr-81m is employed for routine clinical use. (orig.)

  17. Effect of CH$_{4}$ addition on excess electron mobility in liquid Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesani, A F; Frabetti, P L; Piemontese, L

    2002-01-01

    The excess electrons mobility $\\mu$ has been measured recently in liquid mixtures of Kr and CH$_{4}$ as a function of the electric field up to $E\\approx 10^{4} V/cm $ and of the CH$_{4}$ concentration $x$ up to $x \\approx 10 % ,$ at temperatures $T\\approx 130 K,$ fairly close to the normal boiling point of Kr $(T_{b}\\approx 120 K)$(folegani). We present here new data which extend the previous set in the region of low electric field. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of a kinetic model previously proposed to explain the concentration dependent behavior of $\\mu$ in liquid Ar--Kr and Ar--Xe mixtures. The main result is that CH$_{4}$ is more effective in enhancing energy--transfer rather than momentum--transfer in comparison with mixtures of liquified noble gases. The field dependence of $\\mu$ is quite complicate. In particular, at intermediate values of the field, there appears to be a crossover between two different electric--field dependent behaviors of $\\mu.$ The electric field strength at cro...

  18. Charge transfer reactions of Kr2+ and Ne2+ ions with several molecular gases at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of the rate coefficients and product-ion distributions for the reactions of Kr2+ and Ne2+ ions with H2, N2, O2, CO, CO2 and CH4 at 300 K. The data are obtained with a selected ion flow tube (SIFT). The reaction rates are generally fast, proceeding at or near the gas kinetic limit. In the Kr2+ reactions the only mechanism observed is single charge transfer, whereas for the more energetic Ne2+ ions parallel single and double charge transfer product channels are evident, the double charge transfer channels usually being dominant. The general features of the data are discussed in relation to those previously obtained for the corresponding reactions of Ar2+ and Xe2+ ions. (orig.)

  19. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rahul S; Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M; Atwood, Jerry L; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-08-26

    Separation of xenon and krypton is of industrial and environmental concern; the existing technologies use cryogenic distillation. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space. PMID:27377260

  20. Experimental investigation of the chemistry of excited states of rare gases. First quarterly progress report, 15 October 1978--15 January 1979. [Kr* + Cl/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setser, D.W.

    1979-03-01

    Analysis of XeF(B) and XeF(C) state quenching from photodissociation of XeF/sub 2/ was continued and progress was made on reactive quenching of the resonance states, Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 1/) and Kr(/sup 3/P/sub 1/). The study of the reactions of the resonance states of the rare gases was concentrated on the Kr* + Cl/sub 2/ reaction.

  1. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR29, KR29B, KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33 and KR33B, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR29, KR29B, KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33 and KR33B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  2. Long-term storage of 85Kr in amorphous zeolite 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ar, Kr and Xe can be immobilized in type A zeolites as well as in mordenite and chabazite, when the original crystal structure is hydrothermally vitrified in the presence of the densified gas. Zeolites containing a high percentage of earth alcali metals yield encapsulates that are thermally very stable. Gas fixation conditions are essentially independent of the form of aggregation of the matrix. Noble gas encapsulates were characterized by their specific surface area as well as by microprobe analysis, X-ray analysis and electron diffraction. The results indicate that Kr is immobilized in units smaller than the size of a zeolite crystal. The thermal conductivity of zeolites was determined experimentally in various fluid media. With the data obtained the heat transport through a final storage vessel cooled by natural air convection was calculated. The estimated temperature profiles correlate well with those obtained in experiments simulating a storage containment. To verify the process, active samples having specific activities up to 30 mCi/g have been prepared. Leaching results demonstrate the chemical stability of the Kr/5A encapsulates. A semi-pilot facility based on the one-way autoclave concept has been constructed and demonstrated in operation

  3. Monitoring measurements by difference flow method during the year 2006, drill holes OL-KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR10, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. In this method, a flow meter with a flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR1, -KR2, -KR4, -KR7, -KR8, -KR10, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2006. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. Two different section lengths (2 m and 0.5 m) were used in the flow logging measurements. The flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section. Measurements were carried out both in natural conditions and when the drillhole was pumped. The transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head (h) of zones were calculated and are presented in the results. The measurement device also includes a sensor for single-point resistance (SPR) measurements. SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements. SPR is measured when the tool is moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in selected fractures in some of the drillholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the drillhole. In addition to this some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was measured separately. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring measurements by difference flow method during the year 2006, drillholes OL-KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR10, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. In this method, a flow meter with a flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR1, -KR2, -KR4, -KR7, -KR8, -KR10, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2006. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. Two different section lengths (2 m and 0.5 m) were used in the flow logging measurements. The flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section. Measurements were carried out both in natural conditions and when the drillhole was pumped. The transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head (h) of zones were calculated and are presented in the results. The measurement device also includes a sensor for single-point resistance (SPR) measurements. SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements. SPR is measured when the tool is moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in selected fractures in some of the drillholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the drillhole. In addition to this some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was measured separately. (orig.)

  5. Range-separated density functional theory: A 4-component relativistic study of the rare gas dimers He2, Ne2, Ar2, Kr2, Xe2, Rn2 and Uuo2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First implementation of 4-component relativistic long-range MP2/short-range DFT. ► First complete study of spectroscopic constants of the rare gas dimers He2–Uuo2. ► MP2-srLDA has a performance similar to pure MP2, but the overbinding of MP2 can be tuned by the range-separation parameter. - Abstract: We report the implementation of long-range second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory coupled with short-range density functional theory (MP2-srDFT) based on the 4-component relativistic Dirac–Coulomb Hamiltonian. The range separation of the two-electron interaction is based on the error function, such that the long-range interaction, to be handled by wave function theory, corresponds to the potential of finite electrons with a Gaussian charge distribution. We argue that the interelectronic distance associated with the range-separation parameter should accordingly be determined from a Gaussian rather than a hard-sphere model. As a first application of our relativistic MP2-srDFT implementation we calculate spectroscopic constants of the complete series of homoatomic rare gas dimers, from helium to the superheavy element 118 and with bonding dominated by dispersion forces. We find that the MP2-srDFT method is less sensitive to the basis set quality than pure MP2, but for the heavier rare gas dimers the computational cost is approximately the same as for pure MP2 if one seeks convergence with respect to both basis set and number of correlated electrons. The inclusion of a short-range DFT contribution allows to dampen the tendency of pure MP2 to overbind the heavier dimers, but it is difficult to find an optimal range-separation parameter for the whole series of diatomics. Interestingly, MP2-srLDA shows better performance than MP2-srPBE for the selected molecules.

  6. Charge exchange cross sections for the reaction Xe+8 + Xe+8 → Xe+9 + Xe+7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge changing cross sections for self collisions of Xe+8 ions with 0 to 150 keV relative translational kinetic energy are estimated on the basis of the Fano-Lichten electron promotion model. It is concluded that for Xe+8 + Xe+8, charge changing collisions occur only infrequently compared to excitation and with cross sections much smaller than 10-18 cm2

  7. Purification of 85Kr radiation source, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-purification equipment was devised for 85Kr radiation source. Purification of a 210 Ci 85Kr source was performed by removing chemically dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) contained in the 85Kr source with CuO. In order to find the optimum conditions for this purification prior to hot run, preliminary investigations were carried out about the effect of various factors (temperature, gas circulation, amount of used CuO, mode of reaction and so on) on the decomposition of CH3OCH3 with CuO using the mixtures of Ar-Ch3OCH3. The concentration of CH3OCH3 in the 85Kr source fell to 152 ppm from 38.3% by this purification. The purified 85Kr gas could be used repeatedly as radiation source for chemical reactions. It is considered that this purification method is effective for the removal of hydrocarbons (component of low boiling point) in the 85Kr source. (author)

  8. Dielectronic recombination of Xe10+ ions and satellite line of Xe9+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EUV light sources from compact plasmas are now intensively studied for the next generation of lithography. The multicharged Xe ions emit EUV emission and are now investigated extensively. However we do not know the detailed atomic processes for the Xe ions. We study in this paper on dielectronic and radiative recombination processes of Xe ions. We have calculated the energy levels, radiative transition probabilities (Ar), autoionization rates (Aa), and radiative recombination cross section for Xe10+ ions using the FAC code. The dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (αDR) from the Xe10+ ions and the related dielectronic satellite lines are obtained. We studied the n- and 1-dependence for Ar, Aa, dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (αDR), and radiative recombination rate coefficient (Krr). The dielectronic recombination processes from the 4d8+e→4d74f1nl→4d8nl+hν and the 4d8+e→4d75p1nl→4d8nl+hν become important at low plasma temperature Te≅10eV for line intensities. Also, the radiative recombination rate coefficient is smaller than the values of the dielectronic recombination processes in our interested temperature region at Te=1eV - 1000eV. (author)

  9. The preparation of non-radioactive glassy surrogate nuclear explosion debris (SNED) loaded with isotopically altered Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of Kr and Xe isotope ratios in nuclear explosion debris can be performed requiring little sample preparation. Fragments of debris are simply crushed or heated to release trapped gases Kr and Xe arising from fission product decay. As a suitable test material for this measurement, we have been investigating a method to incorporate isotopically enriched 129Xe in glassy materials that mimic nuclear explosion debris. The approach used to prepare these materials will be described along with some of the example results obtained. (author)

  10. Study about continuous Ar+Kr +laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin film%连续氩氪离子激光晶化非晶硅薄膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德让; 段国平; 陈俊岭; 韩俊鹤; 黄明举

    2013-01-01

      为了研究连续激光晶化非晶硅薄膜中激光功率密度对晶化效果的影响,利用磁控溅射法制备非晶硅薄膜,采用连续氩氪混合离子激光器对薄膜进行退火晶化,用显微喇曼光谱测试技术和场发射扫描电子显微镜研究了薄膜在5 ms固定时间下不同激光功率密度对晶化效果的影响,并对比了普通玻璃片和石英玻璃两种衬底上薄膜晶化过程的差异。结果表明,在一定激光功率密度范围内(0kW/cm2~27.1kW/cm2),当激光功率密度大于15.1kW/cm2时,普通玻璃衬底沉积的非晶硅薄膜开始实现晶化;随着激光功率密度的增大,晶化效果先逐渐变好,之后变差;激光功率密度增大到24.9kW/cm2时,薄膜表面呈现大面积散落的苹果状多晶硅颗粒,晶粒截面尺寸高达478nm;激光功率密度存在一个中间值,使得晶化效果达到最佳;石英衬底上沉积的非晶硅薄膜则呈现与前者不同的结晶生长过程,当激光功率密度为19.7kW/cm2时,薄膜表面呈现大晶粒尺寸的球形多晶硅颗粒,并且晶粒尺寸随着激光功率密度的增大而增大,在27.1kW/cm2处晶粒尺寸达到最大5.38μm。研究结果对用连续激光晶化法制备多晶硅薄膜的研究具有积极意义。%In order to study the influence of laser power density on crystallization effect in continuous laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin film , amorphous silicon thin films were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering and then crystallized by continuous Ar +Kr+laser.Crystallization effect was studied by means of micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement and field emission scanning electron microscope under the fixed time 5ms and different laser power density . The difference of crystal growth process on two different substrates-common glass substrate and quartz substrate was compared.It was shown that within the limit of 27.1kW/cm2 the amorphous Si films were

  11. Double beta decay searches of Xe-134, Xe-126 and Xe-124 with large scale Xe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, N; Zuber, K

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity for double beta decay studies of Xe-134 and Xe-124 is investigated assuming a potential large scale Xe experiment developed for dark matter searches depleted in Xe-136. The opportunity for an observation of the 2nu double beta decay of Xe-134 is explored for various scenarios. A positive observation should be possible for all calculated nuclear matrix elements. The detection of 2$\

  12. An application of Kr-81m gas for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kr-81m ventilation study was performed by the following four inhalation techniques. 1) Spontaneous respiration with Kr-81m in air (Sp). 2) Serial inhalation of Kr-81m from residual volume to total lung capacity (VC). 3) Bolus inhalation of 50 ml of Kr-81m from the level of functional residual capacity (FRC), and 4) residual volume (RV), followed by air, to total lung capacity. Scintiphotos were taken during 10 sec of breathholding for VC, FRC, RV inhalation techniques and during tidal breathing for Sp technique, in a sitting position, by a scinticamera (Pho/Gamma HP). Twenty-three of the 28 subjects showed uneven distribution of the washout time in the Xe-133 study, 5 cases have a normal Xe-133 study. In severe obstructive changes with marked delay of the Xe-133 washout time, inhalation defects of Kr-81m were imaged in all techniques. In minor degrees of obstruction associated with slight delay of the washout, FRC and RV techniques detected abnormalities, whilst images by Sp and VC techniques showed homogeneous distribution of Kr-81m. This is due to rebreathing effect on Sp and to opening of partial airway obstruction in a high lung volume on VC technique. RV technique had a disadvantage for imaging of abnormalities in the lower lung fields, because Kr-81m concentration is low in the lower lung fields, due to physiological closure of the small airway. In 3 of 5 cases of asymptomatic asthma with a normal Xe-133 study, uneven distribution in RV technique was the only abnormality detected. FRC technique was most sensitive for slight obstructive changes in the upper lung fields as well as in the lower. For the ventilation study using Kr-81m, a combined test of Sp, VC, RV and FRC inhalation techniques is useful for early detection of the small airway disease and evaluation of the degree of abnormalities. (author)

  13. Dating Earth Core and Atmospheric Formation Through Hf-W and I-Pu-Xe Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q.; Ozima, M.

    2003-12-01

    system. And the ruler sizes are just right: 182Hf (9Ma); 129I (15.6 Ma); 244Pu (80 Ma). The first-discovered extinct-radionuclide (129I) by Reynolds (1960) played important role in planetary chronometry over the last four decades. The persistent timescale of ~100 Ma provided by terrestrial I-Pu-Xe system all goes back to the influential paper by Wetherill (1975). We will show that the atmospheric retention age (Xe closure) is only 30 Ma, in remarkable agreement with the radiogenic 182W signature of the silicate Earth that argue for rapid core-mantle segregation of 30 Ma at most (Yin et al., 2002). Missing Xe event lasted another 90-120 Ma, possibly associated with early continental crust formation, a timescale consistent with 146Sm-142Nd clock. It is interesting to note in this regard that Xe could form silicate compound under lower crustal pressure and temperature, as shown by recent experiments at Geophysical Lab. What need to be shown are Kr, Ar, and Ne do not form silicates under the same condition, or released readily, in order to explain the fact the only Xe is missing.

  14. Production of 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture and β--decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr, which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore an essential tool to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. A 85Kr sample can be produced via the irradiation of a stable, metallic 82Se sample with α-beam. The gas stays trapped inside selenium as long as the temperature remains below 50 circle C. Fulfilling this temperature limit during the irradiation is one of the main technical difficulties during the production of 85Kr. Since the corresponding production cross sections are not known well enough, an experiment was performed at the PTB in Braunschweig, Germany. Various α-induced reactions on natural selenium were studied via the activation technique, and the preliminary results are presented.

  15. Absolute Kr I and Kr II transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition probabilities for 11 KrI and 9 KrII lines between 366.5 and 599.3nm were obtained from measurements with a wall-stabilised arc at atmospheric pressure in pure krypton. The population densities of the excited krypton levels were calculated under the assumption of LTE from electron densities measured by laser interferometry. The uncertainties for the KrI and the KrII data are 15 and 25% respectively. (author)

  16. Luminescence of nuclear-induced rare-gas plasmas in near infrared spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A. A.; Gorbunov, V. V.; Melnikov, S. P.; Mukhamatullin, A. Kh.; Pikulev, A. A.; Sinitsyn, A. V.; Sinyanskii, A. A.; Tsvetkov, V. M.

    2006-05-01

    The investigation results of the spectral-luminescent characteristics of rare gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and their binary mixtures He-Ne(Ar,Kr,Xe), Ne-Ar(Kr,Xe), Ar-Kr(Xe), and Kr-Xe under high pressures in the 740-1100 nm spectral range are presented. Excitation of gas media was carried out by uranium fission fragments. The information on the absolute intensities of the spectral lines belonging to the transitions of Nel, An, KrI, and XeI was obtained. The lines belonging to atomic transitions of 0, N, and C were also observed.

  17. Difference flow and electric conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, boreholes KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR12 and KR14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this method, a flow meter and a connected flow guide are used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in boreholes KRI, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR12 and KR14 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between November 2002 and June 2004. All boreholes mentioned above had been measured earlier in their entirety. The measurements in this campaign were performed for control. Some borehole zones that proved to be intact in the previous measurements were not measured. The measuring program varied according to boreholes. The section length of the flow guide was 10 m, 2 m and 0.5 m. The flow into the borehole or from the borehole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths. In most of the boreholes, this was carried out both during pumping and in natural (unpumped) conditions. Transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head of zones are calculated for the results, if a measurement in natural conditions was performed. The device also includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements, and it was registered when the tool was moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in chosen fractures in some of the boreholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the borehole. The EC of the borehole water was also measured. (orig.)

  18. Ars disyecta Ars disyecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo la nominación Ars Disyecta se busca exponer el vínculo entre artes visuales, feminismo y metamorfosis. Las prácticas artísticas feministas aquí presentadas se proponen perturbar el espacio metafórico heredado de la diferencia sexual (pensemos, por ejemplo, en las palabras engendramiento, matriz, vida, compenetración o invaginamiento. En este sentido, la nominación Ars disyecta pone en escena un conjunto de prácticas e intervenciones que intentan interrumpir la matriz de la diferencia, desestabilizando lo femenino desde aquellas figuras que se resisten a la lógica de la totalidad y de un tiempo propio. Buscando seguir la huella de un arte disyecto es que interrogaré en este ensayo aquellas autorías feministas que en el arte contemporáneo trafican con las huellas del contagio, la mutación y la alteridad.This article aims to present the relation between visual arts, feminism I and metamorphosis. The feminist artistic practices portrayed in this article attempt to question categories inherited from the metaphor of sexual difference such as engendering, matrix and life. From this perspective, Ars disyecta will establish a set of artistic practices and interventions that intend to interrupt the proper idea of «feminine difference». Following this line of argument, I will discuss in this article a few contemporary feminist works of art that could be defined by words such as contagious, mutation and otherness.

  19. Contributions to the 37Ar background by research reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioargon has been identified as a useful nuclide for verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Use of 37Ar to identify a nuclear explosion requires quantification of contributions to the 37Ar background at a potential measurement site. A method of estimating 37Ar release activities using isotopes of radioxenon and radioargon has been developed in this paper. Numerical solutions to the system of equations describing air-activation in a reactor were used to determine ratios of release activities for 135Xe/133Xe, 133mXe/131mXe, and 37Ar /41Ar as function of irradiation time and off-gas residence time prior to measurement and release. Published radioactive noble gas effluent data for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, HFIR (ORNL) from the year 1996 to 2010 were compiled as a test data set to predict the 37Ar release on a yearly basis. An average 37Ar release rate of 1.86 x 1010 Bq per year was calculated. The estimated release rate was used as a source term for atmospheric transport to run a test case for 37Ar release over a typical HFIR operation cycle. Results showed that ground-level concentrations of 37Ar did not exceed the minimum detectable concentration for a 37Ar field measurement system beyond the immediate vicinity of the release point. (author)

  20. Study of electron-beam-pumped KrF laser kinetics and calculation of energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program of the electron-beam-pumped KrF laser kinetics has been developed. By using this program the relation of relaxation rate of upper laser level to the optimum output condition of the KrF laser is studied. It is expected that the laser output will be directly proportional to the relaxation rate under a given condition when the laser flux is near saturation. The numerical simulation showed that a rise (or drop) in pump rate is faster than that of the relaxation rate, the laser output rises (or drops) as well. The optimum condition of output is obtained. The pressure (5 ∼ 6 atm*), the pump power and the Ar, Kr, F2 mixture ratio are determined for the optimum condition. In order to study the energy deposition of the electron-beam-pumped KrF gas laser, the SANDYL and the ITS programs have been developed. The latter is the program with the axial magnetic field applied, while the former without any field. The energy depositions of two kinds of Ar/Kr/F2 mixtures at various pressures of the electron-beam-pumped cylindrical KrF laser are calculated with the SANDYL program. The results show that under the same conditions, the energy deposition with the axial magnetic field applied is 3 times larger than that without any magnetic field. The energy depositions of two kinds of Ar/Kr/F2

  1. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2009, Drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2009. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  2. Difference flow and electric conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, boreholes KR19-KR28, KR19B, KR20B, KR22B, KR23B, KR27B and KR28B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow method can be used for the localization of fractures or fractured zones, and for the determination of transmissivity and hydraulic head in cored boreholes. In this method, a flow meter and a connected flow guide are used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in boreholes KR19 - KR28, KR19B, KR20B, KR22B, KR23B, KR27B and KR28B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between September 2002 and August 2004. The section length of the flow guide was 2 m and 0.5 m. The flow into the borehole, or from the borehole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths. In most of the boreholes this was carried out in pumped and natural (unpumped) conditions. Transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head of zones are calculated for the results, if a measurement in natural conditions was performed. The device also includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements, and it was registered when the tool was moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in chosen fractures in some of the boreholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the borehole. The EC of the borehole water was also measured. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2007, drillholes OL-KR2, -KR7, -KR8, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of water conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes KR2, KR7, KR8, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2007. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  4. A 650-J XeCl laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 308-nm XeCl laser with an active volume of 200 L is described and the results of its tests are presented. The output energy of 660 J is obtained by pumping the Ar : Xe : HCl = 1520 : 40 : 2-Torr mixture. The FWHM laser pulse duration is ∼350 ns. The nonuniformity of the laser-radiation density distribution over the cross section of the output beam in the near-field zone is within 10%. An accelerator that forms a radially converging electron beam with an electron energy of up to 550 keV, a vacuum-diode current of up to 320kA, a beam-current pulse duration of ∼1 μs, and a beam current of up to 250 kA is used to pump the system. Two linear transformers with a 98-kJ energy stored in the primary storage serve as high-voltage sources. To reduce the effect of the self-magnetic field on the beam formation, the vacuum diode is divided into six diodes magnetically insulated from each other. (lasers)

  5. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  6. Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF laser

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2004-01-01

    When an ArF excimer laser beam was focused in a high pressure argon gas from 50 to 130 atm, the plasma development is observed by streak camera from side window of chamber. The high pressure ArF laser plasma develops symmetrically and the plasma produced by ArF excimer laser hardly develops as compared with the plasma produced by XeCl. The photon energy of ArF laser light is higher than the XeCl laser. The transmittance of ArF laser light was measured. Almost all the laser light is transmitte...

  7. Gated ICCD photography of the KrF-laser ablation of graphite into background gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geohegan, D.B.; Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Zheng, X.Y.; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-07-01

    The interaction of a laser-generated ablation plume with a background gas is of current interest for several materials-fabrication applications. During pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films by laser ablation, for example, an ambient back ground gas (pressure usually {<=} 300 mTorr) is often employed. The dynamics of the KrF-laser ablation ({Phi} = 20 J cm{sup {minus}}) of graphite into 300 Torr of He, Ne, Ar, and Xe has been studied by fast imaging of the visible plasma emission using a gated intensified CCD array (ICCD) camera system. In each case, the soot which was redeposited on the graphite rod following ablation was highly fullerene deficient compared to the material collected on a sample disk 1.5 cm from the rod, as determined by laser desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The ICCD photographic investigations of the plasma plume propagation in the different gases reveal three common phases to the expansions: (1) forward motion, deceleration and stopping of the leading edge of the plume, (2) an apparent reflected shock within the plume which propagates backward and partially reflects from the rod surface, leaving ``redeposited`` material, (3) a secondary forward propagation and coalescence of the material reflected from the rod surface, resulting in continued expansion and dissipation of the plasma and the appearance of glowing ultrafine particles. Detailed sequencing of the plasma expansion into argon is presented here which shows at least two sets of reflected shocks. The possible explanation of the observed difference in fullerene content is discussed on the basis of different plasma phases resulting in soot deposition on the rod and disk.

  8. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  9. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  10. A New Method of Measuring 81Kr and 85Kr Abundances in Environmental Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Du, X; Bailey, K; Lehmann, B E; Lorenzo, R; Lu, Z T; Müller, P; O'Connor, T P; Sturchio, N C; Young, L

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for determining the 81Kr/Kr ratio in environmental samples based upon two measurements: the 85Kr/81Kr ratio measured by Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) and the 85Kr/Kr ratio measured by Low-Level Counting (LLC). This method can be used to determine the mean residence time of groundwater in the range of 10^5 - 10^6 a. It requires a sample of 100 micro-l STP of Kr extracted from approximately two tons of water. With modern atmospheric Kr samples, we demonstrate that the ratios measured by ATTA and LLC are directly proportional to each other within the measurement error of +/- 10%; we calibrate the 81Kr/Kr ratio of modern air measured using this method; and we show that the 81Kr/Kr ratios of samples extracted from air before and after the development of the nuclear industry are identical within the measurement error.

  11. Method for purification of Kr from environmental samples for analysis of radiokrypton isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, R.; Heraty, L. J.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2008-12-01

    Two extremely low-abundance radioactive isotopes of Kr ((81Kr and (85Kr) are produced by cosmic-ray induced spallation (81Kr /Kr = 10-12, t½ = 229,000 yr) and by a nuclear fission (85Kr /Kr = 10-11, t½ = 10.8 yr). Radiokrypton chronologies are potentially important in diverse studies of hydrology and paleoclimate and the inertness of Kr, being a noble gas, makes radiokrypton-based chronometers superior to other hydrological tracers for many such applications (e.g., 3H-He, 14C, 36Cl, CFCs, SF6). The analysis of 81Kr in naturally occurring gases of interest, e.g. dissolved gases in hydrological reservoirs, using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) requires an extraction of ppm-level Kr from chemically air-like bulk gas. A newly developed Kr purification system is based on conventional cryogenic distillation and gas chromatography to which continuous monitoring of gas effluent composition using quadrupole mass spectrometer brings significant advantages. Simple cryogenic distillation is controlled based on the evolution of N2/Ar ratio that is relatively constant in naturally occurring, inorganic gas. Gas chromatographic separation of ppmv-level Kr from up to a few liter of bulk gas can be achieved by concentrating the Kr under the tails of major components. The system described here is capable of extracting Kr from 5-125 lSTP of bulk gas with >90% yield within several hours. Gas samples have been taken at several hydrological and geological settings: shallow groundwater at Locust Grove, MD, gas emanation from Cheaspeake Crater, VA, mid-continental saline groundwater (KS, MO), deep and shallow groundwater from northern Chile (Atacama desert), and the hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park, WY. Our new method was used successfully to purify microliter amounts of Kr from all of these samples, an important step en route to routine application of ATTA in hydrological studies. This work was supported by the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Postdoctoral Program in

  12. Production of pure samples of 131mXe and 135Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure samples of 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe facilitate the calibration and testing of noble gas sampler stations and related laboratory instrumentation. We have earlier reported a Penning trap-based production method for pure 133mXe and 133Xe samples. Here we complete the work by reporting the successful production of pure 131mXe and 135Xe samples using the same technique. In addition, we present data on xenon release from graphite. - Highlights: ► Penning trap-based production of CTBTO relevant 131mXe and 135Xe samples is proven to be feasible. ► Encouraging results on xenon release from graphite are presented. ► Production of gaseous xenon samples is discussed.

  13. Application of high-refractive index fluid to KrF-immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Yuji; Ito, Koji; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Furukawa, Taiichi; Miyamatsu, Takashi; Wang, Yong; Hieda, Katsuhiko; Shimokawa, Tsutomu

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the material characteristics for KrF-immersion lithography with a high refractive index fluid. We have obtained promising results in soaking experiments involving KrF lithography without topcoat film. Although water is currently used as the immersion fluid in 193nm lithography, providing suitable refractive index (n=1.44@193nm and n=1.37@248nm) and transmittance (>99%/mm), it is found to have leaching issues when used with KrF resist. On the other hand, our high refractive index fluid (JSR-HIL-001), which was developed for ArF immersion purposes, satisfies the following requirements: HIL-001 has indicated promising characteristics as a 248nm-immmersion fluid. The refractive index is 1.54@248nm and the transmittance is >99%/mm. In this paper the physical and chemical properties of HIL-001 for KrF-immersion fluid application are discussed in detail.

  14. The collectivity in CSR 129Xe + 129Xe collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) – Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), which can gather few hundreds MeV/nucleon for heavy ion beam energy in the external-target experiments, could make a significant contribution in studying the property of dense matter. By using a Relativistic Transport Model(ART1.0), we study the collectivity of identified hadrons in 129Xe + 129Xe collisions in CSR energy regions. Our investigation indicates that the anisotropic flow reaches its extremum around 500 MeV/nucleon of beam energy. The system size and EOS dependence on anisotropic flow show that directed flow is very sensitive to the equation of state. (author)

  15. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  16. Excited states of 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here investigation of the observed yrast and excited bands in 129Xe populated by the heavy-ion fusion reaction 124Sn(11B, p5n)129Xe has been presented. An isotopically enriched (99.9%) self-supporting 124Sn target of thickness 2.2 mg/cm2 was utilized. The experiment was performed at the Linac accelerator facility at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India. The experimental set-up, called the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA), consisted of 21 Compton suppressed clover HPGe detectors. Two of these detectors were placed at 23°, three at 40°, three at 65°, four at 90°, three at 140°, three at 115° and three at 157° with respect to the beam direction. The triple gamma coincidence data were collected in the event-by-event mode

  17. Range-separated density functional theory: A 4-component relativistic study of the rare gas dimers He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, Ar{sub 2}, Kr{sub 2}, Xe{sub 2}, Rn{sub 2} and Uuo{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullie, Ossama [Institute de Chimie de Strasbourg, CNRS et Universite de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, 4 rue Blaise Pascal, 67070 Strasbourg (France); Saue, Trond, E-mail: trond.saue@isamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantique (UMR 5626), CNRS/Universite de Toulouse 3 (Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2012-02-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First implementation of 4-component relativistic long-range MP2/short-range DFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First complete study of spectroscopic constants of the rare gas dimers He{sub 2}-Uuo{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MP2-srLDA has a performance similar to pure MP2, but the overbinding of MP2 can be tuned by the range-separation parameter. - Abstract: We report the implementation of long-range second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory coupled with short-range density functional theory (MP2-srDFT) based on the 4-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The range separation of the two-electron interaction is based on the error function, such that the long-range interaction, to be handled by wave function theory, corresponds to the potential of finite electrons with a Gaussian charge distribution. We argue that the interelectronic distance associated with the range-separation parameter should accordingly be determined from a Gaussian rather than a hard-sphere model. As a first application of our relativistic MP2-srDFT implementation we calculate spectroscopic constants of the complete series of homoatomic rare gas dimers, from helium to the superheavy element 118 and with bonding dominated by dispersion forces. We find that the MP2-srDFT method is less sensitive to the basis set quality than pure MP2, but for the heavier rare gas dimers the computational cost is approximately the same as for pure MP2 if one seeks convergence with respect to both basis set and number of correlated electrons. The inclusion of a short-range DFT contribution allows to dampen the tendency of pure MP2 to overbind the heavier dimers, but it is difficult to find an optimal range-separation parameter for the whole series of diatomics. Interestingly, MP2-srLDA shows better performance than MP2-srPBE for the selected molecules.

  18. Conditioning of reprocessing dissolver offgas prior to Kr-retention by cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of Kr-85 from the dissolver off-gas by means of low temperature rectification requires a comprehensive and thorough pre-cleaning of the off-gas. In this section of the off-gas cleaning, work has been carried out which comprises the selection of a catalyst for the reduction of O2 and NO/sub x/ as well as the separating out of the xenon prior to the low temperature rectification. A ruthenium catalyst showed the best results: O2 and NO/sub x/ were removed so that the residual amounts were less than or equal to 1 ppM while at the same time the formation of NH3 was avoided. The xenon can be adequately removed in freezing traps in quantitative terms but the xenon, that is removed, always contains some 0.2 vol % Kr and/or N2. In further experiments, the solubility of O3 in liquid Xe was measured; at 165 K and 1.16 bar overall pressure when a gas phase containing 4.4 Mol % O3 is in equilibrium with liquid Xe, 0.37 Mol % O3 dissolved in the liquid Xe

  19. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2011, drillholes OL-KR41, -KR42, -KR45, -KR46 and ONK-KR13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR41, -KR42, -KR45, -KR46 and ONK-KR13 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2011. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The used device includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in all of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  20. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Proposed solar neutrino experiment using 81Br(nu,e-)81Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has now been shown that it is feasible to measure the 7Be neutrino source in the sun by using the reaction 81Br(nu,e-)81Kr in a radiochemical experiment. Such an experiment would be quite similar to the Davis, Cleveland, and Rowley method for measuring the 8B neutrino using 37Cl(nu,e-)37Ar except that the resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) method (instead of decay counting) would be employed to count the 2 x 105-yr 81Kr atoms

  2. Proposed solar neutrino experiment using 81Br(ν,e-)81Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has now been show that it is feasible to measure the 7Be neutrino source in the sun by using the reaction 81Br(ν,e-)81Kr in a radiochemical experiment. Such an experiment would be quite similar to the Davis, Cleveland, and Rowley method for measuring the 8B neutrino using 37Cl(ν,e-)37Ar except that the resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) method (instead of decay counting) would be employed to count the 2 x 105-yr 81Kr atoms

  3. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  4. Resonance lines 4p6--4p54d of the Kr I isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines of the 4s24p61S0--4s24p54d 1P1 and 3D1 transitions in Kr-like ions were observed in the plasma of the TEXT tokamak doped with elements Pd to Sb and I, Xe, Cs, and Nd. An electron temperature of 1.3 keV was achieved by operating the tokamak with He. Spectra in the range of 50--400 A were observed photographically with a 2.2-m grazing-incidence spectrograph. The lines were identified by comparison with calculated transition energies along the isoelectronic sequence

  5. The imaging of myocardial perfusion with sup(81m)Kr during coronary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 81sup(m)Kr was investigated for imaging myocardial perfusion during coronary arteriography using conventional catheters. When the significance of stenosis judged by arteriography is unclear, the effect on tissue perfusion can be established and the contribution to collateral flow by each artery separately evaluated. The distribution of sup(81m)Kr, due to its 13-s half-life, represents regional blood flow. In order to evaluate interventions, studies can be repeated at a low radiation risk to patients. A sterile pyrogen-free 81Rb-81Kr generator was developed. With slow infusion, inadequate mixing and streaming takes place due to laminar flow in coronary arteries. Fast intermittent 3-ml 81K-dextrose bolus injections convincingly eliminated streaming artefacts. Imaging was performed in 13 patients with a mobile scintillation camera and digital imaging system. Blood flow was calculated using the inert gas washout technique. There was good correlation (r = 0.91) between coronary blood flow determinations using sup(81m)Kr and 133Xe respectively. The perfusion images correlated well with the coronary angiograms. Total coronary arterial occlusions as demonstrated by arteriography were all shown as perfusion defects during rest. During atrial pacing myocardial flow was increased two-fold in normal coronary arteries and to a lesser extent in arteries with significant disease. The most critical lesion in a branch of a left coronary artery leads to a redistribution of perfusion during pacing. (orig.)

  6. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF2 from Xe 3d5/2, Xe 3d3/2, and F 1s subshells in the 660–740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d-ϵf continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF2 cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. Comparisons of the ion products from the atom and molecule following Xe 3d photoionization show that the charge-state distribution of Xe ions is shifted to lower charge states in the molecule along with production of energetic F+ and F2+ ions. This suggests that, in decay of a Xe 3d core hole, charge is redistributed to the F ligands and the system dissociates due to Coulomb repulsion. The ion products from excitation of the F 1s-LUMO resonance are different and show strong increases in the yields of Xe+ and F+ ions. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies, and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods and agree well with measurements

  7. Xe-135 production from Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of 135Xe is often used as an indicator that fission has occurred, and is used to help enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. There are no known commercial suppliers, though it can be acquired. Readily available standards of this isotope are very useful. 135Xe can be produced through fission, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. A similar system has been applied to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, and 133Xe, in order to produce standards of these isotopes. (author)

  8. Groundwater sampling from deep boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR4, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto Eurajoki in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001-2003 six groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep boreholes KR13 and KR14. The aim of the groundwater sampling is to get information for the baseline study and for characterisation of groundwater regional salinity and also to get data of repository level existing water. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from deep boreholes KR13 (sampling depths: 112-116 m, 214-220 m, 362-365 m) and KR14 (sampling depths: 79-81 m, 182-185 m, 446-449 m). (orig.)

  9. Groundwater sampling from deep boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR4, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 altogether five groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR4, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12. The main aim of samplings was to get new information of the dissolved gases in the deep saline groundwaters. The samples were also used for the investigations of the distribution of salinity in groundwaters at Olkiluoto. Samplings also give new information for the baseline description. Some uncertainties that occurred in the results from the sampling done 2000 from KR11 was also tried to solve by doing re-sampling. Groundwater samples for gas analysis were taken with the pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of laboratory analyses of the groundwater samples from the deep boreholes OL-KR12 (664-666 m and 736,5-740 m), OL-KR2 (596,5-609,5 m), OL-KR4 ( 860-866 m) and OL-KR11 (621-629 m). (orig.)

  10. 39Ar measurements on samples extracted from ocean water. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration into the ocean of disturbance at the atmosphere-ocean interface is studied by the analysis of transient tracers like bomb-produced 14C, 3H and anthropogenic 85Kr and freons, and of radioactive isotopes produced by cosmic radiation in the atmosphere, like pre-nuclear 14C and 39Ar. This paper discusses the use of 39Ar and gives examples of measurements of 39Ar taken in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

  11. Ion mobilities in Xe/Ne and other rare-gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion mobility or drift velocity data important for modeling glow discharges in rare gas mixtures are not generally available, nor are the ion-neutral scattering cross sections needed to calculate these data. In this paper we propose a set of cross sections for Xe+ and Ne+ collisions with Xe and Ne atoms. Ion mobilities at 300 K calculated using this cross section set in a Monte Carlo simulation are reported for reduced field strengths, E/N, up to 1500x10-21 V m2, in pure gases and in Xe/Ne mixtures containing 5% and 20% Xe/Ne, which are mixtures of interest for plasma display panels (PDPs). The calculated Xe+ mobilities depend strongly on the mixture composition, but the Ne+ mobility varies only slightly with increasing Xe in the mixture over the range studied here. The mobilities in pure gases compare well with available experimental values, and mobilities in gas mixtures at low E/N compare well with our recent measurements which will be published separately. Results from these calculations of ion mobilities are used to evaluate the predictions of Blanc's law and of the mixture rule proposed by Mason and Hahn [Phys. Rev. A 5, 438 (1972)] for determining the ion mobilities in mixtures from a knowledge of the mobilities in each of the pure gases. The mixture rule of Mason and Hahn is accurate to better than 10% at high field strengths over a wide range of conditions of interest for modeling PDPs. We conclude that a good estimate of ion mobilities at high E/N in Xe/Ne and other binary rare gas mixtures can be obtained using this mixture rule combined with known values of mobilities in parent gases and with the Langevin form for mobility of rare gas ions ion in other gases. This conclusion is supported by results in Ar/Ne mixtures which are also presented here

  12. Argon defect complexes in low energy Ar irradiated molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veen, A.; Buters, W.T.M.; van der Kolk, G.J.; Caspers, L.M. (Interuniversitair Reactor Instituut, Delft (Netherlands)); Armstrong, T.R. (Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-03-15

    Thermal desorption spectrometry has been used to study the defects created in Mo irradiated along the <110> direction with Ar ions ranging in energy from 0.1 to 2 keV. In addition to monitoring the release of the implanted Ar, additional information has been obtained by decoration of the defects with low energy helium and subsequent monitoring of the helium release. The studies show evidence that the Ar can be trapped in both substitutional sites and in a configuration in which the Ar is associated with vacancies (ArVsub(n), n >= 2). Most of the Ar implanted at high energy is released at approx. equal to 1500 K by thermal vacancy assisted diffusion. Argon trapped closer to the surface is released at lower temperatures via at least three different surface related release mechanisms. Additional results are presented on the interaction of self interstitial atoms (introduced by 100 eV Xe bombardment) with the Ar defects. Substitutional Ar is found to convert to interstitial Ar which seems to be mobile at room temperature. The Ar-vacancy complexes are found to be reduced to substitutional Ar. The results of atomistic calculations of the release mechanisms will also be presented.

  13. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR45, OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging, acoustic imaging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR45 (re-measurements), OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during January-November 2009. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. The missing density logging of drillhole OL-KR45 was carried out successfully. Dynamic rock mechanical parameters and natural gamma data were re-processed and this report includes updated WellCAD and Excel files. Acoustic imaging was also carried out in OL-KR45 after 700 meters depth. Acoustic imaging was used instead of optical imaging after 350 meters in OL-KR49 and 700 meters in OL-KR50. (orig.)

  14. Structure induced in polyimide by Kr+ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Kr+ irradiation on films of polyimide was investigated to evaluate the structure changes and the Kr atom retention. The surface of the irradiated region showed metallic gray color and its electric conductivity was increased. X-ray diffraction and IR spectra showed no characteristic change. Analyses by such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering showed that Kr atoms existed at surface layer with the depth profile deeper, but broader than the theoretical estimation. Carbonization occurred due to the sputtering of N, O atoms, and several cracks were observed in the cross section micrograph of Kr+ irradiated films. Most of the implanted Kr atoms were retained in spherical regions with about 15 nm diameter. (author)

  15. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Buizert, Christo; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination, and 2) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (MIS 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samp...

  16. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  17. Dosimetry of the radioactive noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described that were used for estimations of the radiation dose rate to various human tissues from the radioactive gases of Ar, Kr, and Xe following inhalation or immersion in a semi-infinite cloud. Dose rates to the whole-body, lungs, adipose tissues, and testes were calculated following inhalation; and dose rates to the skin, whole-body, lungs, and testes from a semi-infinite cloud were calculated for 39Ar, 41Ar, 83Kr, 85Kr, 87Kr, 88Kr, 131Xe, 133Xe, 135Xe, 137Xe, 138Xe, and also 88Rb found in equilibrium with its parent 88Kr and 138Cs found in equilibrium with its parent 138Xe. (U.S.)

  18. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Stephen H; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF$_2$ from Xe 3d$_{5/2}$, Xe 3d$_{3/2}$, and F 1s subshells in the 660--740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d - $\\epsilon$f continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF$_2$ cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods. Several charge states and fragment ions are produced from the atom and molecule due to alternative decay pathways from the inner-shell holes. Total and partial ion yields vary in response to the shape resonances and LUMO resonances. Previous calculations and measurements of atomic Xe 3d core-hole decay channels and our calculated results for XeF$_...

  19. Sampling and analysis results for groundwater from ONKALO boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen groundwater samples were collected in Olkiluoto from ONKALO cement monitoring boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4 and from the groundwater monitoring station ONK-PVA1 during 23.8. - 15.12.2005. The purpose of groundwater sampling was to obtain information about the influence of cement grouting on groundwater during the construction of ONKALO. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of field and laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1. Groundwater sampling was repeated four times (three times for ONK-KR2 and ONK-KR3) during the autumn of 2005. Sampling was performed in August, September, November and December (marked, for example, for ONK-KR1: ONK-KR1(08), ONK-KR1(09), ONK-KR1(11) and ONK-KR1(12)). According to the classification of Davis and De Wiest (1967), the collected groundwater samples represent water types Na-Ca-HCO3 (ONK-KR1), Na-Cl (ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4(12)), Na-Ca-Cl-OH (ONK-KR4(08) and ONK-KR4(09)), Na-Ca- Cl (ONK-KR4(11)) and Na-Cl-HCO3 (ONK-PVA1). The water types in the groundwater sampling points were the same in the different samplings, except for ONK-KR4 where the water type changed between the different sampling times. The groundwater samples from ONK-KR1, ONK-KR3(11), ONK-KR3(12), ONK-PVA1( 08) and ONK-PVA1(09) were fresh water (TDS < 1 000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples were brackish (1 000< TDS < 10 000 mg/L). The TDS and conductivity results for ONK-KR1 groundwater samples were stable in the autumn of 2005. ONK-KR2 and ONK-KR3 showed a slightly decreasing trend for both parameters. In the ONK-PVA1 groundwater samples, these two parameters first decreased and then increased. The TDS values for the samples from ONK-KR4 also decreased first and then increased from September to December. However, the conductivity of the ONK-KR4 samples showed a decreasing trend in the autumn of 2005. (orig.)

  20. Geophysical logging and imaging of characterisation drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 at ONKALO in June-July 2010 and in March 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Drillhole gamma-ray spectrum logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, 2007 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the detailed drillhole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out drillhole spectrometer logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 2007 and 2008. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results. For the first time the results contains moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio, because the variability of Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones. This report includes also moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio from earlier measured and reported drillholes OL-KR40-43 and OL-KR40B-43B. (orig.)

  2. Hyperpolarized 83Kr MRI of lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Elkins, Nancy D.; Stupic, Karl F.; Repine, John E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr (spin I = 9/2) is a promising gas-phase contrast agent that displays sensitivity to the surface chemistry, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature of the surrounding environment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates the feasibility of ex vivo hp 83Kr magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lungs using natural abundance krypton gas (11.5% 83Kr) and excised, but otherwise intact, rat lungs located within a custom designed ventilation chamber. Experiments comparing the 83Kr MR signal intensity from lungs to that arising from a balloon with no internal structure inflated to the same volume with krypton gas mixture suggest that most of the observed signal originated from the alveoli and not merely the conducting airways. The 83Kr longitudinal relaxation times in the rat lungs ranged from 0.7 to 3.7 s but were reproducible for a given lung. Although the source of these variations was not explored in this work, hp 83Kr T1 differences may ultimately lead to a novel form of MRI contrast in lungs. The currently obtained 1200-fold signal enhancement for hp 83Kr at 9.4 T field strength is found to be 180 times below the theoretical upper limit.

  3. Monitoring measurements by the difference flow method during the year 2009, Drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR22, -KR30, -KR31, -KR35, -KR36 and -KR40 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2009. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in most of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  4. Disposition of 85Kr in gravid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant rats were exposed to 85Kr for 4-6 hr and sacrificed immediately thereafter. The 85Kr concentration in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) was approximately the same at all gestation stages for intact FPU, isolated fetuses or fetal segments, as well as placentas and associated membranes. Maternal tissue concentrations varied over a wide range and only liver and intestine concentrations were relatively similar in both 20-day-gestation (dg) fetuses and adults

  5. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole;

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be...... standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  6. Characterisation of thin solid Xe targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of frozen xenon targets of thicknesses ranging between 1 and 15 mg/cm2 were characterised by elastic backscattering technique using a 3 MeV proton beam. Xenon was kept solid on a gold substrate having a thickness of 1 g/cm2 which was mounted on a cold copper finger. The temperature of targets during the experiment was maintained at 55 K by a compact solid nitrogen sublimation system under pressure of 10-5 mbar. Targets were used in series of experiments for populating samarium and gadolinium isotopes in the 136Xe (18O, Xn) and 136Xe (22Ne, Xn) nuclear reactions. (author)

  7. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  8. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  9. Lifetime measurements in 118Xe nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical nature of nuclear structure can be studied by measuring the lifetimes of the excited nuclear states. The reaction 93Nb(29Si, 3np) 118Xe at a beam energy of 120 MeV was used for this experiment

  10. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. “No-spin” states and low-lying structures in 130Xe and 136Xe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic neutron scattering on solid 130XeF2 and 136XeF2 targets was utilized to populate excited levels in 130Xe and 136Xe. When calculating nuclear matrix elements vital to the understanding of double-beta decay, it is important to have a clear understanding of the low-lying level structure of both the parent and daughter nucleus. Of particular relevance to double-beta decay searches are the assignments of 0+ states. We show here that in the case of 130Xe there are several discrepancies in the adopted level structure. We found that one previous 0+ candidate level (1590 keV can be ruled out and assigned two additional candidates (2223 and 2242 keV. In 136Xe we question the previous assignment of a 0+ level at 2582 keV. Excitation function and angular distribution measurements were utilized to make spin and parity assignments of levels and place new transitions.

  12. Lifetimes and transition probabilities in Kr V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weighted oscillator strengths (gf), weighted transition probabilities (gA) and lifetimes are presented for all experimentally known dipole transitions and levels of Kr V. Values were determined by four methods. Three of them are based on the Hartree-Fock method, including relativistic corrections and core-polarization effects, with electrostatic parameters optimized by a least-squares procedure in order to obtain energy levels adjusted to the corresponding experimental values. The fourth method is based on a relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock approach. In addition, 47 new classified lines belonging to the Kr V spectrum are presented.

  13. Atmospheric contamination of the primary Ne and Ar signal in mid-ocean ridge basalts and its implications for ocean crust formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncik, N. A.; Niedermann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Both, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial applications of noble gases have demonstrated their importance as tracers for source identification, process characterisation and mass and heat flux quantification. However, the interpretation of noble gas isotope data from terrestrial igneous rocks is often complicated by the ubiquitous presence of heavy noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) with an atmospheric origin. Up to now there has been no consensus on how atmospheric noble gases are entrained into igneous rocks. Suggested processes range from contamination during sample preparation to mantle recycling through subduction. Here we present Ne, Ar, Mg, K, and Cl data of fresh glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north and south of the Ascension Fracture Zone which show that incorporation of atmospheric noble gases into igneous rocks is in general a two-step process: (1) magma contamination by assimilation of altered oceanic crust results in the entrainment of noble gases from air-equilibrated seawater; (2) atmospheric noble gases are adsorbed onto grain surfaces during sample preparation. This implies, considering the ubiquitous presence of the contamination signal, that magma contamination by assimilation of a seawater-sourced component is an integral part of mid-ocean ridge basalt evolution. Combining the results obtained from noble gas and Cl/K data with estimates of crystallisation pressures for the sample suite shows that the magma contamination must have taken place at a depth between 9 and 13 km. Taking thickness estimates for the local oceanic crust into account, this implies that seawater penetration in this area reaches lower crustal levels, indicating that hydrothermal circulation might be an effective cooling mechanism even for the deep parts of the oceanic crust.

  14. Structure of high spin states of 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U R Jakhar; H L Yadav; A Ansari

    2005-12-01

    Following a fully self-consistent cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) approach with a pairing+quadrupole+hexadecapole model interaction Hamiltonian the structure of the yrast states of 76,78Kr nuclei is studied up to angular momentum = 24. Evolution of the shape with spin, and rotation alignment of proton as well as neutron 0g9/2 orbitals is investigated along with the inter- and intra-nucleus variations of the factors as a function of . We find that the shape of 78Kr remains prolate all through up to = 24, whereas 76Kr becomes triaxial beyond = 12.

  15. Xe-bearing hydrocarbon ions: Observation of Xe.acetylene+rad and Xe.benzene+rad radical cations and calculations of their ground state structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kertesz, Miklos; El-Shall, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports evidence for novel types of Xe-bearing hydrocarbon radical cations. The Xe.acetylene+rad radical cation adduct is observed at nearly room temperature using the mass-selected drift cell technique. The irreversible addition of the Xe atom and the lack of back dissociation to HCCH+rad + Xe is consistent with the calculated binding energy of 0.85 eV to be contrasted with the metastable nature of the neutral Xe.acetylene adduct. The observed Xe.benzene+rad radical cation appears to be a weakly bound complex stabilized mainly by ion-induced dipole interaction consistent with a calculated binding energy in the range of 0.14-0.17 eV.

  16. Studies on pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy with sup(81m)Kr gas and sup(99m)Tc-MAA in primary lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung ventilation study by the continuous inhalation of sup(81m)Kr gas from a 81Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator and lung perfusion study with sup(99m)Tc-MAA were performed on 36 patients suffering from bronchogenic carcinoma. The patients were measured in a sitting position using a scintillation camera in conjunction with a data processor. In a same patient of pulmonary carcinoma sup(81m)Kr technique and 133Xe study were demonstrated for comparison of ventilation imaging. There were 13 cases with discrepancy between ventilation with sup(81m)Kr gas and perfusion with sup(99m)Tc-MAA. Eight out of 13 patients showed more impaired perfusion (V radical/Q radical > 1.2) and 5 out of 13 patients showed more severe ventilation (V radical/Q radical < 0.8). We discussed the ventilation/perfusion mismatching cases. Eight patients were studied before and after irradiation. The ventilation-perfusion ratios of the affected lung have markedly improved after radiation therapy. Lung ventilation and perfusion studies with sup(81m)Kr gas and sup(99m)Tc-MAA easily allowed quantitative controls of radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Development of technologies for the waste management of I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and tritium in the Fed. Rep. of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and tritium in Germany will be a 10-15 GWe LWR fuel reprocessing plant (FRP), expected to be in operation in the mid nineties. Guidelines for release regulations and development efforts are discussed. It has been recommended to limit the annual I-129 release to less than 0.2 curie. The uncontrolled release of Kr-85, C-14 or tritium via the stack resulting from the 15 GWe power will not exceed the limits derived from the German radiation protection ordinary. The development and hot demonstration of a Kr-85 control technology is recommended in view of the anticipated increasing use of nuclear power in the future. Commercial use of Xe and Kr may also contribute to the incentive for recovery. It would be simple to recover 14CO2 once separated in the course of the I-129 or Kr-85 removal operations. Tritiated waste water once it has been separated in the course of processing, should not be deliberately released. Therefore, tritium control technology is being developed. General concepts and the present status of reference and back-up technologies as well as additional research in view of advanced processes are summarized

  18. Search for 136Xe resonance neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for neutron capture in 134Xe at 2154-eV and 18.4-keV resonances is presented and quantified in terms of limits on Breit-Wigner single level parameters. Assuming the radiation width, 32 meV, found at the 18.4-keV resonance for all the reported resonances at higher energies, the Maxwellian average capture cross section is calculated for a range of stellar interior temperatures T. For kT = 30 keV only 0.72 mb is found. Only one third of this comes from the resonances above 18.4 keV so an overall uncertainty at kT = 30 keV of /+-/0.11 mb at the 68% probability level seems reasonable. Four resonances in 134Xe were also found. 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. Overlevelse kræver indsigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1998-01-01

    koncentreret detailhandel prøver at sætte dagsorden for konkurrencen. Når konkurrencebetingelser er under forandring skal virksomhederne også forandre sig, hvis de stadigvæk vil være med fremover. I denne forbindelse taler man tit om kompetenceudvikling - de nye vilkår kræver, at virksomhederne tilpasser deres...

  20. Los Alamos KrF laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos is currently developing the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser - a highly efficient laser able to emit very intense bursts of short-wavelength photons - as a research tool for the general study of high-density matter, as well as for use in laser fusion. The KrF laser operates at 1/4 μm, close to the short-wavelength limit for conventional optical material, but still in the region where standard optical techniques can be used. The excited-state lifetime of the KrF lasing medium is short - as a result of both spontaneous emission and deactivation from collisions - making it impossible to store energy within the lasing medium for times significant to electrical pumping. However, an optical multiplexing scheme is being developed that will generate short, intense pulses of 1/4-μm light by overcoming the short storage time of the laser and taking advantage of the high gain of the KrF medium

  1. Introduktion. Tid og Kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Obling, Anne Roelsgaard

    , der alle har det til fælles, at de handler om tid. Det gælder både tid forstået i lineær form som tempo i diagnostik og behandling, men også tid i cyklisk forstand; som en afslutning, der kan forbedres af en optimeret palliativ indsats, eller tid, der sættes på standby i rehabiliteringsforløb, hvor...... patienter skal lære at leve med nye begrænsninger og udfordringer. I dette nummer af TFSS har vi samlet en række bidrag, der belyser relationen mellem tid og kræft. I artiklerne behandles blandt andet temaer som medikalisering af slægtsskaber og sundhedsprofessionelles perspektiver på retten til palliativ...... behandling, og et af bidragene analyserer betingelserne for fremvæksten af vores samtids fokus på ’tidlig diagnostik af kræft’. Tre bidrag giver indblik i samspillet mellem tid og kræftpatienters håbsarbejde, religiøsitet og identitet. Ud over at undersøge relationen mellem tid og kræft giver artiklerne...

  2. Alternativ behandling og kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Baggrund: Interessen for komplementær og alternativ behandling (KAB) er stadig stigende, og der kan dokumenteres et større forbrug af KAB blandt kræftpatienter. Patienter anvender primært KAB som supplement til deres konventionelle behandling, og mange så gerne KAB som en integreret praksis. Fler...

  3. Difference flow and electric conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, boreholes KR34 - KR39, KR37B and KR39B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this method, a flow meter and a connected flow guide are used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in boreholes KR34 - KR39, KR37B and KR39B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between May 2005 and April 2006. The measuring program varied between boreholes. The section length of the flow guide was 2 m and 0.5 m. The flow into the borehole or from the borehole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths. This was carried out both with pumping and in natural (unpumped) conditions. Transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head of zones are calculated for the results, if a measurement in natural conditions was performed. The device also includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements, and it was registered when the tool was moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in chosen fractures in some of the boreholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the borehole. The EC of the borehole water was also measured. (orig.)

  4. Kr atoms and their clustering in zeolite A

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, W T; Jung, K J; Heo, N H

    2001-01-01

    The positions of Kr atoms encapsulated in the molecular-dimensioned cavities of fully dehydrated zeolite A of unit-cell composition Cs sub 3 Na sub 8 HSi sub 1 sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 2 O sub 4 sub 8 (Cs sub 3 -A) have been determined. Cs sub 3 -A was exposed to 1025 atm of krypton gas at 400 .deg. C for four days, followed by cooling at pressure to encapsulate Kr atoms. The resulting crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr) (a=12.247(2) A, R sub 1 =0.078, and R sub 2 =0.085) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1) .deg. C and 1 atm. In the crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr), six Kr atoms per unit cell are distributed over three crystallographically distinct positions: each unit cell contains one Kr atom at Kr(1) on a threefold axis in the sodalite unit, three at Kr(2) opposite four-rings in the large cavity , and two at Kr(3) on threefold axes in the large cavity . Relatively strong interactions of Kr atoms at Kr(1) and Kr(3) with Na sup + ions of ...

  5. Monitoring measurements with the Difference Flow Method in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13, and with the transverse flow method in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, KR-35 and -KR36 during the year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentti, E.; Poellaenen, J.; Komulainen, J.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in actures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2012. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse Flow Method (PFL TRANS) was also used. The measurements during the year 2012 in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, -KR35 and -KR36 are presented. All the reported measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. Both devices used include a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in all of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  6. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 118Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetimes of the excited states of the ground state band in 118Xe are newly measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reaction 93Nb(29Si,p3n)118Xe at a beam energy of 135 MeV was used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, 8+, and 10+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME which includes the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The present B(E2) values are in good agreement with the extracted B(E2) values from the Hartee-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations. The measured B(E2) values are also compared with the standard algebraic and the geometrical models. The B(E2) values for the 2+ state for this nucleus and the other Xe nuclei as a function of the neutron number are well reproduced in the framework of the algebraic model IBA-1 with O(6) symmetry and the geometrical finite range droplet model

  7. Search for band termination in 121Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The high-spin states of 121Xe have been studied, using the 64Ni(64Ni,α3n) nuclear reaction, in order to identify terminating bands in this nucleus. The EUROBALL γ-ray spectrometer and its ancillary charged-particle detector, DIAMANT, were used to collect gamma-particle coincidence events (for experimental details see Ref. [1]). The data were sorted into γγ- and γγγ-coincidence matrices by requiring the detection of one α particle. The level scheme of 121Xe, as shown in Fig. 1, was constructed using the triple-coincidence relations and the energy and intensity balances of the γ-ray transitions. The level spins and parities were deduced from transition multipolarities derived from measured DCO-ratios and linear polarisations. Most of the excited states known from previous studies were confirmed and some of the previously known bands have been extended to higher spins. Configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson- Strutinsky-type calculations were performed to help the interpretation of high-spin states observed in 121Xe and the identification of terminating states. This work is in progress

  8. Dielectronic recombination of the Xe8+ ion and satellite lines of the Xe7+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hartree-Fock relativistic method (Cowan code) and the relativistic many-body perturbation theory are used to perform a large-scale calculation of atomic parameters for dielectronic recombination (DR) of Pd-like Xe8+. The energy levels, radiative transition probabilities and autoionization rates are reported for 4d94fnl, 4d95l'nl, (n= 5-8) and 4d96lnl (n= 6-7) states in Ag-like Xe7+. The partial and total DR rate coefficients are calculated with account of high-n states, and contribution of different atomic configurations to DR is discussed. The branching ratios and intensity factors are calculated for dielectronic satellite lines. The obtained results can be used for modelling of various Xe plasmas including those used in lithography applications.

  9. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  10. Clinical utility and reliability of sup(81m)Kr SPECT images applied to posterior circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrument used in this study has a sensitivity of 28,000 counts/mCi/cm3 for sup(99m)Tc and a spatial resolution of approximately 20mm full width at a half-maximum. The tomographic images were obtained by the continuous infusion of sup(81m)Kr at the base of the ascending aorta. Material was subsequently studied in 49 cases that met the conditions of: 1) obstructive vertebrobasilar system lesions (8 cases), 2) no ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (10), or 3) ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in anterior circuration (31). The reproducibility, as studied in 20 cases, was satisfactory. 6 cases were compared with a stable Xe CT CBF map that had regional depressions similar to those of the sup(81m)Kr SPECT images. In the 2nd group, 8 of the 10 cases showed a mild laterality on cerebellar perfusion images obtained by SPECT, as did 29 of the 31 in the 3rd group; among them, 2 cases with a recently completed stroke revealed a marked depression in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere to the side of the hemiplegia. Cases of the lst group showed generally depressed perfusion images of the brain stem or cerebellum, and the low-density areas of X-ray CT were comparable to the lower perfusional regions on SPECT. The authors concluded that posterior perfusion images obtained by sup(81m)Kr SPECT were affected by occlusive vertebrobasilar-system lesions as well as by carotid-system lesions and cerebellar functions, and that this method for evaluating hemodynamics will be of much more clinical use in repeated studies to demonstrate the changes in posterior cicuration in course or by some loadings with subclinical characteristics, for this paper includes the first report on cerebellar functional images, though it is restricted by the low-spatial resolution from defining the architecture of the posterior fossa in detail. (authro)

  11. Hydration of Kr(aq) in dilute and concentrated solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, M I; Pratt, L R; Rempe, S B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach also obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr-Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative (though small) changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr-Kr distributions, analyzed through a delicate $k\\rightarrow 0$ extrapolation, yield positive (though small) values for the osmotic second virial coefficient, $B_2$. A standard thermodynamic analysis interconnecting these two approaches shows that they can be consistent with each other.

  12. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled three drillholes ONK-KR13 (120.45 m), ONK-KR14 (75.27 m) and ONK-KR15 (79.96 m) in ONKALO, at Olkiluoto in June 2010 - March 2011. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water, and the drillholes were washed and flushed after the drilling. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. The core samples were logged according to Posiva's normal procedure for drillholes. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average natural fracture frequencies and RQDs of the core samples are 1.6 pcs/m and 97.0 % (ONK-KR13), 0.5 pcs/m and 99.3 % (ONK-KR14) and 1.6 pcs/m and 97.3 % (ONK-KR15). In drillhole ONK-KR13 one, and in drillhole ONK-KR15 three fractured zones were intersected. There was no fractured zones in drillhole ONK-KR14. Rock mechanical tests were performed to core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 143.2 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 57.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.25. (orig.)

  13. NMR of laser-polarized 129Xe in blood foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Peled, S.; Nascimben, L.; Oteiza, E.; Walsworth, R. L.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129Xe dissolved in a foam preparation of fresh human blood was investigated. The NMR signal of 129Xe dissolved in blood was enhanced by creating a foam in which the dissolved 129Xe exchanged with a large reservoir of gaseous laser-polarized 129Xe. The dissolved 129Xe T1 in this system was found to be significantly shorter in oxygenated blood than in deoxygenated blood. The T1 of 129Xe dissolved in oxygenated blood foam was found to be approximately 21 (+/-5) s, and in deoxygenated blood foam to be greater than 40 s. To understand the oxygenation trend, T1 measurements were also made on plasma and hemoglobin foam preparations. The measurement technique using a foam gas-liquid exchange interface may also be useful for studying foam coarsening and other liquid physical properties.

  14. Medium-energy ion irradiation of Si and Ge wafers: studies of surface nanopatterning and signature of recrystallization in 100 keV Kr+ bombarded a-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin

    2016-03-01

    We report new and exciting experimental results on ion-induced nanopatterning of a-Si and a-Ge surfaces. The crystalline Si (100) and Ge (100) wafers were amorphized and an a/c interface was developed by pre-irradiation with a 50 keV Ar+ beam at normal incidence with an ion fluence of 5.0 × 1015 ions cm-2. These amorphized surfaces were post-irradiated with Ar+ and Kr+ beams at an angle of 60°. The post irradiation was done with ion fluences of 1.0 × 1017 ions cm-2. For each beam, two energies (50 and 200 keV for Ar+, 100 and 250 keV for Kr+) were chosen to ensure ion stopping in both sides of the a/c interface. Regular nanopatterning (in the form of ripples) is observed on the Ge surface only with the post irradiation of the Kr+ beam. The Si surface showed regular nanopatterning with the irradiation of both beams with two energies. For the ion beams crossing the a/c interface, ripples of higher amplitude and longer wavelength were formed. Further, the irradiation with a heavy beam yielded surface ripples of relatively larger amplitudes. The Raman measurements confirm amorphization of the pre-irradiated surfaces. Surprisingly, the post-irradiated Si surface with the 100 keV Kr+ beam showed evidence of recrystallization. In the paper we discuss the physics at the interface and explain the experimental findings.

  15. An improved method for 85Kr analysis by liquid scintillation counting and its application to atmospheric 85Kr determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric 85Kr concentration at Fukuoka, Japan was determined by an improved 85Kr analytical method using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). An average value of 1.54 ± 0.05 Bq m-3 was observed in 2008, which is about two times that measured in 1981 at Fukuoka, indicating a 29 mBq y-1 rate of increase as an average for these 27 years. The analytical method developed involves collecting Kr from air using activated charcoal at liquid N2 temperature and purifying it using He at dry ice temperature, followed by Kr separation by gas chromatography. An overall Kr recovery of 76.4 ± 8.1% was achieved when Kr was analyzed in 500-1000 l of air. The Kr isolated by gas chromatography was collected on silica gel in a quartz glass vial cooled to liquid N2 temperature and the activity of 85Kr was measured with a low-background LS counter. The detection limit of 85Kr activity by the present analytical method is 0.0015 Bq at a 95% confidence level, including all propagation errors, which is equivalent with 85Kr in 1.3 l of the present air under the analytical conditions of 72.1% counting efficiency, 0.1597 cps background count rate, and 76.4% Kr recovery.

  16. KrF laser kinetics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of measurements characterizing an e beam pumped KrF* laser was carried out using a 200-nsec e-beam pulse having a rise time of 25 nsec at current densities up to 50 A/cm2. These pump conditions are relevent for inertial confinement fusion laser drivers. The measurements include fluorescence efficiency, sidelight suppression of the fluorescence during lasing, and laser energy output over a wide range of laser parameters including: total density 0.5--2.0 amagats, temperature 300--400 K, fluorine density 0.15%--0.5%, current density 38--50 A/cm2 and various mirror transmissions. This data was used to verify and refine a model of KrF* kinetics which was then used to estimate the performance of an angular multiplexed power amplifier suitable for laser fusion applications

  17. Yrast transition strengths in 77Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of a systematic investication of electromagnetic transition probabilities in (N,Z)=(40,38) region, the results on high spin states in 77Kr are presented. According to Hartree-Fock calculations the nucleus 77Kr is expected to lie on the borderline between prolate and oblate deformation. The lowest gsub(9/2), psub(3/2) and fsub(5/2) Nilsson orbits are predicted to be prolate (β2 = 0.32 - 0.34, γ = 0 deg), whereas oblate 9/2+ and 1/2- band heads should occur only some 300 keV higher in energy. As E2 and M1 transitions are particularly sensitive to the structure of high spin states, their measurement should allow to fix the relevant single-particle orbits, deformation parameters and possible band mixing effects

  18. Kinetics modeling and interpretation of experimental results for XeF. Annual report, December 1985--November 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesky, E.T. [North East Research Associates, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1986-12-31

    In this report the author presents a detailed discussion of a computer model of the electron beam pumped XeF laser which was developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY86. In its present form, it should provide useful modeling and scaling of XeF laser experiments currently of interest. Additional modifications will be required for long pulse (t{sub P}>5{mu}sec) simulations. The model includes all of the important energy transport processes which contribute to the formation and quenching of XeF in the B-state (upper laser level), X-state (lower laser level), C-state (which mixes with the B-state as a loss mechanism), and the unbound (repulsive) A-state to which the C-state decays. The gain of the B to X transition is resolved for the three most important laser (vibrational) lines: (0-3) at 353 nm, (0-2) and (1-4) at 351 nm. This report describes the kinetics model and computer code for electron beam pumped XeF lasers which use gas mixtures composed of argon (the buffer), xenon, and fluorine. The temperatures, energy flow, and chemistry (plasma and neutral) are calculated in a self-consistent manner; balances of energy, matter, and charge are tracked by the code and output with each print cycle. The model includes the time history of all of the important absorbers: Ar{sub 2}{sup +}, Xe{sub 2}{sup +}, Ar{sup *} and Xe{sup *} (s and p states), F{sub 2}, F{sup {minus}}, and Xe{sub 2}F{sup *}. Energy extraction in the form of lasing is computed using a modified Rigrod analysis which treats multiline lasing. This extraction model assumes a spatially uniform laser flux and is therefore a one dimensional (in time) treatment. The more general extraction model which treats non-uniform spatial effects (laser flux and pumping by a non-uniform electron beam) is being developed, and will be integrated with excimer model in the FY87 reporting period. The computer code was written in FORTRAN77 on a DEC MICROVAX II which uses the VAX/VMS operating system.

  19. High-spin structure of 121Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The neutron-deficient nuclei around mass number 120 are very well suited to study the interplay between single-particle and collective excitation modes. These nuclei with a few nucleons outside a closed-shell core are soft to γ-deformation and shape driving effects of nucleons in different orbitals can lead to co-existence of different shapes. A high-statistics experiment aiming at the identification of hyperdeformed states [1] in A≅120 nuclei has provided valuable data for studying also the normal deformed states at the highest spins in this mass region. The aim of this work is to search for terminating bands in 121Xe and 122Xe as well as to test the cranked shell model at high spins. The fusion-evaporation nuclear reactions 64Ni(64Ni,α3n) and 64Ni(64Ni,α2n) were used to populate high-spin states in 121Xe and 122Xe, respectively. The beam with energies of 255 and 261 MeV was provided by the Vivitron tandem accelerator at IReS, Strasbourg. The emitted γ-rays were detected by the EUROBALL IV spectrometer [2]. The detection of light charged particles was performed by means of the highly efficient DIAMANT array [3,4], which was mounted inside the target chamber. A total of about 3.7 x 109 Compton suppressed events was recorded when one charged particle has been detected in DIAMANT array. For the analysis of the one-α gated triple coincidence cube a standard gating procedure was carried out with the help of the RADWARE software package [5]. The level scheme of 121Xe has been constructed using γγ-coincidence relations, as well as energy and intensity balances. Most of the excited states known from previous studies [6] were confirmed in our experiment and the previously known bands have been extended to higher spins. In order to compare the high-spin states observed in 121Xe with the theory we performed calculations using the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) approach [7]. Within this formalism, the

  20. Evidence for a Possible E(5) Symmetry in 130Xe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大立; 刘玉鑫

    2003-01-01

    By analysing the energy spectrum and E2 transition branching ratios, we show that the E(5) symmetry predictions agree well with the experimental data of nucleus 130Xe. Compared the calculated results with those within the framework of the interacting boson model, it is found that the nucleus 130Xe is definitely a nucleus in the transitional region from U(5) to O(6) symmetry. 130Xe is then another empirical evidence of the nucleus with E(5) symmetry.

  1. Hradec Králové Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šída, P.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Verpoorte, A.; Ulrychová, E.

    Brno: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Archaeology at Brno, 2009 - ( Šída , P.), s. 220-235. (Dolnověstonické studie. 17). ISBN 978-80-86023-86-1 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800010701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Mammals * Pleistocene * Prey * Gravettien * Hradec Králové Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Liquid-Xe detector for contraband detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartsky, D.; Israelashvili, I.; Cortesi, M.; Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A. E.; Moleri, L.; Erdal, E.; Bar, D.; Rappaport, M.; Shchemelinin, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Aviv, O.; Breskin, A.

    2016-07-01

    We describe progress made with a liquid-Xe (LXe) detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier (GPM), for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers. The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3.5 mm for fast neutrons and gamma-rays, respectively. Experimental results obtained using an 241Am source yielded energy and time resolutions of 11% and 1.2 ns RMS, respectively. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented.

  3. Search for Hyperdeformation in Light Xe Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate search for hyperdeformation (HD) at high spins with the EUROBALL spectrometer was performed for 126Ba as a hyper long (HLHD) experiment. The Diamant ancillary detector was used to tag γ-rays in coincidence with the emitted light charged particles. Using γ-energy correlation methods, the particle-x n-γ data have been analysed to search for hyperdeformed structures in the corresponding residual nuclei. Data in coincidence with one particle indicate the presence of normal deformed collective bands up to very high spins and the possible occurrence of HD-like ridge structures in 122Xe. (author)

  4. Search for Hyperdeformation in Light Xe Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyako, B. M.; Papp, F.; Gal, J.; Molnar, J.; Timar, J.; Algora, A.; Dombradi, Zs.; Kalinka, G.; Zolnai, L.; Juhasz, K.; Singh, A. K.; Huebel, H.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Buerger, A.; Neusser, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Herskind, B.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hansen, C. R.; Sletten, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Hannachi, F.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Styczen, J.; Zuber, K.; Hauschild, K.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Roccaz, J.; Siem, S.; Bednarczyk, P.; Byrski, Th.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Duchene, G.; Gall, B.; Khalfallah, F.; Piqueras, I.; Robin, J.; Patel, S. B.; Evans, A. O.; Rainovski, G.; Airoldi, A.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Mason, P.; Paleni, A.; Sacchi, R.; Wieland, O.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Petrache, C. M.; Petrache, D.; de Angelis, G.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.-Y.; Lisle, J. C.; Cederwall, B.; Lagergren, K.; Lieder, R. M.; Podsvirova, E.; Gast, W.; Jaeger, H.; Redon, N.; Goergen, A.

    2005-04-01

    The ultimate search for hyperdeformation (HD) at high spins with the EUROBALL spectrometer was performed for 126Ba as a hyper long (HLHD) experiment. The DIAMANT ancillary detector was used to tag γ -rays in coincidence with the emitted light charged particles. Using γ -energy correlation methods, the particle--xn-γ data have been analysed to search for hyperdeformed structures in the corresponding residual nuclei. Data in coincidence with one α particle indicate the presence of normal deformed collective bands up to very high spins and the possible occurrence of HD-like ridge structures in 122Xe.

  5. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  6. The efficiency calibration for the β-γ coincidence system using 133Xe and 131mXe mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Being one of the sixteen radionuclide laboratories for CTBT, Beijing radionuclide laboratory studied the β-γ coincidence system to measure the activities of xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe). The efficiency calibration is an important and difficult technique in the β-γ coincidence measurement. Purpose: The study is carried out to calibrate the efficiency for the β-γ coincidence system. Methods: The efficiency of the β(γ) particle can be calculate by the ratio of the coincidence counts/single γ(β) counts without knowing the sample activity. A 133Xe and 131mXe mixture, whose activity is not known, is used to calibrate the efficiency. Results: The efficiency for the β-γ coincidence system is got by this method. Conclusions: The method has been used to calibrate the efficiencies of β-γ coincidence system in our laboratory. (authors)

  7. XeNA: an automated 'open-source' (129)Xe hyperpolarizer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Walkup, Laura L; Gust, Brogan M; Whiting, Nicholas; Newton, Hayley; Muradyan, Iga; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Ranta, Kaili; Moroz, Gregory D; Rosen, Matthew S; Patz, Samuel; Barlow, Michael J; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Goodson, Boyd M

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a full report on the construction, components, and capabilities of our consortium's "open-source" large-scale (~1L/h) (129)Xe hyperpolarizer for clinical, pre-clinical, and materials NMR/MRI (Nikolaou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 14150 (2013)). The 'hyperpolarizer' is automated and built mostly of off-the-shelf components; moreover, it is designed to be cost-effective and installed in both research laboratories and clinical settings with materials costing less than $125,000. The device runs in the xenon-rich regime (up to 1800Torr Xe in 0.5L) in either stopped-flow or single-batch mode-making cryo-collection of the hyperpolarized gas unnecessary for many applications. In-cell (129)Xe nuclear spin polarization values of ~30%-90% have been measured for Xe loadings of ~300-1600Torr. Typical (129)Xe polarization build-up and T1 relaxation time constants were ~8.5min and ~1.9h respectively under our spin-exchange optical pumping conditions; such ratios, combined with near-unity Rb electron spin polarizations enabled by the high resonant laser power (up to ~200W), permit such high PXe values to be achieved despite the high in-cell Xe densities. Importantly, most of the polarization is maintained during efficient HP gas transfer to other containers, and ultra-long (129)Xe relaxation times (up to nearly 6h) were observed in Tedlar bags following transport to a clinical 3T scanner for MR spectroscopy and imaging as a prelude to in vivo experiments. The device has received FDA IND approval for a clinical study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects. The primary focus of this paper is on the technical/engineering development of the polarizer, with the explicit goals of facilitating the adaptation of design features and operative modes into other laboratories, and of spurring the further advancement of HP-gas MR applications in biomedicine. PMID:24631715

  8. Fragmentation of DNA components by hyperthermal heavy ion (Ar+ and Xe+) impact in the condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Ms; Michaud, Marc; Deng, Zongwu; Huels, Michael A.

    The overriding environmental factor that presently limits human endeavors in space is exposure to heavy ion radiation. While knowledge of its damage to living tissue is essential for radiation protection and risk estimates for astronauts, very little data exists at the molecular level regarding the nascent DNA damage by the primary particle track, or by secondary species during subsequent reaction cascades. This persistent lack of a basic understanding of nascent damage induced by such low dose, high LET radiation, introduces unacceptable errors in radiation risk estimates (based mainly on extrapolation from high dose, low LET radiation), particularly for long term exposure. Mutagenic effects induced by heavy ion radiation to cells are largely due to DNA damage by secondary transient species, i.e. secondary ballistic ions, electrons and radicals generated along the ion tracks; the secondary ions have hyperthermal energies up to several 100 eV, which they will deposit within a few nm in the surrounding medium; thus their LET is very high, and yields lethal clustered DNA lesions. We present measurements of molecular damage induced in films of DNA components by ions with precisely such low energies (1-100 eV) and compare results to conventional electron impact measurements. Experiments are conducted in UHV using a mass selected low energy ion source, and a high-resolution quadrupole MS to monitor ion yields desorbing from molecular films. Among the major fragments, NH4 + is identified in the desorption mass spectra of irradiated films of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, indicating efficient deamination; in cells this results in pre-mutagenic lesions. Experiments with 5-amino-Uracil, and comparison to previous results on uracil and thymine show that deamination is a key step in the NH4 + fragment formation. For Adenine, we also observe formation of amine aducts in the films, viz. amination of Adenine, and global fragmentation in all ion impact mass spectra, attributed mainly to kinetic & potential ion scattering.[Funded by NSERC and the Canadian Space Agency].

  9. Intense Vacuum-Ultraviolet and Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Ar-Xe Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, A; Heindl, T; Himpsl, A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Roth, S; Schönert, S; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet light emission from xenon-doped liquid argon is described in the context of liquid noble gas particle detectors. Xenon concentrations in liquid argon from 0.1 ppm to 1000 ppm were studied. The energy transfer from the second excimer continuum of argon ($\\sim$127 nm) to the second excimer continuum of xenon ($\\sim$174 nm) is observed by recording optical emission spectra. The transfer almost saturates at a xenon concentration of $\\sim$10 ppm for which, in addition, an intense emission in the infrared at a peak wavelength of 1.17 $\\mu$m with (13000$\\pm$4000) photons per MeV deposited by electrons had been found. The corresponding value for the VUV emission at a peak wavelength of 174 nm (second excimer continuum of xenon) is determined to be (20000$\\pm$6000) photons per MeV electron energy deposited. Under these excitation conditions pure liquid argon emits (22000$\\pm$3000) photons per MeV electron energy deposited at a peak wavelength of 127nm. An electron-beam induced emission spectrum for ...

  10. The optimisation of the Multi-Atmospheric Ar:Xe Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Gielkens, Serge William Agnew

    1998-01-01

    In 1960 the first successful demonstration of laser operation was achieved by Maiman in ruby [1], which is an example of a solid-state laser. Since then numerous other types of lasers have been constructed, like gas lasers, semiconductor lasers, dye lasers, chemical lasers and free-electron lasers (FELs). Each type possesses some unique characteristics, which make it particularly suitable for certain applications that cannot be realised by other lasers. The same holds for gas lasers and in th...

  11. Stopping power of gases for heavy ions. Gas-solid effect II. 2-6 MeV/u Cu, Kr and Ag projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopping powers of twelve gaseous media (from H2 to Xe) have been measured for 2-6 MeV/u Cu, 2-5 MeV/u Kr, and 3-4 MeV/u Ag projectiles. The results are compared to the most common tabulations which appear to be in fair agreement with the data, except for the lightest gases (H2, He) for which the calculated values are too low. The stopping powers in Xe are also underestimated for energies lower than 4 MeV/u. A significant gas-solid effect is observed, the gas stopping powers being lower than those of solid media. This effect, which is higher for the lightest degraders, is attributed to an enhancement of the effective charge of the ions inside solid degraders which is itself due to a density effect

  12. Ab initio study of Kr in hcp Ti: Diffusion, formation and stability of small Kr-vacancy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed to study the formation and migration of Kr impurities, and the stability of small Kr-vacancy clusters for clusters with up to four vacancies and four Kr atoms, in hcp Ti. Both the substitutional and the interstitial configurations of Kr are found to be stable. The octahedral configuration is however found to be more stable than the tetrahedral. Interstitial Kr atoms are shown to have attractive interactions and a low migration barrier, suggesting that, at low temperature, Kr bubble formation is possible, even in the absence of vacancies. We also find vacancy clusters to be stable. The binding energies of an interstitial Kr atom and a vacancy to a Kr-vacancy cluster are obtained from the calculated formation energies of the clusters. The stability of small-vacancy clusters is found to be dependent on Kr-vacancy ratio. The trends of the calculated binding energies are discussed in terms of providing further insights on the behaviour of Kr in implanted Ti.

  13. Development of an equipment for atmospheric krypton sampling, purification, concentration and 85Kr measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (each divided in three heating zones) operating alternatively in 2-hour cycles. This provides a 'chromatographic separation' by successive heating of the three zones of the oven containing the columns. Krypton is trapped at ambient temperature and desorbed at high temperature (∼ 200 deg C). There is no need for an external desorption gas as the nitrogen carrier gas is produced by the system. Considering the poor adsorption capacity of most of the current adsorbents towards krypton, we performed an adsorbents screening to choose the best one for krypton at ambient temperature. The concentration stage consists of three in-line activated carbon column, in small-size furnaces, for further reduction of the elution gas volume. Final transfer into measuring cell is carried out by hot desorption of the accumulated krypton for each 6-hour cycle. First tests show that we collect about 0.7 cm3 of stable krypton (STP conditions). For the detection of 85Kr, there is no commercial 'off-the-shelf' system which fits our needs. Therefore, a proportional counter is under development with an industrial partner. Guard counters are located above and below the proportional counter containing the sample. The counter is filled with Ar + CO2 mixed with our sample (N2 + a few % Kr). Optimal gas proportions, efficiency, and background must be determined. Work in progress at present is to validate the proportional counter for 85Kr measurements and to assess the measurement of the krypton concentration using a stand-alone Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD). Then, we plan to validate the integrated automated prototype, including TCD and counter, and operate it at a fixed place for 85Kr continuous monitoring in combination with atmospheric transfer calculations. An interesting feature of this equipment is that it could conceivably be splitted in two parts: a sampling unit that can be operated on the field (mobile sampler) and a detection unit which remains in the laboratory. Many configurations

  14. Electron-photon polarization correlation study of Ne, Ar and Kr excitation by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron impact excitation of the 3s' [1/2]01 state in neon, the 4s' [1/2]O1 state in argon and the 5s[3/2]01 state in krypton have been studied using the electron-photon polarization correlation technique. The two linear coherence parameters P1 and P2 have been measured and the alignment angle γ and the linear polarization P+lin of the angular part of the collisionally induced excited state charge cloud were extracted from the measured P1 and P2 parameters. The authors measured P1 and P2 in neon at an impact energy of 50 eV, in argon at impact energies of 50 eV, 40 eV, 30 eV and 25 eV, and in krypton at impact energies of 50 eV and 30 eV and electron scattering angles up to 55 degrees in all cases. A comparison with theoretical predictions from first-order perturbative theories such as a Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) and a First Order Many Body Theory (FOMBT) was made. At 50 eV in neon and argon, the agreement between experiment and theory is generally good at small scattering angles up to 25 degrees and somewhat poorer at larger scattering angles. At 50 eV in krypton, the agreement between experiment and theory is generally good at scattering angles up to 40 degrees. The measurements in argon (40 eV, 30 eV, and 25 eV) generally follow the trend of the theoretical predictions, but it was found that the experimentally measured coherence parameters appear to be shifted towards larger scattering angles compared to the theoretical predictions as the impact energy is decreased. At 30 eV in krypton, very good agreement between experiment and theory was found over the entire range of electron scattering angles (up to 55 degrees). The level of agreement between experiment and theory indicates that the DWBA and FOMBT appear to provide a better description of the collision process for a more complex target

  15. Modification by Ar and Kr Ion-Bombardment of Mo/Si X-Ray Multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatmann, R.; Lu, C.; Verhoeven, J.; Puik, E. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the details of the growth of electron-beam deposited molybdenum and silicon layers and the effect of ion-beam bombardment on the morphology and interface smoothness of those layers. Using in-situ X-ray reflectivity, theta-2theta reflectivity scans, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (A

  16. Lærdómsdrifnir eða frammistöðudrifnir samningamenn og konur: Hverjir setja fram kröfur?

    OpenAIRE

    Þóra Christiansen 1965

    2011-01-01

    Rannsóknin tekur fyrir hugtakið um undirliggjandi kenningar (implicit beliefs) um hæfni í tengslum við samningahneigð (negotiation propensity) einstaklinga, og þá sérstaklega tilhneigingu einstaklinga til að hefja samninga (initiate negotiation) með því að leggja fram kröfu. Sett er upp tilraun þar sem þátttakendum gefst kostur á að setja fram kröfu um umbun fyrir þátttökuna. Atferli þátttakenda er skoðað með tilliti til þess hvort þeir gera kröfu um umbun eða ekki og hvort tengsl eru milli u...

  17. Superdeformation of Ar hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiro; Kimura, Masaaki; Hiyama, Emiko; Sagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the differences in the Λ separation energies (S_Λ ) of the ground and superdeformed (SD) states in {}^{37}_Λ Ar, ^{39}_Λ Ar, and ^{41}_Λ Ar within the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). In this study, we find that the calculated S_Λ values in the SD states are much smaller than those in the ground states, unlike the result using the relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculation [B.-N. Lu et al., Phys. Rev. C, 89, 044307 (2014)]. One of the reasons for this difference between the present work and the RMF calculation is the difference in the density profile of the SD states in the core nuclei. We also find that the property of the Λ N odd-parity interaction affects the S_Λ trend between the ground and SD states.

  18. Laser technologies. KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is one of the promising driver for inertial confinement fusion because of its short wavelength, broad band width, high efficiency and capability of high repetition-rate operation. A high gain double-pass amplifier can yield a high, heavily saturated output intensity (5 to 6 times saturation intensity, > 10MW/cm2) with nearly maximum efficiency (> 10%) and high stage gain (> 50) at the same time. The high gain can be achieved by cylindrical electron-beam pumping configuration without external magnetic field. Angular pulse multiplexing enables efficient pulse compression and amplification of beams with broad spectral width. The broad band width is required for irradiation smoothing methods, BRP (broad-band Random Phase Irradiation) or ISI (Induced Spatial Incoherence). Multi-kJ KrF laser, Super-ASHURA (Electrotechnical Laboratory, 8kJ), NIKE (at Naval Research Laboratory, 3kJ) and TITANIA (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, 2kJ) are being developed and close to completion. (author)

  19. Reforming gasoline over catalyst Kr-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen' kov, G.M.; Pushkarev, V.P.; Kozlov, N.S.; Varshavskiy, O.M.; Pryakhina, N.Ya.; Glinchak, S.I.; Gorbatsevich, M.F.

    KR-104 is a widely used domestic polymetallic (Pt, Re, Cd, Fe) catalyst for making high octane components of motor fuel. The start-up and performance results of this catalyst on a high capacity LK-6u unit have been presented previously. In the present work, a further study was made of the performance and regeneration characteristics of the catalyst during reforming of a broad cut gasoline fraction in a one million ton per year industrial unit for 45 months. In the first stage of regeneration, the catalyst was reduced at 768 K for 9 hours and then oxychlorinated. During the second stage, the KR-104 was first treated for 8 hours with a hydrogen-containing gas at 768 K and then cooled and blown through with nitrogen. No change in Pt or Re content was observed, although the Cd content dropped markedly after 11 months and then remained constant. The octane number of the catalyzate was 80.4 (motor method, without TEL) and the catalyst lost both activity and selectivity and had to be regenerated after 5 months. The poor performance of the catalyst and its drop in activity are attributed to the high moisture content in the system during the start-up period. 10 references, 3 figures.

  20. ARS Biodiesel Research Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel activities within ARS are concerned with the production, quality, and properties of this alternative fuel from agriculturally derived fats and oils. Currently, in the absence of tax incentives, biodiesel production when using refined fats and oils and conventional alkali transesterificati...

  1. ARS Culture Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  2. Photoresonance anode plasma production by KrF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of an intense KrF laser pulse with vapor clouds of different elemental composition has been studied experimentally. The clouds were produced by evaporation of solid targets with a ruby laser. Ionization of the expanding clouds by a KrF laser was observed for clouds containing tantalum atoms. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  3. Disposition and biological effect of inhaled 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half-lives of approximately 5, 30, and 100 min were obtained for whole-body clearance of inhaled 85Kr in beagle dogs. Analysis showed the highest partition coefficients in lungs, bone marrow, and fat. Circulating blood elements were not lowered permanently after 85Kr exposures

  4. New neutron-deficient isotopes from 78Kr fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, B.; Goigoux, T.; Ascher, P.; Gerbaux, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Kurtukian Nieto, T.; Magron, C.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Morales, A. I.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Rubio, B.; Ahn, D. S.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kiss, G.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Nishimura, S.; Phong, V. H.; Sakurai, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Wu, J.; Fujita, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Gelletly, W.; Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Diel, F.; Lubos, D.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D.; Borcea, C.; Boso, A.; Cakirli, R. B.; Ganioglu, E.; Chiba, J.; Nishimura, D.; Oikawa, H.; Takei, Y.; Yagi, S.; Wimmer, K.; de France, G.; Go, S.

    2016-06-01

    In an experiment with the RIKEN projectile fragment separator called BigRIPS at the RIKEN Nishina Center, the fragmentation of a 78Kr beam allowed the observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes at the proton drip line. Clean identification spectra could be produced and 63Se,67Kr, and 68Kr were identified for the first time. In addition, 59Ge was also observed. Three of these isotopes, 59Ge,63Se, and 67Kr, are potential candidates for ground-state two-proton radioactivity. In addition, the isotopes 58Ge,62Se, and 66Kr were also sought but without success. The present experiment also allowed the determination of production cross sections for some of the most exotic isotopes. These measurements confirm the trend already observed that the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, significantly overestimates experimental cross sections in this mass region.

  5. New neutron-deficient isotopes from $^{78}$Kr fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B; Ascher, P; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grevy, S; Nieto, T Kurtukian; Magron, C; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Guadilla, V; Montaner-Piza, A; Morales, A I; Orrigo, S E A; Rubio, B; Ahn, D S; Doornenbal, P; Fukuda, N; Inabe, N; Kiss, G; Kubo, T; Kubono, S; Nishimura, S; Phong, V H; Sakurai, H; Shimizu, Y; Soderstrom, P -A; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, H; Takeda, H; Wu, J; Fujita, Y; Tanaka, M; Gelletly, W; Aguilera, P; Molina, F; Diel, F; Lubos, D; de Angelis, G; Napoli, D; Borcea, C; Boso, A; Cakirli, R B; Ganioglu, E; Chiba, J; Nishimura, D; Oikawa, H; Takei, Y; Yagi, S; Wimmer, K; de France, G; Go, S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment with the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN Nishina Center, the fragmentation of a $^{78}$Kr beam allowed the observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes at the proton drip-line. Clean identification spectra could be produced and $^{63}$Se, $^{67}$Kr, and $^{68}$Kr were identified for the first time. In addition, $^{59}$Ge was also observed. Three of these isotopes, $^{59}$Ge, $^{63}$Se, and $^{67}$Kr, are potential candidates for ground-state two-proton radioactivity. In addition, the isotopes $^{58}$Ge, $^{62}$Se, and $^{66}$Kr were also sought but without success. The present experiment also allowed the determination of production cross sections for some of the most exotic isotopes. These measurements confirm the trend already observed that the empirical parameterization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, significantly overestimates experimental cross sections in this mass region.

  6. Improvements in production and storage of HP-129 Xe

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Maricel Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Seit seiner Entdeckung im Jahre 1978 wurden für hyperpolarisiertes (HP) 129Xe zahlreiche Anwendungen gefunden. Aufgrund seiner hohen Verstärkung von NMR-Signalen wird es dabei typischerweise für Tracer- und Oberflächenstudien verwendet. Im gasförmigen Zustand ist es ein interessantes, klinisches Kontrastmittel, welches für dynamische Lungen MRT genutzt oder auch in Blut oder lipophilen Flüssigkeiten gelöst werden kann. Weiterhin findet HP-Xe auch in der Grundlagenphysik in He-Xe Co-Magnetomet...

  7. C-14 and Ar-39 content in a ground water aquifer in the Saarland - comparison of two ground water isotope dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ar-39 groundwater ages found an age comparison is made with ground waters investigated for C-14, Kr-85 and H-3 contents. The location of investigation is a sandstone aquifer of Southern Saarland. The underground production of Ar-39 the hydrological applicability. In granite, the average concentration of U, Th, K, and Cl with an average porosity of 1% and complete diffusion of the isotopes Ar-39 and Cl-36 produced underground can be as high as 105% for Ar-39 moderated and 16% Cl-36 moderated in the interstitial water. (DG)

  8. Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Duofei F.; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Jiandong; Du, Xing; Yuan, Wei; Nan, Shuai; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-23

    The modifications of a commercial borosilicate glass induced by Xe ion irradiation have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. A decrease in the average Si–O–Si angle, an increase in the population of three-membered rings and an increase of the glass polymerization are evidenced. The molecular oxygen appears in the irradiated glasses after the irradiation fluence reaches approximately 1015 ions/cm2. The O2 concentration decreaseswith the depth of irradiated glass at the ion fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2. A sodiumdepleted layer at the surface and a depleted zone at around the penetration depth of 5 MeV Xe ions are observed. The thickness of the sodium depleted layer increases with the irradiation fluence. Moreover, comparing with previous results after electron and Ar ion irradiation, it can be concluded that the nuclear energy deposition can partially inhibit the formation of molecular oxygen and increase the threshold value of electron energy deposition for the molecular oxygen formation.

  9. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  10. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  11. Measurements of Xe diffusion coefficient of UN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post irradiation annealing (PIA) tests were performed to obtain the Xe-133 diffusion coefficients of uranium nitride (UN). UN powder was obtained from the mixed powder of UO2 and carbon under the H2-N2 gas mixture. Porous discs (45%TD) of UN were made and used for the specimens for the PIA tests. For comparison purposes, porous discs of UO2 (47%TD) were also made. Each 300mg specimen was irradiated to a burnup of 0.1 MWd/t-U. PIA tests were performed at 1200degC, 1300degC and 1400degC for UN, and 1400degC, 1500degC and 1600degC for UO2, continuously. The oxygen potential during the annealing tests was about 440 ± 20 kJ/mol. The disc specimens of UN and UO2 were found to be cracked or broken in pieces after annealing tests. The xenon diffusion coefficient for the near stoichiometric UN turned out to be about 1,000 times higher than that of UO2 at 1400degC. And, the activation energy of diffusion in UN is about 230 kJ/mol, while that of UO2 measured to be about 393 kJ/mol. (author)

  12. Completion of Kr-81 and Kr-85 Analysis Development for Hydrogeology and Testing its Validity by Assessing Aquifer Recharge Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective was to complete the development of a RIMS-based analytical technique to determine the concentration of the rare krypton radioisotopes, 81Kr and 85Kr, in samples of interest to the geoscience and planetary science community The key to RIMS is the use of tunable lasers to selectively and efficiently excite by resonant photon absorption atomic states unique to the chosen element. Ionization of the specified element can then occur while excluding all other constituents of the sample, bringing detection limits down to the single-atom level. Combining RIMS with several steps of isotopic enrichment makes detection of a rare isotope, such as 81Kr, feasible. A complete process for groundwater samples consists of starting with (1) collecting the groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water sample, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4 and 5) two isotopic enrichments reducing interfering isotopes by >109, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope using RIMS in a time-of-flight system. Required water sample size is 20 liters for 81Kr and 10 to 3 liters for 85Kr. Weak links in the above steps were to be identified and rectified. Most of the troublesome issues were resolved, but unfortunately, two key difficulties could not be resolved with the available resources, so the overall, final goal of completing a suite of measurements was not achieved. In spite of this, valuable collaborations were established to demonstrate the value of 81Kr and 85Kr measurements in two critical applications, the future site of a nuclear waste repository, where high efficiency 81Kr measurements would allow groundwater dating of low-yield formations, and a multi-method analysis of potential contamination inflow into a large municipal water system, where the simplicity of interpretation of 85Kr measurements could become a valuable future interpretive tool. Therefore, samples were collected anyway, and processing started using the working parts of the method, so that

  13. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  14. High-spin γ-ray spectroscopy of 121Xe and 122Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The balance and interplay between the two extreme facets of nuclear dynamics, collective rotation and single-particle alignment, is of fundamental importance in nuclear structure. A deformed nucleus can increase its spin by collective rotation about an axis perpendicular to its symmetry axis. In a rotational band, higher spin states are built by a gradual alignment of the spin vectors of all the available valence nucleons until, eventually, full alignment is reached. At this point, the rotational band has lost its collectivity and is said to terminate. The spectroscopy of band terminating states has been studied extensively by using the increased sensitivity of the escape suppressed spectrometers. The neutron-deficient nuclei around mass number 120 are very well suited to study the interplay between single-particle and collective excitation modes. These nuclei with a few nucleons outside a closed-shell core are soft to deformation and shape driving effects of nucleons in different orbitals can lead to co-existence of different shapes. A high-statistics experiment aiming at the identification of hyperdeformed states in A ∼ 120 nuclei has also provided valuable data for studying the normal deformed states at the highest spins in this mass region. The aim of this work is to search for terminating bands in 121Xe and 122Xe as well as to test the cranked shell model at high spins. The fusion-evaporation nuclear reactions 64Ni(64Ni,α3n) and 64Ni(64Ni,α2n) were used to populate high-spin states in 121Xe and 122Xe, respectively. The beam with energies of 255 and 261 MeV was provided by the VIVITRON tandem accelerator at IReS, Strasbourg. The emitted γ-rays were detected by the EUROBALL IV spectrometer. The detection of light charged particles was performed by means of the highly efficient DIAMANT array, which was mounted inside the target chamber. A total of about 3.7 x 109 Compton suppressed events was recorded when one charged

  15. Automated analysis of Xe-133 pulmonary ventilation (AAPV) in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Treves, S. Ted

    2011-03-01

    In this study, an automated analysis of pulmonary ventilation (AAPV) was developed to visualize the ventilation in pediatric lungs using dynamic Xe-133 scintigraphy. AAPV is a software algorithm that converts a dynamic series of Xe- 133 images into four functional images: equilibrium, washout halftime, residual, and clearance rate by analyzing pixelbased activity. Compared to conventional methods of calculating global or regional ventilation parameters, AAPV provides a visual representation of pulmonary ventilation functions.

  16. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  17. 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam machining of ultra low thermal expansion glasses for EUVL projection optics: Evaluation of surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain surface figure error of 0.15 nm rms and surface roughness (Rrms) of 0.12 nm rms for aspherical substrates in EUVL tools, ion beam figuring may be adopted to final surface figure error correction of aspherical substrates. During figure error correction, machined surface of the substrate becomes rougher than the pre-finished one. Therefore, we investigated the machined depth and ion energy dependences of Rrms (measured by an AFM) of substrates machined by 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam, and compared them with the results obtained for Ar+ ion beam. Result shows that the Rrmss of CLEARCERAM®-Z, Zerodur® and ULE® substrates machined to the depth of 50 nm by 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam at the normal ion incidence angle become approximately 0.25, 0.28 and 0.15 nm rms, respectively. Those values are larger than the pre-finished substrates (0.07–0.09 nm rms), but smaller than that (0.60 nm rms for CLEARCERAM®-Z, 0.61 nm rms for Zerodur® and 0.18 nm rms for ULE®) of the substrates machined by Ar+ ion beam. Moreover, the Rrmss merely increase with increasing ion energy. The Rrmss of the ULE® substrate machined by 3–10 keV Xe+ ion beam rapidly increase with increasing machined depth, then saturate at machined depth of 10–50 nm. The saturated values of the Rrmss are 0.12 and 0.15 nm rms for 3 and 10 keV Xe+ ion beam respectively. We suggest that the 3 keV Xe+ ion beam machining can be applicable for final shape correction of ULE® substrates for EUVL projection optics in association with considering further ultra smoothing process such as Si deposition or low energy ion beam smoothing.

  18. Nature of the Xe(VI) -N Bonds in F6 XeNCCH3 and F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 and the Stereochemical Activity of Their Xenon Valence Electron Lone Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haner, Jamie; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2016-03-24

    The recently reported syntheses and X-ray crystal structures of the highly endothermic compounds F6 XeNCCH3 and F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 ⋅CH3 CN provide the first, albeit weakly covalent, Xe(VI) -N bonds. The XeF6 unit of F6 XeNCCH3 possesses distorted octahedral (C3v ) symmetry similar to gas-phase XeF6 , whereas the XeF6 unit of F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 ⋅CH3 CN possesses C2v symmetry. Herein, the natural bond orbital (NBO), atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS) analyses show that the Xe valence electron lone pairs (VELPs) of both compounds are stereochemically active. The Xe VELPS are diffuse and ineffectively screen their Xe cores so that the Xe VELP positions correspond to the most electrophilic regions of the MEPS, which enables the opposing N VELP of CH3 CN to coordinate to this region. These bonds are predominantly electrostatic in nature and are interpreted as σ-hole interactions. PMID:26918266

  19. Xe–Kr laser induced collisional ionization system and experimental preparation of its initial state: Four-photon resonant excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a novel one-colour Xe–Kr laser induced collisional ionization system. Considering the level scheme of the system, it finds that the initial state of the reaction–the four 4f levels with even J of Xe–can be prepared through method of four-photon resonant excitation by dye laser with wavelength of ∼440 nm. Absorption of an additional photon (the transfer laser) of the same wavelength will complete the laser induced collisional ionization process. The resonance enhanced ionization spectrum of Xe by four laser photons at ∼440 nm is measured through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, this aims at the preparation of the initial state of the system proposed. The Stark broadening of the measured spectrum is observed and consistent with the previous study. Analysis of the measured resonance ionization spectrum implies the feasibility of ∼440 nm four-photon resonant excitation of the initial 4f state of the Xe–Kr system proposed in this paper, which prepares for a further experiment of laser induced collisional ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Spectroanalytical investigations on inductively coupled N2/Ar and Ar/Ar high frequency plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the detection limits of trace elements in corrosion products of metallic materials, the inductively coupled plasma excitation source (ICP) was applied for spectroscopic analysis. Besides optimizing the working conditions for the mentioned materials, the fundamental research clearing the excitation processes in ICP was carried out. Basicly, two plasma systems were investigated: the nitrogen cooled N2/Ar- and pure Ar/Ar-plasma. The computed detection limits for 8 chosen elements are between 0.1 and 50 μg ml-1 in both plasmas. The advantage of ion lines was clearly present; in N2/Ar-plasma it was larger than in Ar/Ar-plasma. The excitation temperatures measured with help of ArI, FeI and ZnI lines rise with increasing power and decreasing distance from the induction coil. The distribution of Zn excitation temperature in N2/Ar-plasma as well as the measured N+2 rotational and CN vibrational temperatures indicate, that the toroidal structure of Ar/Ar-plasma is not analogue to the N2/Ar-plasma. The values of the various excitation temperatures (Ar, Fe, Zn) and the differences between the excitation, vibration, rotation and ionization temperatures (Tsub(i) > Tsub(n) = Tsub(vib) > Tsub(rot)) indicate an absence of thermal equilibrium in the concerned system. (orig.)

  1. He, Xe and Ne isotopes in a steady-state mass transport model and implications about terrestrial volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Porcelli, D.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model of the steady-state transport assuming three reservoirs: a lower mantle (P) with a relatively undepleted inventory of U, Th, Pu, I, He, Ne, Xe, Ar; an upper mantle that has been extensively outgassed (D); and the atmosphere. There is mass transport at a rate M(sub PD) by plumes from the lower mantle, a fraction of which is outgassed directly into the atmosphere, while the remainder feeds matter and associated nuclei into D. D is well outgassed at spreading centers and has material containing atmospheric gases added to it by subduction. In the case of He, there is no subduction component. The approach follows the treatment of Kellogg and Wasserburg. A summary of the pertinent equations and constraints was reported earlier. The U, Th and Pu in P are estimated for Earth models from refractory element abundances in meteorites. In this model the inventory of rare gases in D is governed by the simple mixing of components from P (both radiogenic and original) with distinctive atmospheric components. In addition, alpha decay and spontaneous fission of U, and (alpha, n) reaction on oxygen from energetic alpha particles produce radiogenic/nuclear daughter products in D. These include (4)He, (136)Xe and (21)Ne. (40)K in D generates excess radiogenic (40)Ar.

  2. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a 83mKr tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive 85Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive 83mKr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of 83mKr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10−15, demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T

  3. Krünitzova encyklopedie jako organologický pramen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoň, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2012), s. 91-94. ISSN 1805-3866 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Johann Georg Krünitz * organology * encyclopaedias Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. A Monte Carlo study of the fluctuations in Xe electroluminescence yield: pure Xe vs Xe doped with CH4 or CF4 and planar vs cylindrical geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Escada, J; Santos, F P; Rachinhas, P J B M; Conde, C A N; Stauffer, A D

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate the fluctuations in the Xe proportional electroluminescence (EL) yield H (also known as secondary scintillation) produced by sub-ionization primary electrons drifting in the gas under appropriate electric fields, comparing pure Xe gas with Xe doped with CH4 or CF4. The work is modeled on gas detectors of the gas proportional-scintillation type, where amplification is achieved through the production of EL under a charge-multiplication free regime. The addition of the molecular gases to Xe reduces electron diffusion, a desirable effect in large size detectors where primary electrons drift across a long absorption/drift region. However, the presence of the molecules reduces H and increases its fluctuations. In the case of CF4, the effects are very strong due to significant electron attachment in the EL field range, ruling out CF4 as an acceptable additive. The addition of CH4 affects H and its fluctuations to a much lower extent, and CH4 concentrations lower than ~1%...

  5. Pulmonary ventilation studies of asthmatic children with Kr-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krypton-81 m gas was eluted from the 81Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator by using compressed air or oxygen as an eluting agent. The continuous inhalation of mixed gas of sup(81m)Kr and air or oxygen with the use of a scintillation camera produced a pulmonary image of which density was proportional to regional ventilation. Because of short half life of sup(81m)Kr (13 seconds), exhaled gas was not necessary to be trapped by the charcoal filter, and the several pulmonary views of a patient could readily be available in a short period of time. The great advantage of sup(81m)Kr generator was found in use for the studies of small children who were not usually cooperative to medical examination. Thirty seven patients with bronchial asthma of any state were so far studied. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years old. Studies revealed the definite ventilation defects in scans of patients with asthmatic attack. Re-scans right after the use of bronchodilators showed marked improvement of the ventilation defects. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) was easily identified by the sup(81m)Kr ventilation study. After premedications for EIA with disodium cromoglicate, the next exercises produced less or no ventilation defects, and the preventive effect could be individually examined. The sup(81m)Kr ventilation study was also used for estimating the patient's sensitivity to provokative substances of bronchial asthma. House dust was continuously inhaled with sup(81m)Kr gas by patients. The threshold dose of house dust of disclosing ventilation defects in scans was definitely less than that of provokating the symptom of asthmatic attack. The sensitive sup(81m)Kr ventilation study could be another provokative test which induces no clinical symptoms. (author)

  6. Shape evolution of yrast-band in 78Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. K.; Jain, H. C.; Palit, R.; Mukherjee, G.; Nagaraj, S.

    2002-03-01

    Lifetimes have been measured up to the I=22 + level in the yrast positive-parity band for 78Kr using the recoil distance and lineshape analysis methods. The B(E2) and Qt values obtained from these measurements show a significant drop with increasing spin. The band crossings and the observed variation in Qt are understood through cranked shell-model, TRS and configuration-dependent shell-correction calculations assuming an oblate deformation for 78Kr at low spins.

  7. Shape changes at high spin in 78Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light Kr isotopes have been extensively studied, both theoretically and experimentally, because these nuclei were among the first in the mass 70-80 region revealing large quadrupole deformation (β ∼ 0.4), coexistence of different shapes and triaxiality. In this study on 79Rb nucleus using the 63Cu (19F, p2n) reaction at beam energy of 60 MeV, 78Kr was also one of the strongly populated channels

  8. A compact femtosecond Ti: sapphire/KrF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact femtosecond Ti:sapphire/KrF laser system which produces ultraviolet and ultrashort pulse has been developed. It consists of a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser, a regenerative amplifier, a frequency conversion system and a KrF excimer amplifier. The system can produce 50 mJ of pulse energy at a pulse width of 440 fs. The pulse width can be reduced down to 100 fs region using a prism pair compressor. (author)

  9. The NIKE KrF laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKE is a large angularly multiplexed Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is designed to explore the technical and physics issues of direct drive laser fusion. When completed, NIKE will deliver 2--3 kJ of 248 nm light in a 4 nsec pulse with intensities exceeding 2x1014 W/cm2 onto a planar target. Spatially and temporally incoherent light will be used to reduce the ablation pressure nonuniformities to less than 2% in the target focal plane. These parameters are predicted to be those required for a high gain ICF pellet. The NIKE system consists of a commercial oscillator/amplifier front end, an array of gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers (one with a 20x20 cm2 aperture, the other with a 60x60 cm2 aperture) and the optics required to relay, encode, and decode the beam. Approximately two-thirds of the system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The output of the smaller e-beam system, the 20 cm Amplifier, exceeds both the uniformity and energy required to drive the final e-beam system, the 60 cm Amplifier. The pulsed power components of the 60 cm Amplifier have been built, and initial tests show the electron beam deposited by the system meets the laser requirements for pumping uniformity and energy deposition. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  10. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. Fracture specific water sampling and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR32, OL-KR41 and OL-KR46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripatti, K.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.

    2014-10-15

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR32, OL-KR41 and OL-KR46 at the Olkiluoto investigation site from May to October in 2013. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to get a fracture specific water samples for groundwater analysis. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling. The incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  12. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  13. Electrical conductivity and water sampling measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Lamminmaeki, T.

    2012-06-15

    Fracture-specific water sampling and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed in drillholes OL-KR50, OL-KR54 and OL-KR55 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between July 2011 and November 2011. The measurements were conducted using Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) with a configuration for water sampling. The purpose of the measurements was to obtain information on the geochemical properties of the groundwater. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements and samplings. The main point in the investigation programme was water sampling, the incidental measurements were carried out for controlling the quality of the sampling. Flow and single point resistance (SPR) measurements were performed in order to locate the target fractures for sampling. During sampling at a target fracture the flow rate, electrical conductivity and temperature of the flowing water were also monitored. (orig.)

  14. Geochronology and thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a response to the authors' belief that there is a need for a monograph on 40Ar/39Ar dating to provide concise knowledge concerning the application of this method to geological studies. They aim to provide a reasonably comprehensive but by no means exhaustive coverage of the principles and practices of 40Ar/39Ar dating, with emphasis on interpretation of results. In attempting to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge, they commonly cite examples from the available literature. They draw rather heavily upon their own work, because they feel comfortable with their own examples. (author)

  15. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR53 in 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR53 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2010 and 2011. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR49 is 1060,22 m, 352,00 m of which was covered by 176 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR50 is 939,33 m long and 203 similar tests were made in it covering 406,00 m of the hole and OL-KR53 300,48 m long, 127 tests made covering 354,00 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  16. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  17. Present status of Kr fixation research with zeolites and evaluation method of Kr sealing and leach behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the management of 85Kr from fuel reprocessing, the combination of the liquefaction-evaporation process for its recovery and the high-pressure cylinder method for its containment is presently practical. The disposal of 85Kr by means of the cylinder alone presents a problem in the case of sea dumping due to the possible leakage. In this connection, there is the need to suppress krypton diffusion by sealing it in zeolite to improve the safety of the means. As for the 85Kr sealing in zeolite, the utilization of sodalite by Benedict et al. of Exxon and of molecular sieve 5A by Penzhorn et al. of Karlsruhe are comparatively reviewed. On the evaluation method of the Kr sealing in zeolite and leach behavior, the aspects of equilibrium adsorption quantity and the diffusion mechanism in crystals are first discussed. The results are then compared with the experimental results using molecular sieve 3A. (J.P.N.)

  18. Geological Dating by 40 Ar - 39 Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope 40 K is radioactive, it decays to 40 Ar stable. The number of 40 Ar atoms produced from 40 K, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The 40 Ar - 39 Ar dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating potassium and argon concentrations in a single measurement of the ratio of argon isotopes. In this work, the irradiation of the sample with fast neutrons in the nuclear reactor was established. 39 Ar is obtained from the induced reaction 39 K (n,p) 39 Ar. Thus the ration of 40 Ar -39 Ar allows to obtain the date of rocks and minerals. This ratio was measured in a mass spectrometer. If the measurement of argon concentration in the sample is carried out at different increasing temperature values, it is possible to get information of paleotemperatures. The number of atoms 39 Ar is a function of the number 39 K atoms, irradiation time, neutrons flux, its energy E and the capture cross section σ of 39 K. These parameters are calculate indirectly by obtaining the so called 'J value ' by using a standard mineral with known age (HD-BI y Biot-133), this mineral is irradiated together with the unknown age sample. The values of 'J' obtained are in the interval of 2.85 a 3.03 (x 10-3)J/h. Rocks from 'Tres Virgenes' were dated by the method described in this work, showing an agreement with previous values of different authors. The age of this rocks are from Cenozoico era, mainly in the miocene period. (Author)

  19. Binding of an electron by He and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent theoretical paper [Guo, Wrinn, and Whitehead, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6685 (1989)] predicted the existence of ground-state bound negative ions of all the noble gases. In addition, experimental observations [Haberland, Kolar, and Reiners, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1219 (1989)] suggest the existence of long-lived Xe-. We have examined the cases of He- and Xe-. For He-, we employed Levinson's theorem in conjunction with published and reliable theoretical e-He elastic-scattering phase-shift results. For Xe-, we employed electron-correlation theory in conjunction with multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock and variational bound-state calculations of total energies. We conclude that these ions do not exist in a ground configuration

  20. Binding of an electron by He and Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.; Aspromallis, George

    1991-08-01

    A recent theoretical paper [Guo, Wrinn, and Whitehead, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6685 (1989)] predicted the existence of ground-state bound negative ions of all the noble gases. In addition, experimental observations [Haberland, Kolar, and Reiners, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1219 (1989)] suggest the existence of long-lived Xe-. We have examined the cases of He- and Xe-. For He-, we employed Levinson's theorem in conjunction with published and reliable theoretical e-He elastic-scattering phase-shift results. For Xe-, we employed electron-correlation theory in conjunction with multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock and variational bound-state calculations of total energies. We conclude that these ions do not exist in a ground configuration.

  1. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-rays following the reactions induced by 12C ions on 115In, 112Sn, 117Sn, 122Sn and 123Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia Isub(band)sup((2)) of 118Xe, 122Xe, 123Cs and 128Ba, 130Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia Isub(eff)sup((2)) of 118Xe and 130Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques

  2. Nuclear structure of 118-122Xe in IBM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon isotopes with Z=54 have only two valence proton pairs or two proton bosons. Hence, even at N=66 with eight valence neutron pairs or bosons, 120 Xe does not adopt a well deformed shape and its quadrupole deformation β ≅0.2. The very light 118-122Xe were investigated by Genevey-Rivier et al., using the ISOLDE facility at CERN in the (p,3pxn) reaction from the decay of Cs parent nuclei by means of in-beam γ-spectroscopy. From the measured γrays, γγ coincidences and Ce- spectra, the decay scheme of the Xe isotopes, including the g-, γ- and β- bands is deduced. The interband E2 branching ratios with limiting IBM symmetry values are also compared

  3. Three-quasiparticle excitations in 79Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excited states in 79Kr have been investigated up to spin 27/2 using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Mean lifetimes of 33 levels have been determined applying Doppler-shift and γ-RF methods. The bands built on the g9/2, [303]5/2, [301]1/2 and [301]3/2 neutron configurations have been interpreted in terms of the cranking model. The g9/2 band is a rotation-aligned band. The band crossing at spin 21/2 is attributed to the alignment of a pair of g9/2 protons. The 3qp band above the second 21+/2 state includes M1 transitions with high transition rates up to 0.6 W.u. The negative-parity bands show a regular structure at low spins. Irregularities in these bands above spin 15/2 are interpreted as due to the alignment of two g9/2 protons as well. A ΔI=1 sequence starting at a (17-/2) state includes M1 transitions of rates of about 0.3 W.u. This structure has been proposed to involve a non-collective 3qp excitation with two g9/2 nucleons. Deformed-shell-model cranking calculations with the Woods-Saxon potential predict the coexistence of prolate and oblate shapes at low spin due to the polarization of the core by the valence neutron, and a change towards prolate shapes after the alignment of two g9/2 protons. (orig.)

  4. Trace analyses at the single particle level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis for 39Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom optics has found many applications in different fields of physics. In the context of environmental physics the method of Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) has opened a new level of dating of water in the regime of very old water (millions of years) with 81Kr and recent water of the last 1000 years with 39Ar. The latter is the topic of this seminar revealing the challenges and experimental solutions to work with 39Ar concentrations in Ar as small as 1:1016. After the detailed discussion of the experimental techniques I will present the first results on dating of water with this method [1] and discuss the potential for samples as small as 1 liter. Being able to date such small samples we will open up a route for detecting the age distribution of the oceans. (author)

  5. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  6. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar method, based on the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 40K, is capable of producing ages with precision better than ± 0.1 %. However, accuracy is limited to no better than 1 % mainly due to the relatively large uncertainty in the 40K decay constants. One approach...

  7. Negative heat capacities in central Xe+Sn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the fluctuation method is applied to the 32-50 A.MeV Xe + Sn central collisions detected with the INDRA multidetector. This method based on kinetic energy fluctuations allows the authors to provide information on the liquid gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation. In the case of Xe + Sn central reactions a divergence in the total heat capacity is observed. This divergence corresponds to large fluctuations on the detected fragment partitions. A negative heat capacity branch is measured and so tends to confirm the observation of a first order phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. (A.C.)

  8. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  9. Charge-state-specific EUV spectra of Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge state specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the xenon ions and rare gas target atoms. Atomic structure calculations were performed for Xe 16+ − Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock with Configuration Interaction code of Cowan and showed that the spectra arise from 4p-4d and 4d-4f transitions. In addition it was necessary to allow for selective capture processes that occur in these slow collisions. The energies of the capture states involved in the single electron process are estimated using the classical over barrier model.

  10. Negative heat capacities in central Xe+Sn reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Gulminelli, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA et Universite, 14 - Caen (France)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    In this study the fluctuation method is applied to the 32-50 A.MeV Xe + Sn central collisions detected with the INDRA multidetector. This method based on kinetic energy fluctuations allows the authors to provide information on the liquid gas phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation. In the case of Xe + Sn central reactions a divergence in the total heat capacity is observed. This divergence corresponds to large fluctuations on the detected fragment partitions. A negative heat capacity branch is measured and so tends to confirm the observation of a first order phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. (A.C.)

  11. Recent improvements of a mobile polarizer system for 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (HP)129Xe has numerous applications both in fundamental physics like nuclear spin clocks and in medical research, e.g. in lung MRI. We report on a compact mobile 129Xe polarizer built in order to achieve high polarization degrees operating in counter flow. The optical pumping scheme is optimized in terms of magnetic field homogeneity, rubidium saturation, freeze-thaw method, gas-transport and its storage in special vessels with low wall relaxation. This talk will cover different aspects of HP gas production, manipulation and minimization of losses due to relaxation.

  12. Perspectives of using the 223-nm wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery and for the treatment of some eye diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    2000-06-01

    The new surgical UV ophthalmic laser system Medilex based on the KrCl (223 nm) excimer laser for refractive surgery was created. The comparative analysis of using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex based on the ArF (193 nm) and the KrCl (223 nm) excimer lasers for the correction of refractive errors was performed. The system with the radiation wavelength of 223 nanometer of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery was shown to have several medical and technical advantages over the system with the traditionally used radiation wavelength of 193 nanometer of the ArF excimer laser. In addition the use of the wavelength of 223 nanometer extends functional features of the system, allowing to make not only standard for this type systems surgical and therapeutic procedures but also to treat such ocular diseases as the glaucoma and herpetic keratities. For the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex three variations of the beam delivery system including special rotating masks and different beam homogenize systems were developed. All created beam delivery systems are able to make the correction of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and myopic or hyperopic astigmatism and may be used for therapeutic procedures. The results of the initial treatments of refractive error corrections using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex for both photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK procedures are presented.

  13. Yrast spectroscopy of N=82,83 isotopes 136Xe and 137Xe from 248Cm fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt γ-ray cascades in neutron-rich nuclei around doubly magic 132Sn have been studied at Eurogam II using a 248Cm fission source. Here we report results for the four-valence-proton N=82 nucleus 136Xe and for its N=83 neighbor 137Xe. For both nuclei, the yrast level spectra have been considerably extended, and empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions have been used to assign probable shell model configurations. The 136Xe level energies are compared with those calculated using different sets of proton-proton interaction matrix elements, both diagonal and nondiagonal, obtained by fitting experimental data for other N=82 isotones. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. High-spin γ-ray spectroscopy of 124Ba, 124Xe and 125Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A ∝125 region, 124Ba, 124Xe and 125Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  15. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C{sub 60} through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Aakash B; Chakraborty, Himadri S, E-mail: himadri@nwmissouri.edu [Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C{sub 60} over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  16. Fourier photospectroscopy of Xe-C60 through a Xe 4d resonance window: theory versus recent experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoionization cross section of endohedral Xe-C60 over a Xe 4d giant resonance energy region, calculated in the time-dependent local density approximation, is compared with recent measurements (Kilcoyne et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 213001). An analysis based on the Fourier transforms of oscillatory cross sections is performed to derive a number of inherent similarities between the prediction and the data, including a large beating-type oscillation and several others of intermediate size. Results stress the need for more accurate measurements to access the wealth of information about the geometry of the system. (fast track communication)

  17. Atmospheric dispersion study with 85Kr and SF6 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    85Kr concentration in air around the reprocessing plant was measured when it was released from the plant stack during the hot-test operation treating PWR spent fuels. A charcoal absorption method was devised for this experiment as a rapid, simple and inexpensive technique for the measurement of 85Kr concentration at about 10-9μCi/cm3. Special air samplers were located a few kilometers from the stack and the air was collected for an hour at a flow-rate of 1.5 liters per minute. About thirty air samples were taken and analyzed for 85Kr concentration successfully. The performance of the sampling and analytical methods employed was good, although some improvements were found to be necessary. An example is that an air-collection bag should be made of ''saran'' to minim+ze leakage. Usually sulfur hexafluoride gas is used as an air-tracer in an atmospheric diffusion study: analytical procedure for determining the gas concentration down to 10-3 ppb is well established. In this experiment SF6 gas was injected into the stack during the discharge of 85Kr and the concentration in sampled air was also determined. The results show a good correlation between 85Kr and SF6 concentration in sampled air. (author)

  18. Xe bubbles formation in materials for use in nuclear reactors studied by slow positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials (UO2 and ZrC) for use in nuclear reactors implanted with 800-keV Xe-ions were studied by means of slow positron beam (SPB) spectroscopy. Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-line technique was used to measure the momentum density distribution (MDD) of annihilating positron electron pairs in two sets of samples implanted at fluences of 1×1016 Xe cm−2. The sensitivity of the MDD shape parameter S to discriminate single Xe atoms and Xe bubbles was discussed. Common trends in Xe bubbles formation as a result of the Xe fluence and/or post-implantation annealing in both materials were described. Positron spectroscopy on SPB was demonstrated to be an excellent complementary technique to secondary ion mass spectroscopy for studying the formation and evolution of Xe-bubbles, and Xe retention. PACS codes: 28.90.+i

  19. Oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Kr XXV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S. D. (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar-251 001, Affiliated to Chowdhary Charan Singh University, Meerut-250 004 (India); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Energy splittings of 53 fine-structure levels as well as oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}({sup 1}S), 3s3p({sup 1,3}P{sup 0}), 3s3d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4s({sup 1,3}S), 3s4p({sup 1,3}P{sup 0}), 3s4d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4f({sup 1,3}F{sup 0}), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}S,{sup 3}P,{sup 1}D), 3p3d({sup 1,3}P{sup 0},{sup 1,3}D{sup 0}, {sup 1,3}F{sup 0}), 3p4s({sup 1,3}P{sup 0}) and 3d{sup 2}({sup 1}S,{sup 3}P,{sup 1}D,{sup 3}F,{sup 1}G) states of Kr XXV are calculated using very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions. These wavefunctions are obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. The enormous mixing among several fine-structure levels makes it very difficult to identify them correctly with the result that their positions in other calculations are interchanged compared to our results and the experimental values. From our transition probabilities, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths, radiative decay rates and the lifetimes are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available. We believe that the new oscillator strengths reported in this paper will be useful in many astrophysical applications and in technical plasma modelling.

  20. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs

  1. Atomic diffusion mechanism of Xe in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe in uranium dioxide (UO2) calculating incorporation, binding, and migration energies. All the energy values have been obtained using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) method. Considering spin-polarization effect, we find that the computed migration energy is reduced by and agrees well with experimental data compared to those obtained from non-magnetic calculations. We also find that an oxygen vacancy lowers the migration energy of a uranium vacancy by about 1 eV, enhancing an effective movement of vacancy clusters consisting of both uranium and oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the strain energy of Xe is large enough to contribute to the clustering of vacancies making it the driving force for the vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe in UO2. In summary all the calculated results suggest that the trivacancy is a major diffusion pathway of Xe in UO2

  2. 129Xe EDM Search Experiment Using Active Nuclear Spin Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Ohtomo, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Yu; Kojima, Shuichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shirai, Hazuki; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Hikota, Eri; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Nanao, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Tsuchiya, Masato; Inoue, Takeshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Bidinosti, Christopher P.; Ino, Takashi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro

    An active nuclear spin maser, which enables a precision measurement of spin precession frequency, is employed in the experimental search for permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe. In order to eliminate systematic errors which limit the sensitivity of the experiment to an EDM, the following tactics are adopted: (i) 3He comagnetometry for the cancellation of long-term drifts in the external magnetic fields and (ii) double-cell geometry for the mitigation of frequency shifts due to interaction of 129Xe spin with polarized Rb atoms. In the present work, the design for the double-cell has been changed and a magnetic shield-coil system to provide a highly homogeneous magnetic field has been newly introduced. Thanks to increased polarization and longer 3He spin relaxation time, the dual-species maser of 129Xe and 3He in a double-cell geometry operated successfully. Our experiment is now at the stage of assembling these separate technical elements in order to start the measurement of 129Xe EDM in the 10-28 ecm region.

  3. Collective states of even Xe isotopes in IBM+MQRPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, A. D.; Mikhajlov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    A modification of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) with small ground state correlations is suggested. The lowest energy phonon is used as the image of d-boson of the Interacting Boson Model 1 (IBM1) and applied to microscopical calculations of the IBM1 parameters. Results are compared with experimental data for Xe isotopes.

  4. Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, B; Meinecke, J; Kuschel, S; Ross, J S; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Tynan, G R

    2012-05-01

    Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {micro}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {micro}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {micro}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {micro}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20 {+-} 4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.

  5. Role of van der Waals interactions in adsorption of Xe on Cu(111) and Pt(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazić, Predrag; Crljen, Željko; Brako, Radovan; Gumhalter, Branko

    2005-01-01

    We consider some recently developed schemes for treating van der Waals interactions within the density functional theory on the widely discussed example of adsorption of Xe on Cu(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. Consistent with the overall weakness of the Xe-surface and Xe-Xe interactions we assess the performance of the schemes that are appropriate to systems consisting of nearly isolated fragments in which the coefficients of the van der Waals expansion are deduced from DFT calculations. Such gen...

  6. The 38Ar(p,d)37Ar reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 38Ar(p,d)37Ar reaction has been used to study the properties of the high-lying positive parity states in 37Ar. Angular distributions in the region thetasub(c.m.)=160-1320 have been analyzed using the DWBA code DWUCK to determine the spectroscopic properties of these states. The two lowest T=3/2 states have been identified at 4.98MeV (3/2+) and 6.65MeV (1/2+). The results are compared to recent shell-model calculations; their significance for the solar neutrino experiment is also discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Anomalous behaviour of transition probabilities in 75Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two collective bands of 75Kr have been extended up to spin 21/2 using the compound reactions 64Zn(14N, p2n)75Kr and 50Cr(28Si, 2pn)75Kr. Spins and parities were assigned from neutron-gated γ angular-distributions and excitation functions using the OSIRIS Anti Compton Spectrometer. The bands are interpreted to be built on well-deformed Nilsson states: [442]5/2 and [301]3/2. Energies and mixing ratios for both bands can be reproduced within the 'single particle and rotor' model, while the experimental Q0(I->I-1)/Q0(I->I-2) ratios exhibit large deviations by a factor 4 to 6 from theoretical values. (orig.)

  8. Long-term pumping test in borehole KR24 flow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhiainen, P.; Poellaenen, J. [PRG-Tec Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    The Difference Flow method can be used for the relatively fast determination of transmissivity and hydraulic head in fractures or fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this study, the Difference Flow method was used for hydraulic crosshole interference tests. The tests were performed in boreholes KR24 (pumped borehole) KR4, KR7, KR8, KRlO, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR26, KR27, KR27B, KR28 and KR28B at Olkiluoto during the first and second quarters of 2004. The distance between the boreholes varies from approximately tens of meters to hundreds of meters. All the measurements were carried out in open boreholes, i.e. no packers were used. For interpretation, a normal single hole test was first performed in each borehole. Flow rates and drawdown were first measured both without pumping and with pumping the borehole under test. For practical reasons, the data set is neither complete nor similar in all tested boreholes. Connected flow to borehole KR24 was detected in all these boreholes. These flow responses were concentrated on a few zones. (orig.)

  9. Separation of dissolved Kr from a water sample by means of a hollow fiber membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Momoshima, N.; Inoue, F.; Shimada, J.; Ikawa, R.; Taniguchi, M.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryWe investigated extraction of the krypton (Kr) radioisotope 85Kr from groundwater having an ultra-low concentration with a Kr extraction system using an external inflow type hollow fiber membrane. Our aim was to develop a system able to effectively extract Kr isotopes from a large volume of groundwater (10 4 L) in field studies for measurement of 85Kr radioactivity. Before testing our Kr extraction system in the field, we determined experimentally the conditions necessary for effective extraction of Kr isotopes from groundwater. We investigated the efficiency of Kr extraction from water by extracting trace amounts of Kr in the laboratory. With our system, we were able to extract 99% of Kr and O 2 dissolved in water at water temperatures ranging from 11 to 29 °C and with a flow rate of less than 24 L/min, confirming that the separation efficiency of the system was sufficient for extraction of Kr isotopes from groundwater. We then used our method to extract 85Kr from groundwater at sites at Kyoto University in Osaka and on the Kumamoto Plain in central Kyushu, Japan. We showed that this technique for extracting 85Kr from the groundwater can be an effective tool for investigating the residence time of young groundwater.

  10. Constraints on the timing of the Moon-forming giant impact from MORB Xe isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    As Earth accreted, volatiles were delivered by accreting material and lost by degassing and impact-driven ejection to space. The Moon-forming giant impact initiated the final catastrophic outgassing and bulk volatile ejection event on the early Earth. I-Pu-U-Xe systematics provide a powerful tool to probe degassing of the early Earth. Radiogenic 129Xe was produced by β-decay of the extinct nuclide 129I (t1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in the first ~90 Myr of Earth history. Fissiogenic 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe were produced in distinct, characteristic proportions by the fission of extinct short-lived 244Pu (t1/2 = 80.0 Myr) and extant long-lived 238U (t1/2 = 4.468 Gyr). Here we present radiogenic and fission Xe data in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge, and discuss them with other mantle-derived samples to shed light on early Earth volatile accretion and loss. Based on the ratio of radiogenic 129Xe to plutogenic 136Xe determined for the MORB source, we calculate an I-Pu-Xe closure age for the upper mantle of ~44-70 Myr after the start of the Solar System. The closure age should correspond to the end of catastrophic mantle outgassing during accretion, and thus constrains the age of the last giant impact (LGI). Our closure age is significantly older than previous Xe closure age determinations of ~100 Myr, and is also older than some direct radiometric ages of lunar crustal samples. In order to explore the effects of accretion timescales, partial early retention of Xe, and degassing associated with long-term mantle processing on Xe closure age, we develop a new model of I-Pu-U-Xe systematics. We find that for LGI's between ~35 and 70 Myr after the start of the Solar System, we are able to satisfy constraints on I-Pu-U-Xe systematics simultaneously without invoking partial retention of Xe prior to the last giant impact. For LGI's after ~80 Myr, partial retention of Xe prior to the LGI is required. Non-zero early retention of Xe is necessary to explain the budgets of primordial

  11. Electromagnetically induced absorption in metastable 83Kr atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Mishra, S R; Singh, S; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) resonances of sub-natural linewidth (FWHM) in metastable noble gas 83Kr* atoms using degenerate two level schemes (DTLSs). This is the first observation of EIA effect in a metastable noble gas atoms. Using these spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition from 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 hyperfine manifolds of 83Kr* atoms, we have measured the Lande's g-factor (gF) for the lower level (F = 13/2) of the closed transition accurately with small applied magnetic fields of few Gauss.

  12. A Rb-81/Kr-81m perfusion generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rb-81/Kr-81m perfusion generator is under development at Medi-Physics, Inc. The generator consists of a glass column with a glass filter disc filled with approximately 200 mg wet cation exchange resin. The Rb-81 solution is loaded onto the column in a single pass with greater than 95% efficiency. The Kr-81m is eluted with greater than 85% efficiency in nonionic dextrose solution and administered I.V. Rubidium-81 washoff from the generator during elution varies with flow rate and total eluate volume, but remains less than 5 μCi per 100 cc eluate

  13. 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and thermochronology: principles and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronology based on radiogenic isotopes has become an invaluable tool in earth sciences. Several radioactive parent-daughter systems of varying half-lives such as Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar have been traditionally used by researchers for determining the timing of geological and planetary processes. 40Ar-39Ar dating, a variant of the K-Ar system, is a well-established and versatile method of determining the eruptive ages of volcanic rocks and the ∼150-500 deg C thermal histories of a variety of more slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks. This technique has been the most popular tool for dating felsic and intermediate volcanic rocks. Recently several new areas of research have been explored, including total-fusion dating of mineral grains from volcanic and sedimentary samples, mapping of argon isotopic gradients in crystals, and selective dating of fabric-defining minerals in poly deformed specimens

  14. Electron scattering from 36Ar and 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argon isotopes, 36Ar and 40Ar, have been investigated using electron scattering at the high-resolution Linac facilities of the National Bureau of Standards. Both elastic scattering and scattering to low-lying states have been observed. A high-pressure, low-volume gas target cell was designed and developed for this experiment. The cell features a transmission geometry and has resolution comparable to solid targets. Spectra were obtained at incident beam energies ranging from 65 to 115 MeV at scattering angles of 92.50 and 1100. Values obtained for the rms charge radii are 3.327 +- 0.015 and 3.393 +- 0.015 fm for 36Ar and 40Ar respectively. A sensitive measurement was made of the difference in the two radii yielding a value of Δ r = 0.079 +- 0.006 fm. The inelastic levels observed are the 1.97 (2+) and 4.18 MeV (3-) levels in 36Ar, and the 1.46 (2+), 2.52 (2+), 3.21 (2+), and 3.68 MeV (3-) levels in 40Ar. A Tassie model analysis was made of the inelastic transitions in the DWBA approximation and transition strengths of these levels were extracted

  15. Identification of krypton Kr XVIII to Kr XXIX spectra excited in TFR Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission spectrum of krypton (injected into TFR tokamak plasmas) has been recorded photographically in the 15-300 A spectral range by means of a 2m grazing incidence spectrograph. Preliminary identification work, based on isoelectronic regularities from known spectra of other ions and ionization equilibrium calculations, has allowed 48 lines (belonging to the O I, F I, Na I, Mg I, Al I, Ar I and K I sequences) to be identified

  16. Dmitri Krõmovist on saanud vaatemängumeister / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovist ja tema lavastusest "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" (Anatoli Vassiljevi Teater Draamakunstikool. Dmitri Krõmovi loomelaboratoorium), mida etendatakse festivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006"

  17. Intermolecular Interactions of Xe Atoms Confined in One-dimensional Nanochannels of Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene as Studied by High-pressure 129Xe NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Ueda, Takahiro; Miyakubo, Keisuke; Eguchi, Taro

    2003-12-01

    The pressure dependence of the 129Xe chemical shift tensor confined in the Tris(o-phenylenedioxy) cyclotriphosphazene (TPP) nanochannel was investigated by high-pressure 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. The observed 129Xe spectrum in the one-dimensional TPP nanochannel (0.45 nm in diameter) exhibits a powder pattern broadened by an axially symmetric chemical shift tensor. As the pressure increases from 0.02 to 7.0 MPa, a deshielding of 90 ppm is observed for the perpendicular component of the chemical shift tensor δ⊥, whereas a deshielding of about 30 ppm is observed for the parallel one, δ‖. This suggests that the components of the chemical shift tensor, δ‖ and δ⊥, are mainly dominated by the Xe-wall and Xe-Xe interaction, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of helium, which is present along with xenon gas, on the 129Xe chemical shift is examined in detail. The average distance between the Xe atoms in the nanochannel is estimated to be 0.54 nm. This was found by using δ⊥ at the saturated pressure of xenon, and comparing the increment of the chemical shift value in δ⊥ to that of a β -phenol/Xe compound.

  18. Ars Poetica : [luuletused] / Mats Traat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traat, Mats, 1936-

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Ars poetica ; Veepeegel ; Kontrollõed ; Mandariiniriik ; Nikolai Siamashvili (1888-1911) ; Kolmekümne kolmas aasta ; Kiri linast 1966 ; Italmaz Nuriyev ; Rudolf Rimmelile mõeldes ; Gennadi Aigi

  19. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  20. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR56, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR56, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between February 2012 and May 2012. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  1. Difference flow and electric conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, boreholes KR25, KR25B and KR31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference flow method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored boreholes. In this method, a flow meter utilizing flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and the results of the measurements carried out in boreholes KR25, KR25B and KR31 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between April 2006 and August 2006. The measuring program varied only slightly between the boreholes. The section length of the flow guide was 2 m and 0.5 m. The flow into the borehole or from the borehole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths. This was carried out both in pumped and in natural (un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity (T) and the hydraulic head of the zones are calculated in the results, if a measurement in natural conditions was performed. The device that was used also includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements, and it was registered when the tool was moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in chosen fractures in some of the boreholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the borehole. The EC of the borehole water was also measured. (orig.)

  2. Jarmila Krčálová (1928 - 1993)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muchka, Ivan

    Praha : Artefactum, 2003 - (Konečný, L.; Hausenblasová, J.; Šroněk, M.), s. 125-126 ISBN 80-903230-4-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Keywords : Institute of Art History AS CR * personalities * Jarmila Krčálová Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. Performance of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because short wavelength lasers are attractive for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the Department of Energy is sponsoring work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser technology. Aurora is a short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength ICF research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1 to 5 ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into 96 beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480 ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. In the present system configuration half (48) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. This paper discusses how the Aurora laser system has entered the initial operational phase by delivering pulse energies of greater than one kilojoule to target

  4. Biocompatible layers fabricated using KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomás; Vrbová, Miroslava; Konarík, David; Remsa, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with silver and thin diamond like carbon layers were prepared using KrF excimer laser deposition. Tooth prostheses, textile blood vessels and artificial heart valves were covered and tested. Examples of physical tests, and in vitro and in vivo analysis using minipigs and sheep are presented.

  5. Plasma mirrors for short pulse KrF lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilicze, Barnabás; Barna, Angéla; Kovács, Zsolt; Szatmári, Sándor; Földes, István B

    2016-08-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that plasma mirrors can be successfully applied for KrF laser systems. High reflectivity up to 70% is achieved by optimization of the beam quality on the plasma mirror. The modest spectral shift and the good reflected beam quality allow its applicability for high power laser systems for which a new arrangement is suggested. PMID:27587094

  6. High power KrF laser development at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the high power laser development program at Los Alamos is to appraise the potential of the KrF laser as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), ultimately at energy levels that will produce high target gain (gain of order 100). A KrF laser system prototype, the 10-kJ Aurora laser, which is nearing initial system operation, will serve as a feasibility demonstration of KrF technology and system design concepts appropriate to large scale ICF driver systems. The issues of affordable cost, which is a major concern for all ICF drivers now under development, and technology scaling are also being examined. It is found that, through technology advances and component cost reductions, the potential exists for a KrF driver to achieve a cost goal in the neighborhood of $100 per joule. The authors suggest that the next step toward a multimegajoule laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is an ''Intermediate Driver'' facility in the few hundred kilojoule to one megajoule range, which will help verify the scaling of driver technology and cost to an LMF size. An Intermediate Driver facility would also increase the confidence in the estimates of energy needed for an LMF and would reduce the risk in target performance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Real bundle gerbes, orientifolds and twisted KR-homology

    CERN Document Server

    Hekmati, Pedram; Szabo, Richard J; Vozzo, Raymond F

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a notion of Real bundle gerbes on manifolds equipped with an involution. We elucidate their relation to Jandl gerbes and prove that they are classified by their Real Dixmier-Douady class in Grothendieck's equivariant sheaf cohomology. We show that the Grothendieck group of Real bundle gerbe modules is isomorphic to twisted KR-theory for a torsion Real Dixmier-Douady class. Building on the Baum-Douglas model for K-homology and the orientifold construction in string theory, we introduce geometric cycles for twisted KR-homology groups using Real bundle gerbe modules. We prove that this defines a real-oriented generalised homology theory dual to twisted KR-theory for Real closed manifolds, and more generally for Real finite CW-complexes, for any Real Dixmier-Douady class. This is achieved by defining an explicit natural transformation to analytic twisted KR-homology and proving that it is an isomorphism. Our constructions give a new framework for the classification of orientifolds in string theory, p...

  8. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  9. Orientation dependence in the reaction of Xe* with photodissociation polarized IBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of metastable Xe* with IBr to produce XeI* and XeBr* excimers was studied in crossed molecular beams. The IBr beam was rotationally polarized by using laser photodissociation to selectively remove most of the M state distribution. The reaction cross section was found to be largest when the Xe* approaches parallel to the plane of rotation of the IBr, and smallest when the Xe* approaches perpendicular to the plane of rotation. Reaction models for excimer formation are discussed, and it is concluded that the observed steric effect results from the anisotropy of the ionic Xe+/IBr-(2Pi) potential surface, involving the first excited state of IBr-, which is the intermediate state in the formation of XeI*

  10. Krüppel-like factor 8 is a novel androgen receptor co-activator in human prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-jiang HE; Xue-feng GU; Wan-hai XU; De-jun YANG; Xiao-min WANG; Yu SU

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) plays important roles in cell cycle and oncogenic transformation.On other hand,androgen receptor (AR) is crucial in development of both androgen-dependent and independent prostatic malignancies.The aim of this study is to investigate the role of KLF8 in prostate cancer (PCa) and the relationship between KLF8 and AR.Methods.: Eight human PCa cell lines,including androgen-dependent LNCap cells and androgen-independent 22Rv1 cells,as well as human PCa samples were studied.LNCap cells and 22Rv1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding full-length wild-type KLF8 or KLF8 shRNA.The expression of KLF8 protein was detected using Western blotting or immunohistochemical staining.Cell proliferation in vitro was measured with MTT assay,and in vivo in a xenograft nude mouse model.Yeast two-hybrid screening,co-immunoprecipitation and pull down assays were used to examine the binding of KLF8 to AR.Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to measure the transcriptional activity of the genes targeted by AR.Results: In 133 human PCa samples,KLF8 protein staining was observed in 92.65% (63/68) of high-grade PCa,66.15% (43/65) of low-grade PCa,and 6.82% (3/44) of adjacent normal tissues.The expression of KLF8 was significantly associated with poorer overall survival.Overexpression of KLF8 enhanced the proliferation of both LNCap and 22Rv1 cells,while knockdown of endogenous KLF8 suppressed the proliferation.These manipulations exerted similar effects on the tumor volumes in the xenograft nude mouse model.Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that KLF8 was a novel AR-interacting protein.With pull down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay,we demonstrated that KLF8 bound directly to AR,and KLF8 enhanced AR target gene transcription.Conclusion: The results demonstrate that KLF8 is a novel AR transcriptional co-activator that is overexpressed in PCa and may play a role in progression of hormone-refractory PCa.

  11. Visible and VUV images of dielectric barrier discharges in Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recorded short exposure images of visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a Xe dielectric barrier discharge lamp, and investigated the effects of excitation by fast rising pulse and sinusoidal voltage waveforms on the discharge structure. The images from the pulsed discharge are essentially uniform over the active electrode area unlike the sinusoidal discharge which is filamentary. By investigating a single filament discharge, it is also found that a large fraction ((>)90%) of the total visible and VUV emission for sinusoidal excitation is generated from regions outside the filament. The images suggest that the VUV is generated from surface discharges, or 'feelers', which branch out laterally from the filaments. Model calculations suggest that surface or volume discharges, in which the current density is much lower than for filamentary discharges, generate VUV emission more efficiently due to the reduced rate for multi-step electron excitation of Xe* species. (author)

  12. A search for double beta decay of 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on double beta decay of 136Xe has been performed at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (L.N.G.S.). From 6210 h of run with xenon enriched to 64% in 136Xe a 90% C.L. lower limit was derived for neutrinoless double beta decay of 2.0x1022y and 6.5x1021y, for the 0+→0+ and 0+→2+ transitions, respectively. From a comparison between enriched xenon and cleaned xenon a lower limit for the two neutrinos double beta decay of 1.4x1020y at 90% C.L. is also obtained (author) 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-rays following the reactions induced by 12C ions on 115In, 112,117,122Sn and 123Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia I(2) /sub band/ of 118,122Xe, 123Cs and 128,130Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia I(2)/sub eff/ of 118Xe and 130Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques. 13 references

  14. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Two Nakhlites, MIL03346 and Y000593: A Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Garrison, Daniel; Bogard, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Radiometric dating of martian nakhlites by several techniques have given similar ages of approx.1.2-1.4 Ga [e.g. 1, 2]. Unlike the case with shergottites, where the presence of martian atmosphere and inherited radiogenic Ar-40 produce apparent Ar-39-Ar-40 ages older than other radiometric ages, Ar-Ar ages of nakhlites are similar to ages derived by other techniques. However, even in some nakhlites the presence of trapped martian Ar produces some uncertainty in the Ar-Ar age. We present here an analysis of such Ar-Ar ages from the MIL03346 and Y000593 nakhlites.

  15. Systematic studies on the rate capability of MWPC operated in Xe/CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of TRD chambers at particle rates up to 200 kHz/cm2 is required for identification of daughter electrons from charmonia (J/Ψ and Ψ'), within the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. With this motivation, we have scrutinized the possibility of adopting as the TRD active element the well established MWPC technology, operated in Xenon for maximizing the absorption of TR X-rays. In order to provide a low aging figure, CO2 was used as UV-quencher, while the chamber gap was kept at 3 mm to shorten the ions drift time. A systematic study of thin MWPC with various concentrations of CO2 in Xe, Ar and Ne under different pitch configurations (2-4 mm) is presented. The data is described in the framework of the Mathieson theory, that allows to extract the ion mobilities under different hypothesis for the drifting ion, shedding light on the ultimate possibilities of usage of MWPC in high rate environments

  16. Combustion resistance of the 129Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, Karl F; Six, Joseph S; Olsen, Michael D; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Using a methane-xenon mixture for spin exchange optical pumping, MRI of combustion was enabled. The (129)Xe hyperpolarized nuclear spin state was found to sufficiently survive the complete passage through the harsh environment of the reaction zone. A velocity profile (V(z)(z)) of a flame was recorded to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI velocimetry of transport processes in combustors. PMID:23165418

  17. Teatriuuendaja Dmitri Krõmov toob Eestisse teatrivormis ülevaatenäituse / Dmitri Krõmov ; intervjueerinud Kristiina Garancis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõmov, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline teatrifestival "Talveöö unenägu" toimub Tallinna Linnateatris 2010 a. detsembris 6. korda. Festival toob vaatajateni läbilõike Dmitri Krõmovi lavastustest: "Kaelkirjak", "Katariina uned", "Oopus 7", "Oksjon", "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot"

  18. Monitoring hydraulic conductivity with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR31 and OL-KR32, in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The construction of ONKALO and the subsequent construction of the repository of high-level spent nuclear fuel will affect the surrounding rock mass, the groundwater flow system and the environment in general. In December 2003 a programme to monitor these effects during the construction and operation of ONKALO was presented (Posiva 2003). The programme consists of different types of monitoring by different disciplines. HTU (Hydraulic Testing Unit) measurements are a part of the hydrogeological monitoring programme that includes measurements of hydraulic conductivity with HTU in drillholes adjacent to ONKALO. Measurements performed before and in the early stages of the excavation of ONKALO provide a baseline to which later results can be compared. The HTU monitoring measurement program was first completed in 2005 and then repeated in 2006 and in 2007 in drillholes OL-KR8, OL-KR28 and OL-KR31. Of these, OL-KR31 including its extension was measured in 2008 and OL-KR32 was added to the program as a new hole. These same holes were measured also in 2012. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with 2 m packer separation and a nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 15 or 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity was below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise 5 min before injection, occasionally longer or shorter. Also, the injection and fall-off were extended when necessary to obtain a stationary state. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. In 2012 a total of 238 tests were accomplished covering altogether 474.89 m of drillhole in these two holes. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy. It was operated by Geopros Oy in OL-KR31 and jointly by Geopros Oy

  19. The effect of simultaneous electron and Kr/sup +/ irradiation on amorphization of CuTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.; Meshii, M.

    1989-01-01

    CuTi was irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and Kr/sup +/ ions simultaneously at temperatures from 10 to 423 K. Retardation of Kr/sup +/-induced amorphization was observed with simultaneous electron irradiation at 295 and 423 K. The retardation effect increased with increasing irradiation temperature and relative electron-to-Kr dose rate. In contrast, simultaneous irradiation below 100 K showed an additive effect of electron- and Kr/sup +/-induced amorphization. The results can be explained by the mobility point defects introduced by electron irradiation interacting with Kr/sup +/-induced displacement cascades. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The effect of simultaneous electron and Kr+ irradiation on amorphization of CuTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CuTi was irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and Kr+ ions simultaneously at temperatures from 10 to 423 K. Retardation of Kr+-induced amorphization was observed with simultaneous electron irradiation at 295 and 423 K. The retardation effect increased with increasing irradiation temperature and relative electron-to-Kr dose rate. In contrast, simultaneous irradiation below 100 K showed an additive effect of electron- and Kr+-induced amorphization. The results can be explained by the mobility point defects introduced by electron irradiation interacting with Kr+-induced displacement cascades. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. REGISTRATION OF BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL GERMPLASM ARS-2622

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-2622 broadleafed birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) germplasm was released by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station in August 2002. The merit of ARS-2622 is that it is a rhizome producing population with a broad genetic base. ARS-2622 was developed ...

  2. Saturated multikilovolt x-ray amplification with Xe clusters: single-pulse observation of Xe(L) spectral hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-pulse measurements of spectral hole burning of Xe(L) 3d → 2p hollow atom transition arrays observed from a self-trapped plasma channel provide new information on the dynamics of saturated amplification in the λ ∼ 2.8-2.9 A region. The spectral hole burning on transitions in the Xe34+ and Xe35+ arrays reaches full suppression of the spontaneous emission and presents a corresponding width Δ h-bar ωx ∼ = 60 eV, a value adequate for efficient amplification of multikilovolt x-ray pulses down to a limiting length τx ∼ 30 as. The depth of the suppression at 2.86 A indicates that the gain-to-loss ratio is ≥10. An independent determination of the x-ray pulse energy from damage produced on the surface of a Ti foil in the far field of the source gives a pulse energy of 20-30 μJ, a range that correlates well with the observation of the spectral hole burning and indicates an overall extraction efficiency of ∼10%. (letter to the editor)

  3. Xe-129 NMR chemical shift in Xe@C-60 calculated at experimental conditions: Essential role of the relativity, dynamics, and explicit solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, P.; Marek, R.; Straka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 22 (2013), s. 1890-1898. ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GA13-03978S Grant ostatní: 7th European Community Framework Program(XE) FP7-286154; CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology (European Regional Development)(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Xe-129 NMR * Xe@C-60 * dynamical averaging * explicit solvent * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  4. Analysis list: AR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AR Blood,Breast,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.1.tsv http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/tar...get/AR.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Blood.tsv,http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbar

  5. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/targe...t/Ar.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/...kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Kidney.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  6. En etisk diskussion af screening for kræftsygdomme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Laurs Sørensen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I 2007 gennemførte forbundskansler Angela Merkel en sundhedsreform der blandt andet indebærer, at tyske borgere ikke frit kan afgøre, om de vil deltage i forebyggende programmer, da et fravalg kan medføre økonomiske konsekvenser. Hermed udvider den tyske stat sin ret til at gribe ind i borgernes liv, når det handler om sekundær forebyggelse, fx i form af screening for kræftsygdomme. Dette kan være problematisk da den bedst tilgængelige evidens viser at tre igangværende kræftscreeningsprogrammer ikke kun har gavnlige virkninger, men også betydelige skadelige virkninger. Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at undersøge, hvilke holdninger eksperter, politikere og sundhedsmyndigheder i Danmark har til tvang og/eller belønning i forbindelse med screening for kræftsygdomme, og om de ville støtte eller fraråde en tysk model i det danske sundhedsvæsen.Der blev foretaget enkeltinterviews med strategisk udvalgte eksperter. Interviewene blev transskriberet og analyseret med en fænomenologisk analysemetode, og derefter analyseret og diskuteret i forhold til utilitaristisk og deontologisk etik, samt evidensen vedrørende de tre eksisterende kræftscreeningsprogrammer i Danmark.Alle informanterne var kritiske over for det tyske forslag. Til gengæld blev forholdet mellem de gavnlige og skadelige virkninger af kræftscreening vurderet meget forskelligt. Manglen på enighed, uklare udtalelser og ikke-stringent terminologi bestyrkede vor konklusion; at det danske sundhedsvæsen for det første ikke bør følge den tyske kurs og, for det andet, at man bør være kritisk over for implementering af screeningsprogrammer for kræftsygdomme. Hvis forebyggende initiativer kan være mere til skade end gavn, bør de altid overvejes nøje i lyset af sundhedsvæsnets oprindelige intention om at hjælpe og beskytte det enkelte menneske.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1712

  7. Determination of the separation efficiencies of a single-stage cryogenic distillation setup to remove krypton out of xenon by using a {sup 83m}Kr tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, S., E-mail: rosendahl@wwu.de; Brown, E.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, Wilhelm-Klemm Straße 09, 48149 Münster (Germany); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Hermann Von Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lebeda, O. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-15

    The separation of krypton and xenon is of particular importance for the field of direct dark matter search with liquid xenon detectors. The intrinsic contamination of the xenon with radioactive {sup 85}Kr makes a significant background for these kinds of low count-rate experiments and has to be removed beforehand. This can be achieved by cryogenic distillation, a technique widely used in industry, using the different vapor pressures of krypton and xenon. In this paper, we present an investigation on the separation performance of a single stage distillation system using a radioactive {sup 83m}Kr-tracer method. The separation characteristics under different operation conditions are determined for very low concentrations of krypton in xenon at the level of {sup 83m}Kr/Xe = 1.9 ⋅ 10{sup −15}, demonstrating, that cryogenic distillation in this regime is working. The observed separation is in agreement with the expectation from the different volatilities of krypton and xenon. This cryogenic distillation station is the first step on the way to a multi-stage cryogenic distillation column for the next generation of direct dark matter experiment XENON1T.

  8. KrF lasers as inertial fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of KrF laser system has been proposed that has a significantly higher efficiency than pure angular multiplexed KrF lasers. This system uses electron-beam-sustained discharge lasers to pump a high gain Raman amplifier. The discharge lasers can operate at a higher efficiency than e-beam pumped lasers, and the forward Raman scattering process has both a high gain and high quantum efficiency using the rotational transition. The Raman system cost and performance has been examined and compared to the pure angular multiplexed system. The discharge-Raman system has a higher efficiency (12.3% vs 9.1%) and a higher cost ($140/joule vs $100/joule). For an ICF power plant driver, the higher efficiency offsets the higher cost, making the discharge-Raman system appear to be an attractive alternative to the pure angular multiplexed system

  9. KrF lasers as inertial fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of KrF laser system has been proposed that has a significantly higher efficiency than pure angular multiplexed KrF lasers. This system uses electron-beam-sustained discharge lasers to pump a high gain Raman amplifier. The discharge lasers can operate at a higher efficiency than e-beam pumped lasers, and the forward Raman scattering process has both a high gain and high quantum efficiency using the rotational transition. The Raman system cost and performance has been examined and compared to the pure angular multiplexed system. The discharge-Raman system has a higher efficiency (12% vs 9%) and a higher cost ($140/joule vs $100/joule). For an ICF power plant driver, the higher efficiency offsets the higher cost, making the discharge-Raman system appear to be an attractive alternative to the pure angular multiplexed system

  10. T-duality For Orientifolds and Twisted KR-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, Charles; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    D-brane charges in orientifold string theories are classified by the KR-theory of Atiyah. However, this is assuming that all O-planes have the same sign. When there are O-planes of different signs, physics demands a "KR-theory with a sign choice" which up until now has not been studied by mathematicians. We give a definition of this theory and compute it for orientifold theories compactified on a circle and 2-torus. We also explain how and why additional "twisting" is implemented. We show that our results satisfy all possible T-duality relationships for orientifold string theories on elliptic curves, which will be studied further in subsequent work.

  11. KrF excimer laser driver for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super-ASHURA, six beams KrF laser system, was accomplished by developing the main amplifier (60 cm caliber, 2 m amplifier length) with 38 KJ excited input energy, 10% internal efficiency, 2.5% total efficiency and 2.7 KJ total output energy. A laser pulse compressive technique using induced Raman amplifier in the gas attained to from 20 ns to 4 ns pulse width (74% transformation efficiency) by the multiple optical path forward Raman amplifier and from 20 ns to 100 ps or less of high magnification compression by the strong saturation backward amplifier. The structure of plasma from KrF laser beam was determined by measuring the electron density and the temperature of plasma. (S.Y.)

  12. Odgojno-teorijska dvojba ranog kršćanstva

    OpenAIRE

    Pranjić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Život u helenističkom okruženju bio je za prve kršćane pravi izazov. S jedne je strane trebalo respektirati ono što je okruženje smatralo vrlo vrijednim, dok je, s druge strane, ekstremna pozicija naglašavala bezvrijednost helenističkih sadržaja, a umjerena pozicija nastojala uskladiti helenističke i kršćanske sadržaje po načelu “prave upotrebe”. U tom ozračju čuli su se različiti glasovi, od onih koji nisu htjeli vidjeti nikakve veze između staroga i novog, do onih koji ...

  13. Applications developed for byproduct 85Kr and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the 85Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of 85Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of 85Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of 85Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied

  14. Random phase approximation with exchange for the photoionization of confined atoms: Xe in C_{60} fullerene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhifan

    2008-01-01

    Photoionization of a Xe atom confined inside C$_{60}$ has been studied using the random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) method. The C$_{60}$ fullerene has been descr ibed by an attractive short range spherical well with potential $V(r)$, given by $V(r)=-V_ 0$ for $r_ir_0$ have been obtained by solving the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation using both regular and irregular solutions and the continuous boundary conditions at $r_i$ and $r_0$. The photoionization cross sections for the Xe 4d, $5s$ and $5p$ ele ctrons in the Xe@C$_{60}$ endohedral molecule have been evaluated and compared with those of the photoionization for the free Xe atom and other previo us calculations for the Xe@C$_{60}$ fullerene. Our method surmounted the weaknesses of the previous model potential calculation s and demonstrated significantly stronger correlated confinement resonances for the Xe@C$_{60}$ photoionization.

  15. Resonant charging of Xe clusters in Helium nanodroplets under intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Peltz, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the impact of multiple plasmon resonances on the charging of Xe clusters embedded in He nanodroplets under intense pump-probe laser excitation. Our molecular dynamics simulations on Xe309He10000$ and comparison to results for free Xe309$ give clear evidence for selective resonance heating in the He shell and the Xe cluster, but no corresponding double hump feature in the final Xe charge spectra is found. Though the presence of the He shell substantially increases the maximum charge states, the pump-probe dynamics of the Xe spectra from embedded system is similar to that of the free species. In strong contrast to that, the predicted electron spectra do show well-separated and pronounced features from highly efficient plasmon assisted electron acceleration for both resonances in the embedded clusters. A detailed analysis of the underlying ionization and recombination dynamics is presented and explains the apparent disaccord between the resonance features in the ion and electron spec...

  16. Xe-implanted zirconium oxycarbide studied by variable energy positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of annealing on defects and the formation of Xe bubbles were investigated in zirconium oxycarbide implanted with 800-keV136Xe2+ ions at two fluences 1 x 1015 and 1 x 1016 Xe/cm2. Doppler broadening technique combined with slow positron beam was used. The analysis of the S depth profiles and S-W maps revealed that in the as-implanted samples at both fluences Xe bubbles are not formed. The post-implantation annealing of the samples implanted at 1 x 1016 Xe/cm2 caused formation of Xe bubbles. The response of the lower implantation dose samples to this post implantation annealing was found rather complicated and is discussed.

  17. Xe-implanted zirconium oxycarbide studied by variable energy positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djourelov, N., E-mail: nikdjour@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gutierrez, G. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Marinov, H.; Popov, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Toulhoat, N. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Moncoffre, N. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pipon, Y. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 94 Bd. Niels Bohr, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nedelec, P. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-12-01

    The effect of annealing on defects and the formation of Xe bubbles were investigated in zirconium oxycarbide implanted with 800-keV{sup 136}Xe{sup 2+} ions at two fluences 1 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 16} Xe/cm{sup 2}. Doppler broadening technique combined with slow positron beam was used. The analysis of the S depth profiles and S-W maps revealed that in the as-implanted samples at both fluences Xe bubbles are not formed. The post-implantation annealing of the samples implanted at 1 x 10{sup 16} Xe/cm{sup 2} caused formation of Xe bubbles. The response of the lower implantation dose samples to this post implantation annealing was found rather complicated and is discussed.

  18. Measurement of regional hepatic blood flow and scintigraphic imaging of portal circulation with /sup 133/Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, A. (Krankenanstalt der Stadt Wien Rudolfstiftung (Austria) 1. Medizinische Abt.)

    1980-01-01

    Regional hepatic blood flow has been determined by 4 methods with the aid of /sup 133/Xe washout technique: 1. scintisplenoportography (direct application of /sup 133/Xe into the spleen by means of a thin needle); 2. arterial method (/sup 133/Xe is injected into the A. hepatica by means of a catheter); 3. retrograde-venous method (/sup 133/Xe administered by an occluding hepatic vein catheter); 4. percutaneous intrahepatic method (/sup 133/Xe administered directly into the parenchyma by means of a Chiba needle). It was possible to demonstrate that hepatic blood flow values established with the aid of /sup 133/Xe are independent of the form of application (scintisplenoportography, arterial method, retrograde-venous method).

  19. On the structure of collective bands in 78Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 16O, 19F, and 12C induced reactions high spin states in 78Kr were excited. The targets consisted of 65Cu, 69Ni, and 68Zn. On the base of gamma spectroscopic methods as γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and excitation functions a level scheme of 78Kr is proposed. Four bands could be identified, which decay mostly by stretched E2-transitions. From recoil distance Doppler shift as well as Doppler shift attenuation measurements lifetimes of about 20 states were measured. The β-decay of the 103 keV isomeric state and the ground state in 78Rb was observed and the half-lifes determined. Altogether a very good agreement of the level scheme and the E2- and E1-transition strength with predictions of the interacting boson model were found. Using a Monte Carlo code the γ-decay of the continuum of highly excited nuclei is described. Entry states, mean γ-energies, γ-spectra, mean multiplicities, multipolarities, and mean feeding times as well as e.g. their second moments were calculated for the reactions 58Ni(16O,2p)72Se and 68Zn(12C,2n)78Kr. The results are discussed and compared with experimental data. (HSI)

  20. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P

    Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...

  1. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  2. Źródła do dziejów Prus Królewskich w zespole "Książęta Radziwiłłowie" (Fond 694) w Narodowym Archiwum Historycznym Białorusi w Mińsku

    OpenAIRE

    Nowosad, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Prusy Królewskie jako prowincja Rzeczypospolitej znacznie ucierpiały w czasie wielu wojen prowadzonych na przestrzeni ostatnich 500 lat. Kataklizm wojen dopełniony został losowymi wypadkami pożarów trawiących miasta na przestrzeni tego okresu. Wraz ze zniszczeniami miast, zamków i dworów destrukcji ulegały również zgromadzone w nich akta. W efekcie tych zniszczeń do dnia dzisiejszego przetrwał zaledwie niewielki fragment dziedzictwa aktowego. Dwa z trzech dawnych województw Prus Królewskich n...

  3. Implementation of a SIC/XE processor on an FPGA and supporting system software

    OpenAIRE

    Kloboves, Klemen

    2014-01-01

    SIC/XE is a hypothetical computer architecture designed for teaching systems software programming. In this work, we present an educational SIC/XE computer that we implemented on an FPGA development board. The system consists of a SIC/XE processor, device controllers and other auxiliary components. In addition, we also developed a suite of system software utilities for use with our system. The suite includes assembler, linker and simulator utilities which can be used to create and test program...

  4. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excesses of 129Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129Xe excesses based on the production of 129I from the spontaneous fission of 238U

  5. Excess /sup 129/Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of /sup 129/Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these /sup 129/Xe excesses have been thought to be related to /sup 129/I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial /sup 129/Xe excesses based on the production of /sup 129/I from the spontaneous fission of /sup 238/U.

  6. Actinide production in 136Xe bombardments of 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from 136Xe bombardments of 249Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these 136Xe + 249Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the 136Xe + 248Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs

  7. RF magnetron sputtering of silver thin film in Ne, Ar and Kr discharges-plasma characterisation and surface morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Lančok, Ján; Fekete, Ladislav; Musil, Jindřich; Čekada, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 228, Suppl. 1 (2013), S466–S469. ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB091125; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Grant ostatní: VAKUUM(CZ) Grant VAKUUM PRAHA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * silver * plasma characterisation * optical emission spectroscopy * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013

  8. XeF pump laser. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this program was to demonstrate operation of an XeF laser of adequate energy, efficiency and beam quality at high repetition rates. The specific design goals were: PRF greater than or equal to 10 kHz, energy output greater than or equal to 50 mJ/pulse, efficiency greater than or equal to 0.3%, and beam divergence angle less than or equal to 20x diffraction limited. In the following sections of this report we will discuss how these goals have been met

  9. 133Xe labelling of acrylate for catheter embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for radio-nucleide labelling of histo-acryl/lipiodol with 133Xe gas is described. The method consists of disolving the gas in lipiodol under sterile conditions. After embolisation and angiography, the localisation of the embolising material can be determined by means of a scintillation camera. The labelling method was used in 15 patients. In all patients the position of the embolising material, as demonstrated by scintigraphy, corresponded with the radiological findings. It was not possible to demonstrate escape of the material by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  10. How close to the O(6) symmetry is the nucleus 124Xe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excited states in 124Xe have been studied via the 12C(124Xe, 124Xe*) Coulomb excitation reaction. Their population cross-sections relative to the 21+ state have been determined from the γ-ray yields observed with Gammasphere. More than twenty absolute E2 strengths for seven off-yrast, low-spin states of 124Xe have been deduced for the first time. The absolute B(E2) values indicate pronounced O(5) symmetry, even for the off-yrast states with high O(5) quantum number τ, while the O(6) symmetry is substantially broken.

  11. Structure change of Xe precipitates embedded in Al studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy filtered imaging (EFI) were employed to characterize the structure of precipitates of Xe implanted in Al metal, as well as their structure change as a function of temperature ranging from 300 to 858 K. HRTEM observation revealed that crystalline and non-crystalline Xe precipitates coexist at room temperature. The critical size so precipitates between the crystalline and non-crystalline states is about 5.5 m. In in-situ annealing, the crystalline precipitates start amorphization at 623 K and complete it at 773 K. Low energy loss peaks are recognized at 14.6 and 15.3 eV in the EELS at 300 K and 773 K, respectively. These peaks are considered to come from the Xe precipitates in Al. Energy shift of Xe-M4,5 edge to lower energy loss and an extra peak in Xe-M4,5 edge are detected in EELS aat 300 K in connection with the crystallization of the Xe precipitates. However, the Xe-M4,5 edge becomes identical in position and shape at 773 K to that of gaseous Xe. It suggests that the Xe-precipitates exist in the gaseous state at 773 K. (author)

  12. Structural evolution from low to high-spin states in 130Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on high-spin states in 130Xe is lacking both experimentally and theoretically unlike in other Xe isotopes e.g. 124,126Xe. These surveys motivated us to look into 130Xe using microscopic shell model at low-spin and pairing independent cranked Nilsson Strutinsky (CNS) calculations at high-spin states. Moreover, a third formalism based on Deformed Hartree-Fock (DHF) theory was used as a bridge between low and high-spin states which might be helpful in determining parameters of interaction Hamiltonian

  13. Ar ions irradiation effects in ZrN thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Dorcioman, G. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Simeone, D.; Gosset, D. [CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LEPP-LRC CARMEN CEN Saclay France & CNRS/SPMS UMR8785 LRC CARMEN, Ecole Centrale de Paris, F92292 Chatenay Malabry (France); Behdad, S.; Boesl, B. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Craciun, V., E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline and hard ZrN films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique. • The effect of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on properties of ZrN films was investigated. • ZrN films irradiated with 10{sup 14} Ar ions/cm{sup 2}did not show major structural changes. • Irradiation with 10{sup 15} Ar ions/cm{sup 2} induced large structural and mechanical changes. - Abstract: Thin ZrN films (<500 nm) were grown on (1 0 0)Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under CH{sub 4} or N{sub 2} atmosphere. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies indicated that the films were very dense and with a smooth surface. The films were used to study the effect of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on their structure and properties. After irradiation with a dose of 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2} the lattice parameter and crystallites size did marginally change. However, after irradiation with a 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} dose, a clear increase in the lattice parameter accompanied by a significant decrease in nanohardness and Young modulus were observed.

  14. Ar ions irradiation effects in ZrN thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline and hard ZrN films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique. • The effect of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on properties of ZrN films was investigated. • ZrN films irradiated with 1014 Ar ions/cm2did not show major structural changes. • Irradiation with 1015 Ar ions/cm2 induced large structural and mechanical changes. - Abstract: Thin ZrN films (<500 nm) were grown on (1 0 0)Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under CH4 or N2 atmosphere. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies indicated that the films were very dense and with a smooth surface. The films were used to study the effect of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on their structure and properties. After irradiation with a dose of 1014 at/cm2 the lattice parameter and crystallites size did marginally change. However, after irradiation with a 1015 at/cm2 dose, a clear increase in the lattice parameter accompanied by a significant decrease in nanohardness and Young modulus were observed

  15. Oldest human footprints dated by Ar/Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaillet, Stéphane; Vita-Scaillet, Grazia; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-11-01

    Fossilized human trackways are extremely rare in the geologic record. These bear indirect but invaluable testimony of human/hominid locomotion in open air settings and can provide critical information on biomechanical changes relating to bipedalism evolution throughout the primitive human lineage. Among these, the "Devil's footsteps" represent one of the best preserved human footprints suite recovered so far in a Pleistocene volcanic ash of the Roccamonfina volcano (southern Italy). Until recently, the age of these footprints remained speculative and indirectly correlated with a loosely dated caldera-forming eruption that produced the Brown Leucitic Tuff. Despite extensive hydrothermal alteration of the pyroclastic deposit and variable contamination with excess 40Ar, detailed and selective 40Ar/ 39Ar laser probe analysis of single leucite crystals recovered from the ash deposit shows that the pyroclastic layer and the footprints are 345 ± 6 kyr old (1 σ), confirming for the first time that these are the oldest human trackways ever dated, and that they were presumably left by the modern human predecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, close to Climatic Termination IV.

  16. Spins and parities of low-lying states in 81Kr from the 80Kr(d vector,p)81Kr reaction and implications for a 81Br solar neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of 81Kr has been investigated via the 80Kr(d vector,p)81Kr reaction using an 11.0 MeV vector-polarized deuteron beam. Differential cross sections sigma and vector analyzing powers Asub(y) have been measured from 200 to 900 for 17 excited states below 3.0 MeV excitation energy. Comparisons of these distributions to DWBA calculations and empirical shapes were made to extract spectroscopic factors and values of spin and parity for these states. The significance of these measurements to the design of a bromine solar neutrino detector is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring hydraulic conductivity with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR31 and OL-KR32, in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2004 Posiva began to construct an underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The construction of ONKALO and the subsequent construction of the repository of high-level spent nuclear fuel will affect the surrounding rock mass, the groundwater flow system and the environment in general. In December 2003 a programme to monitor these effects during the construction and operation of ONKALO was presented (Posiva 2003). The programme consists of different types of monitoring by different disciplines. HTU (Hydraulic Testing Unit) measurements are a part of the hydrogeological monitoring programme that includes measurements of hydraulic conductivity with HTU in drillholes adjacent to ONKALO. Measurements performed before and in the early stages of the excavation of ONKALO provide a baseline to which later results can be compared. The HTU monitoring measurement program was first completed in 2005 and then repeated in 2006 and in 2007 in drillholes OL-KR8, OL-KR28 and OL-KR31. Of these OL-KR31, including its extension, was measured in 2008 and OL-KR32 was added to the program as a new hole. These same holes were measured also in 2010. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with 2 m packer separation and a nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 15 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity was below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise 5 min before injection, occasionally longer or shorter. Also, the injection and fall-off were extended when necessary to obtain a stationary state. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. In 2010 a total of 237 tests were accomplished covering altogether 475.24 m of drillhole in these two holes. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is

  18. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L1-, L2,3-, M1-, M2,3- and M4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe7+, Xe8+, Xe9+ and Xe10+ ions, and the charged X8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L1- shell ionization is found to be Xe8+, Xe9+ ions, while the charged Xe8+ ions predominate at L2,3 hole states. The charged Xe6+, Xe7+ and Xe8+ ions mainly yield from 3s1/2 and 3p1/2,3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d3/2,5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe4+ and Xe5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

  19. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L1, L2,3, M1, M2,3 and M4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe7+, Xe8+, Xe9+ and Xe10+ ions, and the charged X8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L1 shell ionization is found to be Xe8+, Xe9+ ions, while the charged Xe8+ ions predominate at L2,3 hole states. The charged Xe6+, Xe7+ and Xe8+ ions mainly yield from 3s1/2 and 3p1/2,3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d3/2,5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe4+ and Xe5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  20. The smallest degree sum that yields potentially Kr,r-graphic sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YlN; Jianhua(尹建华); LI; Jiongsheng(李炯生)

    2002-01-01

    We consider a variation of a classical Turán-type extremal problem as follows: Determine the smallest even integer σ(Kr,r, n) such that every n-term graphic sequence π = (d1, d2,..., dn) with term sum σ(π) = d1 + d2 +…+ dn ≥σ(Kr,r, n) is potentially Kr,r-graphic, where Kr,r is an r × r complete bipartite graph, i.e. πr has a realization G containing Kr,r as its subgraph. In this paper, the values σ(Kr,r,n) for even r and n ≥ 4r2 - r - 6 and for odd r and n ≥ 4r2 + 3r - 8 are determined.

  1. The Viscosities of Dilute Kr, Xe, and CO_2 Revisited: New Experimental Reference Data at Temperatures from 295 K to 690 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eckhard

    2016-06-01

    Previously reported, but also unpublished experimental data of our group for the viscosities of dilute krypton, xenon, and carbon dioxide, obtained in the range from 295 K to a maximum of 690 K using oscillating-disk viscometers, were re-evaluated and corrected or extrapolated to the limit of zero density (η _0). The combined standard uncertainty of the data is 0.1 % at room temperature and 0.2 % at higher temperatures. For krypton and carbon dioxide, our η _0 data were compared with η _0 values theoretically calculated using the kinetic theory and highly accurate ab initio potentials for the krypton atom pair and the CO_2 molecule pair, but also with recent experimental η _0 data from the literature. Our data for krypton differ up to 690 K from the theoretical values by -0.10 % to +0.28 %, whereas that of Lin et al. (Fluid Phase Equilib. 418:198, 2016) show deviations of +(0.04 to 0.20) % at temperatures from 243 K to 393 K, in each case proving that experiment and theory are in consistent agreement. The re-evaluated η _0 data for xenon were compared with recent data from the literature and with calculated values resulting from the HFD-B potential for xenon via the corresponding-states principle to verify that they are reference values. For carbon dioxide, η _0 values obtained from 26 re-evaluated isotherms and from eight isotherms of Schäfer et al. (J Chem Thermodyn 89:7, 2015) between 253 K and 473 K are mutually consistent with ab initio calculated and subsequently scaled viscosity values of Hellmann (Chem Phys Lett 613:633, 2014). The isotherms of Schäfer et al. are especially suitable for determining the initial density dependence of the viscosity. Concomitantly inferred reduced second viscosity virial coefficients were checked against two theoretical approaches of the Rainwater-Friend theory.

  2. Empirical model for calculating vapor-liquid equilibrium and associated phase enthalpy for the CO2--O2--Kr--Xe system for application to the KALC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibria and enthalpy for the CO2-O2 system. In the model, krypton and xenon in very low concentrations are combined with the CO2-O2 system, thereby representing the total system of primary interest in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor program for removing krypton from off-gas generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel. Selected properties of the individual and combined components being considered are presented in the form of tables and empirical equations

  3. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler <= 125.000 DKK), der af haft som sit formål at afprøve et unikt samarbejde omkring udforskningen af nye teknikker til augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  4. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  5. Ars Industrialis, arsindustrialis.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Mingant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The arsindustrialis.org website was created in 2005, when the association Ars Industrialis came into being. The association was founded by a group of philosophers and jurists, on the initiative of philosopher Bernard Stiegler, the former director of the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique–Institute of Research and Coordination on Acoustic/Music and the current director of the Department of cultural development at the Centre Georges Pompidou (French National Arts C...

  6. High-spin structure of yrast-band in 78Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Joshi; R Palit; H C Jain; S Nagaraj; J A Sheikh

    2001-07-01

    Lifetime of levels up to 22+, have been measured in 78Kr and an oblate shape is assigned to the ground state using the CSM and the configuration dependent shell correction calculations. Calculations further show that 78Kr is highly -soft nucleus. The experimental t values coupled with theoretical calculations indicate an oblate shape for 78Kr at low spins and triaxial shape at higher spins

  7. Misuses of KR-20 and Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Şeref; Uludağ Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2010-01-01

    In this study, misuses of KR-20 and Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients, used as internal consistency estimates, are illustrated. Two real data sets were used, dichotomously scored, KR-20, data set and polytomously scored, alpha, data set, to see variations in internal consistency coefficients when the unidimensionality assumption is violated. It is shown that a very high, but misleading internal consistency coefficient, KR-20 or alpha, can be obtained even when the unidimensionality as...

  8. Kartulisortide pikaaegne säilitamine krüomeetodil / Jaanika Edesi, Viive Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edesi, Jaanika

    2014-01-01

    Taimmaterjali krüosäilitus on hetkel uusim ja perspektiivikaim säilitusmeetod. Krüosäilituse all mõistetakse bioloogilise materjali säilitamist väga madalal temperatuuril elu- ja taastumisvõimelisena. Krüosäilitus toimub tavaliselt vedelas lämmastikus (-196 °C) või selle gaasilises faasis alla -150 °C kraadi.

  9. arXiv.org and Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The website arXiv.org (pronounced "archive") is a free online resource for full-text articles in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, nonlinear science, and quantitative biology that has existed for about 15 years. Available directly at http://www.arXiv.org, this e-print archive is searchable. As of Jan. 3, 2007, arXiv had open…

  10. Mass Measurement on the rp-Process Waiting Point 72Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Audi, G; Äystö, J; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Jokinen, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Oinonen, M; Schatz, H; Sauvan, E; Schwarz, S

    2004-01-01

    The mass of one of the three major waiting points in the astrophysical rp-process 72Kr was measured for the first time with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of delta m/m = 1.2x10-7 (delta m=8keV). Other Kr isotopes, also needed for astrophysical calculations, were measured with more than one order of magnitude improved accuracy. We use the ISOLTRAP masses of 72-74Kr to reanalyse the role of the 72Kr waiting point in the rp-process during X-ray bursts.

  11. Kršćanska i /ili univerzalna etika. Analitički osvrt

    OpenAIRE

    GOSIĆ, Nada

    2004-01-01

    Članak je pisan sa svrhom upoznavanja čitatelja s temeljenim sadržajem Zbornika nastalog na znanstvenom simpoziju Kršćanska i/ili univerzalna etika. Misli i ideje autora iznesene u Zborniku doprinose vrijednosnom određenju kršćanske etike, mjestu kršćanske etike u univerzalnoj etici te razumijevanju nekih konkretnih pitanja životne stvarnosti u kojima kršćanska etika zauzima vrlo važno mjesto. U uvodnom dijelu članka čitatelji se upoznaju s podacima o skupu na kojem su radovi izlagani, uredni...

  12. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr ...

  13. Krčenje s polipropilenskimi vlakni mikroarmiranega betona visoke trdnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Zajec, Matija

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu obravnavamo analizo krčenja betona visoke trdnosti, ki je mikroarmiran s polipropilenskimi vlakni. Uporabili smo štiri različne dolžine polipropilenskih vlaken, in sicer dolžine 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm in 30 mm. Delež vlaken je pri vsaki betonski mešanici 0.5 % njene prostornine. Pri betonih visoke trdnosti je v prvih dneh po betoniranju zelo intenzivno avtogeno krčenje, zato smo prvi dan merili avtogeno krčenje elektronsko, s pomočjo merilnih uric. V nadaljevanju smo krčenje mer...

  14. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of stable and radioactive isotopes is essential as a complement to geochemistry and geohydraulic investigations on groundwater regimes and their genesis. This is widely acknowledged also for the determination of the specific activity of 85Kr in groundwater. The geochemical inertness and well-defined input function of 85Kr allow estimates of groundwater age and enhance characterization of groundwater flow and components in many aquifer systems. A new site for measurement of the 85Kr specific activity has been established at the Institute of Applied Physics at the Freiberg University, Saxony. Under normal conditions ca. 80 μl krypton are dissolved in 1 m3 of water in contact with air. Therefore gas extraction has to be most effectively. A modified CO2 extractor of 45 cm x 10 cm was chosen. The water is continuously pumped under pressure (3 - 4 bar) passing a Venturi-type nozzle, which simultaneously operates as a water-jet pump. The extracted gas flows through a CO2 trap (NaOH 10 %), a H2O cold trap, through molecular sieves (5, 3 A) and a charcoal column, cooled by liquid nitrogen, where krypton, nitrogene and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases re-enter the extractor at the Venturi-type nozzle. A small membrane pump supports the circulation. Due to the special design of the water outlet, contamination of the sample is avoided. Optional a compact stove heats the water to improve the extraction efficiency. If pressure supply is high enough, additional extractors can be run simultaneously. In a test run the recovery for radon was around 65 to 70 %. Further preparation steps of the raw krypton sample is performed in the laboratory. To obtain a good first enrichment a tube furnace filled with chrome powder is used to separate nitrogen and oxygen from the sample at 900 deg C. The following enrichment steps are performed by a preparation setup developed at GSF-Institute for Hydrology, Neuherberg. (author)

  15. The Status of Kamland-Zen for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 136Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Junpei

    2015-03-01

    KamLAND-Zen is a unique 0νββ decay experiment for 136Xe by utilizing a large volume liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. In this report the analysis results of the collected data corresponding to 89.5kg yr exposure of 136Xe, the current efforts for background reduction and the future plan are given.

  16. Microscopic study of low-lying collectivebands in 77Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K C Tripathy; R Sahu; S Mishra

    2006-02-01

    The structure of the collective bands in 77Kr is investigated within our deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. The different levels are classified into collective bands on the basis of their (2) values. The calculated = 5/2+ ground band agrees reasonably well with the experiment. An attempt has been made to study the structure of the 3-quasiparticle band based on large state in this nucleus. The calculated collective bands, the (2), and (1) values are compared with available experimental data. The nature of alignments in the low-lying bands is also analyzed.

  17. KrCl lasers for fusion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lasing characteristics of the Krypton Chloride excimer have been investigated in an e-beam laser facility. The results of experiments have been compared with the predictions of a comprehensive numerical kinetics model. The model predicts that the formation efficiency for KrCl* should be quite high (approx. = 20%) and these predictions appear to be borne out by experimental gain measurements. However, observed intrinsic laser efficiencies are poor, about 1 percent being the best observed in this program. We conclude that the poor lasing performance results from an adverse gain to loss ratio and an extreme sensitivity to optics losses because of the low characteristics magnitude of the gain

  18. Design of pretreatment unit for Kr-85 recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pretreatment process to remove the undesirable gases such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen oxides in the Kr-85 catch process has been installed on a bench scale. The pretreatment process consists of six sub-unit.: (1) Platinum converter for oxydation of hydrocarbon, (2) Palladium converter for reduction of oxygen and nitrogen oxides, (3) Copper converter for removal of oxygen unreduced, (4) Caustic scrubber for absorption of carbon dioxide, (5) Acid scrubber for absorption of ammonia, and (6) A pair of molecular sieve drier for removal of water. (auth.)

  19. Internal conversion in highly stripped 83Kr ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L-conversion coefficients of the 9.4 keV transition between the first excited state of Jπ = 7/2+ and the 9/2+ ground state of 83Kr have been measured in ions of ionicity q from 28 to 33. These coefficients are sensitive to changes in L-shell wave functions as electrons are successively removed. Preliminary results are αL(q) = 14.7(10), 14.8(10), 14.1(8), 14.7(10), 15.1(22) and 19.4(80) for q=28, 29, 30, 31,32 and 33 respectively. 2 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs. (author)

  20. Internal conversion in highly stripped 83Kr ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total decay probabilities per unit time of the first excited 9.4-keV state in 83Kr have been measured in ions of ionicity q from 28 to 32. Using a γ-decay probability per unit time of 0.255(2)x106 s-1 gives internal conversion coefficients of 14.6(11), 14.9(10), 14.1(9), 14.6(11), and 15.2(24) for q=28--32, respectively. These values are compared with theoretical predictions

  1. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m3 and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm3 in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD value of

  2. Kršćanski caritas i socijalna politika

    OpenAIRE

    Dugalić, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Polazeći od teološkog promišljanja dr. Vilka Anderlića (1882.-1957.), đakovačkog profesora i pisca prve katoličke sociologije na hrvatskom jeziku, članak želi ukazati na suvremenu društveno-socijalnu problematiku i doprinos kršćanske dobrotvornosti u rješavanju socijalnih problema. U prvom dijelu rada, polazeći od nastanka korporativnoga uređenja države tijekom prve polovice 20. stoljeća te na temelju analize djela dr. Anderlića, ukazuje se na razlikovanje karitativnog djelovanja od ...

  3. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm{sup 3} in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD

  4. Ultrasensitive resonance ionization mass spectrometer for evaluating krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasensitive resonance ionization mass spectrometer that can be applied to evaluate krypton (Kr) contamination in xenon (Xe) dark matter detectors has been developed for measuring Kr at the parts-per-trillion (ppt) or sub-ppt level in Xe. The gas sample is introduced without any condensation into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer through a pulsed supersonic valve. Using a nanosecond pulsed laser at 212.6 nm, 84Kr atoms in the sample are resonantly ionized along with other Kr isotopes. 84Kr ions are then mass separated and detected by the mass spectrometer in order to measure the Kr impurity concentration. With our current setup, approximately 0.4 ppt of Kr impurities contained in pure argon (Ar) gas are detectable with a measurement time of 1000 s. Although Kr detection sensitivity in Xe is expected to be approximately half of that in Ar, our spectrometer can evaluate Kr contamination in Xe to the sub-ppt level

  5. Optical hyperpolarization and NMR detection of $^{129}$Xe on a microfluidic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Rosenbluh, Michael; Donley, Elizabeth A; Knappe, Svenja; Seltzer, Scott J; Ring, Hattie L; Bajaj, Vikram S; Kitching, John

    2014-01-01

    Optically hyperpolarized $^{129}$Xe gas has become a powerful contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging, with applications ranging from studies of the human lung to the targeted detection of biomolecules. Equally attractive is its potential use to enhance the sensitivity of microfluidic NMR experiments, in which small sample volumes yield poor sensitivity. Unfortunately, most $^{129}$Xe polarization systems are large and non-portable. Here we present a microfabricated chip that optically polarizes $^{129}$Xe gas. We have achieved $^{129}$Xe polarizations greater than 0.5$\\%$ at flow rates of several microliters per second, compatible with typical microfluidic applications. We employ in situ optical magnetometry to sensitively detect and characterize the $^{129}$Xe polarization at magnetic fields of 1 $\\mu$T. We construct the device using standard microfabrication techniques, which will facilitate its integration with existing microfluidic platforms. This device may enable the...

  6. Variable energy positron beam study of Xe-implanted uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-line combined with a slow positron beam was used to measure the momentum density distribution of annihilating pair in a set of sintered UO2 samples. The influence of surface polishing, of implantation with 800-keV 136Xe2+ at fluences of 1 × 1015 and 1 × 1016 Xe cm−2, and of annealing were studied by following the changes of the momentum distribution shape by means of S and W parameters. The program used for this purpose was VEPFIT. At the two fluences in the stoichiometric as-implanted UO2, formation of Xe bubbles was not detected. The post-implantation annealing and over-stoichiometry in the as-implanted sample caused Xe precipitation and formation of Xe bubbles.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe using a membrane-based continuous flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, N.; Zänker, P. P.; Blümler, P.; Meise, F. M.; Schreiber, L. M.; Scholz, A.; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Spiess, H. W.; Münnemann, K.

    2009-11-01

    A technique for continuous production of solutions containing hyperpolarized 129Xe is explored for MRI applications. The method is based on hollow fiber membranes which inhibit the formation of foams and bubbles. A systematic analysis of various carrier agents for hyperpolarized 129Xe has been carried out, which are applicable as contrast agents for in vivo MRI. The image quality of different hyperpolarized Xe solutions is compared and MRI results obtained in a clinical as well as in a nonclinical MRI setting are provided. Moreover, we demonstrate the application of 129Xe contrast agents produced with our dissolution method for lung MRI by imaging hyperpolarized 129Xe that has been both dissolved in and outgassed from a carrier liquid in a lung phantom, illustrating its potential for the measurement of lung perfusion and ventilation.

  8. Variable energy positron beam study of Xe-implanted uranium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djourelov, Nikolay, E-mail: nikdjour@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Marchand, Benoit [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69 456 Lyon (France); Marinov, Hristo [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Moncoffre, Nathalie [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pipon, Yves [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 94 Bd. Niels Bohr, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nedelec, Patrick [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toulhoat, Nelly [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Batiment Paul Dirac 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Sillou, Daniel [LMOPS, University of Savoie, Batiment IUT, 73376 Le Bourget-du-lac Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma-line combined with a slow positron beam was used to measure the momentum density distribution of annihilating pair in a set of sintered UO{sub 2} samples. The influence of surface polishing, of implantation with 800-keV {sup 136}Xe{sup 2+} at fluences of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} Xe cm{sup -2}, and of annealing were studied by following the changes of the momentum distribution shape by means of S and W parameters. The program used for this purpose was VEPFIT. At the two fluences in the stoichiometric as-implanted UO{sub 2}, formation of Xe bubbles was not detected. The post-implantation annealing and over-stoichiometry in the as-implanted sample caused Xe precipitation and formation of Xe bubbles.

  9. Complementary single photon emission computed tomography of the brain: Xe-133 and iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xe-133 and I-123 iodoamphetamin (IMP) emission computed tomography studies of 32 patients with neurologic (n = 7) or psychiatric (n = 25) diagnoses were used to determine whether the modalities yield complementary diagnostic information. The images, interpreted by two observers, differed in 15 (47%) cases. In schizophrenic patients, 11(61%) abnormalities were identified by Xe-133 imaging and 15(83%) by IMP. The abnormalities involved principally the frontal lobes and were identified in eight (73%) cases by Xe-133 imaging and in ten (67%) cases by IMP. In all four patients with arteriovenous malformations the imaging results were abnormal: Xe-133 showed increased flow while IMP revealed localized decreased activity in one patient. Imaging patterns for seizures, depression and psychoses also differed. Thus, Xe-133 and IMP appear complementary in their portrayal of brain function

  10. Programming A Molecular Relay for Ultrasensitive Biodetection through 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfei [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Roose, Benjamin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Philbin, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Doman, Jordan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Dmochowski, Ivan J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA

    2015-12-21

    We reported a supramolecular strategy for detecting specific proteins in complex media by using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. A cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])-based molecular relay was programmed for three sequential equilibrium conditions by designing a two-faced guest (TFG) that initially binds CB[6] and blocks the CB[6]–Xe interaction. Moreover, the protein analyte recruits the TFG and frees CB[6] for Xe binding. TFGs containing CB[6]- and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-binding domains were synthesized in one or two steps. X-ray crystallography confirmed TFG binding to Zn2+ in the deep CAII active-site cleft, which precludes simultaneous CB[6] binding. The molecular relay was reprogrammed to detect avidin by using a different TFG. Finally, Xe binding by CB[6] was detected in buffer and in E. coli cultures expressing CAII through ultrasensitive 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

  11. 3D MRI of impaired hyperpolarized 129Xe uptake in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Virgincar, Rohan S; Qi, Yi; Robertson, Scott H; Degan, Simone; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2014-12-01

    A variety of pulmonary pathologies, in particular interstitial lung diseases, are characterized by thickening of the pulmonary blood-gas barrier, and this thickening results in reduced gas exchange. Such diffusive impairment is challenging to quantify spatially, because the distributions of the metabolically relevant gases (CO2 and O2) cannot be detected directly within the lungs. Hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe is a promising surrogate for these metabolic gases, because MR spectroscopy and imaging allow gaseous alveolar (129)Xe to be detected separately from (129)Xe dissolved in the red blood cells (RBCs) and the adjacent tissues, which comprise blood plasma and lung interstitium. Because (129)Xe reaches the RBCs by diffusing across the same barrier tissues (blood plasma and interstitium) as O2, barrier thickening will delay (129)Xe transit and, thus, reduce RBC-specific (129)Xe MR signal. Here we have exploited these properties to generate 3D, MR images of (129)Xe uptake by the RBCs in two groups of rats. In the experimental group, unilateral fibrotic injury was generated prior to imaging by instilling bleomycin into one lung. In the control group, a unilateral sham instillation of saline was performed. Uptake of (129)Xe by the RBCs, quantified as the fraction of RBC signal relative to total dissolved (129)Xe signal, was significantly reduced (P = 0.03) in the injured lungs of bleomycin-treated animals. In contrast, no significant difference (P = 0.56) was observed between the saline-treated and untreated lungs of control animals. Together, these results indicate that 3D MRI of HP (129)Xe dissolved in the pulmonary tissues can provide useful biomarkers of impaired diffusive gas exchange resulting from fibrotic thickening. PMID:24816478

  12. Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI)

  13. Contribution to scintigraphic study of pulmonary ventilation using 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of regional lung function study, using 133Xe, is described (instrumentation, procedure, results). A gamma-camera is used for this investigation, its main advantages are as follows. The picture is smaller than the one produced by a scanner, but is obtained more quickly. The gamma-camera equipped with a data processing unit is able to visualize areas of interest and to provide quantitative informations. Two parameters are studied. The first one is Xenon washout speed expressed in (ml/mn/cm3) which gives an exact value of pulmonary ventilation. The latter is retention. This parameter is of interest because retention is more easy to evaluate than washout speed, and is able to quantify what is suggested by scintigraphic pictures. The technique has proven to be valuable in differentiating chronic bronchitis from post-bronchitic emphysema

  14. Gotthard results on 136Xe double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gotthard ββ detector is a 180 l TPC filled enriched 136Xe at 5 bar. It has taken data for 6000 hours of live time since a major upgrade that reduced the background noise of a large factor compared to the previous data. Analysis of αα and βα coincidences provides an estimation of the gas radio-purity at the 10-12 g/g level. The 90 % c.l. limit on ββν is Τ1/20ν > 4.4 x 1023 yr, corresponding to mνe 1/2χ0 > 1.4 x 1022 yr, or (gνχ0) > 1.5 x 10-4. (author)

  15. Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Nanao, Tsubasa; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Uchida, Makoto; Asahi, Koichiro

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

  16. Magnetic Field Stabilization for 129Xe EDM Search Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic field stabilization is a crucial condition parameter for many kinds of ultra-high precision measurements such as a search for an electric dipole moment (EDM). The instability of magnetic field strength often arises from the drift of current flow in a solenoid coil to generate the magnetic field. For our EDM search experiment with maser oscillating diamagnetic 129Xe atoms, we have developed a new stabilized current source based on a feedback system which is devised to correct the amount of current flow measured precisely with high-precision digital multimeter and standard resistor. Using this new current source, we have successfully reduced the drifts of coil current by at least a factor of 100 compared to commercially available current sources.

  17. The neutron cross-sections of Xe135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the total and absorption cross-sections of Xe135 reviewed briefly. The low-energy cross-section is very large and dominated by a single resonance at 0.084 eV; the spin state for this level is not known, this being one of the major uncertainties in the data. The resonance parameters given in the literature were found to give a good fit to the total cross-section but failed to reproduce the preferred 2200 m/sec. value of σγ. A new set of parameters was therefore deduced, by a least-squares analysis, which gave this preferred value of σγ and fitted the shape of the total cross section curve. To obtain this fit it was necessary to re-normalise the curve of σT by 4%. The new parameters are listed, and a discussion of the probable accuracy of the data is included. (author)

  18. Ars Memorativa, Ars Oblivionis in Middle English Religious Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Estella Antoaneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multi-layered violence of religious representation in the late medieval York biblical plays, with a focus on the Supper at Emmaus. I read Emmaus (Y40, a play which commemorates the Crucifixion and openly encourages strong anti-Judaism, alongside scenes in an early predecessor pageant, The Crucifixion (Y35, within their contemporary devotional and mnemonic practices, i.e. the confessional Book of Margery Kempe and Thomas Bradwardine’s tract on ars memorativa. Emmaus in particular demonstrates how a fundamentally violent ars memorativa, the legacy of ancient rhetoric to the Middle Ages, also underpins the instruction of the laity in the basics of Christian faith, here with the aid of highly musical prosody and repetition, and thereby hones a biased, intolerant and violence-inured Christian collective memory. To study the York play’s position relative to late medieval mnemonic practices, I frame my analysis within memory studies, enriched with the more specific insights offered by social-psychological, neurobiological and cognitivist studies of memory.

  19. Internal conversion in highly-stripped {sup 83}Kr ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), {lambda}IC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of {lambda}IC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine {lambda}IC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in {sup 57}Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in {sup 83}Kr. A beam of {sup 83}Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane.

  20. Internal conversion in highly-stripped 83Kr ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), λIC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of λIC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine λIC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in 57Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in 83Kr. A beam of 83Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 μg cm-2. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane

  1. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  2. The efficiency of coaxial KrCl* excilamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaobo; Han, Qiuyi; Zhang, Haojun; Feng, Xiangfen; Roth, Markus; Rosier, Oliver; Zhu, Shaolong; Zhang, Shanduan

    2010-05-01

    The spectrum, input power and 222 nm radiant efficiency were measured for coaxial KrCl* excilamps based on a dielectric barrier discharge. The inner tubes of the lamps have an inner/outer diameter (ID/OD) of 14/16 mm. The OD of the outer tubes is 40 mm with wall thicknesses of 1.2, 1.5 or 2.0 mm. The lamps were driven by sinusoidal, rectangular and pulsed electronic control gears (ECGs). The 222 nm radiant power is derived from irradiance, according to the Keitz formula. The input electric power is measured with an oscilloscope, combined with a voltage probe and a current probe. The results show that the maximum efficiency of the 222 nm radiation is 9.2% for a KrCl* excilamp with a wall thickness of 1.2 mm, filled with krypton (198 mbar) and chlorine (2 mbar), driven by a pulsed ECG. The effects of waveform, frequency, wall temperature and transmittance of the tube are discussed. We observe that the filament configuration of the micro-discharges changes for different voltage waveforms. The results of gas composition and pressure show an optimum pressure at 200 mbar and an optimum chlorine percentage around 0.4-1.0%.

  3. Characterization of lead nanoparticles formed by Shewanella sp. KR-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Yen, Jui-Hung, E-mail: sonny@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2016-01-15

    The bacterial strain KR-12 was isolated from river sediment in northeast Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that it belongs to the genus Shewanella. The strain can accumulate lead (Pb) and form Pb nanoparticles (PbNPs) on exposure to Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and sodium formate in HEPES buffer. On transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KR-12-formed PbNPs were spherical in shape and ranged from 3 to 8 nm. The PbNPs formed a line or curved pattern on bacteria. In addition, one or more pilus-like structures elongated from the bacteria. In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and other bacteria could not form PbNPs pattern or pilus-like structure under the same conditions. High-resolution TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that these PbNPs primarily contained Pb and had an amorphous structure. This is the first report of the biosynthesis of PbNPs by a Shewanella species.

  4. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Borehole gamma-ray spectrum logging in borehole OL-KR1 and OL-KR27 at Olkiluoto, in Eurajoki, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julkunen, A.; Kallio, L. [Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of the detailed borehole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out borehole spectrometer logging in KR1 and KR27 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during autumn 2005. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results (orig.)

  6. Borehole gamma-ray spectrum logging in borehole OL-KR1 and OL-KR27 at Olkiluoto, in Eurajoki, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the detailed borehole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out borehole spectrometer logging in KR1 and KR27 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during autumn 2005. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results (orig.)

  7. Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described

  8. Evaluering af "Organisering og Samspilsrelationer" Aalborg Kommunes projekt om Kræftrehabilitering

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Byg, Vibeke; Seemann, Janne

    2009-01-01

    Rapporten evaluerer et forsøg på tidlig indsats i kræftrehabilitering og vurderer de organisatoriske og ledelsesmæssige forhold i forsøget som involverer et samarbejde mellem kommune, Aalborg Sygehus og Kræftens Bekæmpelse

  9. Description of the shape coexistence in neutron-deficient 74,76Kr with IBM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DaLi; Mu, ChengFu

    2016-08-01

    The shape deformation and shape coexistence in 74,76Kr isotopes are investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM2). By considering the relative energy of the d proton boson to be different from that of the neutron boson, the low-lying energy spectrum is in good agreement with experimental results both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the low-lying 0 2 + states associated with the shape-coexistence phenomenon are reproduced quite well. The calculated key sensitive quantities of B(E2) transition branch ratios are fairly consistent with the experimental data except for R 4. The predicated deformation parameter is very similar for the ground states in 74Kr and 76Kr, showing good agreement with the experimental result, and the calculated deformation parameter for the second 0+ state in 74Kr is close to the experimental data. The calculated results of the triaxiality parameter indicated an almost purely prolate shape for the ground state of 76Kr and a mostly prolate shape with a little triaxiality for the ground state of 74Kr. The calculations also show an oblate triaxial shape for the second 0+ state in 76Kr and maximum triaxiality for the second 0+ state in 74Kr. These results confirm the importance of the triaxial deformation for the description of such shape coexistence.

  10. High-repetition-rate closed-cycle rare gas electrical discharge laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently developed technology of high-pressure molecular lasers has been combined with ultrahigh-vacuum technology to develop a fast-flow high-pressure laser system capable of long-duration closed-cycle operation with rare gases. The system's economy, reliability, and capability for long-time operation at a high repetition rate make it suitable for avionics, space, and isotope separation applications. High-repetition-rate laser performance has been demonstrated in He--Xe, Ne--Xe, Ar--Xe, and Kr--Xe. Experimental results for high-pressure He--Xe mixtures are given

  11. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting; Desarrollo del metodo de concentracion y se paracion criogenica cromatografica y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.; Grau, A.

    1983-07-01

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  12. Post-collision interaction effects following 4p-shell ionization of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield spectra of multiply charged ions in coincidence with threshold electrons (Ekin≤0.03 eV) have been measured near the 4p-shell ionization region of Xe. The coincidence spectra of Xe3+ and Xe4+ ions as a function of photon energy exhibit characteristic profiles induced by post-collision interactions in Auger cascades following 4p-shell threshold ionization of Xe. Peaks of the profiles shift from the nominal 4p-shell threshold, and those shapes are asymmetric and broadened. The profiles have the same peak-shifts and the same peak-widths in both Xe3+ and Xe4+ coincidence spectra. Based on the properties of the profiles, it is concluded that both of these ions result from two-step Auger cascades. Furthermore, it is found that Auger shake-off (i.e. double Auger) decays play a significant role in the cascades following 4p-shell ionization of Xe. (author)

  13. Ars discendi, ars docendi : programme Pascal

    OpenAIRE

    Goyet, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Le latin de l’intitulé, c’est pour le plaisir, mais on peut lui donner quelques autres justifications. Ars évoque tout à la fois le savoir‑faire, le talent, la compétence professionnelle, le goût de la solution élégante. La parataxe permet le va-et-vient entre le thème et le prédicat (sujet et attribut). On interprétera au choix : savoir étudier, c’est savoir enseigner. Ou : pour apprendre, il faut enseigner ; ou : l’enseignement consiste en étude ; et d’autres variations communes sur une vér...

  14. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Late Cretaceous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the wider European GTS Next project, I propose new constraints on the ages of the Late Cretaceous, derived from a multitude of geochronological techniques, and successful stratigraphic interpretations from Canada and Japan. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, we propose a new constraint on the age of the K/Pg boundary in the Red Deer River section (Alberta, Canada). We were able to cyclo-stratigraphically tune sediments in a non-marine, fluvial environment utilising high-resolution proxy records suggesting a 11-12 precession related cyclicity. Assuming the 40Ar/39Ar method is inter-calibrated with the cyclo-stratigraphy, the apparent age for C29r suggests that the K/Pg boundary falls between eccentricity maxima and minima, yielding an age of the C29r between 65.89 ± 0.08 and 66.30 ± 0.08 Ma. Assuming that the bundle containing the coal horizon represents a precession cycle, the K/Pg boundary is within the analytical uncertainty of the youngest zircon population achieving a revised age for the K/Pg boundary as 65.75 ± 0.06 Ma. The Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary is preserved in the sedimentary succession of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and has been placed 8 m below Coal nr. 10. Cyclo-stratigraphic studies show that the formation of these depositional sequences (alternations) of all scales are influenced directly by sea-level changes due to precession but more dominated by eccentricity cycles proved in the cyclo-stratigraphic framework and is mainly controlled by sand horizons, which have been related by auto-cyclicity in a dynamic sedimentary setting. Our work shows that the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin coincides with 2.5 eccentricity cycles above the youngest zircon age population at the bottom of the section and 4.9 Myr before the Cretaceous - Palaeogene boundary (K/Pg), and thus corresponds to an absolute age of 70.65 ± 0.09 Ma producing an 1.4 Myr younger age than recent published ages

  15. Comparison of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT with 133Xe dynamic SPECT in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to compare axial images of 99mTc-Technegas SPECT (Technegas) with those of 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT in patients with pulmonary emphysema. There were 20 patients, 19 males and 1 female. All patients except one ex-smoker were heavy smokers with a mean age of 68.1 years. For Technegas scintigraphy, the patients inhaled 505 MBq 99mTc-Technegas in several tidal volume breaths in the supine position without breath holding. For 133Xe gas scintigraphy, the patients inhaled 370 MBq 133Xe gas. 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT was performed in the equilibrium phase for the last minute of the 3 minute inhalation in a closed circuit, and in the washout phase for 6 minutes of inhalation in a semi-closed circuit, by means of a gamma camera with dual detectors (Picker model Prism 2000). Abnormal findings included heterogeneity, defects and hot spots on Technegas images and on retention images taken 3 minutes after 133Xe gas washout. In 2 of 20 patients, the degree of abnormal findings on Technegas images depended on the area of 133Xe gas retention in the washout phase. In 3 patients, the degrees of abnormal findings on both Technegas SPECT and 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT images were equivalent. In the remaining 15 patients, more detailed findings and a greater area were shown by Technegas SPECT than 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT. We conclude that in patients with pulmonary emphysema Technegas SPECT can demonstrate ventilation impairment more easily than 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT. (author)

  16. A Comparison Between the Irradiation Damage Response of Spinel and Zirconia Due to Xe Ion Bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe(2+) ion irradiation at cryogenic temperature (120K), the Young's modulus of irradiated spinel increases slightly (a few percent) then falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the unirradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe(2+) doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behaves differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe(2+) ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The defected layer in zirconia due to ion damage simply thickens with increasing Xe(2+) dose. This thickening may be a consequence of compressive stresses that form in the ion- implanted surface region. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe(2+) ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is probably due to point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe(2+) ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase

  17. Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, T; Sabourov, A; Varentsov, V L; Gratta, G; Sinclair, D

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

  18. Imaging of regional pulmonary ventilation patterns using nonradioactive Xe-enhanced CT and its clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic changes in regional pulmonary ventilation patterns (RPVP) were examined in 22 patients with pulmonary interstitial disorders using CT after Xe inhalation. There was a definite difference in regional Xe washout curves among patients. For the same patient, washout curves differed in the normal and diseased lungs. Xe-enhanced CT was useful in evaluating the effect of pulmonary blood flow on RPVP, as well as RPVP changes resulting from ventilation disturbance due to interstitial disorder and lung congestion. It also allowed the evaluation for early effects of cardiac disease-related blood circulation on the lungs. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Simulations of Xe-129 NMR chemical shift of atomic xenon dissolved in liquid benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, P.; Marek, R.; Horníček, Jan; Bouř, Petr; Straka, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, 3/5 (2011), s. 677-684. ISSN 1432-881X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200550902; European Reintegration Grant(XE) 230955; European Community(XE) 205872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Xe-129 NMR chemical shift * dynamical averaging * density functional theory * Breit-Pauli perturbation theory * relativistic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2011

  20. Investigations of the 147 nm radiative efficiency of Xe surface wave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative efficiency of the 147 nm resonance radiation of Xe excited in a low pressure, high-frequency surface wave sustained plasma has been investigated. The radiative UV power has been obtained from optical absorption spectroscopic measurements of the Xe resonance level population and from Monte Carlo calculations of the effective decay rate of this level. Precise measurements of the rf power absorbed by the plasma enable the determination of the absolute vacuum ultraviolet discharge efficiency for the Xe surface wave discharge. Results show efficiencies up to more than 80(±11)% . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Xe-133 recuperation by adsorption in active carbon impregnated with PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Mo-99 Fission Project has the aim to produce Xe-133 from gases generated in the alkaline dissolution of Al-U plates irradiated with thermal neutrons and, considering the importance of this radioisotope from the nuclear medicine point of view, studies to improve and optimize the Xe-133 recuperation were continued. Experiences were made on 'static' equilibrium employing high purity xenon and for the 'dynamic' case, Xe-133 mixed with a carrier and nitrogen as gas carrier; in this case, a 44% and a 34% increase in the capacity of xenon adsorption relaxed with activated carbon without being impregnated and impregnated with AgF, were respectively achieved. (Author)

  2. Nuclear Structure of 124Xe Studied with β+/EC-Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.

    The nuclear structure of 124Xe was investigated using γ-ray spectroscopy following the β+/EC-decay of 124Cs. A very high-statistics data set was collected and γγ coincidence data was analyzed, greatly adding to the 124Xe level scheme. A new decay branch from the high-spin isomer of 124Cs was observed as well as weak E2 transitions into excited 0+ states in 124Xe. B(E2) transition strengths of such low-spin transitions are very important in determining collective properties, which are currently poorly characterized in the region of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes.

  3. Depth distribution analysis of Martensitic transformations in Xe implanted austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, E.; Gerritsen, E.; Chechenin, N.G.;

    1989-01-01

    implanted Xe as calculated by the TRIM computer simulation code. Simulations using the MARLOWE code indicate that the thickness of the transformed layer coincides with the range of the small fraction of ions channeled under random implantation conditions. Using cross sectional TEM on the Xe implanted...... transformation in the implanted layer. In this work we present results from a depth distribution analysis of the martensitic phase change occurring in Xe implanted single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. Analysis was done by in situ RBS/channeling analysis, X-ray diffraction and cross-section transmission...

  4. Dating blueschist metamorphism: a combined 40Ar/39Ar and electron microprobe approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    40Ar/39Ar and electron microprobe examination of blueschist samples from the Iceberg Lake schist, southern Alaska suggest that phengite inclusions are the source of 40Ar in crossite. Because such fine-grained inclusions may be susceptible to argon loss, caution should be exercised in interpreting K-Ar ages from this phase, and possibly other low-K amphiboles from blueschist suites. The estimated blocking temperature for phengite in the matrix (3140 to 4500C), however, is close to the estimated peak metamorphic temperatures (3250 +- 500C), suggesting that phengite 40Ar/39Ar plateau dates may coincide closely with the time of blueschist metamorphism. (author)

  5. Triaxial superdeformation in $^{40}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Kimura, Masaaki; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ideguchi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states in $^{40}$Ar have been studied using the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low energy states were calculated by the parity and angular momentum projection (AMP) and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Basis wave functions were obtained by the energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter $\\beta$, while other quantities such as triaxiality $\\gamma$ were optimized by the energy variation. By the GCM calculation, an SD band is obtained just above the ground state band. The SD band involves a $K^\\pi = 2^+$ side band due to the triaxiality. The calculated quadrupole electric transition strengths of the SD band reproduce well the experimental values. Triaxiality is significantly important to understand low-lying states.

  6. Ars grammatica de Dionisio Tracio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Jorge Enrique

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Ars Grammatica de Dionisio Tracio (170-90 a. C fue la primera gramática griega que se escribió. Su contenido y método fueron modelos que siguieron las gramáticas escolares posteriores. La versión española que se presenta ahora responde a la necesidad que se tenía en nuestro medio de una traducción completa de este texto. Finalmente, se acompaña la traducción de una introducción y de abundantes notas, en un intento por hacerla comprensible para el hablante del español, no necesariamente conocedor de la lengua griega.

  7. String theory on elliptic curve orientifolds and KR-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, Charles; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the brane content and charges in all of the orientifold string theories on space-times of the form E x R^8, where E is an elliptic curve with holomorphic or anti-holomorphic involution. Many of these theories involve "twistings" coming from the B-field and/or sign choices on the orientifold planes. A description of these theories from the point of view of algebraic geometry, using the Legendre normal form, naturally divides them into three groupings. The physical theories within each grouping are related to one another via sequences of T-dualities. Our approach agrees with both previous topological calculations of twisted KR-theory and known physics arguments, and explains how the twistings originate from both a mathematical and a physical perspective.

  8. Study and measurement of the atmospheric pollution by 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the importance of eventual long term radiological and synergistic effects of 85Kr pollution from the nuclear energy industry the atmospheric activity was followed and laboratory experiments on the initiation of eventual climatological effects were developed. An EPA method for separating krypton from air and for measuring the radioactivity was applied. The modified experimental set-up for collection, separation and measurement is illustrated. The total collection and separation efficiency is about 55%. The efficiency of the nuclear β-measurement was found to be 72% using a calibrated source. The results of periodic atmospheric measurements in Ghent during 1979 are reported. Comparative calculations based on available source terms are presented. (H.K.)

  9. Evidence for shape coexistance in 81,83Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of systematic investication of few-particle and collective states in the mass 80 region, the excitations in 81,83Kr have been studied in-beam via (α,3n) reactions. Most of the data were derived from experiments at the Stockholm cyclotron, where coincidence relations, angular distributions, relative excitation functions and the linear polarization of the γ-rays were measured. To obtain precise data on the Doppler shift (DSA method) of the γ-rays, the spectra at 30 deg and 150 deg and, respectively, at 45 deg and 135 deg relative to the beam axis were measured alternatingly. Since DSA data are most reliable for the highest levels reached with a certain beam energy, additional measurements were performed at the Rossendorf cyclotron using α-particles of 27 MeV which excite lower spin states than the 42 MeV α-particles used in the main part of the experiments

  10. KrF excimer laser driver for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Super-ASHURA'', KrF laser driver, was attained to 245J the maximum output energy to 1 pulse and 2.7 kJ total energy by multiple amplification of 12 beams. The internal efficiency is 10% in the local field. With increasing the excitation efficiency by optimizing electron beam diode, about 5 kJ output is expected under the maximum rated operation. Raman amplification used as wave correction showed to increase power with high efficiency and to smooth output beam by introducing crossing configuration of beam into multipass optical forward amplification method. Short pulse with 2J energy and 100 ps pulse width was produced by method of back Raman amplification. Multiplication factor of power increased 30 times. It indicated practical pulse compression using larger energy. (S.Y.)

  11. New atomic data for Kr XXXV useful in fusion plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Aggarwal; Jagjit Singh; Man Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Energy levels and emission line wavelengths of high-Z materials are useful for impurity diagnostics due to their potential application in the next generation fusion devices.For this purpose,we have calculated the fine structural energies of the 67 levels belonging to the ls2,ls21,ls31,ls41,ls51,and ls61 configurations of Kr XXXV using GRASP (general purpose relativistic atomic structure package) code.Additionally,we have reported the transition probabilities,oscillator strengths,line strengths,and transition wavelengths for some electric dipole (El) transitions among these levels.We predict new energy levels and radiative rates,which have not been reported experimentally or theoretically,forming the basis for future experimental work.

  12. Adventna nada u ranom kršćanstvu

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Ovaj esej nastoji prikazati sudbinu adventne nade nakon što se prva kršćanska crkva pojavila i proširila u grčko-rimskom svijetu, izražavajući svoju vjeru u mislima koje su bile oblikovane židovskim, grčkim i na kraju latinskim idejama. Uporabu ovih oblika pratilo je slabljenje eshatološkog iščekivanja, zbog činjenice da je taj dolazak odgađan, kao i zbog promjena u društvenim i političkim prilikama. Tako je neposredno očekivani advent s kraja prvog i ranog drugog stoljeća postupno ustupio mj...

  13. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.)

  14. Prolate-oblate shape coexistence in 75Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective bands of 75Kr were extended up to spin 45/2 using the compound reactions 50Cr(28Si,2pn), 54Fe(24Mg,2pn) and 58Ni(20Ne,2pn) 75Kr. Lifetimes were measured by RDDS with nine OSIRIS detectors in coincidence. Mixing ratios were determined by measurements of internal conversion coefficients, angular distribution and correlations. Deviations between different measurements are explained by the short lifetimes leading to angle dependent intensity losses due to Doppler shift. Spins and parities were assigned from angular distributions, excitation functions and DCO ratios measured with the OSIRIS12 spectrometer. The band head spin of the negative parity yrast band was established as 3/2 via DCO ratios and internal conversion coefficients. Further bands at low excitation energy were found. In accordance to Woods-Saxon cranking model calculations, these weaker populated sidebands are interpreted to be built on oblate deformed intrinsic states (β2∼-0.2), while the strongly populated bands are built on prolate deformed states (β2∼+0.4). The interpretation of the 1qp g9/2 yrare band, to be generated from oblate deformation, is further supported by ΔI=0 transitions into the yrast band and a similar oblate deformed g9/2 structure in the isotone 73Se. The experimental level energies, branching ratios, transition probabilities and mixing ratios are compared to rotor model calculations. The deviations between experiment and rotor model calculations are interpreted to be based on mixing between prolate and oblate states. (orig.)

  15. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR52 and OL-KR47 in 2013 and 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurmerinta, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with the HTU-equipment in drillholes OL KR52 and OL KR47 on the Olkiluoto investigation site. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. In OL-KR52 measurements were carried out between February 2013 and April 2013 and in OL-KR47 between October 2013 and February 2014. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR52 is 427.35 m, 376.00 m of which was covered by 188 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR47 is 1008.76 m long and 312 similar tests were conducted in it covering 624.00 m of the drillhole. These numbers include one equipment test measurement near the surface in OL-KR47. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended if longer times were needed to obtain correct results or when suited to the working schedule. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Poeyry Finland Oy in co-operation with Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  16. Asteroid 2012 XE133, a transient companion to Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2013-01-01

    Apart from Mercury that has no known co-orbital companions, Venus remains as the inner planet that hosts the smallest number of known co-orbitals, 2: (322756) 2001 CK32 and 2002 VE68. Both objects have absolute magnitudes 18 < H < 21 and were identified as Venus co-orbitals in 2004. Here, we analyze the orbit of the recently discovered asteroid 2012 XE133 with H = 23.5 mag to conclude that it is a new Venus co-orbital currently following a transitional trajectory between Venus' Lagrangian points L5 and L3. The object could have been a 1:1 librator for several thousand years and it may leave the resonance with Venus within the next few hundred years, after a close encounter with the Earth. Our calculations show that its dynamical status as co-orbital, as well as that of the 2 previously known Venus co-orbitals, is controlled by the Earth-Moon system with Mercury playing a secondary role. The 3 temporary co-orbitals follow rather chaotic but similar trajectories with e-folding times of order of 100 yr. Ou...

  17. Multinucleon transfer in the 136Xe+208Pb reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jingjing; Zhu, Long; Tian, Junlong; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic mechanics in the multinucleon transfer reaction 136Xe+208Pb at an incident energy of Ec .m .=450 MeV is investigated by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics model (ImQMD). The lifetime of the neck directly influences the nucleon exchange and energy dissipation between the projectile and the target. The total-kinetic-energy-mass distributions and excitation energy division of primary binary fragments and the mass distributions of primary fragments at different impact parameters are calculated. The thermal equilibrium between two reaction partners has been observed at the lifetime of a neck larger than 480 fm /c . By using the statistical decay code gemini to describe the de-excitation process of the primary fragments, the isotope production cross sections from Pt to At are compared with the prediction by the dinuclear system and GRAZING model. The calculations indicate that the GRAZING model is suitable for estimating the isotope production cross sections only for Δ Z =-1 to +2; the DNS + gemini calculations underestimate the cross sections in the neutron-rich and neutron-deficient regions; and the ImQMD + gemini calculations give reasonable predictions of the isotope production cross sections for Δ Z =-3 to 0.

  18. Collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectra and ground-state potentials of inert gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collision-induced absorption spectra of the rare gas systems He-Ne, He-Ar, He-Kr, He-Xe, Ne-Kr, Ne-Xe, Ar-Kr and Ar-Xe at different temperatures with the pressure second virial coefficients, viscosity and thermal conductivity have been used for deriving the empirical models of the induced dipole moment and the interaction potential. Theoretical zeroth, first and second moments of the binary spectra using various models for the induced dipole moment and interatomic potential are compared with the experimental values performed by the groups of Marteau, Bosomworth, Bucktoyarova, Bar-Ziv, Ryzhov and Frommhold. In addition, mixture diffusion coefficients and isotopic thermal factors calculated for these models are compared with experimental ones. The results show that these models are the most accurate models reported to date for these mixtures.

  19. NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of blood-dissolved hyperpolarized 129Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperpolarization (HP) of noble gases, e.g. 3He and 129Xe, as a means of increasing the signal by several orders of magnitude has been widely employed in NMR over the last decades. The advantages of 129Xe are its solubility and the sensitive chemical shifts. Dissolved HP 129Xe has been of growing importance, especially since the introduction of the so-called ''xenonizer'' setups. They consist of hollow fiber membranes in oxygenators allowing for efficient and continuous dissolution into carrier agents without formation of foams or bubbling, and have been proven to be feasible for HP 129Xe MRI. The xenon dissolution process has been analyzed for various solvents including porcine blood in home-built xenonizer setups featuring different fibers. The deoxygenating effect of the xenonization on blood with defined oxygen levels could be monitored online spectroscopically. The results presented offer a more comprehensive understanding of the xenonizer and yield valuable information about xenon-blood interactions.

  20. Fifty year dose commitment to various organs and tissues from inhalation of 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metabolic model for a single inhalation of 133Xe, together with the computer code in use at this Laboratory, was employed for estimating dose commitments to various organs and tissues in the adult human body. The code uses Monte Carlo data for photons and assumes complete absorption of the energy from the emitted electrons in organs and tissues. For bone, a model was used to estimate dose to red and yellow marrow and to endosteal cells of both trabecular and cortical bone. For a single inhalation of 1 mCi of 133Xe, the 50 year dose to gonads was about 0.4 mrad. The dose to lungs from 133Xe dissolved in tissues is about the same, but the dose to the lungs from 133Xe in air spaces was about 1 mrad

  1. Evaluation of Atypical Lymphocyte Warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in Outpatient Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueling GUO; Tingbo ZHANG; Maofan WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children. [Method] Randomly 280 specimens of outpatient children were selected to analyze atypical lymphocytes with Sysmex XE-4000 and artificial smear microscopy simultaneously. [Result] With artificial smear microscopy as the gold standard, the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children exhibited a sensitivity of 97.4%, specificity of 69.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 55%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.5%. [Conclusion] Sysmex XE-4000 shows a high sensitivity in atypical lymphocyte warnings, which can reduce the number of blood smears, improve the specificity of microscopy, and decline the labor intensity of inspection personnel. However, there are stil certain false positives to be confirmed by artificial microscopy.

  2. Anodic and air oxidation of niobium studied by ion beam analysis with implanted Xe marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xe marker implantation and backscattering analysis were used to study the growth mechanism of anodic oxides on niobium. In 5 wt% aqueous ammonium citrate solution, analysis of the Xe marker movement demonstrated that the oxide was formed mainly within the existing oxide through the transport of both niobium cations and oxygen anions from each side when the anodic oxidation was carried out with a constant current density of 1.0 mA cm-2 and a limiting oxidation potential from 60 to 100 V. During anodization, the transport numbers of niobium increased with the elevation of potential. The air oxidation behavior of niobium and the profile of Xe ions at the temperature of 200-500 C were also studied. The growth law of niobium oxide was obtained and no movement of the peak position of Xe ions was observed when the temperature was below 350 C. (orig.)

  3. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  4. Application of 85Kr dating to groundwater in volcanic aquifer of Kumamoto Area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater age was determined by 85Kr/Kr specific activity of gases dissolved in groundwater at Kumamoto Area, in which newly developed Kr extraction system and liquid scintillation counting technique for 85Kr were applied. Apparent mean residence times observed were 8.2 ± 0.7 years and 20.7 ± 0.6 years for the groundwater taken from a well at the recharge area and that from an artesian borehole at the discharge area, respectively showing a consistent age trend estimated from the observed groundwater flow system of Kumamoto Area and also that determined using environmental tritium. Similar mean residence times of 85Kr and tritium were observed at the discharge area but the mean residence time of 85Kr at the recharge area was younger compared to that of tritium, probably due to mixing of river water containing recent 85Kr high in concentration into groundwater flow coming from the northern upland's recharge area. The mean residence time of the groundwater flow coming from northern upland area and a traveling time of the groundwater between two sampling points were estimated by a simple model assuming mixing the river water with the groundwater and a piston flow between two sampling points. (author)

  5. Change of nuclear configurations in the neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{130}$Te $\\rightarrow$ $^{130}$Xe and $^{136}$Xe $\\rightarrow$ $^{136}$Ba

    CERN Document Server

    Entwisle, J P; Tamii, A; Adachi, S; Aoi, N; Clark, J A; Freeman, S J; Fujita, H; Fujita, Y; Furuno, T; Hashimoto, T; Hoffman, C R; Ideguchi, E; Ito, T; Iwamoto, C; Kawabata, T; Liu, B; Miura, M; Ong, H J; Schiffer, J P; Sharp, D K; Süsoy, G; Suzuki, T; Szwec, S V; Takaki, M; Tsumura, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    The change in the configuration of valence protons between the initial and final states in the neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{130}$Te $\\rightarrow$ $^{130}$Xe and of $^{136}$Xe $\\rightarrow$ $^{136}$Ba has been determined by measuring the cross sections of the ($d$,$^3$He) reaction with 101-MeV deuterons. Together with our recent determination of the relevant neutron configurations involved in the process, a quantitative comparison with the latest shell-model and interacting-boson-model calculations reveals significant discrepancies. These are the same calculations used to determine the nuclear matrix elements governing the rate of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay in these systems.

  6. Laser-plasma debris from a rotating cryogenic-solid-Xe target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the characteristics of laser plasma debris that is responsible for damaging optics. The debris is composed of fast ions, neutral particles, and fragments, and originates from a solid Xe target on a rotating drum that we developed as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The ice fragments appear to be a problem most notably with solid Xe targets; however, we find that the damage induced by Xe ice fragments can be avoided by simply reducing the laser pulse energy. We find the number of fast neutral particles to be an order of magnitude less than the number of ions, and we clarify that the plasma debris is primarily composed of fast ions. In addition, we find that the number of fast ions having a few dozen keV of energy decreases when using the rotating target compared with the rest target. We attribute this to a gas curtain effect from the Xe gas localized at the rotating target surface. We estimate the sputtering rate of the Mo/Si mirror, which is caused primarily by the fast ions, to be 104 nm/1x106 shots at 190 mm from the source plasma and at an 11.25 deg. angle from the incident laser beam. Up to the 1x106 shots exposure, remarkable degradation of the mirror reflectivity is not observed though the sputtering damages the mirror. Mitigation of the ions by using gas and/or magnetic fields will further improve the mirror lifetime. By comparing with a liquid jet Xe target, we conclude that the sputtering rate per conversion efficiency when using the solid Xe targets on the rotating drum is the same as that when using the liquid Xe targets. The high conversion efficiency of 0.9% in the rotating drum solid Xe target makes this technique useful for developing laser plasma EUV sources.

  7. Evaluation of Middle Ear Ventilation after Tympanoplasty by Xe-133 Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Ortapamuk, Hülya; Korkmaz, Hakan; Öztürk, Zeynel

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Eustachian tube is considered to have important role in the normal physiology of middle ear, as well as in the success of tympanoplasty operations. The study was designed prospectively to reveal the role of Xe-133 ventilation scintigraphy in the determination of eustachian tube (ET) function. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients who underwent successful tympanoplasty with intact graft and 5 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Xe-133 insufflation into nasopharynx was don...

  8. Expected production of new exotic α emitters 108Xe and 112Ba in complete fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    The production cross sections of neutron-deficient isotopes Xe-110108 and Ba-114112 in the complete fusion reactions Ni,5658+54Fe and Ni,5658+58Ni with stable and radioactive beams are studied with the dinuclear system model. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. The optimal beam energies and corresponding maximum production cross sections of new isotopes 108Xe and 112Ba are predicted.

  9. Half-collision analysis of far-wing diffuse structure in Cs-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, R. J.; Hillard, M. E.; Lempert, W. R.

    1987-01-01

    Laser excitation in the far red wing of the second principal series doublet of Cs mixed with Xe revealed a diffuse structure associated with the 2P(3/2) component. The structure is thought to originate from a reflection type of spectrum between the weakly bound E 2Sigma(1/2) excited state and the X 2Sigma(1/2) repulsive ground state of CsXe.

  10. Positronium formation cross-sections for Xe, CO2 and N-2

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, D. A.; Murtagh, D. J.; Laricchia, G

    2010-01-01

    The positronium formation cross-sections for Xe, CO2 and N-2 have been measured using coincidences between gamma-rays from positronium self-annihilation and the resultant ion. In the case of Xe, there is excellent agreement with previous experimental determinations. For CO2 there is broad agreement in magnitude with previous measurements in contrast with N-2 where good shape agreement at low energies (

  11. Modification of stearic acid in Ar and Ar-O2 pulsed DC discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Alexandre Bernardelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (CH3(CH216COOH was treated with Ar and Ar-O2 (10% pulsed DC discharges created by a cathode-anode confined system to elucidate the role of oxygen in plasma cleaning. The treatment time (5 to 120 minutes and plasma gas mixture (Ar and Ar-O2 were varied, and the results showed that the mass variation of stearic acid after Ar-O2 plasma exposure was greater than that of pure Ar plasma treatment. Thus, compared to Ar*, active oxygen species (O and O2, in all states enhance the etching process, regardless of their concentration. During the treatments, a liquid phase developed at the melting temperature of stearic acid, and differential thermal analyses showed that the formation of a liquid phase was associated with the breakage of bonds due to treatment with an Ar or Ar-O2 plasma. After treatment with Ar and Ar-O2 plasmas, the sample surface was significantly modified, especially when Ar-O2 was utilized. The role of oxygen in the treatment process is to break carbonaceous chains by forming oxidized products and/or to act as a barrier again ramification, which accelerates the etching of stearic acid.

  12. Study of the effect of 135Xe poison on the temperature coefficient of TRIGA fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the influence of 135Xe on the prompt negative temperature coefficient of the 14-MW Romanian TRIGA reactor has been performed. Because of its large absorption cross section below 0.1 eV, we expected that 135Xe might make a positive contribution to the temperature coefficient because the higher-energy neutrons are less likely to be absorbed by the Xe. This effect would be largest about 16 hours after reactor shutdown. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we have performed cell and core calculations for various fuel temperatures, burnups, and 135Xe levels. These calculations indeed show a positive contribution of 135Xe to the temperature coefficient, especially for high burnups, where little 167Er remains to absorb the higher-energy neutrons. Work is in progress to evaluate the effect of the smaller negative temperature coefficient on the consequences of reactivity insertion accidents in unfavorable situations of 135Xe poisoning of the Romanian TRIGA core. (author)

  13. Utility of 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy in evaluating airflow limitation in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on previous clinical experience, it is known that ventilation scintigraphy has the advantage of detecting obstructive changes. The author reports that 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can detect characteristic findings even in the very early stage of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), which cannot be found by the chest X-ray. Fifteen cases of DPB were studied. Another 15 cases who have no abnormality on the pulmonary function test served as controls. 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy and 99mTc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy were performed on the above 30 cases. In DPB patients, remarkable delay of 133Xe washout and a decrease in blood flow are seen in the bilateral lower lung fields. A particular characteristic was that a localized image of 133Xe gas remained in bilateral lower lung fields. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was performed on seven DPB patients for the second time, who had been given long-term administration of roxithromycin for three months. After long-term administration of roxithromycin, washout time of 133Xe gas from bilateral lower lung fields was remarkably shortened. Continuous administration of this compound helps to improve local lung function of DPB patients. It is concluded that a washout study by means of 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can not only detect obstructive lesions associated with DPB, even in an early stage, but is also very useful from the standpoint of therapeutic efficacy evaluation. (author)

  14. Utility of {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy in evaluating airflow limitation in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsuzaki, Katsumi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Based on previous clinical experience, it is known that ventilation scintigraphy has the advantage of detecting obstructive changes. The author reports that {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can detect characteristic findings even in the very early stage of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), which cannot be found by the chest X-ray. Fifteen cases of DPB were studied. Another 15 cases who have no abnormality on the pulmonary function test served as controls. {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy were performed on the above 30 cases. In DPB patients, remarkable delay of {sup 133}Xe washout and a decrease in blood flow are seen in the bilateral lower lung fields. A particular characteristic was that a localized image of {sup 133}Xe gas remained in bilateral lower lung fields. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was performed on seven DPB patients for the second time, who had been given long-term administration of roxithromycin for three months. After long-term administration of roxithromycin, washout time of {sup 133}Xe gas from bilateral lower lung fields was remarkably shortened. Continuous administration of this compound helps to improve local lung function of DPB patients. It is concluded that a washout study by means of {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can not only detect obstructive lesions associated with DPB, even in an early stage, but is also very useful from the standpoint of therapeutic efficacy evaluation. (author).

  15. Relativistic CI calculations of spectroscopic data for the 2p6 and 2p53l configurations in Ne-like ions between Mg III and Kr XXVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energies, E1, M1, E2, M2 transition rates, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes from relativistic configuration interaction calculations are reported for the states of the 2p6, 2p53s, 2p53p, and 2p53d, configurations in all Ne-like ions between Mg III and Kr XXVII. Core–valence and core–core correlation effects are accounted for through single and double excitations to increasing sets of active orbitals. The Breit interaction and leading quantum electrodynamic effects are included as perturbations. The results are compared with experiments and other recent benchmark calculations. In Mg III, Al IV, Si V, P VI, S VII, and Ar IX, for which experimental energies are known to high accuracy, the mean error in the calculated energies is only 0.011%

  16. Relativistic CI calculations of spectroscopic data for the 2p6 and 2p53l configurations in Ne-like ions between Mg III and Kr XXVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energies, E1, M1, E2, M2 transition rates, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes from relativistic configuration interaction calculations are reported for the states of the 2p6, 2p53s, 2p53p, and 2p53d, configurations in all Ne-like ions between Mg III and Kr XXVII. Core-valence and core-core correlation effects are accounted for through SD-expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The Breit interaction and leading QED effects are included as perturbations. The results are compared with experiments and other recent benchmark calculations. In Mg III, Al IV, Si V, P VI, S VII, and Ar IX, for which experimental energies are known to high accuracy, the mean error in the calculated energies is only 0.011%. (author)

  17. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  18. Spectra and electromagnetic transitions of 72–84Kr in the interacting boson model-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Wei; Lü, Li-Jun; Dong, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Jin-Fu

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the interacting boson model-1, the energy levels and electromagnetic transitions in 72–84Kr isotopes are calculated. The structures of the eigenstate and Hamiltonian matrix for some low-lying states are also calculated. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data, and the results are generally in good agreement. The present study shows that the 72,74,76,80,82,84Kr isotopes are in the transition from U(5) → SU(3), and 78Kr is in the transition from U(5) → O(6). Supported by NSFC(11465001,11165001) and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia of China (2013MS0117)

  19. Odgoj za osobne i društvene dimenzije kršćanskih vrednota

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Vlaho

    2014-01-01

    Ovaj rad konceptualno-teorijske naravi prikazuje društveno-kontekstualne odrednice osobnih i društvenih dimenzija kršćanskih vrednota. Usmjeravajući se na „skidanje“ ideološkog okvira u strukturi osobnih i društvenih dimenzija kršćanskih vrednota i odbacivanja ideologijskog koncepta suvremene moderne, ovaj rad raspravlja o povijesnim i društvenim promjenama. Navedeni pristup osobnim i društvenim dimenzijama kršćanskih vrednota na osobnoj razini i na razini skupine sve više zadovoljava i osobn...

  20. Kršćanska etika među ostalim etikama

    OpenAIRE

    Porobija, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Ovaj članak pokušaj je razumijevanja temelja kršćanske etike kroz njezinu jukstapoziciju s nekim drugim velikim etičkim diskursima: utilitarizmom, deontologijom, etikom vrline i postmodernom etikom. Prvi dio članka nastoji naći neke sličnosti i razlike između kršćanstva i spomenutih diskursa, dok drugi dio članka izlaže Milbankovu radikalnu kritiku etike kao etike. U zaključku autor zastupa da kršćanska etika posjeduje svoj zasebni utemeljujući diskurs, kojega se treba razviti u dijalogu s...