WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquifer-pressured carbon storage

  1. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Bourcier, W L; Wolfe, T; Haussmann, C

    2010-02-19

    Can we use the pressure associated with sequestration to make brine into fresh water? This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Possible products are: Drinking water, Cooling water, and Extra aquifer space for CO{sub 2} storage. The conclusions are: (1) Many saline formation waters appear to be amenable to largely conventional RO treatment; (2) Thermodynamic modeling indicates that osmotic pressure is more limiting on water recovery than mineral scaling; (3) The use of thermodynamic modeling with Pitzer's equations (or Extended UNIQUAC) allows accurate estimation of osmotic pressure limits; (4) A general categorization of treatment feasibility is based on TDS has been proposed, in which brines with 10,000-85,000 mg/L are the most attractive targets; (5) Brines in this TDS range appear to be abundant (geographically and with depth) and could be targeted in planning future CCS operations (including site selection and choice of injection formation); and (6) The estimated cost of treating waters in the 10,000-85,000 mg/L TDS range is about half that for conventional seawater desalination, due to the anticipated pressure recovery.

  2. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

    2009-07-22

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir

  3. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  6. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  7. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  8. GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Kolenković

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide geological storage represents a key segment of the carbon capture and storage system (CCS expected to significantly contribute to the reduction of its emissions, primarily in the developed countries and in those that are currently being industrialised. This approach to make use of the subsurface is entirely new meaning that several aspects are still in research phase. The paper gives a summary of the most important recent results with a short overview the possibilities in the Republic of Croatia. One option is to construct underground carbon dioxide storage facilities in deep coal seams or salt caverns. Another would be to use the CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery projects relying on the retention of the carbon dioxide in the deep reservoir because a portion of the injected gas is not going be produced together with hydrocarbons. Finally, the greatest potential estimated lies in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs with significantly reduced reservoir pressure, as well as in the large regional units - layers of deep saline aquifers that extend through almost all sedimentary basins (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Research Advance on Carbon Storage of Artificial Grassland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping; TIAN; Yongjie; SHI; Yu; HU; Zixuan; CHEN; Yuan; LU; Xiaofu; ZHANG; Runlin; LI

    2013-01-01

    As an essential part of the grassland ecological system,study on the carbon storage has great significances to the carbon reduction in grassland ecological system.The carbon storage in biomass,carbon storage in soil and soil respiration are summarized in this paper to provide scientific reference for the evaluation of carbon storage in artificial grassland.

  10. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  11. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....... sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...

  12. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta and an invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus is very common throughout the Mediterranean basin, mostly on north-facing slopes, H. hirta characterizes thermo-xeric grasslands, while P. setaceum is an alien species that is rapidly spreading along coastal areas. The measured morphometric attributes of individual plants as potential predictors were considered. The validation results corroborate the ability of the established models to predict above ground and total biomass of A. mauritanicus and P. setaceum. We also evaluated the total biomass per hectare for each species. The highest biomass per hectare was found for A. mauritanicus, whereas biomass was higher for H. hirta than for P. setaceum. The replacement of H. hirta by P. setaceum may reduce the total carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, P. setaceum allocates more resources to the roots, thus increasing the more stable and durable pool of carbon in grasslands.Los pastizales secundarios son uno de los tipos de vegetación más comunes en todo el mundo. En Europa y en la cuenca mediterránea, las actividades humanas han transformado muchos bosques en pastizales secundarios. A pesar de su reconocido papel en el ciclo global del carbono, hay muy pocos datos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa de los pastizales mediterráneos. Hemos desarrollado modelos de regresión lineal con el fin de predecir la biomasa de dos gramíneas nativas del Mediterráneo (Ampelodesmos

  13. ROE Carbon Storage - Percent Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset depicts the percentage change in the amount of carbon stored in forests in counties across the United States, based on the difference in carbon...

  14. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  15. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  16. ROE Carbon Storage - Forest Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset depicts the density of forest biomass in counties across the United States, in terms of metric tons of carbon per square mile of land area....

  17. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  18. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  19. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Piermaria; Badalamenti, Emilio; Pasta, Salvatore; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta) and ...

  20. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  1. Vegetation and soil carbon storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kerang; WANG Shaoqiang; CAO Mingkui

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated the current vegetation and soil carbon storage in China using a biogeochemical model driven with climate, soil and vegetation data at 0.5°latitude-longitude grid spatial resolution. The results indicate that the total carbon storage in China's vegetation and soils was 13.33 Gt C and 82.65 Gt C respectively, about 3% and 4% of the global total. The nationally mean vegetation and soil carbon densities were 1.47 kg C/m2 and 9.17 kg C/m2, respectively, differing greatly in various regions affected by climate, vegetation, and soil types. They were generally higher in the warm and wet Southeast China and Southwest China than in the arid Northwest China; whereas vegetation carbon density was the highest in the warm Southeast China and Southwest China, soil carbon density was the highest in the cold Northeast China and southeastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These spatial patterns are clearly correlated with variations in the climate that regulates plant growth and soil organic matter decomposition, and show that vegetation and soil carbon densities are controlled by different climatic factors.

  2. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    At the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi, April 2011 (CEM 2), the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers on concrete, near-term actions to accelerate global carbon capture and storage (CCS) deployment. Twelve CCUS AG governments agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third Clean Energy Ministerial (London, 25-26 April 2012) (CEM 3). Following CEM 2, the CCUS AG requested the IEA and the Global CCS Institute to report on progress made against the 2011 recommendations at CEM 3. Tracking Progress in Carbon Capture and Storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial responds to that request. The report considers a number of key questions. Taken as a whole, what advancements have committed CCUS AG governments made against the 2011 recommendations since CEM 2? How can Energy Ministers continue to drive progress to enable CCS to fully contribute to climate change mitigation? While urgent further action is required in all areas, are there particular areas that are currently receiving less policy attention than others, where efforts could be redoubled? The report concludes that, despite developments in some areas, significant further work is required. CCS financing and industrial applications continue to represent a particularly serious challenge.

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  4. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  6. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  7. Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xian-Li; SUN Bo; ZHOU Hui-Zhen; LI An-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage under different types of vegetations in China were estimated using measured data of 2 440 soil profiles to compare SOC density distribution between different estimates, to map the soil organic carbon stocks under different types of vegetation in China, and to analyze the relationships between soil organic carbon stocks and environmental variables using stepwise regression analyses. Soil organic carbon storage in China was estimated at 69.38 Gt (10 15 g). There was a big difference in SOC densities for various vegetation types, with SOC distribution closely related to climatic patterns in general. Stepwise regression analyses of SOC against environmental variables showed that SOC generally increased with increasing precipitation and elevation, while it decreased with increasing temperature.Furthermore, the important factor controlling SOC accumulation for forests was elevation, while for temperate steppes mean annual temperature dominated. The more specific the vegetation type used in the regression analysis, the greater was the effect of environmental variables on SOC. However, compared to native vegetation, cultivation activities in the croplands reduced the influence of environmental variables on SOC.

  8. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  9. Activated Carbon Fibers For Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) over Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) are reviewed and their relationship to ACF structure and texture are discussed. These advantages make ACF very attractive for gas storage applications. Both adsorbed natural gas (ANG) and hydrogen gas adsorption performance are discussed. The predicted and actual structure and performance of lignin-derived ACF is reviewed. The manufacture and performance of ACF derived monolith for potential automotive natural gas (NG) storage applications is reported Future trends for ACF for gas storage are considered to be positive. The recent improvements in NG extraction coupled with the widespread availability of NG wells means a relatively inexpensive and abundant NG supply in the foreseeable future. This has rekindled interest in NG powered vehicles. The advantages and benefit of ANG compared to compressed NG offer the promise of accelerated use of ANG as a commuter vehicle fuel. It is to be hoped the current cost hurdle of ACF can be overcome opening ANG applications that take advantage of the favorable properties of ACF versus GAC. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the direction of future work.

  10. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  11. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  12. Need for relevant timescales when crediting temporary carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    carbon storage in carbon footprinting. Methods: Implications of using a 100-year accounting period is evaluated via a literature review study of the global carbon cycle, as well as by analysing the crediting approaches that are exemplified by the PAS 2050 scheme for crediting temporary carbon storage...... mitigation of the rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration is required and in this perspective, shorter storage times may still provide climatic benefits. Conclusions: Both short- and long-term perspectives should be considered when crediting temporary carbon storage, addressing both acute effects...

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage: concluding remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, G C

    2016-10-20

    This paper aims to pull together the main points, messages and underlying themes to emerge from the Discussion. It sets these remarks in the context of where Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) fits into the spectrum of carbon mitigation solutions required to meet the challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets set by the COP21 climate change conference. The Discussion focused almost entirely on carbon capture (21 out of 23 papers) and covered all the main technology contenders for this except biological processes. It included (chemical) scientists and engineers in equal measure and the Discussion was enriched by the broad content and perspectives this brought. The major underlying theme to emerge was the essential need for closer integration of materials and process design - the use of isolated materials performance criteria in the absence of holistic process modelling for design and optimisation can be misleading. Indeed, combining process and materials simulation for reverse materials molecular engineering to achieve the required process performance and cost constraints is now within reach and is beginning to make a significant impact on optimising CCS and CCU (CO2 utilisation) processes in particular, as it is on materials science and engineering generally. Examples from the Discussion papers are used to illustrate this potential. The take-home messages from a range of other underpinning research themes key to CCUS are also summarised: new capture materials, materials characterisation and screening, process innovation, membranes, industrial processes, net negative emissions processes, the effect of GHG impurities, data requirements, environment sustainability and resource management, and policy. Some key points to emerge concerning carbon transport, utilisation and storage are also included, together with some overarching conclusions on how to develop more energy- and cost-effective CCS processes through improved integration of approach across the

  14. Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris; Wortman, David; Brown, Chris; Hassan, Syed; Humphreys, Ken; Willford, Mark

    2016-03-31

    efforts are also documented in this report. All permit applications had been submitted to all agencies for those permits or approvals required prior to the start of project construction. Most of the requisite permits were received during Phase II. This report includes information on each permitting effort. Successes and lessons learned are included in this report that will add value to the next generation of carbon storage efforts.

  15. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  16. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  17. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an important part of the lowest-cost greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolio. IEA analysis suggests that without CCS, overall costs to reduce emissions to 2005 levels by 2050 increase by 70%. This roadmap includes an ambitious CCS growth path in order to achieve this GHG mitigation potential, envisioning 100 projects globally by 2020 and over 3000 projects by 2050. This roadmap's level of project development requires an additional investment of over USD 2.5-3 trillion from 2010 to 2050, which is about 6% of the overall investment needed to achieve a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. OECD governments will need to increase funding for CCS demonstration projects to an average annual level of USD 3.5 to 4 billion (bn) from 2010 to 2020. In addition, mechanisms need to be established to incentivise commercialisation beyond 2020 in the form of mandates, GHG reduction incentives, tax rebates or other financing mechanisms.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Renwei [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2015-06-15

    Phase I concludes with significant progress made towards the SunShot ELEMENTS goals of high energy density, high power density, and high temperature by virtue of a SrO/SrCO3 based material. A detailed exploration of sintering inhibitors has been conducted and relatively stable materials supported by YSZ or SrZO3 have been identified as the leading candidates. In 15 cycle runs using a 3 hour carbonation duration, several materials demonstrated energy densities of roughly 1500 MJ/m3 or greater. The peak power density for the most productive materials consistently exceeded 40 MW/m3—an order of magnitude greater than the SOPO milestone. The team currently has a material demonstrating nearly 1000 MJ/m3 after 100 abbreviated (1 hour carbonation) cycles. A subsequent 8 hour carbonation after the 100 cycle test exhibited over 1500 MJ/m3, which is evidence that the material still has capacity for high storage albeit with slower kinetics. Kinetic carbonation experiments have shown three distinct periods: induction, kinetically-controlled, and finally a diffusion-controlled period. In contrast to thermodynamic equilibrium prediction, higher carbonation temperatures lead to greater conversions over a 1 hour periods, as diffusion of CO2 is more rapid at higher temperatures. A polynomial expression was fit to describe the temperature dependence of the linear kinetically-controlled regime, which does not obey a traditional Arrhenius relationship. Temperature and CO2 partial pressure effects on the induction period were also investigated. The CO2 partial pressure has a strong effect on the reaction progress at high temperatures but is insignificant at temperatures under 900°C. Tomography data for porous SrO/SrCO3 structures at initial stage and after multiple carbonation/decomposition cycles have been obtained. Both 2D slices and 3D reconstructed representations have

  20. Carbon capture and storage-Investment strategies for the future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammerstorfer, Margarethe, E-mail: margarethe.rammerstorfer@wu-wien.ac.at [Institute for Corporate Finance, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Administration, Heiligenstaedter Strasse 46-48, A - 1190 Vienna (Austria); ENRAG GmbH - Energy Research and Advisory Group, Getreidemarkt 9, A - 1060 Vienna (Austria); Eisl, Roland [ENRAG GmbH - Energy Research and Advisory Group, Getreidemarkt 9, A - 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    The following article deals with real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. Herein, we derive two separate models. The first model incorporates a constant convenience yield and dividend for the investment project. In the second model, the convenience yield is allowed to follow a mean reverting process which seems to be more realistic, but also increases the model's complexity. Both frameworks are to be solved numerically. Therefore, we calibrate our model with respect to empirical data and provide insights into the models' sensitivity toward the chosen parameter values. We found that given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into C O2-storage facilities is not profitable. - Highlights: > Real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. > Given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into CO{sub 2}-storage facilities is not profitable. > Investment decision is mainly affected by risk free rate and volatility.

  1. Storage of hydrogen in floating catalytic carbon nanotubes after graphitizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏伟; 李雪松; 慈立杰; 徐才录; 毛宗强; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen storage under moderate pressure (~10 Mpa) and ambient temperature (~25℃) in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) prepared by the floating catalyst method is investigated. The capacity of hydrogen adsorption is evaluated based on both the nanotubes diameter and morphology. Indirect evidence indicates that hydrogen adsorption not only occurs on tube surface and interiors, but also in tube interlayers. The results show that the floating catalytic carbon nanotubes might be a candidate hydrogen storage material for fuel cell electric vehicles.

  2. Carbon Storage in Wetlands and Lakes of the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renik, Byrdie; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon stored underground may participate in a positive feedback with climate warming, as higher temperatures accelerate decomposition reactions and hence CO2 release. Assessing how below-ground carbon storage varies with modern climate and paleoclimate will advance understanding of this feedback in two ways. First, it will estimate the sensitivity of carbon storage to temperature and precipitation changes. Second, it will help quantify the size of carbon stocks available for the feedback, by indicating how current regional climate differences affect carbon storage. Whereas many studies of below-ground carbon storage concentrate on soils, this investigation focuses on the saturated and primarily organic material stored in wetlands and lake sediments. This study surveys research done on organic sediment depth and organic content at 50-100 sites in the eastern U.S., integrating our own research with the work of others. Storage depth is evaluated for sediments from the past 10,000 years, a date reflected in pollen profiles. Organic content is measured chiefly by loss-on-ignition (101). These variables are compared to characteristics of the sites such as latitude, altitude, and vegetation as well as local climate. Preliminary results suggest a strong relationship between latitude and depth of organic material stored over the last 10,000 years, with more accumulation in the northeastern US than the southeastern US. Linking the percent organic matter to actual carbon content is in progress with wetlands from Black Rock Forest and Alpine Swamp.

  3. Modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, A.M.; Nouralishahi, A.; Karimi, A.; Kashefi, K. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran); Khodadadi, A.A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Chemical engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Due to unique structural, mechanical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs, they have been proposed as promising hydrogen storage materials especially in automotive industries. This research deals with investing of CNT's and some activated carbons hydrogen storage capacity. The CNT's were prepared through natural gas decomposition at a temperature of 900 C over cobalt-molybdenum nanoparticles supported by nanoporous magnesium oxide (Co-Mo/MgO) during a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effects of purity of CNT (80-95%wt.) on hydrogen storage were investigated here. The results showed an improvement in the hydrogen adsorption capacity with increasing the purity of CNT's. Maximum adsorption capacity was 0.8%wt. in case of CNT's with 95% purity and it may be raised up with some purification to 1%wt. which was far less than the target specified by DOE (6.5%wt.). Also some activated carbons were manufactured and the results compared to CNTs. There were no considerable H{sub 2}-storage for carbon nanotubes and activated carbons at room-temperature due to insufficient binding between H{sub 2} molecules carbon nanostructures. Therefore, hydrogen must be adsorbed via interaction of atomic hydrogen with the storage environment in order to achieve DOE target, because the H atoms have a very stronger interaction with carbon nanostructures. (author)

  4. Performance of hydrogen storage of carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木士春; 唐浩林; 钱胜浩; 潘牧; 袁润章

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes(CNTs) decorated with palladium were synthesized and applied to hydrogen storage of gas phase. The results show that the amount of hydrogen storage of the decorated CNTs is up to 3.9 % (mass fraction), of which, almost 85% H2 can be desorbed at ambient temperature and pressure, while the non-decorated CNTs has a poor performance of hydrogen storage(only about 0.5% H2, mass fraction). These indicate that it is feasible to enhance the performance of hydrogen storage of CNTs by further decoration with hydrogen-storing metals or alloys.

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  6. Annual Report: Carbon Storage (30 September 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian; Guthrie, George

    2013-11-07

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage in the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication assesses the policy questions as highlighted in the relevant COP/MOP 2 decision, particularly leaks (or seepage) and permanence for geological storage, project boundaries and liability issues, and leakage, as well as a few others raised by some Parties. Since any emissions or leaks during the separation, capture and transport phases would occur during the crediting period of the project (and would therefore be accounted for as project emissions), the paper focuses its analyses for leaks and liability on storage, as it is in this part of the CCS process that long-term leaks could occur.

  8. Electrochemical storage of hydrogen on carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurewicz, K.; Frackowiak, E. [ICTE, Poznan University of Technology (Poland); Gautier, S.; Beguin, F. [CRMD, CNRS Universite, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2000-07-01

    Amount of hydrogen reversibly stored on an activated carbon electrode using electro-decomposition of 6 mol.l{sup -1} KOH aqueous solution has been investigated and compared data obtained under a high pressure of dihydrogen (70 bars) at 273 K. In the electrochemical method, 1.5 wt% of hydrogen was released from carbon during the oxidation process, with a well-defined plateau at ca. - 0.5 V vs Hg/HgO. Relatively smaller values were obtained for the sorption ability under a high pressure of gas. This means that the formation of nascent hydrogen during water reduction favours its easy penetration in the carbon nano-structure, even at ambient pressure and temperature. Our results show that not only carbon nano-tubes should be considered for hydrogen reservoir and that low cost materials such as activated carbons could be convenient in appropriate conditions.

  9. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  10. Spatial Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China's Croplands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Qiang; YU Gui-Rui; ZHAO Qian-Jun; NIU Dong; CHEN Qing-Mei; WU Zhi-Feng

    2005-01-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is the largest component of terrestrial carbon pools. With the construction of a geographically referenced database taken from the second national general soil survey materials and based on 1 546typical cropland soil profiles, the paddy field and dryland SOC storage among six regions of China were systematically quantified to characterize the spatial pattern of cropland SOC storage in China and to examine the relationship between mean annual temperature, precipitation, soil texture features and SOC content. In all regions, paddy soils had higher SOC storage than dryland soils, and cropland SOC content was the highest in Southwest China. Climate controlled the spatial distribution of SOC in both paddy and dryland soils, with SOC storage increasing with increasing precipitation and decreasing with increasing temperature.

  11. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  12. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage: Model Regulatory Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are set to double by 2050 unless decisive action is taken. International Energy Agency (IEA) analysis demonstrates, however, that it is possible -- in the same timeframe to 2050 -- to reduce projected greenhouse-gas emissions to half 2005 levels, but this will require an energy technology revolution, involving the aggressive deployment of a portfolio of low-carbon energy technologies.

  14. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  15. The Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Optoelectric Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent studies on carbon nanotube (CNT fibers for weavable device of optoelectric conversion and energy storage. The intrinsic properties of individual CNTs make the CNT fibers ideal candidates for optoelectric conversion and energy storage. Many potential applications such as solar cell, supercapacitor, and lithium ion battery have been envisaged. The recent advancement in CNT fibers for optoelectric conversion and energy storage and the current challenge including low energy conversion efficiency and low stability and future direction of the energy fiber have been finally summarized in this paper.

  16. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity. PMID:28094794

  17. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; de Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  18. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  19. Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon (GOSAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, J C

    2002-04-02

    GOSAC was an EC-funded project (1998-2001) focused on improving the predictive capacity and accelerating development of global-scale, three-dimensional, ocean carbon-cycle models by means of standardized model evaluation and model intercomparison. Through the EC Environment and Climate Programme, GOSAC supported the participation of seven European modeling groups in the second phase of the larger international effort OCMIP (the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project). OCMIP included model comparison and validation for both CO{sub 2} and other ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers. Beyond the international OCMIP effort, GOSAC also supported the same EC ocean carbon cycle modeling groups to make simulations to evaluate the efficiency of purposeful sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean. Such sequestration, below the thermocline has been proposed as a strategy to help mitigate the increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Some technical and scientific highlights of GOSAC are given.

  20. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Kristy [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept., A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; McDonough, John K. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Presser, Volker [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Heon, Min [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Dion, Genevieve [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept.; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage: Legal and Regulatory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) considers carbon capture and storage (CCS) a crucial part of worldwide efforts to limit global warming by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. The IEA has estimated that the broad deployment of low-carbon energy technologies could reduce projected 2050 emissions to half 2005 levels -- and that CCS could contribute about one-fifth of those reductions. Reaching that goal, however, would require around 100 CCS projects to be implemented by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050.

  2. Unravelling the Contested Nature of Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our climate is changing. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as an important technology to reduce CO2 emissions in order to avoid dangerous climate change. The implementation of CCS is however slow and CCS is publicly contested. This thesis focuses on the debate on this technology.

  3. Research on the Measurement of Carbon Storage in Plantation Tree Trunks Based on the Carbon Storage Dynamic Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weida Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of forest carbon storage can be of great significance to the research on the productivity of terrestrial ecosystem, carbon cycle, and global warming. China has more than 54 million hm2 barren hills and waste land suitable for forestation, which provides a great potential for developing carbon sink forestry by means of forestation. This research analyzed the volume increments, volume densities, and carbon contents of 15 analytical samples of five main plantation tree species in North China, including Pinus tabulaeformis (A, Robinia pseudoacacia (B, Populus euramericana (C, Larix olgenisis (D, and Larix kaempferi (E. Results showed that carbon storage dynamic process can be expressed as follows: the ages of quantitative maturity of each tree species are 67a, 40a, 30a, 48a, 49a, respectively; the average wood densities of each tree species at different age classes are 550.93 kg/m3, 629.25 kg/m3, 404.56 kg/m3, 592.33 kg/m3, and 544.11 kg/m3,t. The average carbon contents of each tree species at different age classes are 51.48%, 46.88%, 47.81%, 46.76%, and 47.24%. It showed a significant difference between the above tree species through variance test. The maximum values of average carbon storage are 70a, 40a, 30a, 48.7a, and 49.2a, respectively. The corresponding average carbon storages are A 2.527 kg, B 3,794 kg, C 2.781 kg, D 2.996 kg, and E 3,322 kg, in a descending order of C>E>D>B>A. This research, through experiment on four tree species with clear growth rings and one tree species with unclear growth rings, verified the scientific character and the scope of application of the carbon storage dynamic analysis method, providing a new method for the measurement and analysis of forest carbon storage.

  4. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  5. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Morrison, Robert L.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  6. Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P

    2009-09-25

    The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  8. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  9. Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Todd-Brown, Katherine

    2015-06-01

    The size of the terrestrial sink remains uncertain. This uncertainty presents a challenge for projecting future climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. Terrestrial carbon storage is dependent on the availability of nitrogen for plant growth, and nitrogen limitation is increasingly included in global models. Widespread phosphorus limitation in terrestrial ecosystems may also strongly regulate the global carbon cycle, but explicit considerations of phosphorus limitation in global models are uncommon. Here we use global state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate model projections of terrestrial net primary productivity and carbon storage from 1860-2100 estimates of annual new nutrient inputs from deposition, nitrogen fixation, and weathering; and estimates of carbon allocation and stoichiometry to evaluate how simulated CO2 fertilization effects could be constrained by nutrient availability. We find that the nutrients required for the projected increases in net primary productivity greatly exceed estimated nutrient supply rates, suggesting that projected productivity increases may be unrealistically high. Accounting for nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus limitation lowers projected end-of-century estimates of net primary productivity by 19% and 25%, respectively, and turns the land surface into a net source of CO2 by 2100. We conclude that potential effects of nutrient limitation must be considered in estimates of the terrestrial carbon sink strength through the twenty-first century.

  10. Carbon dioxide: A new material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amouroux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  11. Carbon dioxide:A new material for energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques Amouroux; Paul Siffert; Jean Pierre Massué; Simeon Cavadias; Béatriz Trujillo; Koji Hashimoto; Phillip Rutberg; Sergey Dresvin; Xianhong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  12. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  13. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycomb

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yan; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotropes, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks are constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are calculated by using first principles methods. All networks are porous metal with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channels is originated from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channels is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m/s. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capa...

  14. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Takao [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  15. Relationships among carbon inputs, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil carbon storage in a monoculture corn ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M. J.; Brown, K.; Hofmockel, K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon inputs are positively associated with soil organic carbon storage. Soil organic carbon can be stored in relatively stable pools through: silt + clay association and aggregation. Current models predict that the proportion of new carbon inputs that can be stabilized by silt + clay and aggregates decreases in proportion to the amount of organic matter already present in the fraction. Accordingly, as the capacity to stabilize organic matter approaches zero (full capacity), the efficiency of organic matter stabilization decreases and a greater proportion of organic matter inputs is respired as CO2 or accumulate as litter or easily mineralizable particulate organic matter. The organic matter storage capacity of silt + clay particles is a function of soil texture and mineralogy whereas aggregate storage capacity is also affected by biological factors such as mycorrhizae abundance. We explored relationships among net primary production (carbon inputs), mycorrhizae, and soil organic matter storage in a long-term monoculture corn ecosystem. Replicated plots of corn were grown with one of five nitrogen fertilizer input rates (0-228 kg ha-1 h-y) to impart differences in net primary productivity. The fertilizer rates had no effect on soil C/N ratio. However, the fertilizer rate was positively associated with mycorrhizae abundance and soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increases were the result of an increase in soil aggregate-protected carbon only; silt + clay associated carbon did not differ with fertilizer rate. These results are inconsistent with models that predict aggregate and silt + clay pools reach capacity at similar rates. A positive correlation among soil carbon stored in aggregates and mycorrhizae helps to explain this result.

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review. Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) considers carbon capture and storage (CCS) a crucial part of worldwide efforts to limit global warming by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. The IEA estimates that emissions can be reduced to a level consistent with a 2°C global temperature increase through the broad deployment of low-carbon energy technologies – and that CCS would contribute about one-fifth of emission reductions in this scenario. Achieving this level of deployment will require that regulatory frameworks – or rather a lack thereof – do not unnecessarily impede environmentally safe demonstration and deployment of CCS, so in October 2010 the IEA launched the IEA Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review. The CCS Review is a regular review of CCS regulatory progress worldwide. Produced annually, it collates contributions by national and regional governments, as well as leading organisations engaged in CCS regulatory activities, to provide a knowledge-sharing forum to support CCS framework development. Each two page contribution provides a short summary of recent and anticipated CCS regulatory developments and highlights a particular, pre-nominated regulatory theme. To introduce each edition, the IEA provides a brief analysis of key advances and trends, based on the contributions submitted. The theme for this third edition is stakeholder engagement in the development of CO2 storage projects. Other issues addressed include: regulating CO2-EOR, CCS and CO2-EOR for storage; CCS incentive policy; key, substantive issues being addressed by jurisdictions taking steps to finalise CCS regulatory framework development; and CCS legal and regulatory developments in the context of the Clean Energy Ministerial Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  19. Nanostructured carbon and carbon nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the important technologies for a sustainable future of our society, in times of energy crisis. Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with their high energy or power densities, portability, and promising cycling life are the cores of future technologies. This Review describes some materials science aspects on nanocarbon-based materials for these applications. Nanostructuring (decreasing dimensions) and nanoarchitecturing (combining or assembling several nanometer-scale building blocks) are landmarks in the development of high-performance electrodes for with long cycle lifes and high safety. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown higher performances for such electrodes, but mostly give diverse values that show no converging tendency towards future development. The lack of knowledge about interface processes and defect dynamics of electrodes, as well as the missing cooperation between material scientists, electrochemists, and battery engineers, are reasons for the currently widespread trial-and-error strategy of experiments. A concerted action between all of these disciplines is a prerequisite for the future development of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  20. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  1. Landscape configuration modulates carbon storage in seagrass sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricart, Aurora M.; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has increased interest in seagrass systems as natural carbon sinks and recent studies have estimated the carbon stocks associated with seagrass meadows. However, the factors that affect their variability remain poorly understood. This paper assesses how landscape-level attributes (patch size and matrix composition) influence carbon storage in seagrass sediments. We quantified the organic carbon (Corg) content and other geochemical properties (δ13C and particle size) in surface sediments of continuous Posidonia oceanica meadows, patchy meadows interspersed with rocky-algal reefs and patchy meadows on sedimentary bottoms. We also took samples of potential carbon sources for isotopic composition determination. Our results indicate that the continuous meadows accumulated larger amounts of Corg than patchy meadows, whether embedded in a rock or sand matrix. The Corg from continuous meadows was also more 13C enriched, which suggests that a high proportion of the carbon was derived from plant material (autochthonous sources); in contrast in patchy meadows (especially in a sand matrix), lower δ13C values indicated a higher contribution from allochthonous sources (mainly suspended particulate organic matter, SPOM). These findings suggest that the sediment of continuous meadows stores more Corg in than that of patchy meadows. This is probably due to the increased contribution from seagrass leaves, which are much more refractory than SPOM. In general, certain landscape configurations, and especially patchiness, appear to reduce the carbon storage capacity of seagrasses. Since the current decline of seagrass is leading to habitat fragmentation, our results increase the argument for the promotion of effective measures to preserve the integrity of these natural carbon sinks.

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  3. BASALT CARBONATION AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN CO2 STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are indicated as a major contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect. There are several options to reduce these levels and the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is identified as an effective way to decrease the concentration of this gas. In this work, it is present the indirect carbonation of basalt, as well as, a study of abundance and occurrence of this mineral and its proximity to emission sources of CO2 . After examining the map constructed by matching Brazilian regions with high emission and regions where there are basalt occurrences, one can conclude that the South and Southeast regions have a great potential for geological storage into basalt. This is due to the occurrence of emission sources very close to the basalt area. The carbonation reaction is efficient, as evidenced by atomic absorption analysis, showing a high rate of conversion of leached ions into carbonate. SEM and EDS analysis indicate the formation of precipitated ferrous calcite, which suggests an efficient indirect carbonation.

  4. Forest Carbon-Storage as a Peacebuilding Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro

    carbon biomass and armed conflicts. With this in mind, the present dissertation utilizes household-level surveys and data at the municipal-scale to assess potential for the integration of forest-carbon storage and peacebuilding efforts. Specifically, household surveys were used to identify factors....... Results suggest high potential for adoption of REDD+ among conflict affected farmers and that peacebuilding efforts, such as land tenure programs, predispose farmers toward forest conservation. Nonetheless, deforestation is still present in the study area. Similarly, our results show potential national...

  5. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  6. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J.; Turton, Stephen M.; Pert, Petina L.; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m2 of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389

  7. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  8. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  10. Recent advances in understanding the capacitive storage in microporous carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffos, B.; Taberna, P.L. [Universite de Toulouse, CIRIMAT, UMR-CNRS 5085, Toulouse (France); Gogotsi, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Simon, P.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a review of our recent work on capacitance of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs). Specific capacitance as high as 14 {mu}F cm{sup -2} or 160 F g{sup -1} was achieved using CDCs with tailored subnanometer pore size, which is significantly higher than 6 {mu}F cm{sup -2} or 100 F g{sup -1} for conventional activated carbons. Such high capacitance was obtained in several types of organic electrolytes with or without solvent. A maximum is obtained for the carbons with the mean pore size close to the bare ion size, ruling out the traditional point of view that mesoporosity is highly required for maximum capacitance. Surprisingly, carbons with subnanometer porosity exhibit high capacitance retention, since only a 10% loss is measured when 6 A g{sup -1} discharge is drawn. These findings show the importance of fitting the ion size with the mean pore size. The double layer theory falls short to explain such charge storage mechanisms at the nanometer scale; thus atomistic modelling is required to find out an alternative charge storage model. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Storage of hydrogen on carbons; Stockage de l'hydrogene sur les carbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS-CRMD, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    2000-07-01

    The storage of hydrogen on carbons, with densities above 10% hydrogen weight, can be used in the sector of transport. However, only the physical-sorption of this gas (which is almost perfect and boils at 20 K under atmospheric pressure) cannot explain this performance. A study of the possible sites for one hydrogen, which can take very different forms, is presented, in order to better understand the rational development of this storage mode which could reach about ten weight %. (O.M.)

  12. Novel Carbons as Electrodes for Electrical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk I will speculate about directions for carbon materials as the electrode(s) in EES systems such as ultracapacitors and Li ion batteries. Perhaps the penultimate electrode material for ultracapacitors (based on charge storage by electrical double layer capacitance, EDLC) would be a ``negative curvature carbon'' (NCC, akin to the Schwartzite structures) with atom thick walls, and possibly substitutionally doped with, e.g., N atoms in case the all-carbon structure were limited by quantum (i.e., intrinsic) capacitance. Such an NCC would have a distribution of pore sizes that would likely (for optimal performance) span ``mesoscale'' and ``microscale'' pores, which in the parlance of porous materials means pores ``above 2-3 nanometers'' and pores ``below about 2 nanometers,'' respectively. Making such materials offers exciting challenges for materials chemists/synthetic chemists, and to date only the ``basic'' Schwarzite structures (ideal crystals studied by DFT with periodic boundary conditions and relatively simple unit cells) have been modeled in terms of properties such as their electronic states and in some cases, potential as all carbon ferromagnets. I identified the NCCs as candidates for EES for ultracapacitors, in a paper published in Science in 2011 with coauthors. We made an aperiodic carbon that had atom thick walls and surface areas as high as 3200 m2/g, along with ``good'' powder electrical conductivity, high carbon content, and apparently close to 100% trivalently bonded carbon in the walls of this very porous carbon. We have learned in one set of experiments, as published in Energy and Environmental Science, that doping with N atoms can increase the EDLC, which we suggest could be a consequence of limiting quantum capacitance in the all-carbon analogue.

  13. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  14. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kittrell, Carter [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  16. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  17. Synthesis and Hydrogen Storage in Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by a hydrogen arc discharge method. A high yield of gram quantity of SWNTs per hour was achieved. Tow kinds of SWNT products: web-like substance and thin films in large slices were obtained. Results of resonant Raman scattering measurements indicate that the SWNTs prepared have a wider diameter distribution and a larger mean diameter. Hydrogen uptake measurements of the two kinds of SWNT samples (both as prepared and pretreated) were carried out using a high pressure volumetric method,respectively. And a hydrogen storage capacity of 4 wt pct could be repeatedly achieved for the suitably pretreated SWNTs, which indicates that SWNTs may be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  18. The Economics of EU Carbon Capture and Storage Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, Ger; Brockett, Scott (European Commission (Belgium)); Mantzos, Leonidas; Papandreou, V.; Capros, Pantelis (National Techncal University of Athens, Athens (Greece))

    2008-07-01

    This paper assesses policy options to stimulate the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the EU. It examines the impacts of enabling CCS under the EU emission trading scheme, making CCS mandatory and subsidies to accompany climate mitigation efforts of the EU. The analysis uses a partial equilibrium energy model and external data. The results suggest that enabling CCS as part of the EU CO{sub 2} trading scheme could save 60 billion - with small impacts on employment. The additional costs of making CCS mandatory or using subsidies are not warranted by the additional cost savings and benefits

  19. 75 FR 6087 - A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of February 3, 2010 A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and... investment in carbon capture and storage of any nation in history, and these investments are being matched by... technologies, I hereby establish an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage (Task Force)....

  20. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  1. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  2. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  3. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  4. A Policy Strategy for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Successful deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is critically dependent on comprehensive policy support. While policy plays an important role in the deployment of many low-carbon technologies, it is especially crucial for CCS. This is because, in contrast to renewable energy or applications of energy efficiency, CCS generates no revenue, nor other market benefits, so long as there is no price on CO2 emissions. It is both costly to install and, once in place, has increased operating costs. Effective, well-designed policy support is essential in overcoming these barriers and the subsequent deployment of CCS technology. This guide for policy makers aims to assist those involved in designing national and international policies around CCS. It covers development of CCS from its early stages through to wide-scale deployment of the technology. The focus is both on incentives for conventional fossil-fuel CCS and for bioenergy with CCS (BECCS).

  5. Dependence of CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension on Aquifer Pressure, Temperature and Water Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, S.; Bennion, B.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a climate-change mitigation strategy that has significant potential in the short-to-medium term. The displacement of formation water by CO2 (drainage) and of CO2 by invading aquifer brine (imbibition) depend on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the CO2-brine system. To provide needed data, an extensive laboratory program was conducted for the measurement of the interfacial tension between CO2 and water or brine covering the ranges of 2 to 27 MPa pressure, 20°C to 125°C temperature, and 0 to 334,000 mg/l water salinity. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the pendant drop method combined with the Laplace solution for the profile of the brine drop in the CO2-rich environment. The analysis of the resulting set of 294 IFT measurements reveals that: 1) for conditions of constant temperature and water salinity, IFT decreases steeply with increasing pressure in the range PPc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high pressures; 2) for the same conditions of constant pressure and temperature, IFT increases with increasing water salinity, reflecting decreasing CO2 solubility in brine as salinity increases; 3) the dependence of IFT on temperature is more complex, depending on the CO2 phase. For TTc, with an asymptotic trend towards a constant value for high temperatures. These results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers, the formation water displacement by injected CO2 during the injection phase of CO2 storage and the CO2 displacement by invading brine during the CO2 migration phase depend on the in-situ conditions of pressure, temperature and water salinity through the effects that these primary variables have on the IFT between CO2 and aquifer brine. Since the IFT of CO2-brine systems affects relative permeability and capillary pressure, it is essential that the in-situ conditions and their effect of secondary variables are properly taken into account when

  6. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  7. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review. Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects must be implemented by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to fully contribute to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. To help countries address the many legal and regulatory issues associated with such rapid deployment, the IEA launched the Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review (CCS Review) in October 2010. The CCS Review gathers contributions by national and regional governments, as well as leading organisations engaged in CCS regulatory activities, to provide a knowledge-sharing forum that supports national-level CCS regulatory development. Each contribution provides a short summary of recent and anticipated developments and highlights a particular regulatory theme (such as financial contributions to long-term stewardship). To introduce each edition, the IEA provides a brief analysis of key advances and trends. Produced bi-annually, the CCS Review provides an up-to-date snapshot of global CCS regulatory developments. The theme for the second edition of the CCS Review, released in May 2011, is long-term liability for stored CO2. Other key issues addressed include: national progress towards implementation of the EU CCS Directive; developments in marine treaties relevant to CCS; international climate change negotiations; and the development process for CCS regulation.

  9. Porous Silicon Carbide/Carbon Composite Microspherules for Methane Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengbo Li; Qingli Qian; Shufeng Zhang; Fang Yan; Guoqing Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide/carbon (SiC/C) microspherules were prepared by the controlled heating treatment of polymer and silica hybrid precursors over 1000 ℃ in Ar/H2 stream. The resultant SiC/C composite shows improved physical properties such as excellent mechanical strength, regular physical form, and high packing density. Such improvement overcomes the main inherent problems encountered when using activated carbons as absorbents without sacrificing porosity properties. N2 sorption analysis shows that the SiC/C composite has a BET surface area of 1793 m2/g and a pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Methane adsorption isotherm is determined by the conventional volumetric method at 25 ℃ and up to 7.0 MPa. On volumetric basis, the SiC/C composite microspherules show methane storage of 145 (V/V) at 3.5 MPa and 25 ℃. The combination of excellent physical properties and porosity properties in this SiC/C composite lends a great possibility to develop a competitive storage system for natural gas.

  10. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  11. Highly precise atmospheric oxygen measurements as a tool to detect leaks of carbon dioxide from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion is stored underground into a geological formation. Although the storage of CO2 is considered as safe, leakage to the atmosphere is an important concern and monitoring is necessary. Detecting and quantifying leaks o

  12. How aware is the public of carbon capture and storage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T.; Herzog, H.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Energy and the Environment; Reiner, D.M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, (United States). Judge Inst. of Management; Ansolabehere, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a survey conducted in the fall of 2003 that examined attitudes toward, and understanding of, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), also known as carbon sequestration. The study was conducted as part of broad range of questions about energy and the environment. The goal of the survey was to determine attitudes toward spending on the environment. In particular, the survey asked 17 questions to determine the level of public understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle and to determine public awareness of CCS. In addition to demographic information, the survey determined the effect of national energy usage information and price data on public preferences. The paper also presented some implications for public acceptance. The survey showed that the environment ranked thirteenth on a list of 22 issues facing the United States at the time of the survey, with the top three being terrorism, health care and the economy. The survey also asked respondents to choose the 2 most important of 10 environmental problems, namely water pollution, destruction of ecosystems, toxic waste, overpopulation, ozone depletion, global warming, urban sprawl, smog, endangered species, and acid rain. Global warming ranked sixth out of the issues in the survey. It was noted that very few people in the United States have heard of CCS, and those who have heard of it were no more likely to know what environmental concern it addressed than those who had not heard of CCS. 13 refs.

  13. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  14. [Characteristics of carbon storage and its allocation in Erythrophleum fordii plantations with different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, An-Gang; Jia, Hong-Yan; Tian, Zu-Wei; Tao, Yi; Lu, Li-Hu; Cai, Dao-Xiong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Wang, Wei-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Carbon storage and its allocation of 7-, 29- and 32-year-old Erythrophleum fordii plantation ecosystems in Guangxi were studied on the basis of biomass survey. The results showed that the carbon contents in different organs of E. fordii, ranging from 509.0 to 572.4 g x kg(-1), were in the order of stem > branch > root > bark > leaf. No significant differences in carbon content were observed among the shrub, herb and litter layers of the E. fordii plantations with different ages. Carbon content in the soil layer (0-100 cm) decreased with increasing the soil depth, but increased with increasing the stand age. The carbon storage of the arbor layer was 21.8, 100.0 and 121.6 t x hm(-2) for 7-, 29- and 32-year-old stands, respectively, and the order of carbon storage allocation in different organs was same as the order of carbon content. The 7-, 29- and 32-year-old E. fordii plantation ecosystems stored carbon at 132.6, 220.2 and 242.6 t x hm(-2), respectively. The arbor layer and soil layer were the main carbon pools, accounting for more than 97% of carbon storage in the ecosystem. Carbon storage allocation increased in arbor layer but decreased in soil layer with increasing the stand age. The influence of stand age on carbon storage allocation in shrub, herb and litter layers did not show a obvious regular pattern.

  15. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  16. Greening coal : clean coal and carbon capture and storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, B.

    2008-09-15

    Clean coal technology and carbon capture and storage (CCS) programs used in Canada were discussed. EPCOR's Genesee 3 project uses supercritical combustion methods and has committed $90 towards the implementation of clean air technologies. The company is also constructing new waste water systems and is expanding its environmental remediation programs. The company has recently constructed a 450 MW supercritical coal-fired unit in Edmonton. The plant uses supercritical boiler technology and high efficiency steam turbines that result in significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The Alberta Saline Aquifer Project (ASAP) is an industry-supported carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project developed to identify locations for the long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. ASAP is expected to play a major role in advancing the knowledge of CCS technology in Canada. The Integrated CO{sub 2} Network (ICO{sub 2}N) is supported by a consortium of Canadian companies dedicated to meeting Canada's climate change commitments through the widespread implementation of CCS and the creation of infrastructure needed to implement CCS technologies. The Wabamun Lake area was selected by the Alberta Geological Survey as a potential site for CCS due to its proximity to several industrial sources of CO{sub 2}. A new CCS demonstration conducted at SaskPower's Boundary Dam Power Station in Estevan, Saskatchewan. The project aims to capture 500,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} annually by integrating carbon capture technology with a coal-fired generation unit. 3 figs.

  17. Global Action to Advance Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Representing one-fifth of total global CO2 emissions currently, industrial sectors such as cement, iron and steel, chemicals and refining are expected to emit even more CO2 over the coming decades. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently the only large-scale mitigation option available to cut the emissions intensity of production by over 50% in these sectors. CCS is already proven in some industrial sectors, such as natural gas processing. Yet, the commercial-scale demonstration stage in key sectors such as iron and steel, cement or some processes in the refining sector has not been reached. To achieve decarbonisation goals, policy makers must pay more attention to industrial applications of CCS, while not undermining the global competitiveness of these sectors.

  18. Hydrogen storage and delivery: the carbon dioxide - formic acid couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenczy, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and the carbonates, the available natural C1 sources, can be easily hydrogenated into formic acid and formates in water; the rate of this reduction strongly depends on the pH of the solution. This reaction is catalysed by ruthenium(II) pre-catalyst complexes with a large variety of water-soluble phosphine ligands; high conversions and turnover numbers have been realised. Although ruthenium(II) is predominant in these reactions, the iron(II) - tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)-ethyl]phosphine (PP3) complex is also active, showing a new perspective to use abundant and inexpensive iron-based compounds in the CO2 reduction. In the catalytic hydrogenation cycles the in situ formed metal hydride complexes play a key role, their structures with several other intermediates have been proven by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In the other hand safe and convenient hydrogen storage and supply is the fundamental question for the further development of the hydrogen economy; and carbon dioxide has been recognised to be a viable H2 vector. Formic acid--containing 4.4 weight % of H2, that is 53 g hydrogen per litre--is suitable for H2 storage; we have shown that in aqueous solutions it can be selectively decomposed into CO-free (CO < 10 ppm) CO2 and H2. The reaction takes place under mild experimental conditions and it is able to generate high pressure H2 (up to 600 bar). The cleavage of HCOOH is catalysed by several hydrophilic Ru(II) phosphine complexes (meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, mTPPTS, being the most efficient one), either in homogeneous systems or as immobilised catalysts. We have also shown that the iron(II)--hydrido tris[(2-diphenylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine complex catalyses with an exceptionally high rate and efficiency (turnover frequency, TOF = 9425 h(-1)mol(-1); turnover number, TON = 92400) the formic acid cleavage, in environmentally friendly propylene carbonate solution, opening the way to use cheap, non-noble metal based catalysts for this

  19. Ecosystem carbon storage and partitioning in a tropical seasonal forest in Southwestern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Jiang-Xia; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    in Malaysia. The variation of C storage in the tree layer among different plots was mainly due to different densities of large trees (DBH > 70 cm). The contributions of the shrub layer, herb layer, woody lianas, and fine litter each accounted for 1-2 t C ha-1 to the total carbon stock. The mineral soil C......Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Despite an increasing number of studies have addressed carbon storage in tropical forests, the regional variation in such storage remains poorly understood. Uncertainty about how much carbon is stored in tropical forests...... is an important limitation for regional-scale estimates of carbon fluxes and improving these estimates requires extensive field studies of both above- and belowground stocks. In order to assess the carbon pools of a tropical seasonal forest in Asia, total ecosystem carbon storage was investigated in Xishuangbanna...

  20. Mangrove carbon sink. Do burrowing crabs contribute to sediment carbon storage? Evidence from a Kenyan mangrove system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are acknowledged as a significant carbon reservoir, with a potential key role as carbon sinks. Little however is known on sediment/soil capacity to store organic carbon and the impact of benthic fauna on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in mangrove C-poor soils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of macrobenthos on SOC storage and dynamic in mangrove forest at Gazi Bay (Kenya). Although the relatively low amount of organic carbon (OC%) in these soils, they resulted...

  1. [Carbon storage and its allocation in mixed alder-cypress plantations at different age stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-year-old mixed alder (Alnus cremastogyne)-cypress (Cupressus funebris) plantations and the 30-year-old pure cypress plantation succeeded from mixed alder-cypress plantation in the hilly area of central Sichuan Basin were chosen as test objects to study the dynamic changes and allocation patterns of their carbon storage. The results showed that the vegetation carbon storage in mixed alder-cypress plantations increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, and reached 52.40 t x hm(-2) at the age stage of 30-year. The vegetation carbon storage of arbor layer at each age stage was more than 85.59% of the total, and the soil carbon storage within 0-40 cm layer increased significantly (P 0.05). The carbon storage of the mixed alder-cypress plantations increased significantly from the age stage of 10- to 15-year, with the maximum (118.13 t x hm(-2)) at the age stage of 15-year, but declined from the age stage of 15- to 25-year while increased slightly from the age stage of 25- to 30-year. The proportion of vegetation carbon storage increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, whereas that of soil carbon storage was in adverse. Comparing with other types of plantations in China, mixed alder-cypress plantation had a lower storage of carbon.

  2. Increased fire frequency optimization of black carbon mixing and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey; Masiello, Caroline; Clark, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon makes up a substantial part of the global carbon budget and black carbon (BC - produced from incomplete combustion of biomass) can be significant fraction of soil carbon. Soil BC cycling is still poorly understood - very old BC is observed in soils, suggesting recalcitrance, yet in short term lab and field studies BC sometimes breaks down rapidly. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of fires, which will increase global production of BC. As up to 80% of BC produced in wildfires can remain at the fire location, increased fire frequency will cause significant perturbations to soil BC accumulation. This creates a challenge in estimating soil BC storage, in light of a changing climate and an increased likelihood of fire. While the chemical properties of BC are relatively well-studied, its physical properties are much less well understood, and may play crucial roles in its landscape residence time. One important property is density. When BC density is less than 1 g/cm3 (i.e. the density of water), it is highly mobile and can easily leave the landscape. This landscape mobility following rainfall may inflate estimates of its degradability, making it crucial to understand both the short- and long term density of BC particles. As BC pores fill with minerals, making particles denser, or become ingrown with root and hyphal anchors, BC is likely to become protected from erosion. Consequently, how quickly BC is mixed deeper into the soil column is likely a primary controller on BC accumulation. Additionally the post-fire recovery of soil litter layers caps BC belowground, protecting it from erosional forces and re-combustion in subsequent fires, but still allowing bioturbation deeper into the soil column. We have taken advantage of a fire chronosequence in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey to investigate how density of BC particles change over time, and how an increase in fire frequency affects soil BC storage and soil column movement. Our plots have

  3. Deployment models for commercialized carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Richard A; Monroe, Larry S; Friedman, Julio S

    2011-01-01

    Even before technology matures and the regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been developed, electrical utilities will need to consider the logistics of how widespread commercial-scale operations will be deployed. The framework of CCS will require utilities to adopt business models that ensure both safe and affordable CCS operations while maintaining reliable power generation. Physical models include an infrastructure with centralized CO(2) pipelines that focus geologic sequestration in pooled regional storage sites or supply CO(2) for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and a dispersed plant model with sequestration operations which take place in close proximity to CO(2) capture. Several prototypical business models, including hybrids of these two poles, will be in play including a self-build option, a joint venture, and a pay at the gate model. In the self-build model operations are vertically integrated and utility owned and operated by an internal staff of engineers and geologists. A joint venture model stresses a partnership between the host site utility/owner's engineer and external operators and consultants. The pay to take model is turn-key external contracting to a third party owner/operator with cash positive fees paid out for sequestration and cash positive income for CO(2)-EOR. The selection of a business model for CCS will be based in part on the desire of utilities to be vertically integrated, source-sink economics, and demand for CO(2)-EOR. Another element in this decision will be how engaged a utility decides to be and the experience the utility has had with precommercial R&D activities. Through R&D, utilities would likely have already addressed or at least been exposed to the many technical, regulatory, and risk management issues related to successful CCS. This paper provides the framework for identifying the different physical and related prototypical business models that may play a role for electric utilities in

  4. Hierarchically structured carbon nanotubes for energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    As the world population continues to increase, large amounts of energy are consumed. Reality pushes us to find new energy or use our current energy more efficiently. Researches on energy conversion and storage have become increasingly important and essential. This grand challenge research has led to a recent focus on nanostructured materials. Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play a critical role in all of these nanotechnology challenges. CNTs have a very large surface area, a high electrochemical accessibility, high electronic conductivity and strong mechanical properties. This combination of properties makes them promising materials for energy device applications, such as FETs, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and lithium batteries. This study focuses on exploring the possibility of using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) as the electrode materials in these energy applications. For the application of electrode materials, electrical conductive, vertically aligned CNTs with controllable length and diameter were synthesized. Several CVD methods for VA-CNT growth have been explored, although the iron / aluminum pre-coated catalyst CVD system was the main focus. A systematic study of several factors, including growth time, temperature, gas ratio, catalyst coating was conducted. The mechanism of VA-CNTs was discussed and a model for VA-CNT length / time was proposed to explain the CNT growth rate. Furthermore, the preferential growth of semiconducting (up to 96 atom% carbon) VA-SWNTs by using a plasma enhanced CVD process combined with fast heating was also explored, and these semiconducting materials have been directly used for making FETs using simple dispersion in organic solvent, without any separation and purification. Also, by inserting electron-accepting nitrogen atoms into the conjugated VA-CNT structure during the growth process, we synthesized vertically aligned nitrogen containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs). After purification of

  5. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  6. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...... concentration development scenario. The potential mitigation value depends on the timing of sequestration and re-emission of CO2. The suggested CTP approach enables inclusion of the potential benefit from temporary carbon storage in the environmental profile of biomaterials. This should be seen as supplement...... value of temporary carbon storage in terms of climate change mitigation has been widely discussed, this has not yet been directly coupled to avoiding climatic target levels representing predicted climatic tipping points. This paper provides recommendations on how to model temporary carbon storage...

  7. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-08-15

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  8. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been...

  9. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  10. Carbon capture and storage - legal and regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russial, T.J. [US Carbon Sequestration Council (United States)

    2011-01-15

    In 1998, a colleague introduced a paper on greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction with a famous Mark Twain quote: 'Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.' Humour aside, the colleague's point was to highlight the considerable body of work under way to develop technologies to address the climate change impacts of GHG emissions. One option is carbon capture and storage (CCS), a technology that has been in the making for over 50 years. Thousands of scientists, engineers, and policymakers throughout the world are not only talking about CCS, but also diligently pursuing the technical know-how and legal and regulatory frameworks needed to deploy CCS as a climate change solution. CCS has many passionate supporters, some equally passionate detractors, and some who view it as a technology that must be tolerated to bridge the gap to fossil-free energy. This is a progress report on CCS readiness throughout the world with regard to the legal and regulatory framework development that is critical to CCS deployment. 177 refs., 7

  11. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility.

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increase soil carbon storage: molecular signatures of mycorrhizal competition driving soil C storage at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, C.; Barry, B. K.; Hawkes, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbon storage and decay is regulated by the activity of free-living decomposer microbes, which can be limited by nitrogen availability. Many plants associate with symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi on their roots, which produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes and may be able to compete with free-living decomposers for soil organic nitrogen. By doing so, ectomycorrhizal fungi may able to induce nitrogen limitation and reduce activity of free-living microbial decomposition by mining soil organic nitrogen. The implication is that ectomycorrhizal-dominated systems should have increased soil carbon storage relative to non-ectomycorrhizal systems, which has been confirmed at a global scale. To investigate these effects, we analyzed 364 globally distributed observations of soil fungal communities using 454 sequencing of the ITS region, along with soil C and N concentrations, climate and chemical data. We assigned operational taxonomic units using the QIIME pipeline and UNITE fungal database and assigned fungal reads as ectomycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal based on current taxonomic knowledge. We tested for associations between ectomycorrhizal abundance, climate, and soil carbon and nitrogen. Sites with greater soil carbon had quantitatively more ectomycorrhizal fungi within the soil microbial community based on fungal sequence abundance, after accounting for soil nitrogen availability. This is consistent with our hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal fungi induce nitrogen-limitation of free-living decomposers and thereby increase soil carbon storage. The strength of the mycorrhizal effect increased non-linearly with ectomycorrhizal abundance: the greater the abundance, the greater the effect size. Mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture and soil pH were also significant predictors in the final AIC selected model. This analysis suggests that molecular data on soil microbial communities can be used to make quantitative biogeochemical predictions. The

  13. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity.

  14. Carbon storage and spatial distribution patterns of paddy soils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongjie; LIU Qinghua; SHI Xuezheng; YU Dongsheng; ZHAO Yongcun; SUN Weixia; Jeremy Landon Darilek

    2007-01-01

    Carbon storage in agricultural soils plays a key role in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycles.Paddy soil is one of the major cultivated soil types in China and is of critical significance in studies on soil carbon sequestration.This paper estimated the organic and inorganic carbon density and storage in paddy soils,and analyzed the paddy soil stock spatial distribution patterns in China based on subgroups and regions using the newly compiled 1:1 000 000 digital soil map of China as well as data from 1 490 paddy soil profiles.Results showed that paddy soils in China cover an area of about 45.69 Mhm2,accounting for 4.92% of total soil area in China.Soil organic and inorganic carbon densities of paddy soils in China showed a great heterogeneity.Paddy soil organic carbon densities (SOCD) in soil profile ranged from 0.53 to 446.2 kg/m2 (0 to 100 cm) while the paddy soil inorganic carbon densities (SICD) ranged from 0.05 to 90.03 kg/m2.Soil organic carbon densities of paddy soils in surface layer ranged from 0.17 to 55.38 kg/m2 (0 to 20 cm),with SICD of paddy soils ranging from 0.01 to 21.85 kg/m2.Profile based and surface layer based paddy soil carbon storages (SCS) are 5.39 Pg and 1.79 Pg,respectively.Paddy soil organic carbon storage (SOCS) accounts for 95% of the total carbon storage.Profile based and surface layer based SOCS of paddy soils are 5.09 Pg and 1.72 Pg,respectively.Soil inorganic carbon storage (SICS) of paddy soils accounts for 5% of the total carbon storage in China.Profile based and surface layer based paddy SICS are 0.30 Pg and 0.07 Pg respectively.Among all the eight paddy soil subgroups,hydromorphic,submergenic and percogenic paddy soils account for 85.2% of the total paddy soil areas all over China.Consequently,profile based carbon storages of these three subgroups account for 78.1% of the total profile based paddy SCS in China.Most paddy soils in China are distributed in the East-China,South-China and South-west China regions,therefore,92.6% of

  15. Preparation of Isolated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾飞; 刘吉平; 吕广庶; 刘华

    2006-01-01

    Isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes with high proportion of opening tips were synthesized by using alcohol as carbon source. The mechanism of cutting action of oxygen was proposed to explain its growth. Compared with carbon nanotubes synthesized with benzene as carbon source, their specific surface area was heightened by approximately 2.2 times (from 200.5 to 648 m2/g) and the hydrogen storage capacity was increased by approximately 6.5 times (from 0.95 to 7.17%, ω)which had exceeded DOE energy standard of vehicular hydrogen storage.

  16. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  17. Land Use Effects on Carbon Storage in Thailand Tropical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, F.; Tostado, E.; Chidthaisong, A.; Tyler, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of stable isotopes of C have proved to be of value in estimating soil organic C turnover times and in partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) from different sources. Typically, the contrast between sources and estimates of C turnover have been studied in ecosystems where C-3 photosynthetic plants such as hardwoods have been replaced by C-4 photosynthetic plants from agriculture such as corn or sugarcane. Here we report concentrations and stable C isotope ratios of SOC from Thailand coastal mangrove forests and intrusive coastal aquaculture in the form of shrimp and wastewater treatment ponds. There are clear changes in both magnitude and 13C/12C of SOC at former mangrove sites which have been altered to make ponds for shrimp farming and wastewater treatment. For instance, total per cent C from 0-40 cm soil depth (average of four 10 cm layers at 2 sites) was 6.2±2.8% for mature mangrove, while it was only 0.5±0.4% for a 10-year old shrimp pond and 1.3±0.4% for an 8-year old water treatment pond. Previous studies of mangrove organic C balance have indicated that these inter-tidal forest ecosystems are a sink for C and that significant C is vested in both above- and below-ground biomass and stored in sediments. Mangrove forest disturbance by human activities clearly has the potential to affect C storage. Our data indicates that stable C isotope tracing will be of value in tracking changes in coastal forest-aquaecosystems just as it has been for forest-agroecosystems

  18. Effects of Different Management Regimes for Cutover Areas on Soil Carbon Storage in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xi; Tian Dalun; Xiang Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on data collected (through local observations) for several consecutive years,comparative analyses of Chinese fir plantations in Huitong,Hunan,were made.Results show that,before harvesting,carbon storage in forest soils in these 22-year-old plantations (0-60 cm)amounted to 160.38 t/hm2;1 year after a 100%clearcutting,loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 35.00%;2 years later,the rate was 44.65%;and,after 3 years,the rate was 43.93%compared with a control area of a standing forest.Three years after 50%thinning and 100%clear-cutting,the loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 16.14 and 45.15%,respectively.There existed an evident difference in carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas in four kinds of management regimes,which followed the order:closed Chinese fir forests (108.20 t/hm2)>fallow lands after farming (92.68 t/hm )>commercial forests (85.80 t/hm2)>naturally regenerated forestlands after harvesting.Carbon storage in unbumt soil(0-45 cm) reached 73.36 t/hm2,which was 15.20 t/hm2 higher than that in the soil of burnt areas.A total of 20.7%of carbon storage in the soil (0-45 cm) of burnt areas was lost 40 days after burning.Carbon storage in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher than in the lower soil layer,which amounted to 30.04%(0-60 cm) and 53.52%(0-30 cm) of total carbon storage in the soil.

  19. Global priorities for conservation of threatened species, carbon storage, and freshwater services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Londoño-Murcia, Maria C.; Turner, Will R.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of global biodiversity conservation efforts to also deliver critical benefits, such as carbon storage and freshwater services, is still unclear. Using spatially explicit data on 3,500 range-restricted threatened species, carbon storage, and freshwater provision to people, we conduct...... for which spatial planning and appropriate conservation mechanisms (e.g., payments for ecosystem services) can be used to realize synergies and mitigate tradeoffs....

  20. Reforming fossil fuel use : the merits, costs and risks of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Kay J.

    2007-01-01

    The sense of urgency in achieving large reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions has increased the interest in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). CCS can be defined as the separation and capture of CO2 produced at large stationary sources, followed by transport and storage in geological rese

  1. The role of Carbon Capture and Storage in a future sustainable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of adding a CCS(Carbon Capture and Storage) plant including an underground CO2 storage to a well described and well documented vision of converting the present Danish fossil based energy system into a future sustainable energy system made by the Danish Society...

  2. CARBON STORAGE AND FLUXES IN PONDEROSA PINE AT DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared carbon storage and fluxes in young and old ponderosa pine stands in Oregon, including plant and soil storage, net primary productivity, respiration fluxes, and eddy flux estimates of net ecosystem exchange. The young site (Y site) was previously an old-growth pondero...

  3. Effect of Logging Operation on Soil Carbon Storage of a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton E. Satrio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Since heavy machinery are used in the logging operation activity for extracting the logs on sensitive forest site with peat soil, environment destruction should be the other concern during its processes especially on its important function as soil carbon storage. The objective of this study was to determine whether logging operation affect soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted before and after logging operation in a 0.3 ha plot to a depth of 15 cm. The soil samples were analyzed for acidity, organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The humic acid extraction was also done and soil carbon storage values were obtained by calculation. Paired t-test was used to compare variables under the two treatments (before and after logging and correlation analysis was used to correlate variables such as soil pH, soil organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, humic acid yield, unstable carbon and stable carbon. Results: The availability of unstable carbon and stable carbon controlled by soil acidity on undisturbed peat swamp forest as a result, the accumulation of unstable carbon as well as stable carbon occurred even if the soil pH declines and vice versa. However, stable carbon associated well with soil acidity. It was found that the C/P ratio positively correlated with humic acid and stable carbon of both before and after logging conditions. Nevertheless, that association was prominent on logged peat swamp forest. An indication that even though this peat swamp forest had been logged, humification was strongly maintained. However, the similarity of stable carbon of the logged peat swamp forest with stable carbon of undisturbed peat swamp forest indicate an ineffectiveness humification of logged peat swamp forest. Conclusion: Logging operation on sensitive forest with peat soil using heavy machinery increased the

  4. [Prediction of spatial distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang Province using spatial error model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng-Ri; Zhen, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Abstract: Based on the data from Chinese National Forest Inventory (CNFI) and Key Ecological Benefit Forest Monitoring plots (5075 in total) in Heilongjiang Province in 2010 and concurrent meteorological data coming from 59 meteorological stations located in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Inner Mongolia, this paper established a spatial error model (SEM) by GeoDA using carbon storage as dependent variable and several independent variables, including diameter of living trees (DBH), number of trees per hectare (TPH), elevation (Elev), slope (Slope), and product of precipitation and temperature (Rain_Temp). Global Moran's I was computed for describing overall spatial autocorrelations of model results at different spatial scales. Local Moran's I was calculated at the optimal bandwidth (25 km) to present spatial distribution residuals. Intra-block spatial variances were computed to explain spatial heterogeneity of residuals. Finally, a spatial distribution map of carbon storage in Heilongjiang was visualized based on predictions. The results showed that the distribution of forest carbon storage in Heilongjiang had spatial effect and was significantly influenced by stand, topographic and meteorological factors, especially average DBH. SEM could solve the spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity well. There were significant spatial differences in distribution of forest carbon storage. The carbon storage was mainly distributed in Zhangguangcai Mountain, Xiao Xing'an Mountain and Da Xing'an Mountain where dense, forests existed, rarely distributed in Songnen Plains, while Wanda Mountain had moderate-level carbon storage.

  5. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  6. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous reproduction of global carbon exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial carbon cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both carbon exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial carbon budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, carbon exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of carbon budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial carbon fluxes and often neglected carbon storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to carbon fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial carbon cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as carbon fluxes in the system of carbon cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the global assessment of both carbon budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of carbon allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. Carbon allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as carbon fluxes by controlling the carbon content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of carbon budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the

  8. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuran Sivapalan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For carbon capture and storage (CCS to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and

  9. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-06-09

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26-44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage.

  10. Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a win-win option? (the economic case)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G. [Future Energy Solutions, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The UK currently derived 90% of its primary energy and generates over 70% of its electricity from fossil fuels. Moreover, it has access to substantial carbon dioxide storage capacity. In particular there is potential for storage combined with Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) in the oil fields of the central and northern North Sea areas, while the gas fields of the southern North Sea offer a large near shore resource for storage. In the longer term saline aquifers offer an even large storage capacity. Consequently carbon dioxide capture and storage needs to be assessed as an important potential option for greenhouse gas abatement for the UK. This scoping study has examined the implementation, operation, economics and barriers to undertaking carbon dioxide capture and storage in the UK. It has concentrated on carbon dioxide capture from fossil fuel power stations; large 'point sources' of the gas that would need to be tackled in order to deliver significant levels of greenhouse gas abatement. Options for gas capture considered are retrofitting equipment to existing coal and natural gas fired plant as well as the construction of new coal (IGCC) and gas (GTCC) technology. Economic assessments have been made with 'present day' costs, and do not consider future improvements through technical innovation and; learning by doing', the potential of which is considerable for the mature carbon capture technologies.

  11. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    While lasting mitigation solutions are needed to avoid climate change in the long term, temporary solutions may play a positive role in terms of avoiding certain climatic target levels, for preventing the crossing of critical and perhaps irreversible climatic tipping points. While the potential...... contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...... value of temporary carbon storage in terms of climate change mitigation has been widely discussed, this has not yet been directly coupled to avoiding climatic target levels representing predicted climatic tipping points. This paper provides recommendations on how to model temporary carbon storage...

  12. Accelerating the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies : an innovation system perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to take up the twin challenge of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while meeting a growing energy demand, the potential deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies is attracting a growing interest of policy makers around the world. At present CCS is the only t

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  14. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  15. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  16. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-23

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  17. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  18. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  19. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g‑1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  20. Microbial Carbon Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134

    2010-12-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools

  1. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-08

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles.

  2. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 2: Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}, from saline aquifer sequestration to oil and gas reservoir and coal bed storage, including coverage of reservoir sealing, and monitoring and modelling techniques used to verify geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Terrestrial and ocean sequestration are also reviewed, along with the environmental impact and performance assessments for these routes. The final section reviews advanced concepts for CO{sub 2} storage and utilization, such as industrial utilization, biofixation, mineral carbonation and photocatalytic reduction.

  3. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2013-01-01

    footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon....... However, there is still no overall consensus on the most appropriate ways of considering and quantifying it. Method: This paper reviews and discusses six available methods for accounting for the potential climate impacts of carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in LCA...... and CF. Several viewpoints and approaches are presented in a structured manner to help decision-makers in their selection of an option from competing approaches for dealing with timing issues, including delayed emissions of fossil carbon. Results: Key issues identified are that the benefits of temporary...

  4. Changes in terrestrial carbon storage during interglacials: a comparison between Eemian and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A complex earth system model (atmosphere and ocean general circulation models, ocean biogeochemistry and terrestrial biosphere was used to perform transient simulations of two interglacial sections (Eemian, 128–113 ky B.P., and Holocene, 9 ky B.P.-present. The changes in terrestrial carbon storage during these interglacials were studied with respect to changes in the earth's orbit. The effect of different climate factors for the changes in carbon storage were studied in offline experiments in which the vegetation model was forced with only temperature, hydrological parameters, radiation, or CO2 concentration from the transient runs. Although temperature caused the largest anomalies in terrestrial carbon storage, the increase in storage due to forest expansion and increased photosynthesis in the high latitudes was nearly balanced by the decrease due to increased respiration. Large positive effects on carbon storage came from an enhanced monsoon circulation in the subtropics between 128 and 121 ky B.P. and between 9 and 6 ky B.P., and from increases in incoming radiation during summer for 45° to 70° N compared to a control run with present-day insolation.

    Compared to this control run, the net effect of these changes was a positive carbon storage anomaly of about 200 Pg C for 125 ky B.P. and 7 ky B.P., and a negative anomaly around 150 Pg C for 116 ky B.P. Although the net increases for Eemian and Holocene were rather similar, the causes of this differ substantially. The decrease in terrestrial carbon storage during the experiments was the main driver of an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration for both the Eemian and the Holocene.

  5. [Biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes under six types of young coniferous forest plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weikai; Lei, Bo; Leng, Li

    2005-10-01

    This paper studied the biomass and carbon storage of the ground bryophytes under young Picea balfouriana (P), Pinus tabulaeformis (Y), Pinus armandii (H), Larix kaempferi (L), Picea balfouriana-Pinus tabulaeformis (P-Y), and Pinus tabulaeformis-Pinus armandii (Y-H) forest plantations in the upper reach of Minjiang River, Sichuan Province. The results showed that total biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes were relatively low, being 3.11 - 460.36 kg x hm(-2) and 1.12 +/- 0.03 x 168.95 +/- 0.92 kg x hm(-2), respectively. On plot level, only the bryophyte biomass between forest P and others, and the carbon storage between forest L and others were significantly different. The ground bryophyte had the highest biomass and carbon storage under forest P, while the lowest ones under forest H. Comprehensive analysis suggested that forest type and its structural feature might be the important factors determining the biomass and carbon storage of ground bryophytes, and thinning was an important measure to improve ground bryophyte growth and biomass production.

  6. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Willcock

    Full Text Available Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74 Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced

  7. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L; Platts, Philip J; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D; Lovett, Jon C; Ahrends, Antje; Bayliss, Julian; Doggart, Nike; Doody, Kathryn; Fanning, Eibleis; Green, Jonathan; Hall, Jaclyn; Howell, Kim L; Marchant, Rob; Marshall, Andrew R; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Munishi, Pantaleon K T; Owen, Nisha; Swetnam, Ruth D; Topp-Jorgensen, Elmer J; Lewis, Simon L

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon) for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74) Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced for a relatively

  8. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  9. National Scale Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China Based on Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; WANG Hong-Jie; SUN Wei-Xia; E. D. WARNER; LIU Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and density in various soil types or locations are the foundation for examining the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. An assessment of SOC storage and density patterns in China based on soil types as defined by Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) and the recently compiled digital 1:1000 000 Soil Database of China was conducted to generate a rigorous database for the future study of SOC storage. First, SOC densities of 7292soil profiles were calculated and linked by soil type to polygons of a digital soil map using geographic information system resulting in a 1:1000 000 SOC density distribution map of China. Further results showed that soils in China covered 9 281 ×103 km2 with a total SOC storage of 89.14 Gt and a mean SOC density 96.0 t ha-1. Among the 14 CST orders, Cambosols and Argosols constituted high percentage of China's total SOC storage, while Andosols, Vertosols, and Spodsols had a low percentage. As for SOC density, Histosols were the highest, while Primosols were the lowest. Specific patterns of SOC storage of various soil types at the CST suborder, group, and subgroup levels were also described. Results obtained from the study of SOC storage and density of all CST soil types would be not only useful for international comparative research, but also for more accurately estimating and monitoring of changes of SOC storage in China.

  10. Density,Storage and Distribution of Carbon in Mangrove Ecosystem in Guangdong’s Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Pimao; CHEN; Chuanxin; QIN

    2015-01-01

    Using the mangrove plants and sediment of the typical mangrove areas in Guangdong’s coastal areas,P. R. China as the research object,the density,storage and spatial distribution of carbon are studied. The study method is the combination of the wild field analysis and laboratory testing method. The results show that the carbon density of the sediment will gradually decrease because of the increased depth,and has nothing to do with the difference of the area and tree species. The average carbon density of 50 cm sediment is 0. 007 g C / g. The carbon density is obviously different in different components of different mangrove species in different regions. The total carbon storage in different regions is in the following order: Zhuhai > Gaoqiao > Shenzhen > Shuidong Bay > Guanghai Bay > Raoping > Daya Bay > Chenghai. The carbon density and carbon storage are obviously higher in mangrove covered area than blank area. It shows that mangroves have very strong carbon sink function.

  11. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  12. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baldocchi, Dennis D, E-mail: lkoteen@berkeley.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  13. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China.

  14. Combined hydrogen production and storage with subsequent carbon crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Gutierrez, Humberto R; Fonseca, Dania A; Narayanan, Deepa L; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Jain, Puja; Clifford, Caroline E B

    2006-06-21

    We provide evidence of low-temperature hydrogen evolution and possible hydrogen trapping in an anthracite coal derivative, formed via reactive ball milling with cyclohexene. No molecular hydrogen is added to the process. Raman-active molecular hydrogen vibrations are apparent in samples at atmospheric conditions (300 K, 1 bar) for samples prepared 1 year previously and stored in ambient air. Hydrogen evolves slowly at room temperature and is accelerated upon sample heating, with a first increase in hydrogen evolution occurring at approximately 60 degrees C. Subsequent chemical modification leads to the observation of crystalline carbons, including nanocrystalline diamond surrounded by graphene ribbons, other sp2-sp3 transition regions, purely graphitic regions, and a previously unidentified crystalline carbon form surrounded by amorphous carbon. The combined evidence for hydrogen trapping and carbon crystallization suggests hydrogen-induced crystallization of the amorphous carbon materials, as metastable hydrogenated carbons formed via the high-energy milling process rearrange into more thermodynamically stable carbon forms and molecular hydrogen.

  15. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-01

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC

  16. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  17. Effects of structure and surface properties on carbon nanotubes' hydrogen storage characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried out in special stainless steel vessels at room temperature (298K) and under 10 MPa using self-synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In the experiments, carbon nanotubes synthesized by the seeded catalyst method were pretreated by being soaked in chemical reagents or annealed at high temperature before they were used to adsorb hydrogen, but their capacity for hydrogen storage was still poor. Carbon nanotubes synthesized by the floating catalyst method were found to be able to adsorb more hydrogen. They have a hydrogen storage capacity of over 4% after they were annealed at high temperatures, which suggested that they could be used as a promising material for hydrogen storage.``

  18. Capture and storage of Carbon dioxid: a method for countering climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the options aimed at preventing climatic changes is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide, a method with a great potential for reducing greenhouse gases. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide in the soil involves new benefits for the communities in the respective areas. Those benefits also follow from the fact that the organic compound has an essential factor in the soil, determining its properties. The paper presents several results concerning the determination of the quantity of carbon dioxide in different types of soil and it is intended to be the beginning of the process of data collection and the analysis of the reserves and the flow of carbon.

  19. Effect of chemical potential on the computer simulation of hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Hong; WANG; Shaoqing; CHENG; Huiming

    2004-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo molecular simulations were carried out for hydrogen adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes. It was found that variations in chemical potential may result in a great change in the hydrogen storage capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms of single-walled carbon nanotubes at 298.15 K were calculated using a modified chemical potential, and the result obtained is closer to the experimental results. By comparing the experimental and simulation results, it is proposed that chemical adsorption may exist for hydrogen adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  20. Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. Storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Allier, D.; Anghel, S.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Car, M.; Donda, F.; Dudu, A.; Falus, G.; Georgiev, G.; Hatsiyannis, G.; Hegedus, E.; Hladik, V.; Ivanova, O.; Jencsel, H.; Kirk, K.; Knopf, S.; Kolejka, V.; Kotulova, J.; Kucharic, L.; Le Nindre, Y.M.; Marina, M.; Martinez, R.; Maurand, N.; May, F.; Micevski, E.; Nulle, I.; Opovski, K.; Persoglia, S.; Pomeranceva, R.; Poulsen, N.E.; Prifti, I.; Proca, A.; Saftic, B.; Sava, C.; Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Sliapiene, R.; Sliaupa, S.; Suarez, I.; Szamosfalvi, A.; Tarkowski, R.; Uliasz-Misiask, B.; Vaher, R.; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Willscher, B.; Wojcicki, A.; Xenakis, M.; Zapatero, M.; Zivkovic, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This document is deliverable D16 WP2 Report Storage Capacity and provides a description of the work carried out in WP2. It also provides a summary of capacity estimates for deep saline aquifers, hydrocarbon field and coal beds for each country and brief descriptions of the methodology used and assum

  1. Storage to energy: Modeling the carbon emission of storage task offloading between data centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, A.; Drupsteen, D.; Makkes, M.X.; Grosso, P.

    2014-01-01

    Storing data in the cloud is becoming a common trend, for both end-customers and data center operators. We propose a method for deciding where to host data storage tasks under the constraint of minimal greenhouse gas emission. The decision on whether to store data locally or store it remotely at a c

  2. Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, David A.; Helfrich, J. V. K.; Moore, B.; Vorosmarty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Amazon Basin contains almost one-half of the world's undisturbed tropical evergreen forest as well as large areas of tropical savanna. The forests account for about 10 per cent of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and for a similar fraction of the carbon stored in land ecosystems, and short-term field measurements suggest that these ecosystems are globally important carbon sinks. But tropical land ecosystems have experienced substantial interannual climate variability owing to frequent El Nino episodes in recent decades. Of particular importance to climate change policy is how such climate variations, coupled with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, affect terrestrial carbon storage. Previous model analyses have demonstrated the importance of temperature in controlling carbon storage. Here we use a transient process-based biogeochemical model of terrestrial ecosystems to investigate interannual variations of carbon storage in undisturbed Amazonian ecosystems in response to climate variability and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the period 1980 to 1994. In El Nino years, which bring hot, dry weather to much of the Amazon region, the ecosystems act as a source of carbon to the atmosphere (up to 0.2 petagrams of carbon in 1987 and 1992). In other years, these ecosystems act as a carbon sink (up to 0.7 Pg C in 1981 and 1993). These fluxes are large; they compare to a 0.3 Pg C per year source to the atmosphere associated with deforestation in the Amazon Basin in the early 1990s. Soil moisture, which is affected by both precipitation and temperature, and which affects both plant and soil processes, appears to be an important control on carbon storage.

  3. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  4. Reversible Storage of Hydrogen and Natural Gas in Nanospace-Engineered Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matt; Rash, Tyler; Yu, Ping; Suppes, Galen; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage materials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. High specific surface areas, porosities, and sub-nm/supra-nm pore volumes are quantitatively selected by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process. Tunable bimodal pore-size distributions of sub-nm and supra-nm pores are established by subcritical nitrogen adsorption. Optimal pore structures for gravimetric and volumetric gas storage, respectively, are presented. Methane and hydrogen adsorption isotherms up to 250 bar on monolithic and powdered activated carbons are reported and validated, using several gravimetric and volumetric instruments. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 256 g CH4/kg carbon and 132 g CH4/liter carbon at 293 K and 35 bar; 26, 44, and 107 g H2/kg carbon at 303, 194, and 77 K respectively and 100 bar. Adsorbed film density, specific surface area, and binding energy are analyzed separately using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Langmuir model, and lattice gas models.

  5. Effect of Skidding Operations on Soil Carbon Storage of a Tropical Peat Swamp Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Anton E. Satrio; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: There is still lack of a study that compares the soil carbon storage of kuda-kuda skidding system and excavator skidding system in tropical peat swamp forests. The objective of this study was to determine whether skidding operations affects soil carbon storage of a tropical peat swamp forest. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted on two different plots (0.3 ha each plot) to a depth of 15 cm under different skidding systems at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Plots were in the same ...

  6. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: mathematical foundation and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; Xia, Jianyang; Liang, Junyi; Jiang, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Smith, Matthew J.; Jiang, Lifen; Ahlstrom, Anders; Chen, Benito; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, Belinda; Niu, Shuli; Rasmussen, M.; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2017-01-12

    Terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past decades, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling and experimental and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under global change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is timedependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, which is the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a threedimensional (3-D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. In addition, the physical emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land C

  7. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asner Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1 could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy.

  8. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  9. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

  10. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  11. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Muhamad, N.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ~70 t C ha-1. Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region.

  12. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  13. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  14. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  15. Carbon storage in HWP. Accounting for Spanish particleboard and fiberboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva G. Canals-Revilla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study quantifies carbon stock in particleboard and fibreboard, for the period 1990-2006. It is the first accounting made for the Spanish wood industry using industrial accurate data and it could be comparable to other European studies.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: A comparison of the three different approaches (Stock Change Approach, Production Approach, Atmospheric Flow Approach of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas (GHG. Due to the complexity derived from the amount of input variables and the recurrence of the formulas, the Montecarlo simulation method was chosen to compare results.Main results: Between 1990-2006 the carbon stock of the Spanish panel industry has been growing steadily, reaching around 1,000 Gg C in all three approaches studied. During the period 1990-2002, the Stock Change Approach is the one which provides a higher carbon stock accounting. However, since 2002 the Production Approach is the one which presents higher values of carbon stock.Research highlights: The main result of the study shows the important role of carbon stock which play the Spanish wood based panel industry during the period analysed. The results highlight the economic and environmental importance of carbon stock stored in such wood products, as well as its remarkable increase during the study period. They also highlights the importance of good practices such as cascade use of wood resources as well as the need for properly coordination between climate change and forest policies.Key words: climate change; emissions trading system; national greenhouse gas inventories; approach; Monte Carlo; recycled wood; cascade use.

  16. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angela L. [U.S. DOE; Bromhal, Grant S. [U.S. DOE; Strazisar, Brian [U.S. DOE; Rodosta, Traci D. [U.S. DOE; Guthrie, William J. [U.S. DOE; Allen, Douglas E. [ORISE; Guthrie, George D. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  17. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  18. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin TermehYousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  19. Synthesis of N-doped carbon nanosheets from collagen for electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ying-Hui; Lee, Ying-Feng; Hu, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Chang, Kuo-Hsin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi (Taiwan)

    2011-01-15

    This study proposes a simple method for synthesizing carbon nanosheets doped with nitrogen through carbonization of collagen. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, was cross-linked with paraformaldehyde and subsequently heated in vacuum at 800 C to obtain N-doped carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 695 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. With the contribution of N-doped structures, the carbon nanosheets show ideal capacitive behavior with 80% capacitance retention in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 1000 mV s{sup -1}. In comparison with a commercial electrocatalyst, 20% Pt on Vulcan XC-72, carbon nanosheets display a positive shift in the onset potential and superior electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The above excellent electrochemical performances render the N-doped carbon nanosheets a promising material for electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. (author)

  20. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willcock, S.; Phillips, O.L.; Platts, P.J.; Balmford, A.; Burgess, N.D.; Lovett, J.C.; Ahrends, A.; Bayliss, J.; Doggart, N.H.; Doody, K.; Fanning, E.; Green, J.; Hall, J.; Howell, K.L.; Marchant, R.; Marshall, A.R.; Mbiliny, B.; Minishi, P.K.T.; Owen, N.; Swetnam, R.D.; Topp-Jorgensen, E.J.; Lewis, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default gl

  1. Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Turner, Benjamin L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-23

    Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth's future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi. Using global data sets, we show that soil in ecosystems dominated by EEM-associated plants contains 70% more carbon per unit nitrogen than soil in ecosystems dominated by AM-associated plants. The effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon is independent of, and of far larger consequence than, the effects of net primary production, temperature, precipitation and soil clay content. Hence the effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon content holds at the global scale. This finding links the functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi to carbon storage at ecosystem-to-global scales, suggesting that plant-decomposer competition for nutrients exerts a fundamental control over the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  2. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  3. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  4. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  5. Individual-Based Allometric Equations Accurately Measure Carbon Storage and Sequestration in Shrublands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W.H. Mason

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have quantified uncertainty in forest carbon (C storage estimation, but there is little work examining the degree of uncertainty in shrubland C storage estimates. We used field data to simulate uncertainty in carbon storage estimates from three error sources: (1 allometric biomass equations; (2 measurement errors of shrubs harvested for the allometry; and (3 measurement errors of shrubs in survey plots. We also assessed uncertainty for all possible combinations of these error sources. Allometric uncertainty had the greatest independent effect on C storage estimates for individual plots. The largest error arose when all three error sources were included in simulations (where the 95% confidence interval spanned a range equivalent to 40% of mean C storage. Mean C sequestration (1.73 Mg C ha–1 year–1 exceeded the margin of error produced by the simulated sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates that, even when the major sources of uncertainty were accounted for, we were able to detect relatively modest gains in shrubland C storage.

  6. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme to ...

  7. Storage of Miscanthus-derived carbon in rhizomes, roots, and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2016-01-01

    Compared with annual crops, dedicated perennial bioenergy crops are ascribed additional benefits in terms of reduced greenhouse gas emissions; these benefits include increased carbon (C) storage in soil. We measured Miscanthus-derived C in rhizomes, roots, and 0–100 cm soil beneath three 16-yr-ol...

  8. Economic and environmental evaluation of flexible integrated gasification polygeneration facilities with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    One innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which ...

  9. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  10. Theoretical studies of carbon-based nanostructured materials with applications in hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Agnieszka

    2008-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to search for new stable porous carbon-based materials, which have the ability to accommodate and store hydrogen gas. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between the nano-scale structure of the material and its storage capacity. In order to design materials with a high storage capacity, a compromise between the size and the shape of the nanopores must be considered. Therefore, a number of different carbon-based materials have been investigated: carbon foams, dislocated graphite, graphite intercalated by C60 molecules, and metal-organic frameworks. The structures of interest include experimentally well-known as well as hypothetical systems. The studies were focused on the determination of important properties and special features, which may result in high storage capacities. Although the variety of possible pure carbon structures and metal-organic frameworks is almost infinite, the materials described in this work possess the main structural characteristics, which are important for gas storage. (orig.)

  11. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  12. Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-01-07

    On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include • Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that many materials with large total surface areas are sub-par performers. • Established that the distribution of pore sizes can be controlled during CDC synthesis, which opens the possibility of developing high performance materials within a common family while targeting widely disparate applications. Examples being actively pursued with other funding sources include methane storage, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors with record high specific capacitance, and perm-selective membranes which bind cytokines for control of infections and possibly hemodialysis filters.

  13. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Liu

    Full Text Available Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG, thorn shrubbery (TS, forest - shrub transition (FS and secondary forest (F. The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  14. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes.

  15. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Yimyam; Sithichai Lordkaew; Benjavan Rerkasem

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interview...

  16. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Erik [Center For Transportation And The Environment, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  17. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  18. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  19. Allocation to carbon storage pools in Norway spruce saplings under drought and low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate G; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are critical to maintain plant metabolism under stressful environmental conditions, but we do not fully understand how NSC allocation and utilization from storage varies with stress. While it has become established that storage allocation is unlikely to be a mere overflow process, very little empirical evidence has been produced to support this view, at least not for trees. Here we present the results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon (C) balance (young Picea abies (L.) H Karst.) using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought to reduce C sources. We measured specific C storage pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) over 21 weeks and converted concentration measurement into fluxes into and out of the storage pool. Continuous labeling ((13)C) allowed us to track C allocation to biomass and non-structural C pools. Net C fluxes into the storage pool occurred mainly when the C balance was positive. Storage pools increased during periods of positive C gain and were reduced under negative C gain. (13)C data showed that C was allocated to storage pools independent of the net flux and even under severe C limitation. Allocation to below-ground tissues was strongest in control trees followed by trees experiencing drought followed by those grown under low [CO2]. Our data suggest that NSC storage has, under the conditions of our experimental manipulation (e.g., strong progressive drought, no above-ground growth), a high allocation priority and cannot be considered an overflow process. While these results also suggest active storage allocation, definitive proof of active plant control of storage in woody plants requires studies involving molecular tools.

  20. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  1. Effects of vinylene carbonate on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    The effects of vinylene carbonate (VC) on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries are investigated. 1.3 M of LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of 3:3:4 volume ratio is used as original electrolyte for 18650 cylindrical cells with LiCoO 2 cathode and graphite anode. VC is then added to electrolyte. At the initial stage of the high temperature storage, higher open-circuit voltage (OCV) is maintained when increasing the VC concentration. As the storage time increases, OCV of higher VC concentration drops gradually, and then the gas evolution takes place abruptly. Gas analysis shows methane (CH 4) decreases with increase of the VC concentration due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the graphite. Since the residual VC after formation of the SEI layer decomposes on the cathode surface, carbon dioxide (CO 2) dramatically increases on the cathode with the VC concentration, leaving poly(VC) film at the anode surface, as suggested by XPS test results.

  2. Carbon storage in Chinese grassland ecosystems: Influence of different integrative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Anna; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui; Wen, Ding; Peng, Shunlei

    2016-02-01

    The accurate estimate of grassland carbon (C) is affected by many factors at the large scale. Here, we used six methods (three spatial interpolation methods and three grassland classification methods) to estimate C storage of Chinese grasslands based on published data from 2004 to 2014, and assessed the uncertainty resulting from different integrative methods. The uncertainty (coefficient of variation, CV, %) of grassland C storage was approximately 4.8% for the six methods tested, which was mainly determined by soil C storage. C density and C storage to the soil layer depth of 100 cm were estimated to be 8.46 ± 0.41 kg C m‑2 and 30.98 ± 1.25 Pg C, respectively. Ecosystem C storage was composed of 0.23 ± 0.01 (0.7%) above-ground biomass, 1.38 ± 0.14 (4.5%) below-ground biomass, and 29.37 ± 1.2 (94.8%) Pg C in the 0–100 cm soil layer. Carbon storage calculated by the grassland classification methods (18 grassland types) was closer to the mean value than those calculated by the spatial interpolation methods. Differences in integrative methods may partially explain the high uncertainty in C storage estimates in different studies. This first evaluation demonstrates the importance of multi-methodological approaches to accurately estimate C storage in large-scale terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Hydrogen storage: a comparison of hydrogen uptake values in carbon nanotubes and modified charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, H.-Y.; Chen, G. R.; Chen, D. Y.; Lue, J. T.; Yu, M. S.

    2010-11-01

    We compared the hydrogen uptake weight percentages (wt.%) of different carbonized materials, before and after modification, for their application in hydrogen storage at room temperature. The Sievert's method [T.P. Blach, E. Mac, A. Gray, J. Alloys Compd. 446-447, 692 (2007)] was used to measure hydrogen uptake values on: (1) Taiwan bamboo charcoal (TBC), (2) white charcoal (WC), (3) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) bought from CBT Inc. and (4) homemade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grown on TBC. Modified samples were coated with a metal catalyst by dipping in KOH solutions of different concentrations and then activated in a high temperature oven (800 °C) under the atmospheric pressure of inert gas. The results showed that unmodified SWCNTs had superior uptake but that Taiwan bamboo charcoal, after modification, showed enhanced uptake comparable to the SWCNTs. Due to TBC's low cost and high mass production rate, they will be the key candidate for future hydrogen storage applications.

  4. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [University of Missouri; Wexler, Carlos [University of Missouri; Hawthorne, M. Frederick [University of Missouri; Lee, Mark W. [University of Missouri; Jalistegi, Satish S. [University of Missouri

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have

  5. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Notarianni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  6. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy; Motta, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage - the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  7. [Effects of revegetation on organic carbon storage in deep soils in hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Yu-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Taking the Robinia pseudoacacia woodlands, Caragana korshinskii shrublands, and abandoned croplands with different years of revegetation in the hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China as test objects, this paper studied the profile distribution and accumulation dynamics of organic carbon storage in deep soil (100-400 cm), with those in 0-100 cm soil profile as the control. In 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage decreased significantly with the increase of soil depth; while in deep soil, the organic carbon storage had a slight fluctuation. The total organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil profile was considerably high, accounting for approximately 60% of that in 0-400 cm soil profile. The organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had a significant linear correlation with that in 100-200 and 200-400 cm soil layers, and among the organic carbon storages in the five layers in 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had the strongest correlation with that in 100-400 cm soil profile, being able to be used to estimate the organic carbon storage in deep soil in this region. The organic carbon storage in 0-20 cm soil layer in the three types of revegetation lands was significantly higher than that in slope croplands, but the organic carbon storage in deep soil had no significant difference among the land use types. The organic carbon storage in deep soil increased with the increasing years of revegetation. In R. pseudoacacia woodlands and C. korshinskii shrub lands, the average increasing rate of the organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil layer was 0.14 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which was comparable to that in the 0-100 cm soil layer in C. korshinskii shrublands. It was suggested that in the estimation of the soil carbon sequestration effect of revegetation in hilly Loess Plateau region, the organic carbon accumulation in deep soil should be taken into consideration. Otherwise, the effect of

  8. Variability in the carbon storage of seagrass habitats and its implications for global estimates of blue carbon ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Paul S; Mateo, Miguel-Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Rozaimi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in 'Blue Carbon'-carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (C org) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09-20.14 mg C org cm(-3) for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262-4833 g C org m(-2). For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the C org stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014-15 fixed carbon price of A$25.40 t(-1) and an estimated market price of $35 t(-1) in 2020, the C org stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9-5.4 bill. The estimates of annual C org accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y(-1) (10.1 t. km(-2) y(-1)). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage.

  9. Deep plant-derived carbon storage in Amazonian podzols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Montes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial podzols are soils characterized by thick sandy horizons overlying more clayey horizons. Organic matter produced in the topsoil is transferred in depth through the sandy horizons and accumulate at the transition, at a depth varying from 1 to more than 3 m, forming deep horizons rich in organic matter (Bh horizons. Although they cover great surfaces in the equatorial zone, these soils are still poorly known. Studying podzols from Amazonia, we found out that the deep Bh horizons in poorly drained podzol areas have a thickness higher than 1 m and store unexpected amounts of carbon. The average for the studied area was 66.7 ± 5.8 kg C m−2 for the deep Bh and 86.8 ± 7.1 kg C m−2 for the whole profile. Extrapolating to the podzol areas of the whole Amazonian Basin has been possible thanks to digital maps, giving an order of magnitude around 13.6 ± 1.1 Pg C, at least 12.3 Pg C higher than previous estimates. This assessment should be refined by additional investigations, not only in Amazonia but in all equatorial areas where podzols have been identified. Because of the lack of knowledge on the quality and behaviour of the podzol organic matter, the question of the feedback between the climate and the equatorial podzol carbon cycle is open.

  10. Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2014-10-21

    Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation.

  11. Circumpolar distribution and carbon storage of thermokarst landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, D; Goswami, S; Grosse, G; Hayes, D; Hugelius, G; Kuhry, P; McGuire, A D; Romanovsky, V E; Sannel, A B K; Schuur, E A G; Turetsky, M R

    2016-10-11

    Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 10(6) km(2), thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ∼20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur. We estimate that approximately half of the below-ground organic carbon within the study region is stored in thermokarst landscapes. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering thermokarst when assessing impacts of climate change, including future landscape greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a means for assessing such impacts at the circumpolar scale.

  12. Circumpolar distribution and carbon storage of thermokarst landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, D.; Goswami, S.; Grosse, G.; Hayes, D.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Sannel, A. B. K.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Thermokarst is the process whereby the thawing of ice-rich permafrost ground causes land subsidence, resulting in development of distinctive landforms. Accelerated thermokarst due to climate change will damage infrastructure, but also impact hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. Here, we present a circumpolar assessment of the distribution of thermokarst landscapes, defined as landscapes comprised of current thermokarst landforms and areas susceptible to future thermokarst development. At 3.6 × 106 km2, thermokarst landscapes are estimated to cover ~20% of the northern permafrost region, with approximately equal contributions from three landscape types where characteristic wetland, lake and hillslope thermokarst landforms occur. We estimate that approximately half of the below-ground organic carbon within the study region is stored in thermokarst landscapes. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering thermokarst when assessing impacts of climate change, including future landscape greenhouse gas emissions, and provide a means for assessing such impacts at the circumpolar scale.

  13. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  14. [Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen storage of Cupressus chengiana plantations in the arid valley of Minjiang River, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da; Feng, Qiu-hong; Shi, Zuo-min; Li, Dong-sheng; Yang, Chang-xu; Liu, Qian-li; He, Jian-she

    2015-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns of Cupressus chengiana plantation ecosystems with different stand ages in the arid valley of Minjiang River were studied. The results showed that carbon contents in different organs of C. chengiana were relatively stable, while nitrogen contents were closely related to different organs, and soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents increased with the stand age. Carbon and nitrogen storage in vegetation layer, soil layer, and the whole ecosystem of the plantation increased with the stand age. The values of total carbon storage in the 13-, 11-, 8-, 6- and 4-year-old C. chengiana plantation ecosystems were 190.90, 165.91, 144.57, 119.44, and 113.49 t x hm(-2), and the values of total nitrogen storage were 19.09, 17.97, 13.82, 13.42, and 12.26 t x hm(-2), respectively. Most of carbon and nitrogen were stored in the 0-60 cm soil layer in the plantation ecosystems and occupied 92.8% and 98.8%, respectively, and the amounts of carbon and nitrogen stored in the top 0-20 cm soil layer, accounted for 54.4% and 48.9% of those in the 0-60 cm soil layer, respectively. Difference in distribution of carbon and nitrogen storage was observed in the vegetation layer. The percentage of carbon storage in tree layer (3.7%) were higher than that in understory vegetation (3.5%), while the percentage of nitrogen storage in tree layer (0.5%) was lower than that in understory (0.7%). The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns in the plantations varied obviously with the stand age, and the plantation ecosystems at these age stages could accumulate organic carbon and nitrogen continuously.

  15. Tailoring of Single Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Hydrogen Storage and Catalyst Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui [ORNL; Zhao, Bin [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Styers-Barnett, David J [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Brown, Craig M. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN; Liu, Yun [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN; Zhou, Wei [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kabbour, Houria [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Neumann, Dan [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2007-01-01

    We report the post-processing chemical treatments of single walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) as a medium with tunable porosity to optimize hydrogen adsorption. Laser synthesized SWNHs are oxidized in air to achieve surface areas up to 1900 m2/g. Chemistry methods are described for the decoration of SWNHs with 1-3 nm Pt nanoparticles to probe spillover and metal-assisted hydrogen storage mechanisms. Hydrogen storage of opened SWNHs is 2.6 wt% at 77K, which is 3 times as that of as-prepared SWNHs.

  16. Molecular simulation of carbon dioxide adsorption for carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Craig M.

    Capture of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants and sequestration in unmineable coal seams are achievable methods for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. To aid the development of effective CO2 capture and sequestration technologies, a series of molecular simulation studies were conducted to study the adsorption of CO2 and related species onto heterogeneous, solid adsorbents. To investigate the influence of surface heterogeneity upon adsorption behavior in activated carbons and coal, isotherms were generated via grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation for CO2 adsorption in slit-shaped pores with several variations of chemical and structural heterogeneity. Adsorption generally increased with increasing oxygen content and the presence of holes or furrows, which acted as preferred binding sites. To investigate the potential use of the flexible metal organic framework (MOF) Cu(BF4)2(bpy)2 (bpy=bipyridine) for CO2 capture, pure- and mixed-gas adsorption was simulated at conditions representative of power plant process streams. This MOF was chosen because it displays a novel behavior in which the crystal structure reversibly transitions from an empty, zero porosity state to a saturated, expanded state at the "gate pressure". Estimates of CO2 capacity above the gate pressure from GCMC simulations using a rigid MOF model showed good agreement with experiment. The CO2 adsorption capacity and estimated heats of adsorption are comparable to common physi-adsorbents under similar conditions. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N2 and CO2/H 2selectivities higher than typical microporous materials. To more closely investigate this gating effect, hybrid Monte-Carlo/molecular-dynamics (MCMD) was used to simulate adsorption using a flexible MOF model. Simulation cell volumes remained relatively constant at low gas pressures before increasing at higher pressure. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N 2 selectivities comparable to other microporous adsorbents. To

  17. Improving methane storage on wet activated carbons at various amounts of water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD JABER DARABI MAHBOUB; ALI AHMADPOUR; HAMED RASHIDI

    2012-01-01

    Different mesoporous activated carbons were prepared by both chemical and physical activation processes and were examined for methane uptake in the presence of water.Methane isotherms were obtained at wet condition by wetting samples with water at mass ratio of water/carbon (R) close to 1.0.To compare,the amount of methane storage were also measured at dry situation.The maximum amount of methane stored was attained as 237 WV at R=1.0 by hydrate formation at the methane critical pressure.In the next step,mass ratios of water/carbon were changed to investigate various amount of water for methane storage enhancement.Two other values of mass ratio of water/carbon ( R =0.8 and 1.4 ) were selected and methane isotherms were obtained at the same conditions.Maximum values of 210 and 248 V/V were reached for methane storage,respectively.It was also observed that,in the pressure range lower than hydrate pressure,by increasing water ratio the hydrate formation pressure was decreased and methane uptake was much less than that of dry condition due to pore filling by water.

  18. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  19. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  20. Hydrogen and electricity co-production schemes based on gasification processes with carbon capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Cristian Cormos; Victoria Goia; Ana-Maria Cormos; Serban Agachi [' Babes - Bolyai' University, Cluj - Napoca (Romania). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the ways for transforming the coal or coal in addition with renewable energy sources (different sorts of biomass e.g. sawdust) or solid waste having energy value (e.g. municipal waste, meat and bone meal), through gasification into different decarbonised energy vectors (power, hydrogen) simultaneous with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The energy conversion processes investigated in the paper will be modelled and simulated using commercial process flow modelling package (ChemCAD) to produce data for performance evaluation of hydrogen and electricity co-production processes based on gasification with carbon capture and storage. The case studies investigated in the paper will produce a flexible ratio between power and hydrogen in the range of about 400 MW electricity and 0 - 200 MW hydrogen (considering the lower heating value of hydrogen) with 80 - 90 % carbon capture rate. A particular accent will be put in the paper on fuel selection criteria (blending fuels for optimizing gasifier performance), proper choice of gasification reactor (among various commercial types e.g. Shell, Siemens, GE Texaco etc.), modelling and simulation of whole process, thermal and power integration of processes, flexibility analysis of the energy conversion processes (production of a certain energy vector at specific moment of time according to the market demand), CO{sub 2} capture and storage and analysing the quality specifications for plant gaseous streams (hydrogen and carbon dioxide) considering the potential use of hydrogen in the transport sector (fuel cells) and carbon dioxide storage in geological formation or using for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  2. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Haiqing L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  3. Petrology of Deep Storage, Ingassing, and Outgassing of Terrestrial Carbon (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.

    2010-12-01

    Fluxes of carbon between the mantle and the exosphere modulate Earth's atmosphere and climate on short to long time scales. Carbon geochemistry of mantle-derived samples suggests that the fluxes associated with deep cycle are in the order of 1012-13 g C/yr and the reservoir sizes involved in deep carbon are in the order of 1022-23 g C. Petrology of deep storage is critical to this long-term evolution and distribution of terrestrial carbon. Here I synthesize the petrologic constraints that are critical in understanding the evolution of deep terrestrial carbon. Carbon is a volatile, trace element in the Earth's mantle. But unlike most other trace elements including hydrogen, which in the Earth’s mantle is held in dominant silicate minerals, carbon is stored in accessory phases. The accessory phase of interest, with increasing depth, changes typically from fluids/melts → calcite/dolomite → magnesite → diamond/ Fe-rich alloy/ Fe-metal carbide, assuming that the mass balance and oxidation state are buffered solely by silicates. If, however, carbon is sufficiently abundant, locally it may overwhelm the mass balance and redox buffer of the Earth’s interior. For example, carbon may reside as carbonate even in the deep mantle, which otherwise is thought to be reduced and not conducive for carbonate stability. If Earth's deep mantle is Fe-metal saturated, carbon storage in metal alloy and as metal carbide is difficult to avoid for depleted and enriched domains, respectively. Carbon ingassing to the interior is aided by modern subduction of the carbonated oceanic lithosphere, whereas outgassing from the mantle is controlled by decompression melting of carbon-bearing mantle. Carbonated melting at >300 km depth or redox melting of diamond-bearing or metal/metal carbide-bearing mantle at somewhat shallower depth generates carbonatitic and carbonated silicate melts, which are the chief agents for liberating carbon from the solid Earth to the exosphere. Petrology allows

  4. On the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and carbon storage in vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, M.

    2012-04-01

    • Background and Aims. The carbon balance of vegetation is dominated by the two large fluxes of photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). Mechanistic models have attempted to simulate the two fluxes separately, each with their own set of internal and external controls. This has led to model predictions where environmental change causes R to exceed P, with consequent dieback of vegetation. However, empirical evidence suggests that the R:P ratio is constrained to a narrow range of about 0.4-0.5. Physiological explanations for the narrow range are not conclusive. We aim to introduce a novel perspective by theoretical study of the quantitative relationship between the four carbon fluxes of P, R, growth and storage (or its inverse, remobilisation). • Methods. Starting from the law of conservation of mass - in this case carbon - we derive equations for the relative magnitudes of all carbon fluxes which depend on only two parameters: the R:P ratio and the relative rate of storage of carbon into remobilisable reserves. The equations are used to explain observed flux ratios and to analyse incomplete data sets of carbon fluxes. • Key Results. Storage rate is shown to be a freely varying parameter, whereas R:P is narrowly constrained. This explains the constancy of the ratio reported in the literature. With the information thus gained, a data set of R and P in grassland was analysed, and flux estimates could be derived for the periods after cuts in which plant growth is dominated by remobilisation before photosynthesis takes over. • Conclusions. We conclude that the relative magnitudes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth and substrate storage are indeed tightly constrained, but because of mass conservation rather than for physiological reasons. This facilitates analysis of incomplete data sets. Mechanistic models, as the embodiment of physiological mechanisms, need to show consistency with the constraints. • Reference. Van Oijen, M., Schapendonk, A. & Höglind, M

  5. Transient dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage: mathematical foundation and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Shi, Zheng; Lu, Xingjie; Xia, Jianyang; Liang, Junyi; Jiang, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Smith, Matthew J.; Jiang, Lifen; Ahlström, Anders; Chen, Benito; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Hastings, Alan; Hoffman, Forrest; Medlyn, Belinda; Niu, Shuli; Rasmussen, Martin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed roughly 30 % of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past decades, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling and experimental and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under global change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, which is the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3-D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. In addition, the physical emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land

  6. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  7. Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comănescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

    2012-09-28

    Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH(4))(2) was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100 °C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced.

  8. Dimers of cyclic carbonates: chirality recognition in battery solvents and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipost, Franz; Hesse, Susanne; Lee, Juhyon J; Suhm, Martin A

    2011-08-21

    Dimers of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate are created in supersonic jet expansions and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Fermi resonances are switched on and off by dimerization. There is a unique centrosymmetric dimer of ethylene carbonate in a pronounced case of complementary chirality synchronization, contributing to its energy storage capacity at melting. Two chiral propylene carbonate molecules combine in more intricate ways. If they have the same handedness, one of them is forced into an axial conformation and the binding partner stays in the more stable equatorial structure. If they have opposite handedness, centrosymmetric dimers of either axial or equatorial conformations are formed. This suggests the usefulness of chirality control in elucidating ionic transport mechanisms in battery solvents and asymmetric catalysis in such solvents.

  9. Spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in different sympodial bamboo species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jiangnan; Xiang, Tingting; Huang, Zhangting; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Meng, Cifu; Li, Yongfu; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J

    2016-03-01

    Selection of tree species is potentially an important management decision for increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems. This study investigated and compared spatial distribution and variability of carbon storage in 8 sympodial bamboo species in China. The results of this study showed that average carbon densities (CDs) in the different organs decreased in the order: culms (0.4754 g g(-1)) > below-ground (0.4701 g g(-1)) > branches (0.4662 g g(-1)) > leaves (0.4420 g g(-1)). Spatial distribution of carbon storage (CS) on an area basis in the biomass of 8 sympodial bamboo species was in the order: culms (17.4-77.1%) > below-ground (10.6-71.7%) > branches (3.8-11.6%) > leaves (0.9-5.1%). Total CSs in the sympodial bamboo ecosystems ranged from 103.6 Mg C ha(-1) in Bambusa textilis McClure stand to 194.2 Mg C ha(-1) in Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro stand. Spatial distribution of CSs in 8 sympodial bamboo ecosystems decreased in the order: soil (68.0-83.5%) > vegetation (16.8-31.1%) > litter (0.3-1.7%). Total current CS and biomass carbon sequestration rate in the sympodial bamboo stands studied in China is 93.184 × 10(6) Mg C ha(-1) and 8.573 × 10(6) Mg C yr(-1), respectively. The sympodial bamboos had a greater CSs and higher carbon sequestration rates relative to other bamboo species. Sympodial bamboos can play an important role in improving climate and economy in the widely cultivated areas of the world.

  10. Mangrove carbon sink. Do burrowing crabs contribute to sediment carbon storage? Evidence from a Kenyan mangrove system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreetta, Anna; Fusi, Marco; Cameldi, Irene; Cimò, Filippo; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cannicci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are acknowledged as a significant carbon reservoir, with a potential key role as carbon sinks. Little however is known on sediment/soil capacity to store organic carbon and the impact of benthic fauna on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in mangrove C-poor soils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of macrobenthos on SOC storage and dynamic in mangrove forest at Gazi Bay (Kenya). Although the relatively low amount of organic carbon (OC%) in these soils, they resulted in the presence of large ecosystem carbon stock comparable to other forest ecosystems. SOC at Gazi bay ranged from 3.6 kg m- 2 in a Desert-like belt to 29.7 kg m- 2 in the Rhizophora belt considering the depth soil interval from 0 cm to 80 cm. The high spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and amount of SOC seemed to be explained by different dominant crab species and their impact on the soil environment. A further major determinant was the presence, in the subsoil, of horizons rich in organic matter, whose dating pointed to their formation being associated with sea level rise over the Holocene. Dating and soil morphological characters proved to be an effective support to discuss links between the strategies developed by macrobenthos and soil ecosystem functioning.

  11. Can Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Mitigate Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Syrek-Gerstenkorn, B.

    2017-01-01

    Transport of CO2 for carbon capture and storage (CCS) uses low-cost carbon steel pipelines owing to their negligible corrosion rates in dry CO2. However, in the presence of liquid water, CO2 forms corrosive carbonic acid. In order to mitigate wet CO2 corrosion, use of expensive corrosion-resistant alloys is recommended; however, the increased cost makes such selection economically unfeasible; hence, new corrosion mitigation methods are sought. One such method is the use of thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA), which has been used to mitigate corrosion of carbon steel in seawater, but there are concerns regarding its suitability in CO2-containing solutions. A 30-day test was carried out during which carbon steel specimens arc-sprayed with aluminum were immersed in deionized water at ambient temperature bubbled with 0.1 MPa CO2. The acidity (pH) and potential were continuously monitored, and the amount of dissolved Al3+ ions was measured after completion of the test. Some dissolution of TSA occurred in the test solution leading to nominal loss in coating thickness. Potential measurements revealed that polarity reversal occurs during the initial stages of exposure which could lead to preferential dissolution of carbon steel in the case of coating damage. Thus, one needs to be careful while using TSA in CCS environments.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanotube-TiO(2) nanotubular material for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita; Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Graeve, Olivia A; Misra, Mano

    2008-11-05

    A material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and larger titania (TiO(2)) nanotube arrays has been produced and found to be efficient for reversible hydrogen (H(2)) storage. The TiO(2) nanotube arrays (diameter ∼60 nm and length ∼2-3 µm) are grown on a Ti substrate, and MWCNTs a few µm in length and ∼30-60 nm in diameter are grown inside these TiO(2) nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition with cobalt as a catalyst. The resulting material has been used in H(2) storage experiments based on a volumetric method using the pressure, composition, and temperature relationship of the storage media. This material can store up to 2.5 wt% of H(2) at 77 K under 25 bar with more than 90% reversibility.

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  14. The role of tree-fall dynamics in long-term carbon storage of tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Cobb, A.; Joosten, H.; Glaser, P. H.; Chua, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F. M.; Noren, A. J.; Kamariah, A. S.; Su'ut, N. S.; Harvey, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    The forested peatlands of the Earth's tropical belt represent a major terrestrial carbon pool that may contain over 90 petagram C. However, the mechanisms that led to the build-up of this significant pool of carbon are poorly understood. Moreover, the rates of carbon uptake by peat accumulation in these tropical settings have rarely been quantified and natural variations in uptake on decadal to millennial scales are not well constrained. We studied carbon accumulation dynamics on these timescales of a peat swamp forest dominated by the dipterocarp Shorea albida - a unique forest type that, until recently, widely covered the lowlands of northwest Borneo. The impressive Shorea albida trees may reach heights of 70 m and are therefore strongly susceptible to windthrow and lightning. Such natural disturbances cause these trees to fall and uproot - excavating over 1 m deep holes into the peat that fill with water to become tip-up pools. The analysis of high-resolution aerial photographs and radiocarbon dated peat cores from our field site in Brunei together with the construction of a simulation model of peat accumulation allowed us to determine the role of tree-fall and tip-up pools in carbon storage. In a hectare of Shorea albida forest four tip-up pools form per decade. A pool completely fills with organic matter within 200 years according to our pollen record and a dated pool deposit stored 40 kg C m-2 of the total 110 kg C m-2 large local peat carbon pool. The carbon accumulation rates in these pools reach over 800 g C m-2 yr-1 - within the range of annual litterfall in dipterocarp forests. The simulation model indicates that up to 60% of the peat deposits under Shorea albida forests could be derived from infilled pools. Tip-up pools are therefore local hotspots for carbon storage in tropical forested peatlands.

  15. Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-07-28

    Carbon nanocoil (CNC) based electrodes are shown to be promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage applications, provided the CNCs are properly functionalized. In the present study, nanocrystalline metal oxide (RuO 2, MnO2, and SnO2) dispersed CNCs were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using different electrochemical methods. In the two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with values reaching up to 311, 212, and 134 F/g for RuO2/CNCs, MnO2/CNCs, and SnO2/CNCs, respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be superior to those reported for metal oxide dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two electrode configuration. In addition, the fabricated supercapacitors retained excellent cycle life with ∼88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James

    2013-09-30

    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  17. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, M.C. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  18. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  19. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  20. Predicting hydrogen and methane adsorption in carbon nanopores for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Yungok; Morris, James; Cooper, Valentino; Morris Lab, U. tennessee Collaboration; Advanced material Group, ORNL Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    There are increasing demands for alternate fuels for transportation, which requires safe, high energy density, lightweight storage materials. Experimental measurements and theoretical predictions show relatively low hydrogen storage capacities in various porous materials, limiting hydrogen as a viable alternative for automobiles. In this work, we use a continuum model based on van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) calculations to elucidate the role that long-range interactions play in the hydrogen adsorption properties of model slit nanopores in carbon. The proper treatment of long-range interactions gives an optimal pore size for hydrogen storage of 8-9 Å (larger than previously predicted). Remarkably, we find a peak hydrogen density close to that of liquid H2 at ambient temperatures, in agreement with recent experimental results on pore-size dependent adsorption in nanoporous carbon. We then show that such nanopores would be better suited to storing methane, possibly providing an alternative to fill the gap between the capacity required by DOE goals and that attainable with current hydrogen storage technology. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  1. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  2. Research in the focus of carbon capture and storage; Forschung im Brennpunkt der CO{sub 2}-Untergrund-Speicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froebel, Joerg; Huettenrauch, Jens [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The influence of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases on the climate is confirmed. Thereby, carbon dioxide has the largest portion. The energy conversion in conventional power plants is the main emitter of carbon dioxide in Germany. The Federal Government wants to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide by 40 % up to the year 2020 by means of the following measures: (a) Increase of the energy efficiency and reduction of the energy demand; (b) Replacement of conventional sources of energy by renewable energies; (c) Capture and storage of the emitted carbon dioxide. The operators of conventional power stations have the possibility to avoid carbon dioxide by increasing the efficiency as well as by separation and storage. The contribution under consideration describes the separation and storage of carbon dioxide and presents relevant research projects to this topic.

  3. Effect of Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Clearing on Soil Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S.M. Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Forest clearing in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest (TPSF will affect forest soil carbon storage. Thus this study is essential to determine whether the effect of clearing of forest does to the nature of soil forest concentrating on soil carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze carbon storage values in logged and clear cut TPSF and to compare these values to see whether clearing of forest will affect its soil in terms of carbon storage. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in July 2009 on two different plots at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The plots are secondary TPSF where this area has been logged but not been cleared while another plot is the clear cut area where the forest has been cut down and cleared for other land use. Soil samples were taken in each plot in the depth of 0-15 cm. Every sample was taken randomly by peat auger using bulking method. The soils were air dried, pounded using mortar and sieved. The bulk densities were determined by coring method. Total Carbon (TC, total Organic Matter (OM, Total Nitrogen (TN and stable C estimation per hectare were determined from bulk density. The soil pH was determined using pH meter by using water and KCl. SOM, TC and stable C in Humic Acid (HA were determined by loss-on ignition method. TN was determined using Micro-Kjeldahl method followed by steam distillation and titration. HA was extracted and purified using distilled water. Then, the HA were oven dried in 40oC. The E4/E6 ratio by using spectrometer was used. Total acidity of HA which consists of carboxylic (-COOH and phenolic (-OH functional group were analyzed. The statistical analysis and comparison was using t-test to compare between two means. Results: The variables that showing the significant differences between two plots were pH water and KCl, soil OM, total C and HA yield. The insignificant differences were bulk density, total N, C/N ratio, E4/E6, phenol, carboxyl

  4. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride

  5. Two-dimensional carbon-coated graphene/metal oxide hybrids for enhanced lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuezeng; Li, Shuang; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Fan; Liang, Haiwei; Gao, Pengfei; Cheng, Chong; Feng, Xinliang

    2012-09-25

    Metal oxides (MOs) have been widely investigated as promising high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, but they usually exhibit poor cycling stability and rate performance due to the huge volume change induced by the alloying reaction with lithium. In this article, we present a double protection strategy by fabricating a two-dimensional (2D) core-shell nanostructure to improve the electrochemical performance of metal oxides in lithium storage. The 2D core-shell architecture is constructed by confining the well-defined graphene based metal oxides nanosheets (G@MO) within carbon layers. The resulting 2D carbon-coated graphene/metal oxides nanosheets (G@MO@C) inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity, large aspect ratio, and thin feature. Furthermore, the carbon shells can tackle the deformation of MO nanoparticles while keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. As the result, the produced G@MO@C hybrids exhibit outstanding reversible capacity and excellent rate performance for lithium storage (G@SnO(2)@C, 800 mAh g(-1) at the rate of 200 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles; G@Fe(3)O(4)@C, 920 mAh g(-1) at the rate of 200 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles).

  6. Characterization and design of the FutureGen 2.0 carbon storage site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Tyler; Bonneville, Alain; Sullivan, Charlotte; Kelley, Mark; Appriou, Delphine; Vermeul, Vince; White, Signe; Zhang, Fred; Bjornstad, Bruce; Cornet, Francois; Gerst, Jacqueline; Gupta, Neeraj; Hund, Gretchen; Horner, Jake; Last, George; Lanigan, Dave; Oostrom, Mart; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark; Rockhold, Mark; Elliott, Mike; Spane, Frank; Strickland, Chris; Swartz, Lucy; Thorne, Paul; Brown, Christopher; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the FutureGen 2.0 Project was to demonstrate, at the commercial scale, the technical feasibility of implementing carbon capture and storage (CCS) in a deep saline formation in Illinois, USA. Over approximately 5 years, the FutureGen Alliance conducted a detailed site-selection process and identified a site for carbon sequestration storage in Morgan County, Illinois. The storage site was fully characterized, including the collection of seismic data and the drilling and characterization of a stratigraphic borehole. The characterization data provided critical input for developing a site-specific conceptual model and subsequent numerical modeling simulations. The modeling simulations, coupled with the upstream designs of the pipeline and power plant supported the development of a detailed 90 percent design that included the injection wells and associated control and monitoring infrastructure. Collectively, all these data were used by the FutureGen Alliance to develop the required documentation to support the applications for four underground injection control (UIC) permits (one for each proposed well). In August 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued four, first-of-their-kind, Class VI UIC permits for carbon sequestration in the United States to the FutureGen Alliance. The information and data generated under this project have been made publically available through reports and publications, including this journal and others.

  7. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  8. Divergent predictions of carbon storage between two global land models: attribution of the causes through traceability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rashid; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leng, Guoyong; Wang, Yingping; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-07-01

    Representations of the terrestrial carbon cycle in land models are becoming increasingly complex. It is crucial to develop approaches for critical assessment of the complex model properties in order to understand key factors contributing to models' performance. In this study, we applied a traceability analysis which decomposes carbon cycle models into traceable components, for two global land models (CABLE and CLM-CASA') to diagnose the causes of their differences in simulating ecosystem carbon storage capacity. Driven with similar forcing data, CLM-CASA' predicted ˜ 31 % larger carbon storage capacity than CABLE. Since ecosystem carbon storage capacity is a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE), the predicted difference in the storage capacity between the two models results from differences in either NPP or τE or both. Our analysis showed that CLM-CASA' simulated 37 % higher NPP than CABLE. On the other hand, τE, which was a function of the baseline carbon residence time (τ'E) and environmental effect on carbon residence time, was on average 11 years longer in CABLE than CLM-CASA'. This difference in τE was mainly caused by longer τ'E of woody biomass (23 vs. 14 years in CLM-CASA'), and higher proportion of NPP allocated to woody biomass (23 vs. 16 %). Differences in environmental effects on carbon residence times had smaller influences on differences in ecosystem carbon storage capacities compared to differences in NPP and τ'E. Overall, the traceability analysis showed that the major causes of different carbon storage estimations were found to be parameters setting related to carbon input and baseline carbon residence times between two models.

  9. Carbon Storage Potential of Forest Land: A Comparative Study of Cases in Finland and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tijardović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing over the last hundred years in relation to the Fourth IPCC assessment report that highlighted human activities as a direct influence on climate changes. Since Croatia and Finland signed the Kyoto Protocol, they are both committed to fulfil international obligations of lowering GHG’s emissions, enhancing the storage, as well as protecting and enhancing the current pools where the forestry sector has a prominent role. These obligations created a need for a review on carbon storage potentials for both countries with the aim of setting further scientific and management guidelines as the basic purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: Data collection was conducted within the scope of the Sort Term Scientific Mission (STSM in the period from May 2 – July 22, 2009 in the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Joensuu. The research encompassed an overview of literature, personal contacts with scientists and experts from both countries (research institutes, ministries, the EFI branch office in Joensuu and a field inspection which altogether provided an insight into the applied silvicultural and utilization activities. A significant data source were official documents and published project results on the carbon storage potential. Results and Discussion: Mitigation activities within the framework of the LULUCF project reduced the total emissions for 33.4 millions tons of CO2 equivalents in Finland in 2006 (this data has varied from 18 to 33.4 millions tons CO2 equivalents in the last fifteen years while for Croatia the availability of such data is limited. Finland has some former agricultural land which may be afforested but not in the substantial share, while in Croatia such areas amount to around 1 million ha. According to the climate change scenario for Finland (FINADAPT, predicting the largest climate changes, the total forest growth

  10. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nam-Jin; Son, Yowhan; Lee, Sue-Kyoung; Seo, Kyung-Won; Heo, Su-Jin; Yi, Myong-Jong; Park, Pil-Sun; Kim, Rae-Hyun; Son, Yeong-Mo; Lee, Kyeong-Hak

    2010-07-01

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages (10, 27, 30, 32, 44, and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea. Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated. Samples from the above and belowground tree components, coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor, and mineral soil (0-30 cm) were collected. Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand (202.8 t ha(-1)) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand (18.4 t ha(-1)). C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands, mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations. Consequently, the total ecosystem C and N storage (tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age: increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand (18.8 t C ha(-1) and 1.3 t N ha(-1)) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand (201.4 t C ha(-1) and 8.5 t N ha(-1)). The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence, while N storage in the CWD, forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends. Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P. densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen storage in an age-sequence of Pinus densiflora stands in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOH; Nam-Jin; SON; Yowhan; LEE; Sue-Kyoung; SEO; Kyung-Won; HEO; Su-Jin1,; YI; Myong-Jong; PARK; Pil-Sun; KIM; Rae-Hyun; SON; Yeong-Mo; LEE; Kyeong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    The carbon(C) and nitrogen(N) storage capabilities of Pinus densiflora in six different stand ages(10,27,30,32,44,and 71 years old) were investigated in Korea.Thirty sample trees were destructively harvested and 12 were excavated.Samples from the above and belowground tree components,coarse woody debris(CWD),forest floor,and mineral soil(0-30 cm) were collected.Tree biomass was highest in the 71-year-old stand(202.8 t ha-1) and lowest in the 10-year-old stand(18.4 t ha-1).C and N storage in the mineral soil was higher in the 71-year-old stand than in the other stands,mainly due to higher soil C and N concentrations.Consequently,the total ecosystem C and N storage(tree+forest floor+CWD+soil) was positively correlated with stand age:increasing from a minimum in the 10 year old stand(18.8 t C ha-1 and 1.3 t N ha-1) to a maximum in the 71-year-old stand(201.4 t C ha-1 and 8.5 t N ha-1).The total ecosystem C storage showed a similar sigmoidal pattern to that of tree C storage as a function of the age-sequence,while N storage in the CWD,forest floor and mineral soil showed no significant temporal trends.Our results provide important insights that will increase our understanding of C and N storage in P.densiflora stands and our ability to predict changes according to stand age in the region.

  12. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C; Ryan, Michael G; Birdsey, Richard A; Giardina, Christian P; Harmon, Mark E; Heath, Linda S; Houghton, Richard A; Jackson, Robert B; Morrison, James F; Murray, Brian C; Patakl, Diane E; Skog, Kenneth E

    2011-09-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage. We found that many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162-256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects. Because approximately 60% of the carbon lost through deforestation and harvesting from 1700 to 1935 has not yet been recovered and because some strategies store carbon in forest products or use biomass energy, the biological potential for forest sector carbon mitigation is large. Several studies suggest that using these strategies could offset as much as 10-20% of current U.S. fossil fuel emissions. To obtain such large offsets in the United States would require a combination of afforesting up to one-third of cropland or pastureland, using the equivalent of about one-half of the gross annual forest growth for biomass energy, or implementing more intensive management to increase forest growth on one-third of forestland. Such large offsets would require substantial trade-offs, such as lower agricultural production and non-carbon ecosystem services from forests. The effectiveness of activities could be diluted by negative leakage effects and increasing disturbance regimes. Because forest carbon loss contributes to increasing climate risk and because climate change may impede regeneration following disturbance, avoiding

  13. Examining the role of carbon capture and storage through an ethical lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecky, Fabien; Lacey, Justine; Ashworth, Peta

    2014-12-01

    The risk posed by anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted, and the challenge we face to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a tolerable limit cannot be underestimated. Reducing GHG emissions can be achieved either by producing less GHG to begin with or by emitting less GHG into the atmosphere. One carbon mitigation technology with large potential for capturing carbon dioxide at the point source of emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS). However, the merits of CCS have been questioned, both on practical and ethical grounds. While the practical concerns have already received substantial attention, the ethical concerns still demand further consideration. This article aims to respond to this deficit by reviewing the critical ethical challenges raised by CCS as a possible tool in a climate mitigation strategy and argues that the urgency stemming from climate change underpins many of the concerns raised by CCS.

  14. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2008-10-28

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: Practical constraints and real-world possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.; King, A. W.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    A carbon sequestration strategy was recently proposed in which a forest is sustainably managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, partially cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration. The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future if deemed more beneficial, for instance, by contributing to supply infrastructure for biomass power generation. Based on global forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, conservation, other wood use, and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, any successful implementation strategy will need to balance the needs of the local community and environment. It nonethelss provides a novel new addition to a portfolio of existing forest management strategies. We propose 'carbon sequestration and biomass farms' with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation, provided that governance issues are properly dealt with. In another example, the forests damaged by insects, fire, storms such as in the America West could be thinned to reduce fire danger and harvested for

  16. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  17. Popcorn-Derived Porous Carbon for Energy Storage and CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Chen, Chunlin; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-16

    Porous carbon materials have drawn tremendous attention due to its applications in energy storage, gas/water purification, catalyst support, and other important fields. However, producing high-performance carbons via a facile and efficient route is still a big challenge. Here we report the synthesis of microporous carbon materials by employing a steam-explosion method with subsequent potassium activation and carbonization of the obtained popcorn. The obtained carbon features a large specific surface area, high porosity, and doped nitrogen atoms. Using as an electrode material in supercapacitor, it displays a high specific capacitance of 245 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and a remarkable stability of 97.8% retention after 5000 cycles at 5 A g(-1). The product also exhibits a high CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.60 mmol g(-1) under 1066 mbar and 25 °C. Both areal specific capacitance and specific CO2 uptake are directly proportional to the surface nitrogen content. This approach could thus enlighten the batch production of porous nitrogen-doped carbons for a wide range of energy and environmental applications.

  18. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Hydrological Properties of Geologic Storage Formations on Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    A series of numerical simulations using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model is performed to analyze groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport due to geologic storage of carbon dioxide in a geologic storage formation (sandstone aquifer) and to evaluate impacts of its saturated (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) and unsaturated (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) hydrological properties on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. The numerical simulation results show that the hydrological properties of the storage formation have significant effects on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. Under a constant injection pressure of carbon dioxide, the injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of carbon dioxide injection (about 2 weeks) and then increases monotonously until the end of carbon dioxide injection. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide are most sensitive to variations in the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation. They increase significantly as the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation increase, whereas they decrease slightly as the porosity and the residual gas saturation of the storage formation increase. However, they are most insensitive to variations in the residual water saturation and the gas-entry pressure of the storage formation. These results indicate that the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide is significantly dependent on the relative permeability, which is a function of the unsaturated hydrological properties (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) of the storage formation, as well as its saturated hydrological properties (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) in different degrees. Therefore it may be

  20. Estimation of the carbon storage of forest vegetation and carbon emission from forest fires in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hai-qing; LIU Yuan-chun; JIAO Yan

    2007-01-01

    The forest resource of Heilongjiang province has important position in china. On the basis of the six times of national forest inventory data (1973-1976, 1977-1981, 1985-1988, 1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003) surveyed by the Forestry Ministry of P. R. China from 1973 to 2003, the carbon storage of forests in Heilongjiang Province are estimated by using the method of linear relationship of each tree species between biomass and volume. The results show that the carbon storage of Heilongjiang forests in the six periods (1973-1976,1977-1981, 1985-1988, 1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003) are 7.164×108 t, 4.871×108 t, 5.094×108 t, 5.292×108 t, 5.594×108 t and 5.410×108 t, respectively., which showed a trend of decreasing in early time and then increasing. It indicated that Heilongjiang forests play an important role as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide during past 30 years. Based on the data of forest fires from 1980 to 1999 and ground biomass estimation for some forest types in Heilongjiang Province, it is estimated that the amount of mean annual consumed biomass of forests is 391758.65t-522344.95t, accounting for 6.4%-8.4% of total national consummation from forest fires, and the amount of carbon emission is 176 291.39t-235 055.23t, about 8% of total national emission from forest fires. The emission of CO2, CO, CH4 and NMHC from forest fires in Heilongjiang Province are estimated at 581761.6-775682.25 t, 34892.275-46523.04 t, 14091.11-18788.15 t and 6500-9000 t, respectively, every year.

  1. Influence of dynamic vegetation on climate change and terrestrial carbon storage in the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O'ishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When the climate is reconstructed from paleoevidence, it shows that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21 000 yr ago is cold and dry compared to the present-day. Reconstruction also shows that compared to today, the vegetation of the LGM is less active and the distribution of vegetation was drastically different, due to cold temperature, dryness, and a lower level of atmospheric CO2 concentration (185 ppm compared to a preindustrial level of 285 ppm. In the present paper, we investigate the influence of vegetation change on the climate of the LGM by using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model (AOVGCM, the MIROC-LPJ. The MIROC-LPJ is different from earlier studies in the introduction of a bias correction method in individual running GCM experiments. We examined four GCM experiments (LGM and preindustrial, with and without vegetation feedback and quantified the strength of the vegetation feedback during the LGM. The result shows that global-averaged cooling during the LGM is amplified by +13.5 % due to the introduction of vegetation feedback. This is mainly caused by the increase of land surface albedo due to the expansion of tundra in northern high latitudes and the desertification in northern middle latitudes around 30° N to 60° N. We also investigated how this change in climate affected the total terrestrial carbon storage by using offline Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM. Our result shows that the total terrestrial carbon storage was reduced by 597 PgC during the LGM, which corresponds to the emission of 282 ppm atmospheric CO2. In the LGM experiments, the global carbon distribution is generally the same whether the vegetation feedback to the atmosphere is included or not. However, the inclusion of vegetation feedback causes substantial terrestrial carbon storage change, especially in explaining the lowering of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM.

  2. Theoretical realization of cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated carbon atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; An, Hui; Guo, Ling-Ju; Zeng, Zhi; Ju, Xin

    2011-01-14

    The capacity of carbon atomic chains with different terminations for hydrogen storage is studied using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Unlike the physisorption of H(2) on the H-terminated chain, we show that two Li (Na) atoms each capping one end of the odd- or even-numbered carbon chain can hold ten H(2) molecules with optimal binding energies for room temperature storage. The hybridization of the Li 2p states with the H(2)σ orbitals contributes to the H(2) adsorption. However, the binding mechanism of the H(2) molecules on Na arises only from the polarization interaction between the charged Na atom and the H(2). Interestingly, additional H(2) molecules can be bound to the carbon atoms at the chain ends due to the charge transfer between Li 2s2p (Na 3s) and C 2p states. More importantly, dimerization of these isolated metal-capped chains does not affect the hydrogen binding energy significantly. In addition, a single chain can be stabilized effectively by the C(60) fullerenes termination. With a hydrogen uptake of ∼10 wt.% on Li-coated C(60)-C(n)-C(60) (n = 5, 8), the Li(12)C(60)-C(n)-Li(12)C(60) complex, keeping the number of adsorbed H(2) molecules per Li and stabilizing the dispersion of individual Li atoms, can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (Li(12)C(60))(2) dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated sp carbon chains.

  3. Low below-ground organic carbon storage in a subarctic Alpine permafrost environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Tarfala Valley, northern Sweden. Field inventories, upscaled based on land cover, show that this alpine permafrost environment does not store large amounts of SOC, with an estimate mean of 0.9 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 for the upper meter of soil. This is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than what has been reported for lowland permafrost terrain. The SOC storage varies for different land cover classes and ranges from 0.05 kg C m-2 for stone-dominated to 8.4 kg C m-2 for grass-dominated areas. No signs of organic matter burial through cryoturbation or slope processes were found, and radiocarbon-dated SOC is generally of recent origin (distribution in Tarfala Valley, based on the bottom temperature of snow measurements and a logistic regression model, showed that at an altitude where permafrost is probable the SOC storage is very low. In the high-altitude permafrost zones (above 1500 m), soils store only ca. 0.1 kg C m-2. Under future climate warming, an upward shift of vegetation zones may lead to a net ecosystem C uptake from increased biomass and soil development. As a consequence, alpine permafrost environments could act as a net carbon sink in the future, as there is no loss of older or deeper SOC from thawing permafrost.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Hydride/Carbon Aerogel Composites for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4, a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs, a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. The objectives of the present work have been to investigate the synthesis, characterization, and hydrogenation behavior of Pd-, Ti- or Fe-doped CAs, NaAlH4, and MgH2 nanocomposites. The diameters of Pd nanoparticles onto CA’s surface and BET surface area of CAs were 3–10 nm and 700–900 m2g−1, respectively. The H2 storage capacity of metal hydrides has been studied using high-pressure TGA microbalance and they were 4.0, 2.7, 2.1, and 1.2 wt% for MgH2-FeTi-CAs, MgH2-FeTi, CAs-Pd, and 8 mol% Ti-doped NaAlH4, respectively, at room temperature. Carbon aerogels with higher surface area and mesoporous structures facilitated hydrogen diffusion and adsorption, which accounted for its extraordinary hydrogen storage phenomenon. The hydrogen adsorption abilities of CAs notably increased after inclusion of metal hydrides by the “hydrogen spillover” mechanisms.

  5. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased an estimated 35% since preindustrial levels two centuries ago, reportedly due to the burning of fossil fuels combined with increased deforestation. In the U.S., energy-related activities account for 75% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with more than 50% from large stationary sources such as power plants and about one-third from transportation. Mitigation technologies for CO2 atmospheric stabilization based on energy and economic scenarios include coal-based power plant- carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is assessing CCS operations and supporting technologies at U.S. locations and opportunities abroad reported here. The Algerian In Salah Joint Industry Project injecting 1 million tons CO2 (MtCO2)/year into a gas field sandstone, and the Canadian Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project injecting over 1.8 MtCO2/year into carbonate oil reservoirs are ongoing industrial-scale storage operations DOE participates in. DOE also supports mid-scale CCS demonstrations at the Australian Otway Project and CO2SINK in Germany. Enhanced oil recovery operations conducted for decades in west Texas and elsewhere have provided the industrial experience to build on, and early pilots such as Frio-I Texas in 2004 have spearheaded technology deployment. While injecting 1,600 tons of CO2 into a saline sandstone at Frio, time-lapse borehole and surface seismic detected P-wave velocity decreases and reflection amplitude changes resulting from the replacement of brine with CO2 in the reservoir. Just two of many cutting-edge technologies tested at Frio, these and others are now deployed by U.S. researchers with international teams to evaluate reservoir injectivity, capacity, and integrity, as well as to assess CO2 spatial distribution, trapping, and unlikely leakage. Time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling at Otway and microseismic at In Salah and Otway, monitor injection and reservoir

  6. Metal-Assisted Hydrogen Storage on Pt-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Brown, Craig [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Neumann, Dan [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Hu, Hui [ORNL; Styers-Barnett, David J [ORNL; Krasnov, Pavel O. [Rice University; Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice University

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic dissociation of hydrogen molecules by metal nanoparticles and spillover of atomic hydrogen onto various supports is a well-established phenomenon in catalysis. However, the mechanisms by which metal catalyst nanoparticles can assist in enhanced hydrogen storage on high-surface area supports are still under debate. Experimental measurements of metal-assisted hydrogen storage have been hampered by inaccurate estimation of atomically stored hydrogen deduced from comparative measurements between metal-decorated and undecorated samples. Here we report a temperature cycling technique combined with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of quantum rotational transitions of molecular H2 to more accurately quantify adsorbed hydrogen aided by catalytic particles using single samples. Temperature cycling measurements on single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) decorated with 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles showed 0.17 % mass fraction of metal-assisted hydrogen storage (at 0.5 MPa) at room temperature. Temperature cycling of Pt-decorated SWCNHs using a Sievert s apparatus also indicated metal-assisted hydrogen adsorption of 0.08 % mass fraction at 5 MPa at room temperature. No additional metal-assisted hydrogen storage was observed in SWCNH samples without Pt nanoparticles cycled to room temperature, or in Pt-SWCNHs when the temperature was cycled to less than 150K. The possible formation of C-H bonds due to spilled-over atomic hydrogen was also investigated using both INS and density functional theory calculations.

  7. Sub-Seafloor Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential on the Juan de Fuca Plate, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Fairley; Robert Podgorney

    2012-11-01

    The Juan de Fuca plate, off the western coast of North America, has been suggested as a site for geological sequestration of waste carbon dioxide because of its many attractive characteristics (high permeability, large storage capacity, reactive rock types). Here we model CO2 injection into fractured basalts comprising the upper several hundred meters of the sub-seafloor basalt reservoir, overlain with low-permeability sediments and a large saline water column, to examine the feasibility of this reservoir for CO2 storage. Our simulations indicate that the sub-seafloor basalts of the Juan de Fuca plate may be an excellent CO2 storage candidate, as multiple trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic, density inversions, and mineralization) act to keep the CO2 isolated from terrestrial environments. Questions remain about the lateral extent and connectivity of the high permeability basalts; however, the lack of wells or boreholes and thick sediment cover maximize storage potential while minimizing potential leakage pathways. Although promising, more study is needed to determine the economic viability of this option.

  8. Oxygen- and Lithium-Doped Hybrid Boron-Nitride/Carbon Networks for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeganfar, Farzaneh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-12-20

    Hydrogen storage capacities have been studied on newly designed three-dimensional pillared boron nitride (PBN) and pillared graphene boron nitride (PGBN). We propose these novel materials based on the covalent connection of BNNTs and graphene sheets, which enhance the surface and free volume for storage within the nanomaterial and increase the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen uptake capacities. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations show that these lithium- and oxygen-doped pillared structures have improved gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen capacities at room temperature, with values on the order of 9.1-11.6 wt % and 40-60 g/L. Our findings demonstrate that the gravimetric uptake of oxygen- and lithium-doped PBN and PGBN has significantly enhanced the hydrogen sorption and desorption. Calculations for O-doped PGBN yield gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacities greater than 11.6 wt % at room temperature. This increased value is attributed to the pillared morphology, which improves the mechanical properties and increases porosity, as well as the high binding energy between oxygen and GBN. Our results suggest that hybrid carbon/BNNT nanostructures are an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage, owing to the combination of the electron mobility of graphene and the polarized nature of BN at heterojunctions, which enhances the uptake capacity, providing ample opportunities to further tune this hybrid material for efficient hydrogen storage.

  9. Carbon compound used in hydrogen storage; Compuesto de carbon utilizado en almacenamiento de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In the present work it is studied the activated carbon of mineral origin for the sorption of hydrogen. The carbon decreased of particle size by means of the one alloyed mechanical. The time of mill was of 10 hours. The characterization one carries out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sipped in the carbon material it was determined using the Thermal gravimetric method (TGA). The conditions of hydrogenation went at 10 atm of pressure and ambient temperature during 18 hours. They were also carried out absorption/desorption cycles of hydrogen in the same one system of thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed percentages of sorption of 2% approximately in the cycles carried out in the system TGA and of 4.5% in weight of hydrogen at pressure of 10 atmospheres and ambient temperature during 18 hours. (Author)

  10. Global economic consequences of deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo; Calvin, Katherine; Wise, Marshall; Kyle, Page; Edmonds, Jae

    2016-09-01

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is considered a potential source of net negative carbon emissions and, if deployed at sufficient scale, could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and concentrations. However, the viability and economic consequences of large-scale BECCS deployment are not fully understood. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) integrated assessment model to explore the potential global and regional economic impacts of BECCS. As a negative-emissions technology, BECCS would entail a net subsidy in a policy environment in which carbon emissions are taxed. We show that by mid-century, in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, carbon tax revenues have peaked and are rapidly approaching the point where climate mitigation is a net burden on general tax revenues. Assuming that the required policy instruments are available to support BECCS deployment, we consider its effects on global trade patterns of fossil fuels, biomass, and agricultural products. We find that in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, the absence of CCS harms fossil-fuel exporting regions, while the presence of CCS, and BECCS in particular, allows greater continued use and export of fossil fuels. We also explore the relationship between carbon prices, food-crop prices and use of BECCS. We show that the carbon price and biomass and food crop prices are directly related. We also show that BECCS reduces the upward pressure on food crop prices by lowering carbon prices and lowering the total biomass demand in climate change mitigation scenarios. All of this notwithstanding, many challenges, both technical and institutional, remain to be addressed before BECCS can be deployed at scale.

  11. Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage by mineral-trapping and solubility-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew C; Dideriksen, Knud; Spangler, Lee H; Cunningham, Alfred B; Gerlach, Robin

    2010-07-01

    The potential of microorganisms for enhancing carbon capture and storage (CCS) via mineral-trapping (where dissolved CO(2) is precipitated in carbonate minerals) and solubility trapping (as dissolved carbonate species in solution) was investigated. The bacterial hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) was investigated in microcosms including synthetic brine (SB) mimicking a prospective deep subsurface CCS site with variable headspace pressures [p(CO(2))] of (13)C-CO(2). Dissolved Ca(2+) in the SB was completely precipitated as calcite during microbially induced hydrolysis of 5-20 g L(-1) urea. The incorporation of carbonate ions from (13)C-CO(2) ((13)C-CO(3)(2-)) into calcite increased with increasing p((13)CO(2)) and increasing urea concentrations: from 8.3% of total carbon in CaCO(3) at 1 g L(-1) to 31% at 5 g L(-1), and 37% at 20 g L(-1). This demonstrated that ureolysis was effective at precipitating initially gaseous [CO(2)(g)] originating from the headspace over the brine. Modeling the change in brine chemistry and carbonate precipitation after equilibration with the initial p(CO(2)) demonstrated that no net precipitation of CO(2)(g) via mineral-trapping occurred, since urea hydrolysis results in the production of dissolved inorganic carbon. However, the pH increase induced by bacterial ureolysis generated a net flux of CO(2)(g) into the brine. This reduced the headspace concentration of CO(2) by up to 32 mM per 100 mM urea hydrolyzed because the capacity of the brine for carbonate ions was increased, thus enhancing the solubility-trapping capacity of the brine. Together with the previously demonstrated permeability reduction of rock cores at high pressure by microbial biofilms and resilience of biofilms to supercritical CO(2), this suggests that engineered biomineralizing biofilms may enhance CCS via solubility-trapping, mineral formation, and CO(2)(g) leakage reduction.

  12. Assessing Links Between Water and Carbon Storage in Indonesian Peatlands Using Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swails, E.; Reager, J. T., II; Randerson, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation and drainage of tropical peat swamp forests for conversion to other uses results in a loss of carbon storage through the clearing and burning of forest vegetation as well as decomposition of peat soils and increased frequency of fires following drainage. We used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage observations and a global forest cover change product to investigate trends in terrestrial water storage associated with land use conversion in Indonesian peatlands between 2002 and 2012. Our initial analysis indicated that secular trends in GRACE terrestrial water storage were consistent with the spatial distribution of peatlands drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations. A decreasing trend in GRACE terrestrial water storage measurements over the observation period indicated a substantial decrease in water table heights. Combining this information with measurements of bulk density and carbon content of surface peat layers, we estimated potential emissions from carbon stocks now vulnerable to oxidation. Independent measurements of fire carbon emissions were used to estimate the fraction of committed emission that was combusted. Our research represents the first known application of GRACE data to assess loss of soil carbon storage associated with depletion of soil water.

  13. A seeded synthetic strategy for uniform polymer and carbon nanospheres with tunable sizes for high performance electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiasheng; Liu, Mingxian; Gan, Lihua; Tripathi, Pranav K; Zhu, Dazhang; Xu, Zijie; Hao, Zhixian; Chen, Longwu; Wright, Dominic S

    2013-04-14

    We established a novel and facile strategy to synthesize uniform polymer and carbon nanospheres, the diameters of which can be precisely programmed between 35-105 and 30-90 nm, respectively, via time-controlled formation of colloidal seeds. The carbon nanospheres show promising prospects in high rate performance electrochemical energy storage.

  14. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  15. Carbon storage in recombinant Escherichia coli during growth on glycerol and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael; Tröndle, Julia; Albermann, Christoph; Sprenger, Georg A; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    A fed-batch process was studied with lactate and glycerol supply in the growth phase and glycerol supply during L-phenylalanine production with recombinant E. coli K-12. Lactic acid feeding was necessary for growth because the genes encoding the PEP-consuming pyruvate kinase isoenzymes (pykA, pykF) have been deleted. An unexpected glucose efflux (67.6 ± 2.3 mgGlucose  gCDW (-1) ) was measured after the cells were harvested and resuspended in a mineral medium for metabolic perturbation experiments. As the efflux prohibited the application of these experiments, characterization of intracellular carbon storage was necessary. Therefore, two genetically engineered strains (one lacking glycogen metabolism and another additionally lacking trehalose synthesis) were applied in the fed-batch process. Trehalose synthesis and accumulation from lactate was clearly identified as the source for glucose efflux after cell harvest and resuspension. Cultivations of strains with active pyruvate kinase successfully identified lactate as the carbon source causing intracellular trehalose storage. The usage of glycerol as sole carbon source during the whole process enabled an improved process performance and inhibited trehalose accumulation. Overall, this setup allows the application of perturbation experiments.

  16. Energy storage on ultrahigh surface area activated carbon fibers derived from PMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñiz, Alberto; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D; Kyotani, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    High-performance carbon materials for energy storage applications have been obtained by using poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), PMIA, as a precursor through the chemical activation of the carbonized aramid fiber by using KOH. The yield of the process of activation was remarkably high (25-40 wt%), resulting in activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with ultrahigh surface areas, over 3000 m(2) g(-1) , and pore volumes exceeding 1.50 cm(3) g(-1) , keeping intact the fibrous morphology. The porous structure and the surface chemical properties could easily be controlled through the conditions of activation. The PMIA-derived ACFs were tested in two types of energy storage applications. At -196 °C and 1 bar, H2 uptake values of approximately 3 t% were obtained, which, in combination with the textural properties, rendered it a good candidate for H2 adsorption at high pressure and temperature. The performance of the ACFs as electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors was also investigated. Specific capacitance values between 297 and 531 g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) were obtained in aqueous electrolyte (1 H2 SO4 ), showing different behaviors depending on the surface chemical properties.

  17. From Carbon-Based Nanotubes to Nanocages for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-02-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been the focus of research interests in the past 30 years due to their abundant microstructures and morphologies, excellent properties, and wide potential applications, as landmarked by 0D fullerene, 1D nanotubes, and 2D graphene. With the availability of high specific surface area (SSA), well-balanced pore distribution, high conductivity, and tunable wettability, carbon-based nanomaterials are highly expected as advanced materials for energy conversion and storage to meet the increasing demands for clean and renewable energies. In this context, attention is usually attracted by the star material of graphene in recent years. In this Account, we overview our studies on carbon-based nanotubes to nanocages for energy conversion and storage, including their synthesis, performances, and related mechanisms. The two carbon nanostructures have the common features of interior cavity, high conductivity, and easy doping but much different SSAs and pore distributions, leading to different performances. We demonstrated a six-membered-ring-based growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with benzene precursor based on the structural similarity of the benzene ring to the building unit of CNTs. By this mechanism, nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) with homogeneous N distribution and predominant pyridinic N were obtained with pyridine precursor, providing a new kind of support for convenient surface functionalization via N-participation. Accordingly, various transition-metal nanoparticles were directly immobilized onto NCNTs without premodification. The so-constructed catalysts featured high dispersion, narrow size distribution and tunable composition, which presented superior catalytic performances for energy conversions, for example, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation in fuel cells. With the advent of the new field of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts, we first extended ORR catalysts from the electron-rich N-doped to the

  18. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  19. Hydrogen Storage in Benzene Moiety Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing-Yun; LIANG Qi-Min; SONG Chen; XIA Yue-Yuan; ZHAO Ming-wen; LIU Xiang-Dong; ZHANG Hong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen storage capacity of(5,5)single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs)decorated chemically with benzene moieties is studied by using molecular dynamics simulations(MDSs)and density functional theory(DFT) calculations.It is found that benzene molecules colliding on (5,5) SWNTs at incident energy of 50 eV form very stable configurations of benzene moiety adsorption on the wall of SWNTs.The MDSs indicate that when the benzene moiety decorated(5,5)SWNTs and a pristine(5,5)SWNT are put in a box in which hydrogen molecules are filled to a pressure of~26 atm,the hydrogen storage capacity of the benzene moiety decorated(5,5)SWNT is about 4.7wt.% and that of the pristine (5,5) SwNT is nearly 3.9 wt.%.

  20. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  1. Metal-Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and Flexible Energy-Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun Young; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Young Shik; Choi, Jaeyoo; Youk, Ji Ho; Fechler, Nina; Yang, Seung Jae; Park, Chong Rae

    2017-01-05

    Future electronics applications such as wearable electronics depend on the successful construction of energy-storage devices with superior flexibility and high electrochemical performance. However, these prerequisites are challenging to combine: External forces often cause performance degradation, whereas the trade-off between the required nanostructures for strength and electrochemical performance only results in diminished energy storage. Herein, a flexible supercapacitor based on tannic acid (TA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a unique nanostructure is presented. TA was self-assembled on the surface of the CNTs by metal-phenolic coordination bonds, which provides the hybrid film with both high strength and high pseudocapacitance. Besides 17-fold increased mechanical strength of the final composite, the hybrid film simultaneously exhibits excellent flexibility and volumetric capacitance.

  2. Root biomass and carbon storage in differently managed multispecies temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Species-rich grasslands may potentially increase carbon (C) storage in soil, and an experiment was established to investigate C storage in highly productive temporary multi-species grasslands. Plots were established with three mixtures: (1) a herb mixture containing salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor......% of the herb mixture and 50% of a white clover (Trifolium repens L.) - perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mixture, and (3) 5% of the herb mixture and 95% of the white clover-ryegrass mixture. Management factors were number of cuts per year and fertilizer application. Aboveground biomass increased...... considerably with increasing content of herbs and with fertilizer application in plots with a 4-cut strategy. With a 6-cut strategy without fertilizer, herbs had no effect on the aboveground biomass. In the herb mixture, biomass of small roots was lower than in mixtures with white clover and ryegrass...

  3. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Survey Design for Monitoring Carbon Capture and Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. M.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D.; Wright, I. C.; McPhail, S.; Shitashima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of sub-seabed Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites will require systems that are flexible, independent, and have long-endurance. In this presentation we will discuss the utility of autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with different sensor packages in monitoring storage sites. We will present data collected using Autosub AUV, as part of the ECO2 project, from the Sleipner area of the North Sea. The Autosub AUV was equipped with sidescan sonar, an EM2000 multibeam systems, a Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a variety of chemical sensors. Our presentation will focus on survey design, and the simultaneous use of multiple sensor packages in environmental monitoring on the continental shelf.

  4. Evaluation of carbon cryogels used as cathodes for non-flowing zinc-bromine storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme-Perrot, David; Walter, Serge; Gabelica, Zelimir [Groupe Securite et Ecologie Chimiques (GSEC), ENSCMu, 3 rue Alfred Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Valange, Sabine [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), ESIP, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2008-01-03

    Monolithic megaloporous carbon cryogels were examined for their potential applications as cathodic electrodes in secondary zinc-bromine cells. This work investigates the possibility of using their particular macroporous texture as microscopic bromine tanks in a zinc/bromine battery. The electrochemical behaviour of a cell based upon such a Br{sub 2} electrode was studied and discussed in terms of energy yields, energy storage capability and cycle life. Good storages (over 20 Wh kg{sup -1}) could be obtained during the first 2 h of cell charging for currents between 10 and 20 mA g{sup -1}. The energy yield remains almost constant during a fairly large number of cycles, basically for weak charges (e.g. 25 C g{sup -1}). Our findings show that the good cyclability of the cathodic electrode is a consequence of the liquid state of the active bromine phase. (author)

  5. Lead-carbon electrode designed for renewable energy storage with superior performance in partial state of charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zhe-Qi; Shi, Jun; Wang, Can; Liu, De-Bo; Wang, Yue; Bao, Jin-Peng; Lin, Hai-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy storage is a key issue in our modern electricity-powered society. Lead acid batteries (LABs) are operated at partial state of charge in renewable energy storage system, which causes the sulfation and capacity fading of Pb electrode. Lead-carbon composite electrode is a good solution to the sulfation problem of LAB. In this paper, a rice-husk-derived hierarchically porous carbon with micrometer-sized large pores (denoted as RHC) has been used as the component of lead-carbon composite electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of lead-carbon composite electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the charge transfer capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Both full charge-discharge method and charge-discharge method operating at harsh partial state of charge condition have been used to prove the superior energy storage capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Experiment results prove that the micrometer-sized pores of RHC are beneficial to the construction and stability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Microporous carbon material with high surface area is not suitable for the construction of lead-carbon electrode due to the ruin of lead-carbon structure caused by severe electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

  6. Production, storage, and output of particulate organic carbon: Waipaoa River basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Basil; Trustrum, N. A.; Hicks, D. M.; Rogers, K. M.; Page, M. J.; Tate, K. R.

    2003-06-01

    We compute the particulate organic carbon (POC) yield of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand, using sediment rating curves in conjunction with measurements of the carbon content of the suspended sediment. To ascertain the source of the carbon and the extent to which the POC flux is tied to different erosion processes, we determined the stable isotopic carbon composition (δ13C) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of weathered bedrock, soil, and regolith. Most POC is derived from suspended sediment generated by gully erosion (incision into weathered bedrock), supplemented by landsliding during extreme events. The specific yield of POC from the headwaters (drainage area 1580 km2) is 55 g m-2 yr-1, which is very high by global standards and by comparison with other turbid steep-land rivers. The annual loss to floodplain storage is ˜4% (3.6 Kt) of the mean annual POC yield (86.7 Kt). Thus the Waipaoa River is a very effective conduit for transporting POC to the ocean.

  7. Siting is a constraint to realize environmental benefits from carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Ashok; Williams, Eric; Chester, Mikhail

    2014-10-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for coal power plants reduces onsite carbon dioxide emissions, but affects other air emissions on and offsite. This research assesses the net societal benefits and costs of Monoethanolamine (MEA) CCS, valuing changes in emissions of CO2, SO2, NOX, NH3 and particulate matter (PM), including those in the supply chain. Geographical variability and stochastic uncertainty for 407 coal power plant locations in the U.S. are analyzed. The results show that the net environmental benefits and costs of MEA CCS depend critically on location. For a few favorable sites of both power plant and upstream processes, CCS realizes a net benefit (benefit-cost ratio >1) if the social cost of carbon exceeds $51/ton. For much of the U.S. however, the social cost of carbon must be much higher to realize net benefits from CCS, up to a maximum of $910/ton. While the social costs of carbon are uncertain, typical estimates are in the range of $32-220 per ton, much lower than the breakeven value for many potential CCS locations. Increased impacts upstream from the power plant can dramatically change the social acceptability of CCS and needs further consideration and analysis.

  8. Design and reversible hydrogen storage capacity determination of unique nanoarrays of titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita

    In this project hydrogen storage studies were carried out on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays of different diameters prepared by electrochemical anodization, combined with template-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The growth of the CNTs on the nanotubular TiO2 arrays was accomplished by chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen storage capacity was determined for the nanotubular TiO2 and the combined TiO2-CNT arrays, by charging and discharging hydrogen with a Sievert's apparatus. It was found that the presence of carbon nanotubes on nano-porous titanium oxide can enhance storage of hydrogen as determined by volumetric means. The hydrogen uptake in as-anodized TiO2 nanotubes was found to be 2 wt% at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and 0.94 wt% at room temperature. Desorption results for TiO2 at 393 K and 300 K were 1.5 wt% and 0.7 wt%, respectively. The CNT-TiO2 composites showed a hydrogen uptake capacity of 1.94 wt% at room temperature and 2.5 wt% at 77 K. The desorption results were 1.8 wt% at 393 K and 0.68 wt% at room temperature. It was seen that the hydrogen uptake was higher at lower temperatures and discharge was increased significantly at higher temperatures for both TiO2 and CNT/TiO2 samples. The utilization of this novel hydrogen storage method can be recognized as a break-through in the hydrogen economy as applied to on-board vehicular applications.

  9. A study on hydrogen storage through adsorption in nano-structured carbons; Etude du stockage d'hydrogene par adsorption dans des carbones nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langohr, D

    2004-10-15

    The aim of this work is to build and calibrate an experimental set-up for the testing of the materials, to produce some carbon materials in large amounts and characterise them, and finally, to test these materials in their ability to store hydrogen. This will help in establishing a link between the hydrogen storage capacities of the carbons and their nano-structure. The script is divided into four chapters. The first chapter will deal with the literature review on the thematic of hydrogen storage through adsorption in the carbon materials, while the second chapter will present the experimental set-up elaborated in the laboratory. The third chapter explains the processes used to produce the two families of carbon materials and finally, the last chapter presents the structural characterisation of the samples as well as the experimental results of hydrogen storage on the materials elaborated. (author)

  10. Soil carbon storage in a small arid catchment in the Negev desert (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ulrike; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2010-05-01

    The mineral soil represents a major pool in the global carbon cycle. The behavior of mineral soil as a carbon reservoir in global climate and environmental issues is far from fully understood and causes a serious lack of comparable data on mineral soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional scale. To improve our understanding of soil carbon sequestration, it is necessary to acquire regional estimates of soil carbon pools in different ecosystem types. So far, little attention has been given to Dryland ecosystems, but they are often considered as highly sensitive to environmental change, with large and rapid responses to even smallest changes of climate conditions. Due to this fact, Drylands, as an ecosystem with extensive surface area across the globe (6.15 billion ha), have been suggested as a potential component for major carbon storage. A priori reasoning suggests that regional spatial patterns of SOC density (kg/m²) in Drylands are mostly affected by vegetation, soil texture, landscape position, soil truncation, wind erosion/deposition and the effect of water supply. Particularly unassigned is the interaction between soil volume, geomorphic processes and SOC density on regional scale. This study aims to enhance our understanding of regional spatial variability in dependence on soil volume, topography and surface parameters in areas susceptible to environmental change. Soil samples were taken in small transects at different representative slope positions across a range of elevations, soil texture, vegetation types, and terrain positions in a small catchment (600 ha) in the Negev desert. Topographic variables were extracted from a high resolution (0.5m) digital elevation model. Subsequently, we estimated the soil volume by excavating the entire soil at the representative sampling position. The volume was then estimated by laser scanning before and after soil excavation. SOC concentration of the soil samples was determined by CHN-analyser. For each sample, carbon

  11. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon storage of the grassland, shrub land and arbor land were

  12. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Flexible Electrochemical Energy Storage: from Materials to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage (FEES) devices have received great attention as a promising power source for the emerging field of flexible and wearable electronic devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have many excellent properties that make them ideally suited for use in FEES devices. A brief definition of FEES devices is provided, followed by a detailed overview of various structural models for achieving different FEES devices. The latest research developments on the use of CNTs and graphene in FEES devices are summarized. Finally, future prospects and important research directions in the areas of CNT- and graphene-based flexible electrode synthesis and device integration are discussed.

  13. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  14. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling,measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau,and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic car-bon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12×104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75×104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow eco-systems,with an average of 26.86×104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1,with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%―81.23% of total CO2 emitted from or-ganic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming,the storage,volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed,which needs further research.

  15. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Zhen; SHEN ChengDe; GAO QuanZhou; SUN YanMin; YI WeiXi; LI YingNian

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling, measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic carbon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12(104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75(104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow ecosystems, with an average of 26.86(104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1, with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%-81.23% of total CO2 emitted from organic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming, the storage, volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed, which needs further research.

  16. Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as template for water storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanjib; Taraphder, Srabani

    2016-11-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, endohedrally functionalized with a protonated/unprotonated carboxylic acid group, are examined as potential templates for water storage using classical molecular dynamics simulation studies. Following a spontaneous entry of water molecules into the core of model functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs), a large fraction of water molecules are found to be trapped inside FCNTs of lengths 50 and 100 Å. Only water molecules near the two open ends of the nanotube are exchanged with the bulk solvent. The residence times of water molecules inside FCNTs are investigated by varying the length of the tube, the length of suspended functional group and the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group. Favorable energetic interactions between the functional group and water, assisted by a substantial gain in rotational entropy, are found to compensate for the entropy loss resulting from restricted translational diffusion of trapped water molecules.

  17. Tin Oxide-Carbon-Coated Sepiolite Nanofibers with Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Wen, Xin; Yan, Peng; Tang, Aidong; Yang, Huaming

    2017-12-01

    Natural sepiolite (Sep) nanofibers were coated with carbon and nanoscale SnO2 to prepare an emerging nanocomposite (SnO2-C@Sep), which exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance. Sepiolite could act as a steady skeleton, carbon coating principally led sepiolite from an isolated to an electric state, and decoration of nanoscale SnO2 was beneficial to the functionization of sepiolite. Cycling performances indicated that SnO2-C@Sep showed higher discharge capacities than commercial SnO2 after 50 cycles. The nanocomposite SnO2-C@Sep possessed enhanced lithium storage properties with stable capacity retention and low cost, which could open up a new strategy to synthesize a variety of functional hybrid materials based on the cheap and abundant clay and commercialization of lithium-metal oxide batteries.

  18. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks.

  19. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; McGuire, A. David

    2016-06-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  20. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  1. Allocation of plant carbon to foraging and storage in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavito, Mayra E; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2003-07-01

    Abstract Foraging strategies, the cost-benefit associated with the search for new resources, have only begun to be explored in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We show the use of (13)C-labelling, via shoot photosynthesis, of the 16:1omega5 fatty acid biomarker (the dominant and rather specific fatty acid in AMF storage lipids) to study the immediate patterns of carbon allocation to fungal lipids in response to inorganic and organic nutrient amendments. Signature fatty acid measurements, the incorporation of the label and complementary hyphal length density measurements showed that the extraradical mycelium of AMF proliferated in response to all the amendments provided whereas its development into unamended sand was minor in all treatments. We demonstrate the foraging capacity of AMF, linked to plant carbon, through their hyphal proliferation and accumulation of energy reserves.

  2. Soil carbon storage following road removal and timber harvesting in redwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Joseph; Madej, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Soil carbon storage plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and is important for sustaining forest productivity. Removal of unpaved forest roads has the potential for increasing carbon storage in soils on forested terrain as treated sites revegetate and soil properties improve on the previously compacted road surfaces. We compared soil organic carbon (SOC) content at several depths on treated roads to SOC in adjacent second-growth forests and old-growth redwood forests in California, determined whether SOC in the upper 50 cm of soil varies with the type of road treatment, and assessed the relative importance of site-scale and landscape-scale variables in predicting SOC accumulation in treated road prisms and second-growth redwood forests. Soils were sampled at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths on roads treated by two methods (decommissioning and full recontouring), and in adjacent second-growth and old-growth forests in north coastal California. Road treatments spanned a period of 32 years, and covered a range of geomorphic and vegetative conditions. SOC decreased with depth at all sites. Treated roads on convex sites exhibited higher SOC than on concave sites, and north aspect sites had higher SOC than south aspect sites. SOC at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths did not differ significantly between decommissioned roads (treated 18–32 years previous) and fully recontoured roads (treated 2–12 years previous). Nevertheless, stepwise multiple regression models project higher SOC developing on fully recontoured roads in the next few decades. The best predictors for SOC on treated roads and in second-growth forest incorporated aspect, vegetation type, soil depth, lithology, distance from the ocean, years since road treatment (for the road model) and years since harvest (for the forest model). The road model explained 48% of the variation in SOC in the upper 50 cm of mineral soils and the forest model, 54%

  3. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  4. Divergent predictions of carbon storage between two global land models: attribution of the causes through traceability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashid; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Wang, Yingping; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-08-27

    Representations of the terrestrial carbon cycle in land models are becoming increasingly complex. It is crucial to develop approaches for critical assessment of the complex model properties in order to understand key factors contributing to models’ performance. In this study, we applied a traceability analysis, which decomposes carbon cycle models into traceable components, to two global land models (CABLE and CLM-CASA’) to diagnose the causes of their differences in simulating ecosystem carbon storage capacity. Driven with similar forcing data, the CLM-CASA’ model predicted ~31% larger carbon storage capacity than the CABLE model. Since ecosystem carbon storage capacity is a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE), the predicted difference in the storage capacity between the two models results from differences in either NPP or τE or both. Our analysis showed that CLM-CASA’ simulated 37% higher NPP than CABLE due to higher rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) in CLM-CASA’. On the other hand, τE , which was a function the baseline carbon residence time (τ´E) and environmental effect on carbon residence time, was on average 11 years longer in CABLE than CLM-CASA’. The difference in τE was mainly found to be caused by longer τ´E in CABLE than CLM-CASA’. This difference in τE was mainly caused by longer τ´E of woody biomass (23 vs. 14 years in CLM-CASA’) and higher proportion of NPP allocated to woody biomass (23% vs. 16%). Differences in environmental effects on carbon residence times had smaller influences on differences in ecosystem carbon storage capacities compared to differences in NPP and τ´E. Overall; the traceability analysis is an effective method for identifying sources of variations between the two models.

  5. Remote sensing based shrub above-ground biomass and carbon storage mapping in Mu Us desert,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of above-ground biomass(AGB) and carbon storage is very important for arid and semi-arid ecosystems.HJ-1A/B satellite data combined with field measurement data was used for the estimation of shrub AGB and carbon storage in the Mu Us desert,China.The correlations of shrub AGB and spectral reflectance of four bands as well as their combined vegetation indexes were respectively analyzed and stepwise regression analysis was employed to establish AGB prediction equation.The prediction equation based on ratio vegetation index(RVI)was proved to be more suitable for shrub AGB estimation in the Mu Us desert than others.Shrub AGB and carbon storage were mapped using the RVI based prediction model in final.The statistics showed the western Mu Us desert has relatively high AGB and carbon storage,and that the gross shrub carton storage in Mu Us desert reaches 16 799 200 t,which has greatly contributed to the carbon fixation in northern China.

  6. Nickel nanoparticles effect on the electrochemical energy storage properties of carbon nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo Bettini, Luca; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Milani, Paolo; Piseri, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The growth of nanostructured nickel : carbon (Ni : C) nanocomposite thin films by the supersonic cluster beam deposition of nickel and carbon clusters co-deposited from two separate beam sources has been demonstrated. Ni : C films retain the typical highly disordered structure with predominant sp2 hybridization, low density, high surface roughness and granular nanoscale morphology of cluster assembled nanostructured carbon, but display enhanced electric conductivity. The electric double layer (EDL) capacitance of Ni : C films featuring the same thickness (200 nm) and different nickel volumetric concentrations (0-35%) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy employing an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH 1 M) as electrolyte solution. Evidence of increased electric conductivity, facilitated EDL formation and negligible porous structure modification was found as consequence of Ni embedding. This results in the ability to synthesize electrodes with tailored specific power and energy density by the accurate control of the amount of deposited Ni and C clusters. Moreover, nickel nanoparticles were shown to catalyze the formation of tubular onion-like carbon structures upon mild thermal treatment in inert atmosphere. Electrochemical characterization of the heated nanocomposite electrodes revealed that the presence of long range ordered sp2 structures further improves the power density and energy storage properties.

  7. Phenolic resin-based porous carbons for adsorption and energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P.

    The main objective of this dissertation research is to develop phenolic resin based carbon materials for range of applications by soft-templating and Stober-like synthesis strategies. Applications Studied in this dissertation are adsorption of CO2, bio-molecular and heavy metal ions, and energy storage devices. Based on that, our goal is to design carbon materials with desired pore structure, high surface area, graphitic domains, incorporated metal nanoparticles, and specific organic groups and heteroatoms. In this dissertation the organic-organic self-assembly of phenolic resins and triblock copolymers under acidic conditions will be used to obtain mesoporous carbons/carbon composites and Stober-like synthesis involving phenolic resins under basic condition will be used to prepare polymer/carbon particles and their composites. The structure of this dissertation consists of an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) discussing the general synthesis of carbon materials, particularly the soft-templating strategy and Stober-like carbon synthesis. Also, Chapter 1 includes a brief outline of applications namely adsorption of CO2, biomolecule and heavy metal ions, and supercapacitors. Chapter 2 discusses the techniques used for characterization of the carbon materials studied. This chapter starts with nitrogen adsorption analysis, which is used to measure the specific surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore sizes, and pore width. In addition to nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and CHNS elemental analysis (EA) are mentioned too. Chapter 3 is focused on carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. There are different types of porous solid materials such as silicate, MOFs, carbons, and zeolites studied for CO2 adsorption. However, the carbon based materials are considered to be the best candidates for CO 2 adsorption to the industrial point of

  8. High-performance multifunctional graphene yarns: toward wearable all-carbon energy storage textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed; Jalili, Rouhollah; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Salari, Maryam; Gholamvand, Zahra; Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Shepherd, Roderick L; Chen, Jun; Moulton, Simon E; Innis, Peter Charles; Minett, Andrew I; Razal, Joselito M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-03-25

    The successful commercialization of smart wearable garments is hindered by the lack of fully integrated carbon-based energy storage devices into smart wearables. Since electrodes are the active components that determine the performance of energy storage systems, it is important to rationally design and engineer hierarchical architectures atboth the nano- and macroscale that can enjoy all of the necessary requirements for a perfect electrode. Here we demonstrate a large-scale flexible fabrication of highly porous high-performance multifunctional graphene oxide (GO) and rGO fibers and yarns by taking advantage of the intrinsic soft self-assembly behavior of ultralarge graphene oxide liquid crystalline dispersions. The produced yarns, which are the only practical form of these architectures for real-life device applications, were found to be mechanically robust (Young's modulus in excess of 29 GPa) and exhibited high native electrical conductivity (2508 ± 632 S m(-1)) and exceptionally high specific surface area (2605 m(2) g(-1) before reduction and 2210 m(2) g(-1) after reduction). Furthermore, the highly porous nature of these architectures enabled us to translate the superior electrochemical properties of individual graphene sheets into practical everyday use devices with complex geometrical architectures. The as-prepared final architectures exhibited an open network structure with a continuous ion transport network, resulting in unrivaled charge storage capacity (409 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and rate capability (56 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1)) while maintaining their strong flexible nature.

  9. A multicriteria decision analysis model and risk assessment framework for carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries Choptiany, John Michael; Pelot, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been applied to various energy problems to incorporate a variety of qualitative and quantitative criteria, usually spanning environmental, social, engineering, and economic fields. MCDA and associated methods such as life-cycle assessments and cost-benefit analysis can also include risk analysis to address uncertainties in criteria estimates. One technology now being assessed to help mitigate climate change is carbon capture and storage (CCS). CCS is a new process that captures CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and injects them into geological reservoirs for storage. It presents a unique challenge to decisionmakers (DMs) due to its technical complexity, range of environmental, social, and economic impacts, variety of stakeholders, and long time spans. The authors have developed a risk assessment model using a MCDA approach for CCS decisions such as selecting between CO2 storage locations and choosing among different mitigation actions for reducing risks. The model includes uncertainty measures for several factors, utility curve representations of all variables, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis. This article uses a CCS scenario example to demonstrate the development and application of the model based on data derived from published articles and publicly available sources. The model allows high-level DMs to better understand project risks and the tradeoffs inherent in modern, complex energy decisions.

  10. Characterization and Hydrogen Storage of Surface-Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, identification, and H2 storage of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have been investigated in the present work. MWCNTs were produced from the catalytic-assembly solvent (benzene-thermal (solvothermal route. Reduction of C6Cl6 with metallic potassium was carried out in the presence of Co/Ni catalyst precursors at 503–623 K for 12 h. XRD patterns indicated that the abstraction of Cl from hexachlorobenzene and the formation of KCl precipitates were involved in the early stage of the synthesis process of MWCNTs. This result offers further explanation for the formation of MWCNT structure and yield using the solvothermal route depending on the Co/Ni catalyst precursors. The diameter of MWCNTs ranged between 30 and 100 nm and the H2 storage capacity of MWCNTs improved when 2.7–3.8 wt% Pd or NaAlH4 were doped. The XANES/EXAFS spectra revealed that the Co/Ni catalyst precursors of the MWCNT synthesis were in metallic form and Pd atoms possessed a Pd–Pd bond distance of 2.78 Å with a coordination number of 9.08. Ti-NaAlH4 or Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on MWCNTs and facilitated to improve the H2 storage capacity significantly with the surface modification process.

  11. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan eCao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  12. Low soil organic carbon storage in a subarctic alpine permafrost environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuchs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in Tarfala Valley, Northern Sweden. Field inventories upscaled based on land cover show that this alpine permafrost environment does not store large amounts of SOC, with an estimate mean of 0.9 ± 0.2 kg C m−2 for the upper meter of soil. This is one to two orders of magnitude lower than what has been reported for lowland permafrost terrain. The SOC storage varies for different land cover classes and ranges from 0.05 kg C m−2 for stone-dominated to 8.4 kg C m−2 for grass-dominated areas. No signs of organic matter burial through cryoturbation or slope processes were found and radiocarbon dated SOC is generally of recent origin (−2. Under future climate warming an upward shift of vegetation zones may lead to a net ecosystem C uptake from increased biomass and soil development. As a consequence, alpine permafrost environments could act as a net carbon sink in the future, as there is no loss of older or deeper SOC from thawing permafrost.

  13. Carbon storage change in a partially forestry-drained boreal mire determined through peat column inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkanen, A.; Tahvanainen, T.; Simola, H. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland). Dept. pf Biology; Turunen, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-09-01

    To study the impact of forestry drainage on peat carbon storage, we cored paired quantitative peat samples from undrained and drained sides of an eccentric bog. Five pairs of 0 to {<=} 100-cm-deep surface-peat cores, and a pair of profiles representing the full peat deposit provided stratigraphic evidence of marked loss of surface peat due to drainage. For the drained side cores, we found a relative subsidence of 25-37 cm of the surface, and a loss of about 10 kg{sub DW}{sup m-2}, corresponding to 131 {+-} 28 g C m{sup -2} a{sup -1} (mean {+-} SE) for the post-drainage period. Similar peat loss was also found in the full deposit profiles, thus lending credibility to the whole-column inventory approach, even though the decrease (9 kg{sub DW} m{sup -2}) was relatively small in comparison with the total carbon storage (233 and 224 kg{sub DW} m{sup -2} for the undrained and drained sides, respectively). (orig.)

  14. Studies on the Situation of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Croplands in Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-jun; WANG Li-gang; TANG Hua-jun; LI Hong; Changsheng LI

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Northeast of China, identify its balance situation and changing trends under current cropping systems, and finally put forward some strategies to keep the SOC in balance. A biogeochemical model (DNDC) for agro-ecosystem was employed to predict SOC dynamics in agricultural ecosystems at regional scale. Data on climate, soil properties, cropping systems, acreage, and management practices at county scale were collected from various sources and integrated into a GIS database to support the model runs at the regional scale.The model predicted results revealed that (1) Total SOC storage in agricultural lands in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in Northeast of China is about 1243.48 × 106 t (0-30cm soil layer), respectively occupying 58.4, 25.5 and 16.1%;(2) Under the current cultivation systems, SOC is in a situation of net loss with carbon losing at a high rate of 31.22 ×106 t a-1 (respectively 59.3, 25.9 and 14.8% in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces) and 2.05 t ha-1 a-1, the situation is more serious in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces; and (3) Protective cultivations, such as manuring, returning more residue of crop to the field, adopting no-till, are very useful for the accumulation of SOC in these regions.

  15. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  16. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface.

  17. Carbon-tuned bonding method significantly enhanced the hydrogen storage of BN-Li complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qing-ming; Zhao, Lina; Luo, You-hua; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Li-xia; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-11-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we found doping carbon atoms onto BN monolayers (BNC) could significantly strengthen the Li bond on this material. Unlike the weak bond strength between Li atoms and the pristine BN layer, it is observed that Li atoms are strongly hybridized and donate their electrons to the doped substrate, which is responsible for the enhanced binding energy. Li adsorbed on the BNC layer can serve as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium, without forming clusters, which can be recycled at room temperature. Eight polarized H(2) molecules are attached to two Li atoms with an optimal binding energy of 0.16-0.28 eV/H(2), which results from the electrostatic interaction of the polarized charge of hydrogen molecules with the electric field induced by positive Li atoms. This practical carbon-tuned BN-Li complex can work as a very high-capacity hydrogen storage medium with a gravimetric density of hydrogen of 12.2 wt%, which is much higher than the gravimetric goal of 5.5 wt % hydrogen set by the U.S. Department of Energy for 2015.

  18. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  19. Carbon Storage Patterns of Caragana korshinskii in Areas of Reduced Environmental Moisture on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunmei; Bai, Juan; Wang, Junhui; Zhou, Yulu; Kang, Tai; Wang, Jiajia; Hu, Congxia; Guo, Hongbo; Chen, Peilei; Xie, Pei; Li, Yuanfeng

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation patterns are influenced by climate change and profoundly alter the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems. Carbon uptake by shrubbery alone accounts for approximately one-third of the total carbon sink; however, whether such uptake is altered by reduced precipitation is unclear. In this study, five experimental sites characterised by gradual reductions in precipitation from south to north across the Loess Plateau were used to evaluate the Caragana korshinskii’s functional and physiological features, particularly its carbon fixation capacity, as well as the relationships among these features. We found the improved net CO2 assimilation rates and inhibited transpiration at the north leaf were caused by lower canopy stomatal conductance, which enhanced the instantaneous water use efficiency and promoted plant biomass as well as carbon accumulation. Regional-scale precipitation reductions over a certain range triggered a distinct increase in the shrub’s organic carbon storage with an inevitable decrease in the soil’s organic carbon storage. Our results confirm C. korshinskii is the optimal dominant species for the reconstruction of fragile dryland ecosystems. The patterns of organic carbon storage associated with this shrub occurred mostly in the soil at wetter sites, and in the branches and leaves at drier sites across the arid and semi-arid region.

  20. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong; WANG Silong; OUYANG Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range.To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species,we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation in 22 years,as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation.Results indicated that M.macclurei plantation stored significantly more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C.lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2).Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M.macclurei plantation,55.2% in C.lanceolata plantation).Tree and soil component of M.macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of the C.lanceolata plantation (p<0.05).No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor.These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M.macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C.lanceolata) in southern China.

  1. Carbon storage in old-growth forests of the Mid-Atlantic: toward better understanding the eastern forest carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C; Thompson, Jonathan R; Epstein, Howard E; Shugart, Herman H

    2015-02-01

    Few old-growth stands remain in the matrix of secondary forests that dominates the eastern North American landscape. These remnant stands offer insight on the potential carbon (C) storage capacity of now-recovering secondary forests. We surveyed the remaining old-growth forests on sites characteristic of the general Mid-Atlantic United States and estimated the size of multiple components of forest C storage. Within and between old-growth stands, variability in C density is high and related to overstory tree species composition. The sites contain 219 ± 46 Mg C/ha (mean ± SD), including live and dead aboveground biomass, leaf litter, and the soil O horizon, with over 20% stored in downed wood and snags. Stands dominated by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) store the most live biomass, while the mixed oak (Quercus spp.) stands overall store more dead wood. Total C density is 30% higher (154 Mg C/ha), and dead wood C density is 1800% higher (46 Mg C/ha) in the old-growth forests than in the surrounding younger forests (120 and 5 Mg C/ha, respectively). The high density of dead wood in old growth relative to secondary forests reflects a stark difference in historical land use and, possibly, the legacy of the local disturbance (e.g., disease) history. Our results demonstrate the potential for dead wood to maintain the sink capacity of secondary forests for many decades to come.

  2. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  3. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  4. Carbon allocation to defense, storage, and growth in seedlings of two temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaji, Aya; Seiwa, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. Thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. We hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. In gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (RGR), carbon-based defensive compounds (condensed tannin, total phenolics), and storage compounds (total non-structural carbohydrate; TNC) in seedlings of two tree species differing in shade tolerance. RGR was greater in the shade-intolerant species, Castanea crenata, than in the shade-tolerant species, Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata, in gaps, but did not differ between the species in the forest understory. In contrast, concentrations of condensed tannin and total phenolics were greater in Quercus than in Castanea at both sites. TNC pool sizes did not differ between the species. Condensed tannin concentrations increased with increasing growth rate of structural biomass (GRstr) in Quercus but not in Castanea. TNC pool sizes increased with increasing GRstr in both species, but the rate of increase did not differ between the species. Accordingly, the amount of condensed tannin against TNC pool sizes was usually higher in Quercus than in Castanea. Hence, Quercus preferentially invested more carbon in defense than in storage. Such a large allocation of carbon to defense would be advantageous for a shade-tolerant species, allowing Quercus to persist in the forest understory where damage from herbivores and pathogens is costly. In contrast, the shade-intolerant Castanea preferentially invested more carbon in growth rather than defense (and similar amounts in storage as Quercus), ensuring establishment success in gaps, where severe competition occurs for light among neighboring plants. These

  5. Bedrock Nitrogen Contributes to Increased Carbon Storage in Temperate Conifer Forests of Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, S. L.; Houlton, B. Z.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Identifying mechanisms by which nitrogen (N) enters ecosystems is crucial to modeling carbon (C) storage and earth system responses to rising CO2 emissions. Paradigms of nutrient cycling posit that N enters ecosystems solely from the atmosphere; however, rocks contain 99% of all fixed N on Earth, implying a potentially widespread source of ecologically available N. We tested the hypothesis that bedrock N contributes to increased N fertility and C storage of temperate conifer forests underlain by N-rich bedrock in northern California, USA. We used a paired sampling design to measure total N and C, and N stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) of surface mineral soils, bedrock, and foliage from similar forests that differed in parent material: the first site on N-rich (680 ppm N) metasedimentary rock, the second site on N-poor (55 ppm N) igneous rock. In addition, we performed a regional analysis of C storage in aboveground tree biomass using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data (n = 82) from conifer forests on N-rich and N-poor bedrock to examine for C by N interactions at the regional scale. The N content of soils and conifer needles was elevated by more than 50% in the forest underlain by N-rich bedrock, with soil C pools elevated by 60% in N-rich sites. Further, 15N/14N of rock, soils, and plants were indistinguishable in sites underlain by N-rich lithology, whereas foliar 15N/14N from N-poor site was depleted 20‰ relative to rock. Finally, the regional data pointed to substantial effects of N-rich rock on total forest C storage; ecosystem C pools were 40% higher in forests with geologic N than sites with N-poor bedrock minerals. These results suggest that rock weathering can profoundly alter ecosystem N and C cycles, implying an overlooked pathway of N input to terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. FutureGen 2.0 Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Wortman, David [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Brown, Chris [Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA (United States); Hassan, Syed [Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Humphreys, Ken [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States); Willford, Mark [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2016-03-31

    efforts are also documented in this report. All permit applications had been submitted to all agencies for those permits or approvals required prior to the start of project construction. Most of the requisite permits were received during Phase II. This report includes information on each permitting effort. Successes and lessons learned are included in this report that will add value to the next generation of carbon storage efforts.

  7. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-02-04

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices.

  8. Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees regime.

  9. Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees re...

  10. Influence of dynamic vegetation on climate change and terrestrial carbon storage in the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O'ishi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When the climate is reconstructed from paleoevidence, it shows that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21 000 yr ago is cold and dry compared to the present day. Reconstruction also shows that compared to today, the vegetation of the LGM is less active and the distribution of vegetation was drastically different, due to cold temperature, dryness, and a lower level of atmospheric CO2 level (185 ppm compared to a preindustrial level of 285 ppm. In the present paper, we investigate the influence of vegetation change on the climate of the LGM by using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model (GCM, the MIROC-LPJ. We examined four GCM experiments (LGM and preindustrial, with and without vegetation feedback and quantified the strength of the vegetation feedback during the LGM. The result shows global-averaged cooling during the LGM is amplified by +13.5% due to the introduction of vegetation feedback. This is mainly caused by the increase of land surface albedo due to the expansion of tundra in northern high latitudes and the desertification in northern middle latitudes around 30° N to 60° N. We also investigated how this change in climate affected the total terrestrial carbon storage by using a separated Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM. Our result shows that the total terrestrial carbon storage was reduced by 653 PgC during the LGM, which corresponds to the emission of 308 ppm atmospheric CO2. The carbon distribution during the LGM that is predicted from using an atmospheric-ocean-vegetation (AOV GCM and using the LPJ-DGVM after an atmospheric-ocean (AO GCM, is generally the same, but the difference is not negligible for explaining the lowering of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM.

  11. Endohedral nitrogen storage in carbon fullerene structures: Physisorption to chemisorption transition with increasing gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Barraza, R. E.; Guirado-López, R. A.

    2009-06-01

    We present extensive pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the structural properties and chemical reactivity of nitrogen molecules confined in spheroidal (C82) and tubelike (C110) carbon fullerene structures. For a small number of encapsulated nitrogens, the N2 species exist in a nonbonded state within the cavities and form well defined molecular conformations such as linear chains, zigzag arrays, as well as both spheroidal and tubular configurations. However, with increasing the number of stored molecules, the interaction among the confined nitrogens as well as between the N2 species and the fullerene wall is not always mainly repulsive. Actually, at high densities of the encapsulated gas, we found both adsorption of N2 to the inner carbon surface together with the formation of (N2)m molecular clusters. Total energy DFT calculations reveal that the shape of the interaction potential of a test molecule moving within the carbon cavities strongly varies with the number and proximity of the coadsorbed N2 from being purely repulsive to having short-range attractive contributions close to the inner wall. In particular, the latter are always found when a group of closely spaced nitrogens is located near the carbon cage (a fact that will naturally occur at high densities of the encapsulated gas), inducing the formation of covalent bonds between the N2 and the fullerene network. Interestingly, in some cases, the previous nitrogen adsorption to the inner surface is reversible by reducing the gas pressure. The calculated average density of states of our considered carbon compounds reveals the appearance of well defined features that clearly reflect the occurring structural changes and modifications in the adsorption properties in the systems. Our results clearly underline the crucial role played by confinement effects on the reactivity of our endohedral compounds, define this kind of materials as nonideal nanocontainers for high

  12. [Effect of straw-returning on the storage and distribution of different active fractions of soil organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hul; Wang, Xu-dong; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of straw mulching and returning on the storage of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC), and their proportions to the total organic carbon (TOC) were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that compared to the treatment of wheat straw soil-returning (WR), the storage of TOC and MOC decreased by 4.1% and 9.7% respectively in 0-20 cm soil in the treatment with wheat straw mulching (WM), but the storage of DOC and POC increased by 207.7% and 11.9%, and TOC and POC increased significantly in 20-40 cm soil. Compared to the treatment with maize straw soil-returning (MR), the storage of TOC and MOC in the plough pan soil of the treatment with maize straw mulching (MM) increased by 13.6% and 14.6% , respectively. Compared to the WR-MR treatment, the storage of TOC and MOC in top soil (0-20 icm) significantly decreased by 8.5% and 10.3% respectively in WM-MM treatment. The storage of TOC, and POC in top soil was significantly higher in the treatments with maize straw soil-returning or mulching than that with wheat straw. Compared to the treatment without straw (CK), the storage of TOC in top soil increased by 5.2% to 18.0% in the treatments with straw returning or mulching in the six modes (WM, WR, MM, MR, WM-MM,WR-MR) (Pstraw mulching or returning in six modes. The storage of POC and POC/TOC ratio in WM and WM-MM treatments, MOC and MOC/TOC ratio in WR treatment, increased significantly in top soil. In the other three treatments with straw mulching and returning (MM, MR, WR-MR), the storage of POC and MOC increased significantly in top soil. These results suggested that straw mulching had the potential to accumulate active organic carbon fraction in soil, straw soil-returning had the potential to accumulate stable organic carbon fraction. Considering organic carbon sequestration in cropland in the region of Guanzhong plain, maize straw mulching or soil-returning was

  13. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.

  14. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming_cqu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); De la Cruz, Florentino B. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Ximenes, Fabiano [Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales (Australia); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition.

  15. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Ximenes, Fabiano; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results.

  16. Preparation and li storage properties of hierarchical porous carbon fibers derived from alginic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Long; Chen, Li-Li; Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Kong, Qing-Shan; Xia, Yan-Zhi

    2010-06-21

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous carbon fibers (HPCFs) have been prepared by controlled carbonization of alginic acid fibers and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and electrochemical tests toward lithium storage. The as-obtained HPCFs consist of a 3D network of nanosized carbon particles with diameters less than 10 nm and exhibit a hierarchical porous architecture composed of both micropores and mesopores. Electrochemical measurements show that HPCFs exhibit excellent rate capability and capacity retention compared with commercial graphite when employed as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. At the discharge/charge rate of 45 C, the reversible capacity of HPCFs is still as high as 80 mA h g(-1) even after 1500 cycles, which is about five times larger than that of commercial graphite anode. The much improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the nanosized building blocks, the hierarchical porous structure, and the 1D morphology of HPCFs.

  17. Storage/Turnover rate of inorganic carbon and its dissolvable part in the profile of saline/alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m(-2) yr(-1) respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m(-2) yr(-1)respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.

  18. Hydrogen storage studies on palladium-doped carbon materials (AC, CB, CNMs) @ metal-organic framework-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viditha, V; Srilatha, K; Himabindu, V

    2016-05-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a rapidly growing class of porous materials and are considered as best adsorbents for their high surface area and extraordinary porosity. The MOFs are synthesized by using various chemicals like triethylamine, terepthalic acid, zinc acetate dihydrate, chloroform, and dimethylformamide (DMF). Synthesized MOFs are intercalated with palladium/activated carbon, carbon black, and carbon nanomaterials by chemical reduction method for the purpose of enhancing the hydrogen adsorption capacities. We have observed that the palladium doped activated carbon on MOF-5 showed high hydrogen storage capacity. This may be due to the affinity of the palladium toward hydrogen molecule. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. We have observed a clear decrease in the BET surface area and pore volume. The obtained results show a better performance for the synthesized sample. To our best knowledge, no one has reported the work on palladium-doped carbon materials (activated carbon, carbon black, carbon nanomaterials) impregnated to the metal-organic framework-5. We have attempted to synthesize carbon nanomaterials using indigenously fabricated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) unit as a support. We have observed an increase in the hydrogen storage capacities.

  19. Ultrahigh gas storage both at low and high pressures in KOH-activated carbonized porous aromatic frameworks.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanqiang

    2013-01-01

    The carbonized PAF-1 derivatives formed by high-temperature KOH activation showed a unique bimodal microporous structure located at 0.6 nm and 1.2 nm and high surface area. These robust micropores were confirmed by nitrogen sorption experiment and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sorption experiments indicated that these novel porous carbon materials have significant gas sorption abilities in both low-pressure and high-pressure environments. Moreover the methane storage ability of K-PAF-1-750 is among the best at 35 bars, and its low-pressure gas adsorption abilities are also comparable to the best porous materials in the world. Combined with excellent physicochemical stability, these materials are very promising for industrial applications such as carbon dioxide capture and high-density clean energy storage.

  20. Freestanding carbon-coated CNT/Sn(O2) coaxial sponges with enhanced lithium-ion storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Qiu, Tengfei; Wang, Bin; Hao, Long; Li, Xianglong; Cao, Anyuan; Zhi, Linjie

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-coated, carbon nanotube (CNT)/tin(oxide) spongy coaxial nanostructures, CNT/Sn(O2)@C, with large areal mass loadings have been developed by employing a three-dimensional CNT sponge as a backbone. The freestanding spongy coaxial nano-architecture demonstrates exceptional electrochemical characteristics of tin-based anode materials with appropriate structural engineering for energy storage application.Carbon-coated, carbon nanotube (CNT)/tin(oxide) spongy coaxial nanostructures, CNT/Sn(O2)@C, with large areal mass loadings have been developed by employing a three-dimensional CNT sponge as a backbone. The freestanding spongy coaxial nano-architecture demonstrates exceptional electrochemical characteristics of tin-based anode materials with appropriate structural engineering for energy storage application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06613a

  1. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  2. Near-surface monitoring strategies for geologic carbon dioxide storage verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hepple, Robert P.

    2003-10-31

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage verification will be needed to ensure that CO{sub 2} is not leaking from the intended storage formation and seeping out of the ground. Because the ultimate failure of geologic CO{sub 2} storage occurs when CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, and because elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} near the ground surface can cause health, safety, and environmental risks, monitoring will need to be carried out in the near-surface environment. The detection of a CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal (LOSS) in the near-surface environment is challenging because there are large natural variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes arising from soil, plant, and subsurface processes. The term leakage refers to CO{sub 2} migration away from the intended storage site, while seepage is defined as CO{sub 2} passing from one medium to another, for example across the ground surface. The flow and transport of CO{sub 2} at high concentrations in the near-surface environment will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of leakage and seepage show that CO{sub 2} concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively modest CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. However, once CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO{sub 2} seepage. In natural ecological systems with no CO{sub 2} LOSS, near-surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations are controlled by CO{sub 2} uptake by photosynthesis, and production by root respiration, organic carbon biodegradation in soil, deep outgassing of CO{sub 2}, and by exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Existing technologies available for monitoring CO{sub 2} in the near-surface environment

  3. Validation of a model of gas and dense phase CO jet releases for carbon capture and storage application

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M; Woolley, RM; Falle, SAEG

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO) released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated a programme of research known as the COOLTRANS research programme. Part of this work involves the development of a mathematical model for predicting the near-field dispersion of CO following the puncture or rupture of a high pressure dense phase pipeline typical...

  4. Sensitivity of the Carbon Storage of Potential Vegetation to Historical Climate Variability and CO2 in Continental China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jiafu; WANG Bin; DAI Yongjiu

    2009-01-01

    The interest in the national levels of the terrestrial carbon sink and its spatial and temporal variability with the climate and CO2 concentrations has been increasing. How the climate and the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last century affect the carbon storage in continental China was investigated in this study by using the Modified Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (M-SDGVM). The estimates of the M-SDGVM indicated that during the past 100 years a combination of increasing CO2 with historical temperature and precipitation variability in continental China have caused the total vegetation carbon storage to increase by 2.04 Pg C, with 2.07 Pg C gained in the vegetation biomass but 0.03 Pg C lost from the organic soil carbon matter. The increasing CO2 concentration in the 20th century is primarily responsible for the increase of the total potential vegetation carbon. These factorial experiments show that temperature variability alone decreases the total carbon storage by 1.36 Pg C and precipitation variability alone causes a loss of 1.99 Pg C. The effect of the increasing CO2 concentration alone increased the total carbon storage in the potential vegetation of China by 3.22 Pg C over the past 100 years. With the changing of the climate, the CO2 fertilization on China's ecosystems is the result of the enhanced net biome production (NBP), which is caused by a greater stimulation of the gross primary production (GPP) than the total soil-vegetation respiration. Our study also shows notable interannual and decadal variations in the net carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems in China due to the historical climate variability.

  5. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  6. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  7. Space Geodesy and Geochemistry Applied to the Monitoring, Verification of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, Peter

    2013-11-30

    This award was a training grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this award was solely to provide training for two PhD graduate students for three years in the general area of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The training consisted of course work and conducting research in the area of CCS. Attendance at conferences was also encouraged as an activity and positive experience for students to learn the process of sharing research findings with the scientific community, and the peer review process. At the time of this report, both students have approximately two years remaining of their studies, so have not fully completed their scientific research projects.

  8. A numerical study of latent thermal energy storage in a phase change material/carbon panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaddem, Najoua; Ali, Samia Ben; Mazioud, Atef; Hannachi, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the energetic dependence of building, it has become necessary to explore and develop new materials promoting energy conservation. Because of their high storage capacity, phase change materials (PCMs) are efficient to store thermal energy. In this paper, a 3D model was studied for simulation of energy storing cycles to predict the performances of PCM loaded panels. Carbon was used as supporting material for the PCM. The simulation was based on the enthalpy method using Ansys Fluent software. The panel was exposed to a daily heat flow including the effects of convection and radiation. The results show that the temperature decreased of approximately 2.5°C with a time shift about 2 hours. The steady state was reached after four cycles. Thus, after four cycles the PCM showed its effects on the temperature conditioning.

  9. Near-Term Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document contains the summary report of the workshop on global assessments for near-term opportunities for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), which took place on 21-22 June 2007 in Oslo, Norway. It provided an opportunity for direct dialogue between concerned stakeholders in the global effort to accelerate the development and commercialisation of CCS technology. This is part of a series of three workshops on near-term opportunities for this important mitigation option that will feed into the G8 Plan of Action on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development. The ultimate goal of this effort is to present a report and policy recommendations to the G8 leaders at their 2008 summit meeting in Japan.

  10. Hybrid Electrodes of Carbon Nanotube and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunmi; Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Areum; Kang, Keun Won; Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Soon Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Pil; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2015-11-01

    The choice of electrode materials in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors is important for the stability, capacity, and cycle life of the device. Despite its low capacity, graphite has often been used as an electrode material due to its inherent stability. Due to an increasing demand for large-capacity energy storage systems, there is also a demand for the development of large-capacity Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Therefore, carbonaceous materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have high stability as well as excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, are receiving attention as new electrode materials. Recently, starting from simply applying graphene and CNTs as electrode materials and progressing to the development of hybrid materials, there have been increasing research efforts in enhancing the performance of Li ion batteries and supercapacitors through the use of carbonaceous materials. This paper will discuss new composite materials and electrode structures that use graphene and CNTs for applications in Li ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  11. Learning through a portfolio of carbon capture and storage demonstration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by many to be an essential route to meet climate mitigation targets in the power and industrial sectors. Deploying CCS technologies globally will first require a portfolio of large-scale demonstration projects. These first projects should assist learning by diversity, learning by replication, de-risking the technologies and developing viable business models. From 2005 to 2009, optimism about the pace of CCS rollout led to mutually independent efforts in the European Union, North America and Australia to assemble portfolios of projects. Since 2009, only a few of these many project proposals remain viable, but the initial rationales for demonstration have not been revisited in the face of changing circumstances. Here I argue that learning is now both more difficult and more important given the slow pace of deployment. Developing a more coordinated global portfolio will facilitate learning across projects and may determine whether CCS ever emerges from the demonstration phase.

  12. THE FOREST-ATMOSPHERIC CARBON TRANSFER AND STORAGE-II (FACTS-II): ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KARNOSKY,D.F.; HENDREY,G.; PREGITZER,K.; ISEBRANDS,J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (ASPEN FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE [Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment] rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  13. High Carbon Use Efficiency is Not Explained by Production of Storage Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Paul; van Groenigen, Kees-Jan

    2015-04-01

    The efficiency with which microbes use substrate to make new microbial biomass (Carbon Use Efficiency or CUE; mol C / mol C) is an important variable in soil and ecosystem C cycling models. Estimates of CUE in soil microbial communities vary widely. It has been hypothesized that high values of CUE are associated with production of storage compounds following a sudden increases in substrate availability during CUE measurements. In that case, these high CUE values would not be representative for balanced microbial growth (i.e. the production of all compounds needed to make new microbial cells). To test this hypothesis, we added position-specific 13C-labeled glucose isotopomers in parallel incubations of a ponderosa pine and piñon-juniper soil. We compared the measured pattern of CO2 release for the six glucose C atoms with patterns of CO2 production expected for balanced growth with a low, medium, or high CUE, and with CO2 production patterns associated with production of storage compounds (glycogen, lipids, or polyhydroxybutyrate). The measured position-specific CO2 production did not match that for production of glycogen, lipids, or polyhydroxybutyrate, but agreed closely with that expected for balanced growth at high CUE and high pentose phosphate pathway activity. We conclude that soil microbial communities utilize glucose substrate for biomass growth with high CUE, and that addition of small amounts of 13C-labeled glucose tracers do not affect CUE or induce storage compounds production. We submit that the measurement of position-specific CO2 production offers a quick and easy way to test biochemically explicit hypotheses concerning microbial growth metabolism.

  14. Dynamics of carbon storage in phytomass and soil humus in Northern Eurasia during the last climatic macrocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A. A.; Borisova, О. K.; Zelikson, E. M.; Morozova, T. D.

    2010-07-01

    Phytomass of terrestrial vegetation and soil humus are considered to be the most important sinks of carbon, and therefore their changes during glacial-interglacial macrocycle may influence considerably the carbon balance. Spatial reconstructions of paleovegetation and paleosols at the key intervals within the macrocycle, namely the Mikulino (Eemian) Interglacial ˜ 125 ka BP, the Last Glacial Maximum 20-18 ka BP, and the Holocene optimum ˜ 5.5 ka BP made it possible to estimate quantitatively the phytomass and soil humus carbon in Northern Eurasia (within the limits of the former Soviet Union). With the phytomass in modern (potential) vegetation taken as 100%, phytomass accumulated in vegetation which existed in Northern Eurasia 125, 18-20 and 5.5 ka BP amounts to 150%, 27% and 129%, respectively. The estimated carbon storage in soil humus for the same intervals is 149.2%, 23% and 128.8% of the present-day value. The values are similar to those previously calculated for the East European Plain except for LGM, where phytomass calculated for the whole territory of Northern Eurasia is relatively higher than that calculated for the East European Plain (27% and 6%). The same tendency is seen in the carbon storage in paleosols dated to the LGM 23 and 15% respectively. The difference in relative phytomass and carbon storage calculated for Eastern Europe and for Northern Eurasia may be attributed to the fact that degradation of forest and steppe vegetation was less pronounced in continental Siberia than in Eastern Europe.

  15. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  16. Applications of functional carbon nanomaterials from hydrogen storage to drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Ashley Dawn

    This dissertation describes the modification and functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). These SWCNTs were then investigated for their use in medical applications and for the storage of hydrogen. A technique was developed that leads to highly customized, individually suspended aqueous solutions of SWCNTs. These newly generated water-soluble SWCNTs were then functionalized further in water, thereby permitting the second functionalization addends to be chemically sensitive functional groups, for example drugs, that would not withstand the strongly acidic conditions of the first functionalization. The radical scavenging properties of nanovectors derived from SWCNTs were investigated and it was found that even the poorest SWCNT nanovector studied was nearly 40 times more effective at scavenging radicals than dendrite-fullerene DF-1, which has been shown to be a radioprotective to zebrafish via an antioxidant niechanism. This was used as the base to investigate using SWCNTs as protectors and mitigators of radiation exposure. SWCNTs were then explored for their use as drug delivery agents, in particular, the water insoluble chemotherapy drug, paclitaxel. SWCNTs showed promising in vivo and in vitro efficacy in the delivery of paclitaxel. Toxicity and biodistribution studies of the SWCNTs as drug delivery agents were performed in vivo using SWCNTs functionalized with radiolabeled indium. It was found that SWCNTs could be used for hydrogen storage by chemically crosslinking 3-dimensional frameworks of SWCNT fibers. These frameworks were shown to physisorb twice as much hydrogen, at low pressures, with respect to their surface areas, than typical macroporous carbon materials. This makes these SWCNT frameworks attractive materials for the development of a hydrogen vehicle fuel tank.

  17. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  18. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou Rajab

    Full Text Available One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species in Sulawesi (Indonesia with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1, total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  19. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2012-12-04

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  20. Dynamics of profiles and storage of carbon dioxide in broadleaved/Korean forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShi-jie; LINLi-sha; YUGui-rui; ZHANGJun-hui; WUJia-bing; ZHOXiao-song; GUANDe-xin

    2003-01-01

    CO2 concentrations at different heights in a broadleaved/Korean forest (with a mean height of 26 m) were measured with infrared gas analyzer IRGA (model 2250D, LI-COR inc. and LI-COR, 820) from Aug. to Oct. of 1999, Apr. to Jul. of 2000,and from Aug. 2002 to Sept. 2003. Based on the collected dada, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of profiles and storage of carbon dioxide in the forest were analyzed. The diurnal CO2 profites showed that the verticat distribution of CO2 concentration were different for daytime and nighttime, and the CO2 concentration was highest close to forest floor, no matter at daytime and nighttime. The seasonal profiles of CO2 showed that stratification in the canopy was evident during growth season. CO2 concentrations at different heights (60 m to 2.5 m) had a little change in March, with a difference of 10μmol·mol-1, but had a significant change in July, with a difference of 60μmol·mol-1, In July, there also existed a greater gradient of CO2 concentrations at canopy (22, 26 and 32 m), with a difference of 8μmol·mol-1. The calculated total storage ( Δ C/Δ t) of CO2 in the air column with height of 40 m beneath eddy covariance instrument was negative, and made a little contribution to NEE.

  1. Analytical solutions to dissolved contaminant plume evolution with source depletion during carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Liu, Yongzhong; Yu, Bo; Ding, Tian

    2016-06-01

    Volatile contaminants may migrate with carbon dioxide (CO2) injection or leakage in subsurface formations, which leads to the risk of the CO2 storage and the ecological environment. This study aims to develop an analytical model that could predict the contaminant migration process induced by CO2 storage. The analytical model with two moving boundaries is obtained through the simplification of the fully coupled model for the CO2-aqueous phase -stagnant phase displacement system. The analytical solutions are confirmed and assessed through the comparison with the numerical simulations of the fully coupled model. Then, some key variables in the analytical solutions, including the critical time, the locations of the dual moving boundaries and the advance velocity, are discussed to present the characteristics of contaminant migration in the multi-phase displacement system. The results show that these key variables are determined by four dimensionless numbers, Pe, RD, Sh and RF, which represent the effects of the convection, the dispersion, the interphase mass transfer and the retention factor of contaminant, respectively. The proposed analytical solutions could be used for tracking the migration of the injected CO2 and the contaminants in subsurface formations, and also provide an analytical tool for other solute transport in multi-phase displacement system.

  2. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  3. Soil Surface Leak Detection From Carbon Storage Sites Using ∆(CO2:O2) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. M.; Norman, A. L.; Layzell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The early detection and remediation of CO2 leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites is essential for the safety and public support of the technology. A model that integrates gas diffusion, mass flow and biological processes in soils was developed and used to predict the ∆CO2 and ∆O2 concentration differential between the soil surface and the bulk atmosphere under a wide range of environmental conditions that include temperature, soil gas and water content, soil respiratory quotient and rate of O2 uptake, soil porosity and CO2 leakage rate. The results predicted that measurement of ∆(CO2:O2) measurements at the soil surface relative to air should be able to detect a CCS leak as low as 2 µmol/m2/sec. To test this hypothesis, a gas analysis system was designed and constructed. It should allow a series of experiments under controlled conditions to test all aspects of the model. It is hoped that the results from this work will ultimately lead to the development of a new instrument and protocol for the early detection of CO2 leaks from a geological storage sites.

  4. Methane adsorption in nanoporous carbon: the numerical estimation of optimal storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, L.; Kuchta, B.; Firlej, L.; Roth, M. W.; Wexler, C.

    2016-05-01

    The efficient storage and transportation of natural gas is one of the most important enabling technologies for use in energy applications. Adsorption in porous systems, which will allow the transportation of high-density fuel under low pressure, is one of the possible solutions. We present and discuss extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation results of the adsorption of methane into slit-shaped graphitic pores of various widths (between 7 Å and 50 Å), and at pressures P between 0 bar and 360 bar. Our results shed light on the dependence of film structure on pore width and pressure. For large widths, we observe multi-layer adsorption at supercritical conditions, with excess amounts even at large distances from the pore walls originating from the attractive interaction exerted by a very high-density film in the first layer. We are also able to successfully model the experimental adsorption isotherms of heterogeneous activated carbon samples by means of an ensemble average of the pore widths, based exclusively on the pore-size distributions (PSD) calculated from subcritical nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Finally, we propose a new formula, based on the PSD ensemble averages, to calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of heterogeneous systems from single-pore-width calculations. The methods proposed here will contribute to the rational design and optimization of future adsorption-based storage tanks.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychel, Dwight [Petroleum Tech Transfer Council, Oak Hill, VA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  6. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based activated carbon suitable for natural gas storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATYABRATA SAHOO; M RAMGOPAL

    2016-04-01

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental setup is developed to estimate the equilibrium methane adsorption capacity and adsorption/desorption kinetics. The experimental isothermal uptake data is used to fit four different isotherm models. Using the constants obtained for the D–A isotherm model the variation of heat of adsorption and adsorbed phase specific heat with equilibrium pressure and temperature are obtained. Similarly Henry’s Law coefficients, important at low pressure and low uptake regime are also obtained. Finally using the kinetic data and a linear driving force model,constants in the kinetic equation are obtained. Results show that the indigenous material used in this study offers reasonably high natural gas storage capacity and fast kinetics and is suitable for adsorbed natural gas (ANG)applications. It is expected that this study will be useful in the design and development of ANG systems based on this indigenous material.

  7. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  8. [Soil organic carbon storage in different aged Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang; Wang, Qing-Li; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Yu, Da-Pao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wang-Ming; Peng, Shun-Lei; Dai, Li-Min

    2013-01-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted to study the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in 0-40 cm layer in 10-, 15-, 26- and 61 years old Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as well as the temporal variation pattern of the SOC source/sink during the plantation management after the clear cutting of primary L. gmelinii forest. With the increasing age of the plantations, the SOC storage increased after an initial decrease, and the inflection point was at a stand age between 15- and 26-years old. Compared with that of primary forest, the SOC storage of the plantations played a role of carbon source at early stage (10-26 years old), but gradually transformed into carbon sink then, with a SOC storage of 158.91 t x hm(-2) in 61-year-old plantation. The SOC storage of the plantations increased with soil depth initially, but was higher in upper soil layer than in deeper soil layer after the stand age being 26, which implied that human disturbance had strong effects on the vertical distribution of SOC. It was considered that the appropriate cutting age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains could be at least 60 years old.

  9. Landscape controls and vertical variability of soil organic carbon storage in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewert, Matthias Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Heim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To project the future development of the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in permafrost environments, the spatial and vertical distribution of key soil properties and their landscape controls needs to be understood. This article reports findings from the Arctic Lena River Delta where we sampled ...

  10. Final Deliverable W6, D6.4: Coal power plants with carbon capture and storage – A sustainability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Schakel, W.B.; Wood, R.; Grytli, T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly gaining attention as a strategy for the abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CCS includes the capture of CO2 emissions from electricity generation plants and/or industrial processes, its transport (by pipeline or ships) and sequestration in un

  11. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  12. Using a participatory approach to develop a sustainability framework for carbon capture and storage systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Hoogwijk, M.M.; Hendriks, C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability considerations guide political decisions concerning energy supply options. In this article a start has been made for the development of a sustainability framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems in the Netherlands. Using a participatory approach (which includes an explora

  13. CONTROLLED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON CONDUCTIVE METAL SUBSTRATES FOR ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.; Engtrakul, C.

    2009-01-01

    The impressive mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideally suited for use in a variety of nanostructured devices, especially in the realm of energy production and storage. In particular, vertically-aligned CNT “forests” have been the focus of increasing investigation for use in supercapacitor electrodes and as hydrogen adsorption substrates. Vertically-aligned CNT growth was attempted on metal substrates by waterassisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNT growth was catalyzed by iron-molybdenum (FeMo) nanoparticle catalysts synthesized by a colloidal method, which were then spin-coated onto Inconel® foils. The substrates were loaded into a custom-built CVD apparatus, where CNT growth was initiated by heating the substrates to 750 °C under the fl ow of He, H2, C2H4 and a controlled amount of water vapor. The resultant CNTs were characterized by a variety of methods including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth parameters were varied in an attempt to optimize the purity and growth yield of the CNTs. The surface area and hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the CNTs were quantifi ed by the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) and Sieverts methods, and their capacitance was measured via cyclic voltammetry. While vertically-aligned CNT growth could not be verifi ed, TEM and SEM analysis indicated that CNT growth was still obtained, resulting in multiwalled CNTs of a wide range in diameter along with some amorphous carbon impurities. These microscopy fi ndings were reinforced by Raman spectroscopy, which resulted in a G/D ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 across different samples, suggestive of multiwalled CNTs. Changes in gas fl ow rates and water concentration during CNT growth were not found to have a discernable effect on the purity of the CNTs. The specifi c capacitance of a CNT/FeMo/Inconel® electrode was found to be 3.2 F/g, and the BET surface area of

  14. [Storage and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Robinia pseudoacacia plantation at different ages in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Ze-Min; Chen, Yun-Ming; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    The 9-, 17-, 30- and 37-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantations in the loess hilly region were investigated to study the dynamics and allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen storage. The results showed that the ranges of carbon and nitrogen contents were 435.9-493.4 g x kg(-1) and 6.8-21.0 g x kg(-1) in the arbor layer, 396.3-459.2 g x kg(-1) and 14.2-23.5 g x kg(-1) in the herb and litter layer, and 2.7-10.7 g x kg(-1) and 0.2-0.7 g x kg(-1) in the soil layer, respectively. The branch was the major carbon and nitrogen pool in the arbor layer, accounting for 46.9%-63.3% and 39.3%-57.8%, respectively. The maximum storage values were 30.1 and 1.8 Mg x hm(-2) for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in the 0-20 cm soil layer in the 37-year-old R. pseudoacacia plantation. The total carbon and nitrogen storage in the R. pseudoacacia plantation ecosystem increased with increasing forest age, and the maximum values were 127.9 Mg x hm(-2) and 6512.8 kg x hm(-2) for carbon and nitrogen storage, respectively, in the 37-year-old R. pseudoacacia plantation. Soil layer was the major carbon and nitrogen pool of R. pseudoacacia plantation ecosystem, accounting for 63.3%-83.3% and 80.3%-91.4%, respectively.

  15. Carbon storage in urban green space%城市绿地碳库研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟畅; 盛浩; 钱奕琴; 常钰浩; 代思汝

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the domestic and foreign research progresses of carbon storage in urban green space in order to provide useful references for future carbon cycle researches in urban green space. [Method]Along with literary analysis, the green space carbon storage and flux conceptual model was constructed in order to study carbon researches from recent years, including urban greenbelt vegetation carbon storage, soil organic carbon pool, micro-biomass carbon, and black carbon. [Result]The results showed that large arbor trees were the major contributors to the vegetation carbon storage, which were markedly affected by the plant community coenotype, the urban functional area, and the green space age. In general, the organic carbon storage in urban green space was several times higher than that in urban vegetations. It is evident that the carbon storage of soils in city was higher than that in the suburbs and rural areas. The organic carbon storage in green space, carbon in microbial biomass, and charcoal were affected distinctly by the vagetation form, the urban functional area, the land use, and the soil layer. [Suggestion]Consequentially, three research priorities in urban green spaces were proposed: strengthening the long-term field studies regarding the vegetation carbon pools, studying the effects of human disturbances on soil carbon pools, and establishing the standards of soil and plant sampling under highly spatial heterogeneous urban environment.%城市作为主要的人为碳排放源受得广泛关注,然而涉及城市绿地的碳排放和固碳功能未得到充分的重视.文章对近年来城市绿地研究现状进行了综述,主要从城市绿地碳库及通量的概念模型植被碳库、土壤有机碳库、微生物量碳和黑碳碳库几个方面展开论述,认为高大的乔木是城市绿地植被碳库的主体,而群落类型、城市功能区和绿地年龄强烈地影响着城市植被碳库的大小;城市绿地土壤有机碳

  16. Adsorption of fluorinated ethers and alcohols on fresh and oxidized carbon overcoats for magnetic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang; Broitman, Esteban; Gellman, Andrew J

    2007-02-13

    Temperature programmed desorption has been used to study the desorption kinetics and desorption energies of perfluorodiethylether, (CF3CF2)2O, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, CF3CH2OH, adsorbed on fresh and oxidized hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CHx) films. (CF3CF2)2O and CF3CH2OH serve as models for the ether backbone and hydroxyl end-groups of Fomblin Zdol, the lubricant most commonly used to lubricate the surfaces of amorphous carbon overcoats on magnetic data storage hard disks. Our measurements clearly reveal, for the first time, the effects of surface oxidation on the adsorption of fluorocarbon lubricants such as Fomblin Zdol on a-CHx films. Oxidation of the a-CHx surface increases the desorption energy of CF3CH2OH but has no observable impact on the desorption energy of (CF3CF2)2O. These results support the suggestion that the alcohols interact with the surface via hydrogen bonding. From a practical perspective, these results imply that the oxidation of the fresh a-CHx film may serve as a means to control or tailor the a-CHx surface to optimize the properties of the lubricant-overcoat interface in hard disks.

  17. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  18. Climate Change Mitigation Technologies: the Siemens Roadmap to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voges, K.

    2007-07-01

    A full range of technology options will have to be deployed until 2025 to get the global CO{sub 2} emissions on a 550 ppm stabilization track. The focus of the paper will be on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as an indispensable part of a carbon constrained energy infrastructure. In CCS our main long term focus is clearly on coal based processes. For Greenfield applications Siemens is prioritizing IGCC based pre-combustion capture. Post-combustion capture is pursued for steam power plant retrofit. (a) IGCC with pre-combustion capture: A first F-class based demonstration plant could be available until 2014. The roadmap addresses gasifier scale up, hydrogen burner and turbine development and integration issues. Beyond that a bundle of further efficiency improvement measures will further enhance efficiency and economic competitiveness. (b) Post-combustion capture: The development aims at optimizing existing solvents or developing new ones and integrating the complete unit with its mass and heat interchange system into the power plant. (c) CO{sub 2} Compressors: For efficiency and operating flexibility reasons Siemens Power Generation prefers gear-type compressors instead of single shaft compressors. The improvement of maintainability and the reduced number of stages or corrosion protection are issues addressed in current R and D activities. (auth)

  19. Hierarchically designed three-dimensional macro/mesoporous carbon frameworks for advanced electrochemical capacitance storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanbing; Li, Peixu; Wu, Shiting; Li, Xinyang; Shi, Enzheng; Shen, Qicang; Wu, Dehai; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Yuan, Quan

    2015-04-13

    Mesoporous carbon (m-C) has potential applications as porous electrodes for electrochemical energy storage, but its applications have been severely limited by the inherent fragility and low electrical conductivity. A rational strategy is presented to construct m-C into hierarchical porous structures with high flexibility by using a carbon nanotube (CNT) sponge as a three-dimensional template, and grafting Pt nanoparticles at the m-C surface. This method involves several controllable steps including solution deposition of a mesoporous silica (m-SiO2 ) layer onto CNTs, chemical vapor deposition of acetylene, and etching of m-SiO2 , resulting in a CNT@m-C core-shell or a CNT@m-C@Pt core-shell hybrid structure after Pt adsorption. The underlying CNT network provides a robust yet flexible support and a high electrical conductivity, whereas the m-C provides large surface area, and the Pt nanoparticles improves interfacial electron and ion diffusion. Consequently, specific capacitances of 203 and 311 F g(-1) have been achieved in these CNT@m-C and CNT@m-C@Pt sponges as supercapacitor electrodes, respectively, which can retain 96 % of original capacitance under large degree compression.

  20. Ultrafast growth of carbon nanotubes on graphene for capacitive energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijiong; Yang, Baocheng; Su, Yuling; Wang, Haiyan; Groeper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture of a graphene/carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid synthesized at large scale within just 5 s via a simple microwave-heating method without the usage of any other conducting or expanding agent for the first time. The carbon composites obtained consist of evenly grown CNTs with an average diameter of about 15 nm on the surface of graphene nanosheets. The G-CNT hybrid exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance for both aqueous and organic supercapacitor devices. Particularly, the G-CNT electrodes demonstrate an enhanced specific capacitance of 361 F g-1 at a current density of 1.1 A g-1 in an aqueous electrolyte and a volumetric capacitance of 254 F cm-3 in an organic electrolyte. They also display excellent cycle stability with nearly 91.2% of the initial capacitance retained after 10 000 charging-discharging cycles at a current density of 15 A g-1. This demonstrates that the developed composites have potential applications in supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

  1. Medium-term effect of perennial energy crops on soil organic carbon storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ceotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate the effect of perennial energy crops on soil organic carbon (SOC storage. A field experiment was undertaken in 2002 at Anzola dell’Emilia in the lower Po Valley, Northern Italy. Five perennial energy crops were established on a land area which had been previously cultivated with arable crops for at least 20 years. The compared crops are: the herbaceous perennials giant reed and miscanthus, and the woody species poplar, willow and black locust, managed as short rotation coppice (SRC. SOC was measured in 2009, seven years after the start of the experiment, on an upper soil layer of 0.0-0.2 m and a lower soil layer of 0.2-0.4 m. The study aimed to compare the SOC storage of energy crops with alternative land use. Therefore, two adjacent areas were sampled in the same soil layers: i arable land in steady state, cultivated with rainfed annual crops; ii natural meadow established at the start of the experiment. The conversion of arable land into perennial energy crops resulted in SOC storage, in the upper soil layer (0.0-0.2 m ranging from 1150 to 1950 kg C ha-1 year-1 during the 7-year period. No significant differences were detected in SOC among crop species. We found no relationship between the harvested dry matter and the SOC storage. The conversion of arable land into perennial energy crops provides a substantial SOC sequestration benefit even when the hidden C cost of N industrial fertilizers is taken into account. While the SOC increased, the total N content in the soil remained fairly constant. This is probably due to the low rate of nitrogen applied to the perennial crops. However, our data are preliminary and the number of years in which the SOC continues to increase needs to be quantified, especially for the herbaceous species giant reed and miscanthus, with a supposedly long duration of the useful cropping cycle of 20 years or longer.

  2. Enhancement of high-speed flywheel energy storage via carbon-fiber composite reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh, Michael Abu

    This study on the enhancement of high-speed flywheel energy storage is to investigate composite materials that are suitable for high-speed, high-energy density for energy storage and/or energy recovery. The main motivation of the study is to explore the application of the flywheel in the aviation industry for recovering some of the energy that is currently being lost at the wheel brakes of an aircraft due to the high temperature developed in the brake stack as a result of landing, frequent brake applications during taxiing in or out of heavy traffic airports and rejected take-off. Lamina and laminate mechanical properties of materials suitable for flywheel high-speed energy storage were investigated. Design and optimum stress analysis were used to determine the shape factor, maximum stress and energy density for a flywheel with a constant stress disk and a constant thickness rim. Analytical studies along with the use of the CADEC-online software were used to evaluate the lamina and laminate properties. This study found that the use of hybrid composite material with higher strength (based on first ply failure strength) and lower density and lower elastic moduli for the disk than the rim material will yield high-speed and high-energy density. The materials designed based on the results from this study show outperformance compared to previous published results of standard flywheel material combinations. The safe rotational velocity and energy density were found to be 166,000 RPM and 2.73 MJ/kg respectively. Therefore, results from this study will contribute to aiding further development of the flywheel that has recently re-emerged as a promising application for energy storage due to significant improvements in composite materials and technology. Further study on flywheel energy recovery from aircraft brakes revealed that more than half of the energy dissipated at the wheel brake as heat could be recovered and converted to some useful form. In this way, the operating

  3. Introduction to the special section: Recent advancement on integrated carbonate reservoirs prediction with complex secondary storage space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs in Western China show tremendous exploration and development potential.These have become the key area for oil and gas reserves addition and sustainable resource development for China.Compared to conventional carbonate reservoirs,prediction of this kind of reservoir predominated by secondary storage is much more difficult and presents significant challenges.Seismic detection of dissolution pores and fractures always requires a high standard of technology,which puts further serious challenges on exploration and creates many technological issues for field development plans.The key geophysical problems are tackled based on a detailed analysis of exploration issues for such complex carbonate reservoirs.

  4. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Naidu, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} Mg{sup −1} biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C

  5. Report of the Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to a set of technologies that can greatly reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of CO{sub 2}. In its application to electricity generation, CCS could play an important role in achieving national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals. However, widespread cost-effective deployment of CCS will occur only if the technology is commercially available and a supportive national policy framework is in place. In keeping with that objective, on February 3, 2010, President Obama established an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage composed of 14 Executive Departments and Federal Agencies. The Task Force, co-chaired by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was charged with proposing a plan to overcome the barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within ten years, with a goal of bringing five to ten commercial demonstration projects online by 2016. Composed of more than 100 Federal employees, the Task Force examined challenges facing early CCS projects as well as factors that could inhibit widespread commercial deployment of CCS. In developing the findings and recommendations outlined in this report, the Task Force relied on published literature and individual input from more than 100 experts and stakeholders, as well as public comments submitted to the Task Force. The Task Force also held a large public meeting and several targeted stakeholder briefings. While CCS can be applied to a variety of stationary sources of CO{sub 2}, its application to coal-fired power plant emissions offers the greatest potential for GHG reductions. Coal has served as an important domestic source of reliable, affordable energy for decades, and the coal industry has provided stable and quality high-paying jobs for American workers. At the same time, coal-fired power

  6. A computational study on novel carbon-based lithium materials for hydrogen storage and the role of carbon in destabilizing complex metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Mohammed Minhaj

    One of the major impediments in the way of the realization of hydrogen economy is the storage of hydrogen gas. This involves both the storage for stationary applications as well as that of storage onboard vehicles for transportation applications. For obvious reasons, the system targets for the automotive applications are more stringent. There are many approaches which are still being researched for the storage of hydrogen for vehicular applications. Among them are the high pressure storage of hydrogen gas and the storing of liquid hydrogen in super insulated cryogenic cylinders. While both of them have been demonstrated practically, the high stakes of their respective shortcomings is hindering the wide spread application of these methods. Thus different solid state storage materials are being looked upon as promising solutions. Metal hydrides are a class of solid state hydrogen storage materials which are formed by the reaction of metals or their alloys with hydrogen. These materials have very good gravimetric storage densities, but are very stable thermodynamically to desorp hydrogen at room temperatures. Research is going on to improve the thermodynamics and the reaction kinetics of different metal hydrides. This dissertation tries to address the problem of high thermodynamic stability of the existing metal hydrides in two ways. First, a novel carbon based lithium material is proposed as a viable storage option based on its promising thermodynamic heat of formation. Pure beryllium (Be) clusters and the carbon-beryllium (C-Be) clusters are studied in detail using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational methods. Their interactions with hydrogen molecule are further studied. The results of these calculations indicate that hydrogen is more strongly physisorbed to the beryllium atom in the C-Be cluster, rather than to a carbon atom. After these initial studies, we calculated the geometries and the energies of more than 100 different carbon based lithium

  7. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  8. Surface chemistry and properties of carbon overcoats for magnetic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang

    The surface chemistry and properties of amorphous carbon films used in magnetic hard disk data storage media were studied in this thesis. This thesis includes two projects: vapor phase lubrication of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CHx) films and thermal stability analysis of fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-CFx) films. The surface heterogeneity of a-CHx film was probed through the use of temperature programmed desorption of small fluorocarbon models of Fomblin Zdol lubricants. Surface oxidation by exposing a-CHx film to air or O2 strengthens the hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl endgroups of Fomblin Zdol lubricant molecules and the a-CHx film surfaces. Thus the interaction between Fomblin Zdol lubricant molecules and the a-CHx film surfaces can be tailored by controlled oxidation of a-CHx film surfaces prior to vapor phase lubrication. Methods for the preparation of high thermal stability a-CFx films were evaluated by our analysis of a-CFx film thermal stability. a-CFx films having high concentrations of CF3 and CF 2 have better thermal stability than those with high fractions of CF. Oxidation, however, jeopardizes the thermal stability of a-CFx films and thus should be avoided in application. The oxidation of a-CHx films and a-CFx films and its kinetics were studied by analysis of the fresh carbon film surfaces before and after controlled oxidized. The most surprising observation has been that the exposure of a-CHx films and a-CFx films to low pressures (<10-3 Torr) of O2 or air leads to a higher level of oxidation than exposure to high pressures (100--1000 Torr) of O2 or air. It may be that this decrease in apparent oxidation during the exposure to high pressures of O2 or air is due to complete oxidation of surface carbon to CO or CO2 which desorbs from the surface ("ablation"). In essence this changes the surface composition during the oxidation process.

  9. Overview of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology%碳捕获与封存技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东升; 任吉萍; 吴干学; 郭家秀; 尹华强

    2012-01-01

    人类活动排放的二氧化碳将导致全球温度上升,从而引发各种灾难。CCS是短期内减缓全球变暖速度的重要手段。文中综述了碳捕获和碳封存的技术方法,以及CCS技术存在的问题。碳捕获分为燃烧前捕获、富氧燃烧捕获和燃烧后捕获。碳封存方式有地址封存、洋封存、矿石碳化、工业利用、生态封存等,其中地质封存是主流方式。%Carbon dioxide emissions from human activities will cause global temperatures to rise, which cause all kinds of disasters. CCS is an important technology to slow down the speed of global warming. In this paper, we introduce some technology methods on carbon capture and sequestration, and some prob- lems about CCS technology. Carbon capture includes pre-combustion capture, capture and oxyfuel combus- tion capture. The ways of carbon sequestration include address sequestration, ocean storage, mineral carbonation, industrial use and storage of ecology, geological storage is a main approach.

  10. One-Pot Synthesis of Carbon-Coated SnO 2 Nanocolloids with Improved Reversible Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2009-07-14

    We report a simple glucose-mediated hydrothermal method for gram-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse hybrid SnO 2 nanoparticles. Glucose is found to play the dual role of facilitating rapid precipitation of polycrystalline SnO 2 nanocolloids and in creating a uniform, glucose-derived, carbon-rich polysaccharide (GCP) coating on the SnO 2 nanocores. The thickness of the GCP coating can be facilely manipulated by varying glucose concentration in the synthesis medium. Carbon-coated SnO 2 nanocolloids obtained after carbonization of the GCP coating exhibit significantly enhanced cycling performance for lithium storage. Specifically, we find that a capacity of ca. 440 mA h/g can be obtained after more than 100 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 300 mA/g in hybrid SnO 2-carbon electrodes containing as much as 1/3 of their mass in the low-activity carbon shell. By reducing the SnO 2-carbon particles with H 2, we demonstrate a simple route to carbon-coated Sn nanospheres. Lithium storage properties of the latter materials are also reported. Our results suggest that large initial irreversible losses in these materials are caused not only by the initial, presumably irreversible, reduction of SnO 2 as generally perceived in the field, but also by the formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Hybrid Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube TiO2 Electrode Material for Next Generation Energy Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Marler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Current supercapacitors present several distinct limitations that severely inhibit the efficiency, power, and electrical capacitance of energy storage devices. Supercapacitors present an exciting prospect that has countless applications in renewable energy storage and modern day electronic devices. In recent years the exciting development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has presented an advantage in electrode development. CNTs, however beneficial for their increased electrode surface area, have severe limitations regarding conductivity and electrode density. Creating a nanocomposite hybrid out of a transition metal-oxide and carbon nanotube array would help the current limitations of the modern supercapacitor. TiO2 was chosen for its common occurrence in everyday materials and promising capacitance levels. A multi-walled carbon nanotube array was grown on a SiO2 precursor via CCVD. The transition metal oxide was then deposited via RF Sputtering methods to a MWCNT array. Recharge tests and characterization were con...

  12. A Study on Potentiality of Carbon Storage and CO2 Uptake in the Biomass and Soil of Coppice Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khademi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Enhancing carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in the forests, is a key factor in maintaining the atmosphere's carbon balance. With regard to the importance of forest in carbon sequestration, this study attempted to investigate the carbon storage potential and CO2 uptake in oak coppice stand. Approach: After combining slope, aspect and hypsometric maps, the number of land units (polygons as well as their areas were determined. Then 60 sample trees were selected in such a way that all environmental and typological conditions were taken into account. After determining the overall weight of different parts of tree, to measure the dry weight as well as to determine the amount of biomass, different parts of tree were transformed to a kiln. The humus was collected and weighted in an area of 400 cm2 under each tree. The quantity of ash was taken away from biomass, then the amount of organic sequestrated carbon as well as that of CO2 uptake was measured. To determine the amount of carbon stored in the soil samples were extracted from the depths of 0-10 and 10-30 cm. Results: The amount of organic sequestrated carbon was 22.65 tons ha-1. The trunk, root, branch, soil, leaf and humus had the maximal amount of storage respectively. The annual carbon dioxide uptake was 5.94 tons ha-1. Conclusion: Coppice stands had massive plant coverage as well as an increase in biomass production if the destructive factors were removed from these areas.

  13. Sensitivity of Global and Regional Terrestrial Carbon Storage to the Direct CO2 Effect and Climate Change Based on the CMIP5 Model Intercomparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Peng; Li Dan; Mei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of...

  14. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  15. Energy storage capability of the dye sensitized solar cells via utilization of highly porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Takshi, Arash

    2016-09-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have shown promising results in the field of renewable energy owing to their low cost and portable features. In practical applications, their harvested energy could be stored in a supercapacitor once it exceeds the regular consumption. Various methods of manipulation of the active electrode have been examined to facilitate the energy storage of the system, whereas the counter electrode has always been known for its catalytic functionality and its contribution to the capacitive response of the device left a well-oriented study to be desired. In this work, the substitution of the platinum electrode with a specific porous electrode resulted in a supercapacitive behavior of the device. The photoactive electrode was fabricated using zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO) grown on a conductive transparent substrate with hydrothermal deposition method. The electrode was used to make a standard DSSC using a ruthenium dye, iodide/triiodide standard redox electrolyte, and a platinum counter electrode. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) study of the device showed a low capacitance with 350 mV open circuit voltage. Replacing the platinum counter electrode with a particularly designed porous paper-based carbon nanotube electrode resulted in a considerable difference in the CV response. A capacitive behavior was observed due to the large surface area of the counter electrode and the ZnO nanostructures on the photoactive electrode. Due to the large capacitance and relatively small photocurrent, the change in the open circuit voltage was limited. However, enhancement of the photocurrent could improve both the energy harvesting and charge storage in the device.

  16. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand.

  17. Sensitivity of global and regional terrestrial carbon storage to the direct CO2 effect and climate change based on the CMIP5 model intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04 PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics.

  18. Sensitivity of global and regional terrestrial carbon storage to the direct CO2 effect and climate change based on the CMIP5 model intercomparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5, we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04 PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet. The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics.

  19. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  20. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide: Photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    The sun is the most abundant resource of renewable energy available to the Earth. More energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than all primary energy consumption by humanity in an entire year. However, solar energy is intermittent, and if it is to become a major contributor to the electricity supply, an inexpensive and reliable form of massive energy storage will be necessary. The ability to convert solar electricity into a liquid fuel is an attractive solution to the energy storage problem. A challenging goal will be to use only H2O and CO2 as feedstocks for making synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Electroreduction of CO2 to liquid fuels necessitates the use of efficient electrocatalysts to increase efficiency and rate for the essential development of practical industrial processes. Two approaches towards the storage of energy in chemical bonds are investigated. The photoelectrocatalytic production of CO using CO2 as a feedstock demonstrates the capture of solar energy and subsequent electrochemical conversion into a useful chemical commodity. CO2 is reduced at illuminated p-Silicon (p-Si) cathodes using the electrocatalyst fac-Re(2,2'-bipyridyl)CO 3Cl at a 440 mV less anodic potential when compared to a glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammograms of the electrocatalyst with CO2 show an increase in current at the second reduction wave. In the second approach, a fully integrated system for a directly coupled solar photovoltaic driven CO2 electrolyzer was built and characterized. The design and theoretical voltage requirements show a minimum practical voltage of 3.4 V even though the thermodynamic minimum is only 1.33 V. The balancing of a non-linear power supply to a non-linear load reveals a self-stabilizing nature. An overall solar conversion efficiency (ηTOT) of 2.1% is achieved by using the electrocatalyst Re(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(CO) 3Cl. Theoretical calculations predict an upper efficiency limit of 21% for a single junction solar cell

  1. Rational synthesis of carbon-coated hollow Ge nanocrystals with enhanced lithium-storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chaoji; Xiang, Jingwei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-06-01

    High-capacity anode materials based on alloy-type group IV elements always have large volume expansion during lithiation when they are used in lithium-ion batteries. Designing hollow structures is a well-established strategy to accommodate the volume change because of sufficient internal void space. Here we report a facile template-free route to prepare hollow Ge nanospheres without using any templates through a quasi-microemulsion method. Ge nanocrystals are preferably self-assembled along the interface of liquid vesicles between water and tetrahydrofuran, and well-defined hollow architectures of ~50 nm in diameter are formed. Both the wall thickness and hollow interiors can be easily tuned. After subsequent carbon coating via pyrolysis of acetylene, the as-formed Ge@C nanocomposite with hollow interiors exhibits a highly reversible capacity of about 920 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 over 50 cycles, and excellent rate capability. The small size and the high structural integrity of hollow Ge@C structures contribute to the superior lithium-storage performances.High-capacity anode materials based on alloy-type group IV elements always have large volume expansion during lithiation when they are used in lithium-ion batteries. Designing hollow structures is a well-established strategy to accommodate the volume change because of sufficient internal void space. Here we report a facile template-free route to prepare hollow Ge nanospheres without using any templates through a quasi-microemulsion method. Ge nanocrystals are preferably self-assembled along the interface of liquid vesicles between water and tetrahydrofuran, and well-defined hollow architectures of ~50 nm in diameter are formed. Both the wall thickness and hollow interiors can be easily tuned. After subsequent carbon coating via pyrolysis of acetylene, the as-formed Ge@C nanocomposite with hollow interiors exhibits a highly reversible capacity of about 920 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 over 50 cycles, and excellent rate

  2. [Characteristics of carbon storage and sequestration in different age beech (Castanopsis hystrix) plantations in south subtropical area of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, En; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2012-02-01

    To transform large area pure conifer plantations by planting indigenous and valuable broad-leaved tree species has been advocated as an effective close-to-nature forest management in sub-tropical China. Taking the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old Castanopsis hystrix plantations in Guangxi of South China as test objects and by the methods of plot investigation and biomass measurement, this paper studied the carbon content in different plant organs, litter layers, and soil layers and the carbon storage and its allocation in tree layer, litter layer and soil layer. For the test plantations, the carbon content in different C. hystrix organs ranged from 49.7% to 57.9%, and that in litter layer was 40.8%-50.5%, being higher in fresh litter layer than in semi-decomposed litter layer. The carbon storage in the soil profiles (0-60 cm) increased with plantation age but decreased with soil depth. The total carbon storage in the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 182. 42, 234.75 and 269. 75 t x hm(-2), respectively, among which, tree layer, litter layer and soil layer occupied 19.8%, 32.0% and 32.8%, 1.5%, 1.6% and 1.3%, and 78.7%, 66.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The annual net carbon sequestration of the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 4.70, 5.64 and 5.18 t x hm(-2), respectively. It was considered that C. hystrix had a high capability in carbon sequestration, being able to be an ideal tree species for multi-purpose forest management with large and valuable timber production.

  3. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  4. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage; Le captage et le stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO{sub 2} generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO{sub 2} capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO{sub 2} transport options, the geological storage of the CO{sub 2} and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  5. 1D/2D Carbon Nanomaterial-Polymer Dielectric Composites with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ming-Sheng; Zha, Jun-Wei

    2016-04-06

    With the development of flexible electronic devices and large-scale energy storage technologies, functional polymer-matrix nanocomposites with high permittivity (high-k) are attracting more attention due to their ease of processing, flexibility, and low cost. The percolation effect is often used to explain the high-k characteristic of polymer composites when the conducting functional fillers are dispersed into polymers, which gives the polymer composite excellent flexibility due to the very low loading of fillers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNs), as one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials respectively, have great potential for realizing flexible high-k dielectric nanocomposites. They are becoming more attractive for many fields, owing to their unique and excellent advantages. The progress in dielectric fields by using 1D/2D carbon nanomaterials as functional fillers in polymer composites is introduced, and the methods and mechanisms for improving dielectric properties, breakdown strength and energy storage density of their dielectric nanocomposites are examined. Achieving a uniform dispersion state of carbon nanomaterials and preventing the development of conductive networks in their polymer composites are the two main issues that still need to be solved in dielectric fields for power energy storage. Recent findings, current problems, and future perspectives are summarized.

  6. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-11-06

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ'E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ'E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models.

  7. Effects of fluorination modification on pore size controlled electrospun activated carbon fibers for high capacity methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji Sun; Jung, Min Jung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2009-11-01

    Electrospun carbon fibers were prepared as a methane storage medium. Chemical activation was carried out using potassium carbonate to develop the pore structure, which can provide sites for the uptake of methane, and then fluorination surface modification was conducted to enhance the capacity of storage. Chemical activation provided a highly microporous structure, which is beneficial for methane storage, with a high specific surface area greater than 2500m(2)/g. The pore size distribution showed that the prepared samples have pore sizes in the range of 0.7-1.6nm. The effect of fluorination surface modification was also investigated. The functional groups, which were confirmed by XPS analysis, played an important role in guiding methane gas into the carbon silt pores via the attractive force felt by the electrons in the methane molecules due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. Eventually, the methane uptake increased up to 18.1wt.% by the synergetic effects of the highly developed micropore structure and the guiding of methane to carbon pores by fluorine.

  8. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  9. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhao

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1 quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR processing and allometric models, (2 quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3 mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  10. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  11. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Wang, Hong; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming; Chen, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement or even replace batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Their main limitation, however, is the low volumetric energy density when compared with batteries. Here, we describe a hierarchically structured carbon microfibre made of an interconnected network of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with interposed nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets. The nanomaterials form mesoporous structures of large specific surface area (396 m2 g-1) and high electrical conductivity (102 S cm-1). We develop a scalable method to continuously produce the fibres using a silica capillary column functioning as a hydrothermal microreactor. The resultant fibres show a specific volumetric capacity as high as 305 F cm-3 in sulphuric acid (measured at 73.5 mA cm-3 in a three-electrode cell) or 300 F cm-3 in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H3PO4 electrolyte (measured at 26.7 mA cm-3 in a two-electrode cell). A full micro-supercapacitor with PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte, free from binder, current collector and separator, has a volumetric energy density of ~6.3 mWh cm-3 (a value comparable to that of 4 V-500 µAh thin-film lithium batteries) while maintaining a power density more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of batteries, as well as a long cycle life. To demonstrate that our fibre-based, all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors can be easily integrated into miniaturized flexible devices, we use them to power an ultraviolet photodetector and a light-emitting diode.

  12. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Wang, Hong; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming; Chen, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices that can complement or even replace batteries in miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. Their main limitation, however, is the low volumetric energy density when compared with batteries. Here, we describe a hierarchically structured carbon microfibre made of an interconnected network of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with interposed nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets. The nanomaterials form mesoporous structures of large specific surface area (396 m(2) g(-1)) and high electrical conductivity (102 S cm(-1)). We develop a scalable method to continuously produce the fibres using a silica capillary column functioning as a hydrothermal microreactor. The resultant fibres show a specific volumetric capacity as high as 305 F cm(-3) in sulphuric acid (measured at 73.5 mA cm(-3) in a three-electrode cell) or 300 F cm(-3) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte (measured at 26.7 mA cm(-3) in a two-electrode cell). A full micro-supercapacitor with PVA/H(3)PO(4) gel electrolyte, free from binder, current collector and separator, has a volumetric energy density of ∼6.3 mWh cm(-3) (a value comparable to that of 4 V-500 µAh thin-film lithium batteries) while maintaining a power density more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of batteries, as well as a long cycle life. To demonstrate that our fibre-based, all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors can be easily integrated into miniaturized flexible devices, we use them to power an ultraviolet photodetector and a light-emitting diode.

  13. Reviews and synthesis: Carbon capture and storage monitoring - an integrated biological, biophysical and chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N.; Vik, U.; Taylor, P.; Ladoukakis, E.; Park, J.; Kolisis, F.; Stahl, H.; Jakobsen, K. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a developing technology that seeks to mitigate against the impact of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) production by capturing CO2 from large point source emitters. After capture the CO2 is compressed and transported to a reservoir where it is stored for geological time scales. Potential leakages from CCS projects, where stored CO2 migrates through the overlaying sediments, are likely to have severe implications on benthic and marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, prokaryotic response to elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested as one of the first detectable warnings if a CO2 leakage should occur. Applying properties of prokaryotic communities (i.e. community composition and metabolic status) as a novel CO2 monitoring application is highly reliable within a multidisciplinary framework, where deviations from the baseline can easily be identified. In this paper we review current knowledge about the impact of CO2 leakages on marine sediments from a multidisciplinary-based monitoring perspective. We focus on aspects from the fields of biology, geophysics, and chemistry, and discuss a case study example. We argue the importance of an integrative multidisciplinary approach, incorporating biogeochemistry, geophysics, microbial ecology and modelling, with a particular emphasis on metagenomic techniques and novel bioinformatics, for future CCS monitoring. Within this framework, we consider that an effective CCS monitoring programme will ensure that large-scale leakages with potentially devastating effects for the overlaying ecosystem are avoided. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary approach suggested here for CCS monitoring is generic, and can be adapted to other systems of interest.

  14. Shenhua Group's carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiuzhang [China Shenhua Coal to Liquid and Chemical Co., Ltd., Beijing (China). Shenhua Group

    2014-04-15

    The Chinese government places great importance on the issues of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. On the eve of the 2009 Copenhagen conference, the government of China put forth a target of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP in 2020 by 40 to 45% compared to 2005. In the ''Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan for the National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China'', China stated its plan to ''significantly reduce the intensity of energy consumption and the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions, effectively controlling greenhouse gas emissions'', which highlighted China's conviction and determination to combat climate change. Shenhua Group is one of the largest coal-based integrated energy suppliers in the world. In recent years, there have been significant improvements in the coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals sector. These improvements have led the way for strategic energy security projects, such as domestically producing petroleum alternatives and developing clean coal technology in China and the world. While actively promoting petroleum alternatives and clean coal technologies, Shenhua Group is also paying close attention to major issues such as CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change, and is actively exploring the development of a coal-based low-carbon energy system for China. One major step in this development is the comprehensive (i.e., capture and storage) CCS project at its Ordos direct coal liquefaction facility.

  15. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  16. Testing associations of plant functional diversity with carbon and nitrogen storage along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoan eZuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The trait-based approach shows that ecosystem function is strongly affected by plant functional diversity as reflected by the traits of the most abundant species (community-weighted mean, CWM and functional dispersion (FDis. Effects of CWM and FDis individually support the biomass ratio hypothesis and the niche complementarity hypothesis. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relative roles of CWM traits and FDis in explaining the carbon (C and nitrogen (N storage in grassland ecosystems. We measured plant functional traits in the 34 most abundant species across 24 sites along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune, fixed dune and grassland in Horqin Sand Land, northern China. Thereafter, we calculated the CWM traits, the functional divergence of each single trait (FDvar and the trait dispersion of multiple traits (FDis. We also measured the C and N storage in plant, litter, root and soil. Using a stepwise multiple regression analysis, we further assessed which of the functional diversity components best explained C and N storage in the sandy grassland restoration. We found consistent links between C or N storage and leaf traits related to plant resource use strategy. However, the CWM of plant height was retained as an important predictor of C and N storage in plant, litter, soil and total ecosystem in the final multiple models. CWMs of specific leaf area and plant height best predicted soil C and N storage and total ecosystem N storage. FDis was one of good predictors of litter C and N storage as well as total ecosystem C storage. These results suggest that ecosystem C and N pools in the sandy grassland restoration are primarily associated with the traits of the most abundant species in communities, thereby supporting the biomass ratio hypothesis. The positive associations of FDis with C storage in litter and total ecosystem provide evidence to support the niche complementarity hypothesis. Both

  17. Testing Associations of Plant Functional Diversity with Carbon and Nitrogen Storage along a Restoration Gradient of Sandy Grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shaokun; Yue, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The trait-based approach shows that ecosystem function is strongly affected by plant functional diversity as reflected by the traits of the most abundant species (community-weighted mean, CWM) and functional dispersion (FDis). Effects of CWM and FDis individually support the biomass ratio hypothesis and the niche complementarity hypothesis. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relative roles of CWM traits and FDis in explaining the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in grassland ecosystems. We measured plant functional traits in the 34 most abundant species across 24 sites along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China. Thereafter, we calculated the CWM traits, the functional divergence of each single trait (FDvar) and the trait dispersion of multiple traits (FDis). We also measured the C and N storage in plant, litter, root, and soil. Using a stepwise multiple regression analysis, we further assessed which of the functional diversity components best explained C and N storage in the sandy grassland restoration. We found consistent links between C or N storage and leaf traits related to plant resource use strategy. However, the CWM of plant height was retained as an important predictor of C and N storage in plant, litter, soil, and total ecosystem in the final multiple models. CWMs of specific leaf area and plant height best predicted soil C and N storage and total ecosystem N storage. FDis was one of good predictors of litter C and N storage as well as total ecosystem C storage. These results suggest that ecosystem C and N pools in the sandy grassland restoration are primarily associated with the traits of the most abundant species in communities, thereby supporting the biomass ratio hypothesis. The positive associations of FDis with C storage in litter and total ecosystem provide evidence to support the niche complementarity hypothesis. Both functional

  18. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Risk assessment focused on marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero-Santiago, A R; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2016-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the options to mitigate the negative effects of the climate change. However, this strategy may have associated some risks such as CO2 leakages due to an escape from the reservoir. In this context, marine bacteria have been underestimated. In order to figure out the gaps and the lack of knowledge, this work summarizes different studies related to the potential effects on the marine bacteria associated with an acidification caused by a CO2 leak from CSS. An improved integrated model for risk assessment is suggested as a tool based on the rapid responses of bacterial community. Moreover, this contribution proposes a strategy for laboratory protocols using Pseudomona stanieri (CECT7202) as a case of study and analyzes the response of the strain under different CO2 conditions. Results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) under six diluted enriched medium and differences about the days in the exponential growth phase. Dilution 1:10 (Marine Broth 2216 with seawater) was selected as an appropriate growth medium for CO2 toxicity test in batch cultures. This work provide an essential and a complete tool to understand and develop a management strategy to improve future works related to possible effects produced by potential CO2 leaks.

  20. Illustrative national scale scenarios of environmental and human health impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanidakis, Konstantinos; Oxley, Tim; Cockerill, Tim; ApSimon, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Integrated Assessment, and the development of strategies to reduce the impacts of air pollution, has tended to focus only upon the direct emissions from different sources, with the indirect emissions associated with the full life-cycle of a technology often overlooked. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technologies designed to reduce CO2 emissions, but which may have much broader environmental implications than greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers a wider range of pollutants from a full life-cycle perspective, illustrating a methodology for assessing environmental impacts using source-apportioned effects based impact factors calculated by the national scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). Contrasting illustrative scenarios for the deployment of CCS towards 2050 are presented which compare the life-cycle effects of air pollutant emissions upon human health and ecosystems of business-as-usual, deployment of CCS and widespread uptake of IGCC for power generation. Together with estimation of the transboundary impacts we discuss the benefits of an effects based approach to such assessments in relation to emissions based techniques.

  1. Carbon storage regulator A contributes to the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-02-01

    The carbon storage regulator A (CsrA) controls a wide variety of bacterial processes, including metabolism, adherence, stress responses, and virulence. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, harbors a homolog of csrA. Here, we generated an unmarked, in-frame deletion mutant of csrA to assess its contribution to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. In human inoculation experiments, the csrA mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation compared to its parent. Deletion of csrA resulted in decreased adherence of H. ducreyi to human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF); Flp1 and Flp2, the determinants of H. ducreyi adherence to HFF cells, were downregulated in the csrA mutant. Compared to its parent, the csrA mutant had a significantly reduced ability to tolerate oxidative stress and heat shock. The enhanced sensitivity of the mutant to oxidative stress was more pronounced in bacteria grown to stationary phase compared to that in bacteria grown to mid-log phase. The csrA mutant also had a significant survival defect within human macrophages when the bacteria were grown to stationary phase but not to mid-log phase. Complementation in trans partially or fully restored the mutant phenotypes. These data suggest that CsrA contributes to virulence by multiple mechanisms and that these contributions may be more profound in bacterial cell populations that are not rapidly dividing in the human host.

  2. The synthesis and hydrogen storage properties of a MgH(2) incorporated carbon aerogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Gross, Adam F; Van Atta, Sky L; Lopez, Maribel; Liu, Ping; Ahn, Channing C; Vajo, John J; Jensen, Craig M

    2009-05-20

    A new approach to the incorporation of MgH2 in the nanometer-sized pores of a carbon aerogel scaffold was developed, by infiltrating the aerogel with a solution of dibutylmagnesium (MgBu2) precursor, and then hydrogenating the incorporated MgBu2 to MgH2. The resulting impregnated material showed broad x-ray diffraction peaks of MgH2. The incorporated MgH2 was not visible using a transmission electron microscope, which indicated that the incorporated hydride was nanosized and confined in the nanoporous structure of the aerogel. The loading of MgH2 was determined as 15-17 wt%, of which 75% is reversible over ten cycles. Incorporated MgH2 had >5 times faster dehydrogenation kinetics than ball-milled activated MgH2, which may be attributed to the particle size of the former being smaller than that of the latter. Cycling tests of the incorporated MgH(2) showed that the dehydrogenation kinetics are unchanged over four cycles. Our results demonstrate that confinement of metal hydride materials in a nanoporous scaffold is an efficient way to avoid aggregation and improve cycling kinetics for hydrogen storage materials.

  3. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  4. New phase equilibrium analyzer for determination of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of carbon dioxide and permanent gas mixtures for carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Parrott, Andrew J; Sanchez-Vicente, Yolanda; Fields, Peter; Wilson, Richard; Drage, Trevor C; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    A high-pressure, phase equilibrium analyzer incorporating a fiber-optic reflectometer is described. The analyzer has been designed for measuring the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of multi-component mixtures of carbon dioxide and permanent gases, providing a novel tool to acquire of a large number of phase equilibrium data for the development of the new carbon capture and storage technologies. We demonstrate that the analyzer is suitable for determining both the bubble- and dew-point lines at temperature from 253 K and pressure up to 25 MPa using pure CO2 and two binary mixtures of CO2 + N2 and CO2 + H2.

  5. Summary of Carbon Storage Project Public Information Meeting and Open House, Hawesville, Kentucky, October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, David; Williams, David; Bowersox, J Richard; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-06-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) completed a second phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection and seismic imaging in the Knox Group, a Cambrian Ordovician dolomite and sandstone sequence in September 2010. This work completed 2 years of activity at the KGS No. 1 Marvin Blan well in Hancock County, Kentucky. The well was drilled in 2009 by a consortium of State and industry partners (Kentucky Consortium for Carbon Storage). An initial phase of CO{sub 2} injection occurred immediately after completion of the well in 2009. The second phase of injection and seismic work was completed in September 2010 as part of a U.S. DOE funded project, after which the Blan well was plugged and abandoned. Following completion of research at the Blan well, a final public meeting and open house was held in Hancock County on October 28, 2010. This meeting followed one public meeting held prior to drilling of the well, and two on site visits during drilling (one for news media, and one for school teachers). The goal of the final public meeting was to present the results of the project to the public, answer questions, and address any concerns. Despite diligent efforts to publicize the final meeting, it was poorly attended by the general public. Several local county officials and members of the news media attended, but only one person from the general public showed up. We attribute the lack of interest in the results of the project to several factors. First, the project went as planned, with no problems or incidents that affected the local residents. The fact that KGS fulfilled the promises it made at the beginning of the project satisfied residents, and they felt no need to attend the meeting. Second, Hancock County is largely rural, and the technical details of carbon sequestration were not of interest to many people. The county officials attending were an exception; they clearly realized the importance of the project in future economic development for the county.

  6. Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Shao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shao-Heng; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing interest of the scientific community on production of activated carbon using biochar as potential sustainable precursors pyrolyzed from biomass wastes. Physical activation and chemical activation are the main methods applied in the activation process. These methods could have significantly beneficial effects on biochar chemical/physical properties, which make it suitable for multiple applications including water pollution treatment, CO2 capture, and energy storage. The feedstock with different compositions, pyrolysis conditions and activation parameters of biochar have significant influences on the properties of resultant activated carbon. Compared with traditional activated carbon, activated biochar appears to be a new potential cost-effective and environmentally-friendly carbon materials with great application prospect in many fields. This review not only summarizes information from the current analysis of activated biochar and their multiple applications for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for development of activated biochar.

  7. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC.

  8. Cyanophycin mediates the accumulation and storage of fixed carbon in non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria from coniform mats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biqing Liang

    Full Text Available Thin, filamentous, non-heterocystous, benthic cyanobacteria (Subsection III from some marine, lacustrine and thermal environments aggregate into macroscopic cones and conical stromatolites. We investigate the uptake and storage of inorganic carbon by cone-forming cyanobacteria from Yellowstone National Park using high-resolution stable isotope mapping of labeled carbon (H(13CO3 (- and immunoassays. Observations and incubation experiments in actively photosynthesizing enrichment cultures and field samples reveal the presence of abundant cyanophycin granules in the active growth layer of cones. These ultrastructurally heterogeneous granules rapidly accumulate newly fixed carbon and store 18% of the total particulate labeled carbon after 120 mins of incubation. The intracellular distribution of labeled carbon during the incubation experiment demonstrates an unexpectedly large contribution of PEP carboxylase to carbon fixation, and a large flow of carbon and nitrogen toward cyanophycin in thin filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. This pattern does not occur in obvious response to a changing N or C status. Instead, it may suggest an unusual interplay between the regulation of carbon concentration mechanisms and accumulation of photorespiratory products that facilitates uptake of inorganic C and reduces photorespiration in the dense, surface-attached communities of cyanobacteria from Subsection III.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  10. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  11. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  12. Woody debris along an upland chronosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; O'Neill, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in Manitoba, Canada. We measured the amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chronosequence, including wood partially and completely covered by moss growth. Such woody debris is rarely included in measurement protocols and composed up to 26% of the total amount of woody debris in older stands, suggesting that it is important to measure all types of woody debris in ecosystems where burial by organic matter is possible. Based on these data and existing net primary production (NPP) values, we used a mass-balance model to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. The amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, which persists over millennia, was used to represent this long-term carbon. We estimate that between 10% and 60% of the deep-soil carbon is derived from wood biomass. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this estimate is most affected by the fire return interval, decay rate of wood, amount of NPP, and decay rate of the char (postfire) carbon pool. Landscape variations in these terms could account for large differences in deep-soil carbon. The model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead becomes woody debris. All model runs, however, suggest that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage for this area. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  13. Crystal shape controlled H2 storage rate in nanoporous carbon composite with ultra-fine Pt nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsan-Yao; Zhang, Yanhui; Hsu, Liang-Ching; Hu, Alice; Zhuang, Yu; Fan, Chia-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Chuang, Haw-Yeu

    2017-02-01

    This study demonstrates that the hydrogen storage rate (HSR) of nanoporous carbon supported platinum nanocatalysts (NC) is determined by their heterojunction and geometric configurations. The present NC is synthesized in an average particle size of ~1.5 nm by incipient wetness impregnation of Pt4+ at carbon support followed by annealing in H2 ambient at 102–105 °C. Among the steps in hydrogen storage, decomposition of H2 molecule into 2 H atoms on Pt NC surface is the deciding factor in HSR that is controlled by the thickness of Pt NC. For the best condition, HSR of Pt NC in 1~2 atomic layers thick (4.7 μg/g min) is 2.6 times faster than that (1.3 μg/g min) of Pt NC with higher than 3 atomic layers thick.

  14. Impact of the carbonisation temperature on the activation of carbon fibres and their application for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunowsky, M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); CNRS LIMHPUPR1311, Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Weinberger, B.; Lamari Darkrim, F. [CNRS LIMHPUPR1311, Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Suarez-Garcia, F.; Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Linares-Solano, A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Porous materials are gaining interest due to their potential for storing hydrogen via physisorption. In the present work, two carbon fibres, carbonised at 973 and 1273 K, have been chemically activated with KOH and NaOH, in order to obtain materials with optimised characteristics for hydrogen storage application. Highly microporous activated carbon fibres were obtained from both precursors, especially from the fibre carbonised at the lower carbonisation temperature, remarking its importance on its subsequent activation process. As activation agent, KOH is more effective for developing the narrow microporosity, and higher yields are obtained. H{sub 2} adsorption isotherms were measured at 298 K for pressures up to 20 MPa, and at 77 K up to 4 MPa. The maximum excess adsorption of hydrogen reached 1 wt% at 298 K and 3.8 wt% at 77 K. The total volumetric storage capacity is of 17 g/l at 298 K, and 32 g/l at 77 K. (author)

  15. Gelatin-derived sustainable carbon-based functional materials for energy conversion and storage with controllability of structure and component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Zhong, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jun; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Nonprecious carbon catalysts and electrodes are vital components in energy conver