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Sample records for aquiculture

  1. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  2. 我国水产养殖政策性保险探析%Analysis of Policy Insurances for Aquiculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方方; 杨正勇; 任爱景; 黄书培

    2011-01-01

    Developing aquiculture insurances benefit to reduce the influences of disaster on production and life of culturist, benefit to insure the income of fishers and keep the stabilication of society.Based on analycing the conflict that between high risk of aquiculture and profit-pursuing of commercial insurance company, the developmental situation of fresh water aquicalture insurance in Shanghai and the pilot situation of policy mutual insurance in Zhejiang were summarized.Then, the problems existing in development of aquiculture policy insurance in China mainly were lacking legal guarantee, government leading, talents and techniques.In the end, some suggestions were proposed that in macroscopical aspect, government should accelerate lawmaking; in microcosmic aspect, insurance company should adopt measures to control adverse selection and moral risk.%发展水产养殖保险有利于减少灾害对养殖者生产、生活的影响,有利于保障渔民收入,维持社会稳定.在分析水产养殖业高风险性与商业保险公司逐利性的矛盾的基础上,总结了上海淡水养殖保险发展情况及山东、浙江政策性互助保险试点情况,指出目前我国水产养殖政策性保险发展存在的问题主要是缺乏法律保障、政府主导、人才技术等.提出在宏观层面政府加快立法、微观层面保险公司采取措施控制逆向选择和道德风险等建议.

  3. Design on Monitoring System of Aquiculture with Enviromnental Factors Based on WSN%基于WSN的水产养殖环境参数监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新荣; 徐保国; 边雪芬

    2011-01-01

    针对国内水产养殖技术的自动化水平较低,以及同类监测产品价格较高的现状,提出一种基于无线传感器网络(WSN)的水产养殖环境参数智能监测系统.通过在监测区域部署网络节点,以微处理器为核心控制单元的无线传感器网络实时采集水体温度.溶氧量浓度和pH值等环境数据,并进行处理,将其发送到接收终端,由中央监测计算机对数据进行存储和显示,实时监测养殖环境参数变化.将其应用于实际的养殖现场,试点结果显示,该系统性能稳定,数据传输可靠性高,使用灵活,性价比高,监控准确,增产明显.%To solve the problems such as low automation technology and high price of monitoring system in aquiculture of our country, a kind of environmental factors intelligent monitoring system based on WSN was designed. By placing network nodes in monitoring area, the collection part based on single chip microcomputer digitalized the signal from the sensor of temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, and sent it out using wireless digital transmission technology. At the reception part, the data is received, saved and displayed by central monitoring computer. Thus environmental factors of the aquieulture was monitored in real time. The system was applied in practical aquiculture field. Experimental result indicates that the system is quite reliable and suitable, provides a practicable measures, and is high in theratio of performance to price. It can achieve to monitoring perfectly and improve productivity remarkably.

  4. 应用微生物技术改善育鳖池水质的实验研究%Application of Microbial Technology to the Improvement of Water Quality in Aquiculture -Turtle Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翱; 史家梁

    2001-01-01

    The deterioration of water quality is a common but troublesomeproblem in turtle cultivation. Beneficial micro-organisms like PSB,NB and YULEI were used in turtle cultivation with sand bed in greenhouse. The results show that those micro-organisms could efficiently decompose pollutants in the pond sediment,and eliminate organic substances,COD,NH3-N and NO-3-N from the waterbody,thus reducing aquicultural and environmental risks,and water consumption as well due to their water purifying effect.%温室有砂育鳖的水质恶化是育鳖中经常遇到的棘手问题。采用光合细菌(PSB)、硝化细菌(NB)、玉垒菌(S30)等有益微生物进行温室有砂育鳖,结果表明,有益微生物联合使用可以有效分解底泥中污染物,去除水体中的有机物、氨氮、亚硝态氮,减少换水次数,节约用水量,并起到保护环境的作用。

  5. ARCHETYPES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEMS FOR TREATMENT OF AQUICULTURE EFFLUENT = PROTÓTIPOS DE SISTEMAS CONSTRUÍDOS DE ÁREAS ALAGADAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTES DE PISCICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naves Domingos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture is an activity that finishes causing eutrofization them water bodies in which its effluent one is launched, decurrent of the nutrition and prophylaxes used in its reservoirs. The components that cause greater problems are those that contain nitrogen and phosphorus. The management used in the aquiculture must be guided in such way to prevent the eutrofization and to provide treatment of effluent and water reuse. Constructed wetland system (CWS’s has been efficient for treatment of waters, effluent and domestic and industrial sewer, being pertinent so that physical, chemical and biological processes occur similar as they happen in natural ecosystems. Initially some archetypes of CWS’s had been simulated, in laboratory scale, using 46 L reservoirs, with aeration system, being vegetated with a polyculture of aquatic macrophytes, for effluent treatment of tanks of Tilapia of the Nile creation. The analyzed types of support matrix had been: soil of cerrado area; soil plus brick fragments (1:1 (aggregate; soil plus brick fragments (3:1; and brick fragments. The results had demonstrated that CWS’s contend soil plus aggregate was efficient to treat the effluent one used in this study. After the stabilization of CWS’s, better efficiencies had been observed in the system only contend brick fragments or only soil, depending on the analyzed parameter. = A piscicultura é uma atividade que acarreta o processo de eutrofização nos corpos de água nos quais seu efluente é lançado, decorrente da nutrição e profilaxias utilizadas em seus tanques de criação. Os compostos que contribuem para o processo de eutrofização são aqueles que contêm nutrientes, como nitrogênio e fósforo. Os manejos utilizados na piscicultura devem ser orientados de tal modo a se evitar o processo de eutrofização, e contemplar tratamentos dos efluentes. Sistemas construídos de áreas alagadas Cosntructed Wetland System - CWS’s têm mostrado efici

  6. Design on Automatic Monitoring System of Aquiculture Environmental Factors Based on AT89C51%基于AT89C51水产养殖环境参数自动监测系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琦; 储春华; 翁绍捷

    2012-01-01

    针对水产养殖中溶解氧、pH值、温度等重要水质参数的监测,采用PC机为上位机,AT89C51微控制器为下位机,设计了一种水产养殖环境参数自动监测系统。该系统实现了对溶解氧、pH值、温度的实时采集、显示和存储,同时还提供了超限报警、历史数据查询等功能。试验结果表明,系统运行稳定、能够准确地采集和显示水产养殖环境参数,且具有操作简便、界面友好、性价比高和易扩展等优点。%Aimed at the monitoring of the important water quality factors such as dissolved oxygen,pH value and temperature in aquiculture,an environmental factors automatic monitoring system was designed,with a personal computer used as upper subsystem and Microprocessor AT89C51 as lower subsystem.The system can realize the real-time data acquisition of dissolved oxygen,pH value and temperature as well as data display and storage,and also provide the off-gauge alarm,historical data inquire etc.The test results proved that this system was stable,and environmental factors of the aquiculture could be accurately measured and displayed,wit the advantages of simple operation,friendly interface,a good ratio of performance to price and easy expandability.

  7. Study on Calculation Model of Carbon Emission in Low-Carbon Aquiculture--the Empirical Analysis with Farms%建立水产养殖碳排量计算模型--以养殖场进行实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桥驿; 杨宁生

    2013-01-01

      21世纪召开的哥本哈根会议敲响了人类关注环境问题的警钟,面对越来越严重的环境问题,各行业经济发展和社会活动的节能减排势在必行。碳汇渔业作为具有明显碳减排效用的产业,更应该大力的推行和发展。提出了水产养殖碳排量计算模型的问卷设计思路以及研究方法,具体分析了碳汇渔业与低碳渔业技术对于碳减排的重要作用和意义,通过借鉴其他行业的碳排量计算模型建立的经验和方法,设计并建立了水产养殖碳排量计算模型,利用回收的养殖场低碳问卷的相关数据,计算了各个养殖场的碳排量和投入产出比等相关数据,最后通过对数据的对比分析,得出了问卷养殖场的单位经济产出碳排量与投入产出比不是直线相关关系的结果,并对原因进行了分析。%The Copenhagen conference held in 21st century has sounded the alarm for human environmental concerns, and various sectors of economic development and social activities of energy conservation was imperative in the face of the increasingly serious environmental problems. The carbon sinks fisheries, with a significant carbon emission reduction effect, should be vigorously implemented and developed. This paper was about how to make a questionnaire of the computing model of carbon emission of aquiculture and propose its research method, analysis the significance and effects which the carbon skin fisheries and the low carbon fisheries technology do to reducing carbon emission, design and make a computing model of carbon emission of aquiculture through borrowing ideas from the experiences and the methods of computing model of carbon emission of other industries, calculate the relative data such as the carbon emission and the compare of investment and production by using the relative data which collective by those questionnaires. Then we make the conclusion what was carbon emissions per unit of

  8. Application of Spirulina in aquiculture%螺旋藻在水产养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莉莉; 王进波

    2001-01-01

    @@ 螺旋藻广泛分布在世界各海区及陆地淡、盐水湖中,是浮游自养的原核生物,属蓝藻门颤藻目颤藻科.藻体由于含藻蓝素而呈绿色,显微镜观察呈细丝状螺旋形.

  9. 虾青素在水产养殖中的应用%application of astaxanthin in aquiculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於亚兵; 杨志刚

    2007-01-01

    虾青素(Astaxanthin)广泛存在于生物界中,特别是水产动物的虾、蟹、鱼和鸟类的羽毛中,起显色作用。绝大多数海产鱼类和甲壳类动物都含有虾青素,但一般均是通过食物链从海洋微藻,浮游植物和浮游动物中获得。虾青素不仅能使鲑鱼的肉呈桃红色,虾,蟹的壳呈深红色,保证水产动物具有良好的外观品质,而且它还是这些动物生长和发育所必需的营养物质。

  10. Performance and ecological design of closed re-circulating aquiculture system%封闭循环水集约化养殖池塘的生态设计与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天乐; 杨晓姝; 唐文浩

    2011-01-01

    在分析传统池塘养殖和工厂化养殖生态系统结构与功能缺陷的基础上,运用生态补偿和环境补偿原理对传统养殖池塘的结构、功能与过程进行了生态设计,并在实际生产条件下对新型封闭循环水集约化水产养殖池塘进行了性能测试.结果表明,封闭循环水集约化水产养殖池塘的结构有利于垂直混合增氧、集污和引污,具有持续高效地分离污染物的净水功能,水环境稳定利于水产动物生长,长期运行并不造成硝态氮、氨氮等的积累,可不洗塘、不肥水、不换水、不排水,达到废水零排放,对于传统池塘养殖生产方式转变和产业可持续发展具有重大意义.%Based on the analysis of ecosystem structure and functional defects of the traditional ponds culture and factory farm,a ecological design for the traditional ponds 'structure, function and process by the principle of ecological and environment compensation, anda performance tnst in the new type closed re-circufating intensive aquaculture ponds under the conditions of actual production were done.The results showed that the structure of the new type ponds was aided the vertical structure of mixed aerobic,collecting and excluding sewage, and it hod the performance of the high continuous function to purify water and separate pollutants.The stability of water environment was good for the growth of the aquatic animals, and its long-term operation would not accumulate NO3 -N and NH4-N.The users didn't need to wash the ponds, fertilize,change and drain the water.So,the new type ponds could be zero discharge of wastewater ,and it might be significant to change the traditional modes in production in pond culture and good for the industrial sustainable development.

  11. Outlook on China's Food Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The output of many kinds of foods in China have stood first on the world list, such as fruits, vegetables,meats, rape oil, aquiculture, etc. But China's export volume is minor. For example, the rate of apples exported is less than 1% of the total production, accounting for 6% of the world export volume. This results from quality and safety concerns, particularly the latter one. In order to improve this situation, central government has issued Project of Farming Region for Superior Agricultural Products (2003-2007) recently. The project says that 1118 standardized demonstration regions (base) of producing superior agricultural products will be established within the next 5 years. The superior agricultural products include wheat, special-purpose corn, high oil soy been, cotton, "double-low" rape, "double-high″ sugar cane, citrus fruit, apples,beef cattle, mutton sheep, milk, aquiculture etc.

  12. 新型消毒剂-ClO2的制备方法及应用现状%PREPARATION OF NEW DISINFECTANT-ClO2 AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建华; 韩舞鹰

    2001-01-01

    The preparation method of ClO2, its some present products and application are introduced in this paper. Its preparation methods mainly include chemical and electrolysis methods, and their raw materials are mainly sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite and table salt. The present chloride dioxide products are mainly the stable ClO2 aqueous solution and solid chloride dioxide; the solid chloride dioxide has adsorbing type, gelatifying type and mono-packing type etc. due to different preparation technique. They are extensively applied to the aspects of disinfection, sterilization, algue removal, pulp-bleaching, air purification, food antisepsis and retaining freshness etc. of drinking water, industrial wastewater, hospital sewage, industrial cycle cooling water, fowl slaughter, indoor hygiene, beer production and aquiculture etc.%本文详细地介绍了二氧化氯的制备方法和现有的几种二氧化氯制品及其应用。

  13. Earthworm  as  Feed  in  Aquiculture  Application  Effect%蚯蚓作为饲料在水产养殖业中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永芬; 陶宇航; 顾永江

    2012-01-01

      蚯蚓是一种非常宝贵和极具开发潜力的动物性蛋白饲料源,其在水产养殖业中的应用已较为广泛。因此,本文就蚯蚓在水产养殖业中的应用进行了概述,以为广大水产同行合理了解并科学使用蚯蚓提供参考。%  The earthworm is a very precious and most development potential of the animal protein feed source, and its application in aquatic products breeding has been more widely. Therefore, in this paper the application of earthworms in aquiculture were reviewed in this paper, thought the aquatic counterparts reasonable understanding and scientific use of earthworm to provide reference.

  14. Depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) in natural environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; LIU Lei; SONG Xiaoping; LIANG Yubo; ZHUANG Guohong

    2015-01-01

    To study the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) depuration in Japanese scallopPatinopecten yessoensis in natural environment, Japanese scallops naturally contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in the Dayao Bay in the northern Huanghai Sea are transited to Qipanmo waters in the Bohai Sea of no reported PSTs incidents. The levels and profile of PSTs during 30-day depuration are detected by the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results show that the toxicity of the PSTs in soft tissues decreases to a relatively low level at Day 9. Moreover, the depurated ratio at the early stage of the PSTs depuration is higher than that at the later stage. The toxicity analysis of dissected organs reveals that the digestive gland is the most contaminated PSTs part, which is of important implication for the human health and scallop aquiculture. The mortality of Japanese scallops during PSTs depuration experiment is relevant to PSTs level in the soft tissue.

  15. STUDY OF RED TIDE PREDICTION MODEL FOR THE CHANGJIANG ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper based on field data (on red tide water quality monitoring at the Changjiang River mouth and Hutoudu mariculture area in Zhejiang Province from May to August in 1995, and May to September in 1996) presents an effective model for short term prediction of red tide in the Changjiang Estuary. The measured parameters include: depth, temperature, color diaphaneity, density, DO, COD and nutrients (PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N). The model was checked by field-test data, and compared with other related models.The model: Z=SAL-3.95 DO-2.974 PH-5.421 PO4-P is suitable for application to the Shengsi aquiculture area near the Changjiang Estuary.

  16. Urbanização e gestão do litoral centro-sul do estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six municipalities form the littoral of Santa Catarina State. These municipalities are divided in five sectors: north, center-north, center, center–south and south. Six municipalities belong to the center-south littoral and in this sector is located the bigger coastal lagoon chain of the State. Laguna is the faster growing municipality in this region and has the highest number of inhabitants. The rapid and non-organized urbanization of this area has been causing remarkable environmental impacts such as water pollution, sand dune erosion, loss of coastal vegetation and biodiversity. Activities such as prawn farms, agriculture, tourism and urbanization are the most impacting activities. For a sustainable development of the region some actions should be taken, such as: sewage treatment, urban planning,aquiculture zoning, coastal ecosystems preservation, development and implementation of management plan for conservation areas, environmental laws enforcement.

  17. Solar oxygenation system for aquaculture and running effect%水体太阳能供电增氧系统及其运行效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游国栋; 杨世凤; 李继生; 侯勇; 王秀清; 南忠良; 王昶

    2012-01-01

    为了快速改善水产养殖水体质量,该文分析了国内水体富营养化的现状和存在的问题,提出了以太阳能电池为动力,采用单片机设计了一套水体增氧系统,重点介绍了硬件组成、结构特点和软件实现方法,并应用在公园鱼池净化和鲤鱼养殖生产中.试验结果表明,该系统能够实时控制鱼池中的溶氧量、pH值,使多环境因子稳定在最佳值附近.为增强水体的自净能力,提高水产养殖水平提供了一种切实可行的技术措施.%In order to rapidly improve aquiculture water quality, the existing circumstances and problems of water eutrophication in our country was analysed in this paper, and a water oxygenation system powered with solar battery was developed. The system is controlled by singlechip microcomputer, and the structure features, hardware and software implementation methods of the system were introduced in detail. The system has been applied in the purification of park fishpond and aquiculture of carp. The results showed that the system realized real-time control for the dissolved oxygen and pH of a fishpond, and make more environmental factors keep in the best value ranges. The study can provide a new achievable technical measure for enhancing the water self cleaning capacity and aquaculture level.

  18. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD = Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grandeprogresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dezprimers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de Gst indicam que houvebaixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence ofthree piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia(B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  19. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710 Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Vargas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grande progresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dez primers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de indicam que houve baixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence of three piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia (B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  20. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  1. A relationship between red tide outbreaks and urban development along the coasts of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaonan; WANGWei

    2004-01-01

    Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red tides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the first period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red tides in local sea areas of the same coasts.

  2. Research development of the Mactridae%蛤蜊科贝类的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春阳; 徐善良

    2016-01-01

    蛤蜊科(Mactridae)属于双壳纲帘蛤目贝类,全世界已发现有35属199种。主要从蛤蜊科贝类的分类及地理分布、形态学特征、核型研究、生态习性、繁殖生物学、遗传多样性及系统发生研究、环境毒理学、养殖现状对蛤蜊科贝类的影响等,综述了蛤蜊科贝类的研究进展,并总结了目前研究阶段中尚未解决的问题,以期为以后的蛤蜊科贝类养殖提供科学依据。%Mactridae belongs to Bivalvia Veneroida .199 genera belonging to 35 sorts have been found in the world .In this paper , the influence of classification and geographical distribution , morphology features , karyotype characteristics , ecological habits , reproductive biology, the genetic diversity and phylogeny , environmental toxicology , and the current situation of aquiculture on Mactridae are re-viewed.The research progress of Mactridae is reviewed , and the issues yet to be resolved in current research are summarized in order to provide a scientific basis for the future Mactridae′s farming.

  3. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  4. Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in extreme southern South America (Beagle Channel, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Gastón O.; Hernando, Marcelo P.; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.; Schloss, Irene R.; Ferrario, Martha E.

    2011-08-01

    The phytoplankton biomass and composition dynamics in relation with environmental factors were explored during an annual cycle (July 2006-2007) for the first time in the Beagle Channel. Samples were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and carbon biomass was estimated using measured cell biovolumes. The annual cycle was characterized by a sharp contrast between low density and biomass during the autumn-winter period and a significant increase during spring and summer. The maximum biomass peak was observed during early spring (141 μg C l - 1 and 8.7 μg Chl a l - 1 ) and was associated with a bloom of the diatom genus Chaetoceros. In spite of a strong nutrient depletion that lead to the subsequent bloom decline, a second peak of biomass was observed after 2 weeks, mainly represented by the diatoms T. mendiolana and T. anguste-lineata. Towards the end of spring and during summer diatom density decreased and assemblages were enriched by unidentified tiny phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates. A total of 138 taxa were identified during the study period. From these, 10 are known as potentially toxic species: Alexandrium catenella, A. ostenfeldii, A. tamarense, Dinophysis acuminata, D. rotundata, Prorocentrum cordatum, Pseudo-nitzschia australis, P. calliantha, P. fraudulenta and P. cf. seriata. Their presence is noteworthy since the area sustains a growing aquiculture production.

  5. Benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics for Brycon hilarii - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bittencourt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic products are frequently employed during fish handling practices; however, the correct doses of the various chemicals for different species are still unknown. This study determined the ideal concentrations of benzocaine and eugenol as anesthetics used in Brycon hilarii juveniles. The fish were acquired from a commercial fish farm located in western Paraná state, Brazil, totaling 104 juveniles, with average body weight and length of 50.04 ± 20.80 g and 16.30 ± 12.32 cm respectively. The study was carried out at the Aquiculture Laboratory from the Aquaculture Management Study Group - GEMAq at the West Parana State University. Five benzocaine concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0 and 250.0 mg L-1 and seven eugenol concentrations (50.0, 100.0, 150.0, 200.0, 250.0, 300.0 and 350 mg L-1 were evaluated in order to assess the induction time to anesthesia. The fish were transferred to anesthetic-free tanks to recover, and the time needed to return to normal activity was recorded. The best results were observed with the benzocaine dose of 100 mg L-1 and the eugenol dose between 100 and 150 mg L-1.  

  6. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  7. 广东沿海赤潮发生与城市发展的关系%A relationship between red tide outbreaks and urban development along the coasts of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓南; 王为

    2004-01-01

    Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red fides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the ftrst period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red fides in local sea areas of the same coasts.

  8. Nutrient and chlorophyll a anomaly in red-tide periods of 2003-2008 in Sishili Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yanju; TANG Danling; YU Long; XING Qianguo

    2011-01-01

    Sishili Bay is the most important aquiculture and tourism area for the city of Yantai, China; however, red tides occurred frequently and have caused huge economic losses in this bay in recent years. To gain a better understanding of the local ecological environments in the bay, we conducted this research between 2003 and 2008 to analyze variations in nutrients and chlorophyll (chl-α) during high frequency red tide period (May to September). The results show that the chl-α concentration increased from 2.70 in 2003 to 7.26 mg/m3 in 2008, while the concentration of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and silicate (SiO3-Si) increased lineally from 5.18 and 1.45μmol/L in 2003 to 18.57 and 9.52 μmol/L in 2008, respectively, and the annual phosphate (PO4-P) varied between 0.15 and 0.46 μmol/L. Special attention was given to a red tide in August 2007 occurred when water temperature was high and nutrient concentrations increased sharply because of a heavy rainfall. Overall, the results show the P limitation in Sishili Bay, and reveal that red tides were caused by eutrophication from terrestrial inputs and local warm weather, particularly during rainy periods. Therefore, to control red tide, greater efforts should be made to reduce sewage discharges into Sishili Bay, particularly during rainfall seasons.

  9. Development and validation of methods for the trace determination of phthalates in sludge and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Benanou, David; Patria, Lucie; Treilhou, Michel

    2005-04-29

    A routine method which is simple, quick and precise has been set up and validated for phthalate analysis in environmental samples (tomato plants and sewage sludges). Six phthalates have been studied simultaneously: dimethylphthalate, diethylphthalate, di-n-butylphthalate, n-butylbenzylphthalate, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate. Optimization of sample, solvent extraction uses a Soxtec apparatus and extract purification with an a solid-phase extraction cartridge allows between 90 and 110% recovery of phthalates. Precise, sensitive and selective identification and quantifying of analytes is by GC-MS in the single ion monitoring mode. This protocol allows analytes with concentrations as low as 10 microg/kg dry matter (DM) to be determined from small (1-2 g DM) samples. This analytical method has been applied to the phthalate transfer study for agricultural recycling of sludges, where phthalate bioavailability has been studied in aquiculture using two types of experiments. Tomatoes have been grown in containers where the trace organics have been directly introduced as pure substances, and in a second experiment under the same growth conditions, sewage sludge has replaced the pure substances. Transfer of these trace organics has been followed into the various parts of the tomato plant and in general only the DEHP is worthy of note although its percentage transfer remains very low even in an experiment designed to maximize this.

  10. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to environmental change in Jiangsu coastal plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of coastal vulnerability to future environmental change has been emphasized in coastal nations or regions. The Jiangsu coastal plain, located to the north of the Yangtze River Delta in China, is most vulnerable to sea level rise and exacerbating coastal hazards. This paper develops the method of delimiting vulnerable scope and assessing coastal vulnerability through field observations and sampling and by applying remote sensing and GIS, which are suitable for great river delta and coastal plains with large area, relative complex micro-geomorphology and the protection of seawall. Applying this method, the coastal vulnerability of the Jiangsu coastal plain to relative sea level rise (approximately 50 cm up to the year 2050) and exacerbating storm surges have been assessed. The results show that, up to the year 2050, the Jiangsu coastal plain will probably lose 12.8 % of tidal flats (about 5.8′104 hm2) and 7.9 % of cultivated land (about 7.2′104 hm2). Meanwhile, 2.0 % of population, 3.8 % of original value of fixed assets, 3.2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 40.3 % of salt industry and 5.8 % of aquiculture respectively will be affected due to coastal environmental change.

  11. Ecological Profit and Loss Analysis of Tidal Flat Reclamation——Tidal Flat Reclamation of Tiaozini Sand as a Case Study%滩涂围垦养殖的生态损益分析——以江苏条子泥滩涂围垦养殖为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 徐敏; 张益民

    2012-01-01

    Reclamation and pond aquaculture is one of the main modes of tidal flat development, and showing a trend of large - scale factory aquiculture. The paper takes Tiaozini Sand reclamation in Jiangsu Province as an example, changes of the ecological service value and ecological profit and loss before and after reclamation are studied, by methods of economic evaluation and ecological emergy. By economic evaluation method and emergy method calculation, the ecological service value of Tiaozini natural wetland is 1. 28 × 104 yuan/hm2 · a and 1. 49 × 10 yuan/hm o a calculated respectively. The ecological service value of Tiaozini Sand is mainly embodied in the aspects of food supply and habitat services. The total ecological service value has no great difference before and after reclamation, is mainly due to great increase in aquiculture production and food supply service value increases significantly after reclamation, while the water purification, gas regulation, habitat and other ecological services value decrease significantly. The evaluation result of the paper provides a basis for scale selection and ecological compensation of Tiaozini Sand reclamation. The methods of analysis could be applied in rationality assessment of reclamation scale and ecological profit and loss, and determination of ecological compensation and construction measures.%围垦养殖是滩涂开发的主要方式之一,并呈现出大规模工厂化的趋势.本文以江苏省条子泥围垦养殖为例,采用经济价值评估法和能值法,研究围垦工程实施前后的生态服务价值变化和生态损益.根据经济价值评估方法和能值法计算出的条子泥天然湿地的生态服务价值分别为1.28×104元/公顷年和1.49×104元/公顷年,条子泥滩涂的生态服务价值主要体现在食品提供和栖息地服务两个方面.围垦后总的生态服务价值较围垦前相差不大,主要由于围垦后养殖产量大幅增加,食品提供生态服务价值明

  12. Etiologic investigation of "mad rush malady" of European eel%欧洲鳗鲡"狂奔病"的病因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温彩霞; 林宗宇

    2001-01-01

    利用组织病理、微生物、血液电解质、寄生虫检查方法对欧鳗"狂奔病"进行分析,发现无论是淡水养殖还是海水网箱养殖,病鳗的组织病理变化基本一致,鳃、肠破坏较为明显,肝、脾、肾、心均有不同程度的充血.从微生物学的分析来看,病毒的检出率并不高,形态也不一致,细菌和寄生虫的感染多样化.病鳗的血液电解质检查结果较为一致,主要以氯离子降低为主,下降幅度在30%~50%之间.由此认为本病不象是病毒、细菌和寄生虫所致.%Using the methods of tissue pathology, microorganism , blood electrolyte assay and parasite examination the etiology of "mad rush malady" of European eel was investigated. It has been found that the general pathological changes were remarkable destructions of branchia and bowels and the congestion of liver, spleen, kidney and heart regardless of fresh water or seawater aquiculture in net box. There were different kinds of infections such as bacterial , virus or parasite in different individuals. Moreover the decrease of chlorine ion concentration by 30 % ~50 % was observed in different individuals. Thus it is considered that the "mad rush malady" of European eel should not be caused from virus, bacteria or parasite.

  13. Arsenic methylation by an arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Xue, Ximei; Yan, Yu; Zhu, Yongguan; Yang, Guidi; Ye, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic-contaminated water is a serious hazard for human health. Plankton plays a critical role in the fate and toxicity of arsenic in water by accumulation and biotransformation. Spirulina platensis (S. platensis), a typical plankton, is often used as a supplement or feed for pharmacy and aquiculture, and may introduce arsenic into the food chain, resulting in a risk to human health. However, there are few studies about how S. platensis biotransforms arsenic. In this study, we investigated arsenic biotransformation by S. platensis. When exposed to arsenite (As(III)), S. platensis accumulated arsenic up to 4.1mg/kg dry weight. After exposure to As(III), arsenate (As(V)) was the predominant species making up 64% to 86% of the total arsenic. Monomethylarsenate (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsenate (DMA(V)) were also detected. An arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase from S. platensis (SpArsM) was identified and characterized. SpArsM showed low identity with other reported ArsM enzymes. The Escherichia coli AW3110 bearing SparsM gene resulted in As(III) methylation and conferring resistance to As(III). The in vitro assay showed that SpArsM exhibited As(III) methylation activity. DMA(V) and a small amount of MMA(V) were detected in the reaction system within 0.5hr. A truncated SpArsM derivative lacking the last 34 residues still had the ability to methylate As(III). The three single mutants of SpArsM (C59S, C186S, and C238S) abolished the capability of As(III) methylation, suggesting the three cysteine residues are involved in catalysis. We propose that SpArsM is responsible for As methylation and detoxification of As(III) and may contribute to As biogeochemistry.

  14. Combined Process of Slope Constructed Wetland and Aquatic Plant Pond for Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater%边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术处理水产养殖排水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀正; 章星异; 陈卫兵; 叶剑峰

    2011-01-01

    针对上海松江五厍农业园区水产养殖污染问题,提出以边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术进行处理.集成技术示范工程的实际运行结果表明:该技术对水产养殖污染物的削减行之有效,每年COD、TN、TP的减排强度分别达到896、35.2、10.9 kg/hm2,初步解决了园区水产养殖排水污染问题.同时,水生植物塘中生长的浮萍可以用作水产养殖饲料,符合现代水产养殖的发展趋势.%In order to solve the aquaculture pollution problem in Wushe agricultural park in Songjiang district of Shanghai, the combined process of slope constructed wetland and aquatic plant pond was proposed to treat the aquaculture wastewater. The actual operation results of the demonstration project show that the combined process can effectively reduce aquaculture pollutants. The annual reduction quantities of COD, TN and TP are 896 kg/hm2., 35. 2 kg/hm2 and 10. 9 kg/hm2 respectively. The aquaculture pollution problem is preliminarily solved. The duckweeds grown in the aquatic plant pond can be used as aquaculture feed, which is accord with the development trend of the modern aquiculture.

  15. Super Audio Induction Heating Power in the Application of Aquatic Breeding%超音频感应加热电源在水产养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文江; 陈刚; 万卜源; 刘南

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional aquiculture heat boiler (coal,fuel or electricity) heating devicehas high in energy consumption,low power, pollution serious,and operation cost higher etc shortcomings, a kind of electromagnetic induction based on the principle of super audio induction heating device was put forward. With high speed digital sig-nal processor TMS320F2812DSP as control core,finished design of frequency tracking digital phase lock loop (DPLL), the fuzzy PID control method to real-time dynamic adjustment of temperature,and realized the precise control of the water supply system digital constant temperature. The prototype test show that the device has fast heating speed,high precision,high efficiency,energy saving and environmental protection.%  针对水产养殖传统加温采用锅炉(燃煤、燃油或用电)加热装置能耗高、功率低、污染严重、运行费用高等缺点,设计一款以电磁感应原理为基础的超音频感应加热装置。该装置以高速数字信号处理器TMS320F2812DSP为控制核心,完成了频率跟踪的数字锁相环(DPLL)设计,采用模糊PID控制方法对温度进行实时动态调整,实现了高精度数字化控制的恒温供水系统。样机试验表明,该装置加热速度快,精度高,效率高,节能环保。

  16. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  17. 浒苔生物抗藻剂的研究和应用进展%On the Research and Application Progress of Bio-Algicide from Enteromorpha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 马栋; 单俊伟

    2016-01-01

    富营养化是指氮、磷等营养物质大量进入流动缓慢的水体,引起藻类及其他浮游生物大量繁殖和生长,使水中溶解氧含量迅速下降,最终导致鱼类和其他水生生物死亡。近年来,沿海赤潮频发,对海洋生态环境和水产养殖带来不利影响,如何有效地控制赤潮的发生已成为当前研究的热点之一。文章简要介绍水体富营养化的现状,包括引起水体富营养化的原因、富营养化防治措施,引出利用浒苔化感物质即浒苔生物抗藻剂进行生物防治赤潮的想法,治标治本,且不会对环境造成污染,为浒苔资源化利用及赤潮防治开辟新的方向。%Eutrophication is the phenomenon that large amount of nitrogen,phosphorus and other nutrient enter into the slowly flowing water,which causes algae and other plankton to propagate and grow,and makes the dissolved oxygen content in water drops rapidly,eventually leads to the death of fish and other aquatic organisms.In recent years,red tide has occurred frequently and have brought negative impact on marine environment and aquiculture.It has become one of hot spots of research on how to effectively control the red tide.This paper briefly introduced the sta-tus of eutrophication,including the causes,the prevention and control measures,and led to the use of enteromorpha allelopathy to control the red tide with a foundation solution,which is pollution-free for environment.It had opened up a new direction of enteromorpha resource utilization and the prevention and control of red tide.

  18. Application of Microorganisms in the Degradation of Polluted Chemicals in Aquatic Environments%微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕; 蔡俊鹏

    2008-01-01

    Every year, waters on earth receive large quantities of wastewater from industry, agriculture, fish and poultry raising, and municipal sewage treatment plants. Consequently, the aquatic environment on the earth is under a serious challenge from a very large quantity of pollutants such as antibiotics, insecticides, herbicides, hydrocarbons, etc., contained in the domestic wastewater, industrial and agricultural waste water and illegal effluents. In particular, with the development of intensive aquiculture and poultry, the effluent pollution has recently become more and more serious with more attentions. Furthermore more and more chemical pollutants discharged into aquatic environment have been detected with the advancement of analytical techniques. These chemicals can cause toxic effects on water habitats after discharged into aquatic environment. However, microorganisms have many key functions in pollution control. In this review, applications of microorganism in the degradation of chemicals in aquatic environments are reviewed. It was concluded that most applications of microorganisms degrading chemicals focused on aquaculture waters, whereas other aquatic systems (such as river, lake, sea, coastal waters) have been scarcely studied.%每年有大量来自工业、农业、养殖业和城市污水处理厂的废水被排入到水环境中,因此,地球上的水环境面临大量来自生活废水、工农业废水、非法排放的废水及其它废水的污染物质(如抗生素、杀虫剂,除草剂、烃等)的严重挑战,特别是近年来随着集约化养殖的发展,废水污染问题日益突出,并且随着分析手段的进步,能够检测到被排入水环境中的化学污染物质也越来越多,这些化学污染物对水环境中的生物产生有害影响.但是,微生物在污染控制上具有许多重要的作用.因此,本文对微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用进行了评论.结果表明微生物主要是应用

  19. 中国大陆海岸线近30 a的时空变化分析%The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of the continental coastlines of China in recent three decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高义; 王辉; 苏奋振; 刘桂梅

    2013-01-01

    基于遥感和地理信息系统的方法与技术,以1980、1990、2000和2010年4个时期为特征年,对近30年来我国大陆海岸线时空变化特征进行了分析研究。结果显示:(1)海岸类型转化显著,人工岸线所占比例由1980年的24.6%上升到2010年的56.1%;(2)海岸线变化呈现显著区域特征,变化较剧烈的区域集中在珠江口岸段、长江口-杭州湾岸段、海州湾-吕四段、滦河口-潍河口段及辽河口-葫芦岛港段;(3)3个时期相比,海岸开发由早期的围垦养殖向后期的城镇建设和海洋运输开发方式转变,并且这种转换方式在南方早于北方。%This paper is mainly focused on the continental coastline changes of China in the span of 1980-2010 . Remote sensing images of Landsat MSS ,TM and ETM+in the year of 1980 ,1990 ,2000 and 2010 are processed to extract coastlines and land use in the gap of coastline changes .Based on the technology of RS and GIS ,the spa-tial and temporal changes of coastline are analyzed ,the result show that :(1) the coastline type changes significant-ly ,the length of artificial coastline in 1980 ,1990 ,2000 ,and 2010 occupies 24% ,39.3% ,49.4% and 56.1% ,re-spectively ;(2) the coastline change shows a significant regional characteristic ,coastline changed significantly in the coast segment of the Zhujiang Estuary ,the Changjiang Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay ,the Lvsi Port to the Haizhou Bay ,the Weihe to the Luan Estuaries and the Liaohe Estuary to the Huludao Port ;(3) comparing the three sub periods of the research span ,a coastal reclamation is mainly focuses on an urban construction and a maritime trans-port in the later period while focuses on aquiculture in the earlier period ;from the north to the south ,the changes of continental coastline of China show significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity .

  20. 臭氧对斜带石斑鱼胚胎发育和初孵仔鱼的毒性效应%The toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic development and post-embryonic larvae of Epinephelus coioide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦滨; 钟声平; 张钰霆; 郭书林; 陈信忠; 毛勇; 苏永全; 王军

    2014-01-01

    Epinephelus coioide is one of the most important seawater fish that cultured in China. In recent years, with the breakthrough of grouper artificial seedling rearing, the farming scale of grouper has expanded rapidly, and the gross of cultured grouper reached 59 534 tons in 2011. The effective prevention and control of virus, vibrio, and the effective treatment for harmful water quality factors is the key link in grouper artificial seedling rearing. In traditional pond farming mode, strong oxidizers, such as chloride, iodine and potassium permanganate, have played a significant role in disease prevention and water treatment. In recent years, flatfish industrial farming system, as a mature mode, has been driving the technology intergration of grouper recirculating aquiculture system. The solid oxidants mentioned above were greatly limited in the advanced farming mode, while ozone, a kind of gas disinfectant, not only can remove toxic substance such as nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia nitrogen and killed pathogenic bacteria effectively, but also will not cause secondary pollution, has been widely applied in water treatment of recirculating aquiculture system in the European Union, the United States, Japan and other developed countries. Although the efficiency and stability of ozone disinfection was widely recognized, its security, especially its toxic effects on the cultured livestock, cannot be ignored. In order to evaluate the ozone disinfection and the potential toxicity of ozone to E. coioide, the efficiency of ozone at two kind of concentration (0.05 mg/L and 0.30 mg/L) on water treatment, such as removing vibrio and nitrite, was as-sessed. Furthermore, using the zygote of E. coioide as material, the toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic develop-ment and post-embryonic larvae were discussed. Our results demonstrated that the efficiency of ozone on water treat-ment was favorable, when the concentration of ozone reached 0.30 mg/L, the removal rate of nitrite

  1. Comprehensive Exploitation and Integrated Protection of Zhejiang Non-inhabitant Islands%浙江省无居民海岛综合开发保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋; 李冬玲; 李加林; 杨晓平

    2012-01-01

      无居民海岛是国家海洋领土的重要组成,在海域资源环境利用、监管和国家权益维护上具有重要的地位与作用。本文梳理了浙江无居民海岛开发利用现状与问题、国家与浙江对无居民海岛管理政策演进趋势,综合两者并从浙江海洋经济发展示范区建设视角,提出浙江省无居民海岛开发保护体系:①科学立法完善海岛综合开发保护法理准则;②科学规划规范海岛综合开发保护行动指南;③宣传推广引导海岛综合开发保护实践操作,以促进浙江无居民海岛可持续发展。%  Non-inhabitant islands (NInIs) are extremely valuable natural resources and have special ecological value. They are important parts of a nation’s territory, significant for sea environment supervision and nation’s welfare. Exploitation suitability is a basic work and precondition of reasonable development and utilization for NInIs.After the promulgation and implementation of the "Island Protection Law", island protection will get more attention. This paper analyses the conservation status and the effects of various forms of protection for the NInIs in Zhejiang Province. It shows utilization for NInIs in Zhejiang remains at a fairly low level. (1) The level of exploitation for NInIs closer to the mainland or big islands, like Zhoushan Island, for example, is relatively higher than small and distant islands. Islands far away from the continent and larger islands are only used for building lighthouse beacon and lighthouse or other relatively simple utilization. Most distant islands still maintain their original status. According to the survey, 300 NI-nIs are exploited at different levels in Zhoushan and Ningbo. It accounts for 11.37% of the total number (2639) of all NInIs. Currently, five marine protected areas have been established in Zhoushan and Ningbo; (2) NInIs may be used for bridges construction for land connecting, aquiculturing

  2. Rendimento da Atriplex nummularia irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia em rejeito da dessalinização de água Behavior of saltbush (Atriplex nummularia irrigated with effluents from tilapia raised in brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo R. Porto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência no rendimento da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia e em algumas características do solo, quando irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia (Oreochromis sp. em rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal foi irrigada durante um ano com quatro volumes de efluentes na Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE, cuja salinidade média foi, de 8,29 dS m-1. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4 correspondem, respectivamente, aos volumes de efluentes aplicados semanalmente, de 75, 150, 225 e 300 L planta-1 . A salinidade média do solo na profundidade 0 - 90 cm foi de 0,40 dS m-1, antes de serem iniciadas as irrigações. Após a colheita, respectivamente para os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, as salinidades médias dos perfis de solo na mesma profundidade (0 - 90 cm foram de 8,02, 6,09, 4,97 e 4,60 dS m-1 e os rendimentos de matéria seca da erva-sal, de 9,75, 12,26, 14,49 e 13,81 t ha-1. O maior rendimento de matéria seca por litro de efluente aplicado foi para o tratamento T1, com 4,84 g L-1 que apresentou, também, a melhor relação entrada/saída de sal, removendo 13,84% do total de sal incorporado ao solo.Looking forward to reduce environmental impacts resulting from desalinization of brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year with four different volumes of aquiculture effluent generated from an intensive tilapia (Oreochromis sp raising system, with a mean salinity of 8.29 dS m-1, in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. A completely randomized block design, with four treatments and three replications was used. The treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponded, respectively, to the weekly volumes of irrigation of 75, 150, 225 and 300 L of water per plant. The mean soil salinity of the

  3. Application of Ecological Carbon Fiber Filler in Treatment of Intensive Aquaculture Wastewater%生态碳纤维填料用于集约型水产养殖废水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌莉莎; 海热提

    2012-01-01

    随着水产养殖逐步从粗放型向集约型养殖发展,水产养殖废水对水环境污染日益加剧.为实现废水循环利用,采用生态碳纤维材料作为接触氧化池内填料处理集约型水产养殖废水,进行中试研究.通过改变曝气强度和水力停留时间(HRT)参数,确定对接触氧化池处理效果及运行特性的影响.试验结果表明:生态碳纤维填料具有易挂膜的优点,接触氧化池内用实际水产养殖废水接种活性污泥,24h后填料表面附有棕褐色的生物膜,池内水体清澈透明.曝气强度和HRT是影响接触氧化池处理效果的重要因素.在DO为3mg几,pH在7~8.5左右,HRT为10h时,COD、NH4+-N、TP、浊度去除率分别为80%、60%、30%和80%左右.NO2 -N、NO3-N浓度分别低于0.1 mg/L和0.5 mg/L,经过接触氧化池处理后的水进入消毒池,出水用于养鱼实现废水循环利用.%As the aquaculture gradually develops from extensive to intensive farming, the effluent water from aquaculture is polluting environment increasingly. To achieve wastewater recycling, pilot study was done by using ecological carbon fiber as contact oxidation filler to treat aquaculture effluent. The treatment effect and operational characteristics on the contact oxidation tank mainly depend on aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time. Results showed that ecological carbon fiber only need 24 h to produce biological membrane on its surface showing clear effluent under the practical aquatic wastewater vaccinating activated sludge. With condition of DO 3 mg/L, pH range 7-8.5 and HRT 10 h, removal rate of COD, NH4+-N, TP and turbidity were 80%, 60%, 30% and 80% respectively. The effluent with concentration of NO2--N and NO3"-N less than 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively through the treatment of contact oxidation process can be used for aquiculture achieving wastewater recycling.

  4. 一种新型贻贝抗菌肽的分离纯化及鉴定%A NOVEL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE IDENTIFIED FROM MYTILUS CORUSCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬敬; 刘慧慧; 周世权; 王信超; 范美华; 申望; 廖智

    2014-01-01

    The researches on antibacterial peptides from Mytilus coruscus, an important mytilus on aquiculture, have significant value that helping people to understand the mechanism of innate immune system of this mussel. By using multi-dimensional reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a novel antimicrobial peptide was isolated from Mytilus coruscus serum. The mass and the N-terminal sequence of this peptide were analyzed by a combination of Mass Spectrometry and Edman degradation. This peptide consisted 55 amino acids and had a 6621.55 D with 6 Cysteines presented in its sequence forming 3 disulfide bonds. A chitin-biding domain was detected by domain analysis and the peptide was named mytichitin-A therefore. The mRNA transcripts of mytichitin-A were mainly detected in gonad, which indicated that mytichitin-A were specifically synthesized and stored in genital system. The expression level of mytichitin-A in gonad was up-regulated and reached to the highest level at 12h after bacterial challenge, which was 9-fold increase compared to that of the control group. These results indicated that mytichitin-A was involved in the host immune response against bacterial infection and might contribute to the clearance of invading bacteria.%厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)广泛分布于我国东部海域,其体内富含各种抗菌肽分子,是研究软体动物免疫防御机制以及开发抗菌肽来源的新型生物抗生素的重要对象。采用多步反相高效液相色谱对厚壳贻贝血清进行分离纯化,获得一种分子量为6261.55 D的具有抗菌活性的多肽成分;经多肽N端测序和基因克隆,结果表明该抗菌肽由55个氨基酸残基构成,含6个半胱氨酸并形成三对二硫键。结构域分析表明该抗菌肽具有几丁质结合结构域(Chitin-biding domain),因此将该抗菌肽命名为mytichitin-A。Mytichitin-A对革兰氏阳性菌具有较强的抑制作用,同时对真菌及革兰氏阴性菌

  5. Fitness evaluation of the land use forms in Hailing Island in 2008%2008年海陵岛土地利用类型适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国霞; 张杰; 马毅; 李晓敏; 包玉海

    2012-01-01

    Island refers to the naturally formed land areas above the sea surface during high tide and surrounded by seawater. The island land resources include island land and intertidal zone. China is a large country with a large number of islands, but the management of the islands is left behind. With the development of exploitation of the islands, land resources protection and management of the islands becomes more and more important. Land fitness evaluation is the basis and core of overall land use planning. The purpose of the fitness evaluation of the use of island land resources is to support island protection and management, and achieve sustainable use of island land resources. In this paper, Hailing Island was taken as the study area, and 2003 SPOT-5 and 2008 aviation images as the data source. Based on the knowledge of land use layout and site selection experiences, the land use forms of Hailing Island in 2003 were used as samples, soil type, elevation, grade and aspect of slope, distance to the shore and traffic condition which have the greatest impact on land use were selected as the evaluation factors, and the raster data spatial overlay analysis method was used to determine the fitness of different land use forms according to the combining frequency of the land use form and the evaluation factors, and work out the suitable weight of every evaluation factor, then the integrated fitness of the land use in 2008 of Hailing Island for all the evaluation factors was obtained with weighted summation method and graded. The results show that the very appropriate land use form of the Hailing Island in 2008 accounts for 41% of the total area, and medium fitness for 28%. The main forms of the land-use are forest lands, distributed at hills such as the Mawei Mountain, which are mainly influenced by the elevation and soil type. The general fitness accounts for 20%, which are mainly aquiculture waters, distributed in the gulf not far away from the shore, and mainly influenced

  6. 基于“压力-响应”机制的江苏省农业面源污染源解析及其空间特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Origin of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangsu Province Based on Pressure-response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆尤尤; 胡清宇; 段华平; 卞新民

    2012-01-01

    pollutants in different regions of Jiangsu Province were in the order north region > center region > south region. The mean value of comprehensive water quality index (CWQI) of Jiangsu Province is 2.10, reaching the moderate pollution level. As for the different cities in Jiangsu Province, the comprehensive water quality index of Xuzhou, Suqian, and Lianyungang all reached serious pollution level; for Huaian, Yancheng, and Taizhou, the comprehensive water quality index reached moderate pollution level; and for Nantong and Yangzhou, it was light pollution. In contrast, Nanjing arrived at the state of alert. Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou and Zhenjiang were in a safe state. The main pollutants were TN and TP with the contribution of 54.71% and 38.86%, respectively. The main pollution sources were chemical fertilizer, livestock and poultry breeding, human excrement and urine, aquiculture, with the contribution of 30.75%, 24.94%, 16.85% and 15.28%, respectively. The main influence factor was the total output value of agriculture. The results of cluster analysis on the coefficients of "pressure-response" system showed that the pressure consisted with the response.