WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquiculture

  1. DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN YANTAI SISHILI BAY AQUICULTURE WATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) at 12 stations in Yantai Sishili Bay in May, August, and November of 1997 and March and May of 1998 showed that DOC concentrations varied from 1.14 mg/L to 5.35 mg/L; that the average values at all stations in each cruise varied from 1.52 mg/L to 2.12 mg/L; that POC concentrations varied from 0.049 mg/L to 1.411 mg/L; and averaged 0.159 mg/L to 0.631 mg/L in each cruise. Horizontal distribution of DOC was influenced by factors such as continental input, organism activity, temperature, aquiculture environment, etc. The higher POC concentration occurred along the coast. The vertical distribution of DOC and POC changed obviously in spring and summer, but not obviously in autumn and winter. DOC concentration was highest in summer and POC in spring; both were lowest in winter. The seasonal change of DOC was consistent with primary productivity seasonal variation, and that of POC was consistent with chlorophyll-a seasonal variation. The seasonal change trend of the C/N ratio of dissolved organic matter was obvious, but the C/N ratio of particulate organic matter had no such trend.

  2. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  3. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples. PMID:27529262

  4. 我国水产养殖政策性保险探析%Analysis of Policy Insurances for Aquiculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方方; 杨正勇; 任爱景; 黄书培

    2011-01-01

    Developing aquiculture insurances benefit to reduce the influences of disaster on production and life of culturist, benefit to insure the income of fishers and keep the stabilication of society.Based on analycing the conflict that between high risk of aquiculture and profit-pursuing of commercial insurance company, the developmental situation of fresh water aquicalture insurance in Shanghai and the pilot situation of policy mutual insurance in Zhejiang were summarized.Then, the problems existing in development of aquiculture policy insurance in China mainly were lacking legal guarantee, government leading, talents and techniques.In the end, some suggestions were proposed that in macroscopical aspect, government should accelerate lawmaking; in microcosmic aspect, insurance company should adopt measures to control adverse selection and moral risk.%发展水产养殖保险有利于减少灾害对养殖者生产、生活的影响,有利于保障渔民收入,维持社会稳定.在分析水产养殖业高风险性与商业保险公司逐利性的矛盾的基础上,总结了上海淡水养殖保险发展情况及山东、浙江政策性互助保险试点情况,指出目前我国水产养殖政策性保险发展存在的问题主要是缺乏法律保障、政府主导、人才技术等.提出在宏观层面政府加快立法、微观层面保险公司采取措施控制逆向选择和道德风险等建议.

  5. Environmental Information Monitoring System of Aquiculture Based on Intelligent Sensor Network and Fuzzy-PID%基于智能传感网和模糊PID的水产养殖监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新荣; 徐保国

    2012-01-01

    鉴于目前国内水产养殖现代化监控系统的实际应用需求,提出一种基于CC2430和模糊PID控制策略的水产养殖环境监控系统.该系统采用CC2430为核心开发无线传感器节点,通过带有高精度温湿度传感器的数据采集终端采集环境数据,完成养殖环境中的溶解氧、温度、pH值等参数实时监测,各节点间通信遵循ZigBee协议,采用ZigBee技术实现无线传感器网络自组网和监控数据自动汇聚,应用模糊PID控制算法对偏差进行处理,实现参数的精确调节,采用嵌入式数据库管理模式实现终端节点和数据管理及预警等功能.试验结果表明该系统的实用性和高效性,解决了养殖池内的复杂布线问题,适于环境参数的自动监测,可推广应用.%A kind of aquiculture environmental factors monitoring system based on CC2430 and fuzzy-PID was designed aiming at the actuality that aquiculture monitoring system was exactly need modern technology in our country. The system used CC2430 as the core to develop wireless sensor nodes which follow the ZigBee communication protocol, used the data collection terminal with high-precision sensor to collect data of the environment,such as temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH.used ZigBee technology to achieve networking of wireless sensors and the automatic aquiculture of monitoring data,and used the fuzzy PID control algorithm to improve the accuracy of test data. The management function of various sensor nodes and a large number of environmental data was achieved based on embedded database. Experimental result indicates that the system is stable,high reliable in data transmission and easy to use,and can be widely used in various areas of automatic monitoring of environmental parameters. So it is suitable for application.

  6. Aquiculture remote monitoring system based on IOT Android platform%基于物联网Android平台的水产养殖远程监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 刘星桥; 李景; 陆晓嵩; 宦娟

    2013-01-01

    the TXT file is saved (such as year-month-data-hour-minute-second) in order to avoid the problem of having the file overwritten by a file with the same name file. Therefore, the user needs not designate the name of the saving TXT file. To the Android application, many control nodes can be controlled remotely. The system adopts CC2430 as the underlying management chip. Temperature measurement accuracy of the system can reach 0.5℃. In addition, pH measurement accuracy of the system can reach 0.3. A good control algorithm can achieve good control precision. In our system, in order to obtain more control precision, an intelligent fuzzy PID control algorithm is applied in the remote MCU control system. Dissolved oxygen is a very important parameter in aquiculture. In the system dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L. Moreover, the SOKCET communication is designed in an independent thread to the system. Thus, the reaction of the control system is very sensitive. The function of the system is not limited by time, regional, and climate conditions. The interface of the application is designed in the Android Mobile phone, so the user can handle the application flexibly and conveniently, and the user can browse data from the mobile phone, send remote control commands, and control the bottom water, pump water supply pump, and aerator in any location with an Internet connection. The IP address is exported into a SQLite database, so the IP data can be obtained automatically from the database by the system after the application is started, and it does not need input from the user repeatedly. Many mobile phone clients of the system can share a single server. Thus, the system has a very high price-performance ratio. After practical testing of the system in the Changdang Lake experiment area in Liyang, Jiangsu province, the indicators have reached the requirements, and the control effect of the system is very good. The system has the advantages of

  7. Design on Monitoring System of Aquiculture with Enviromnental Factors Based on WSN%基于WSN的水产养殖环境参数监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新荣; 徐保国; 边雪芬

    2011-01-01

    针对国内水产养殖技术的自动化水平较低,以及同类监测产品价格较高的现状,提出一种基于无线传感器网络(WSN)的水产养殖环境参数智能监测系统.通过在监测区域部署网络节点,以微处理器为核心控制单元的无线传感器网络实时采集水体温度.溶氧量浓度和pH值等环境数据,并进行处理,将其发送到接收终端,由中央监测计算机对数据进行存储和显示,实时监测养殖环境参数变化.将其应用于实际的养殖现场,试点结果显示,该系统性能稳定,数据传输可靠性高,使用灵活,性价比高,监控准确,增产明显.%To solve the problems such as low automation technology and high price of monitoring system in aquiculture of our country, a kind of environmental factors intelligent monitoring system based on WSN was designed. By placing network nodes in monitoring area, the collection part based on single chip microcomputer digitalized the signal from the sensor of temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, and sent it out using wireless digital transmission technology. At the reception part, the data is received, saved and displayed by central monitoring computer. Thus environmental factors of the aquieulture was monitored in real time. The system was applied in practical aquiculture field. Experimental result indicates that the system is quite reliable and suitable, provides a practicable measures, and is high in theratio of performance to price. It can achieve to monitoring perfectly and improve productivity remarkably.

  8. 水产养殖物联网监控系统的设计%The Design of Aquiculture Water Quality Monitoring and Control System Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜炎城; 陈威; 曹佃国

    2013-01-01

    针对蓝色经济区水产养殖粗放式管理现状,设计了新型水产养殖物联网监控系统。该系统的传感器节点负责水质数据采集功能,并通过Zigbee无线传感器网络将数据发送给汇聚节点,汇聚节点通过GPRS模块接入Internet网络,将数据传送至远程监控中心。同时监控中心设置的各项参数通过Internet和汇聚节点传到采用PIC单片机的控制节点,实现水质的自动控制。监测中心软件采用C++ Builder开发,为用户提供形象直观的实时数据监测平台。经过在日照市某水产养殖基地的试用,系统性能满足水产养殖水质监控的应用要求。%A new water quality monitoring and control system based on internet of things is designed in order to change the current situation of traditional extensive management in aquiculture. The proposed system uses sensor nodes to acquire data of water temperature, pH value, and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sink nodes are used to collect data from the sensor nodes through a wireless sensor network. A remote monitoring and control center is responsible to process data downloaded from the sink nodes through GPRS and internet. The control nodes are responsible to operate actuators exactly according to the operation instructions from the center. The monitoring and control software, which is compiled using C++ builder, can provide users with a real-time data monitoring and control platform with visual images. This system is operating in a aquiculture base in Rizhao. The results demonstrate that the system features higher acquisition frequency, smaller size, lower cost, and good flexibility, and can implement real-time monitoring and control of water quality parameters in a wide range of water types.

  9. Design on Automatic Monitoring System of Aquiculture Environmental Factors Based on AT89C51%基于AT89C51水产养殖环境参数自动监测系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琦; 储春华; 翁绍捷

    2012-01-01

    针对水产养殖中溶解氧、pH值、温度等重要水质参数的监测,采用PC机为上位机,AT89C51微控制器为下位机,设计了一种水产养殖环境参数自动监测系统。该系统实现了对溶解氧、pH值、温度的实时采集、显示和存储,同时还提供了超限报警、历史数据查询等功能。试验结果表明,系统运行稳定、能够准确地采集和显示水产养殖环境参数,且具有操作简便、界面友好、性价比高和易扩展等优点。%Aimed at the monitoring of the important water quality factors such as dissolved oxygen,pH value and temperature in aquiculture,an environmental factors automatic monitoring system was designed,with a personal computer used as upper subsystem and Microprocessor AT89C51 as lower subsystem.The system can realize the real-time data acquisition of dissolved oxygen,pH value and temperature as well as data display and storage,and also provide the off-gauge alarm,historical data inquire etc.The test results proved that this system was stable,and environmental factors of the aquiculture could be accurately measured and displayed,wit the advantages of simple operation,friendly interface,a good ratio of performance to price and easy expandability.

  10. ARCHETYPES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEMS FOR TREATMENT OF AQUICULTURE EFFLUENT = PROTÓTIPOS DE SISTEMAS CONSTRUÍDOS DE ÁREAS ALAGADAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTES DE PISCICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naves Domingos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture is an activity that finishes causing eutrofization them water bodies in which its effluent one is launched, decurrent of the nutrition and prophylaxes used in its reservoirs. The components that cause greater problems are those that contain nitrogen and phosphorus. The management used in the aquiculture must be guided in such way to prevent the eutrofization and to provide treatment of effluent and water reuse. Constructed wetland system (CWS’s has been efficient for treatment of waters, effluent and domestic and industrial sewer, being pertinent so that physical, chemical and biological processes occur similar as they happen in natural ecosystems. Initially some archetypes of CWS’s had been simulated, in laboratory scale, using 46 L reservoirs, with aeration system, being vegetated with a polyculture of aquatic macrophytes, for effluent treatment of tanks of Tilapia of the Nile creation. The analyzed types of support matrix had been: soil of cerrado area; soil plus brick fragments (1:1 (aggregate; soil plus brick fragments (3:1; and brick fragments. The results had demonstrated that CWS’s contend soil plus aggregate was efficient to treat the effluent one used in this study. After the stabilization of CWS’s, better efficiencies had been observed in the system only contend brick fragments or only soil, depending on the analyzed parameter. = A piscicultura é uma atividade que acarreta o processo de eutrofização nos corpos de água nos quais seu efluente é lançado, decorrente da nutrição e profilaxias utilizadas em seus tanques de criação. Os compostos que contribuem para o processo de eutrofização são aqueles que contêm nutrientes, como nitrogênio e fósforo. Os manejos utilizados na piscicultura devem ser orientados de tal modo a se evitar o processo de eutrofização, e contemplar tratamentos dos efluentes. Sistemas construídos de áreas alagadas Cosntructed Wetland System - CWS’s têm mostrado efici

  11. Study on Calculation Model of Carbon Emission in Low-Carbon Aquiculture--the Empirical Analysis with Farms%建立水产养殖碳排量计算模型--以养殖场进行实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桥驿; 杨宁生

    2013-01-01

      21世纪召开的哥本哈根会议敲响了人类关注环境问题的警钟,面对越来越严重的环境问题,各行业经济发展和社会活动的节能减排势在必行。碳汇渔业作为具有明显碳减排效用的产业,更应该大力的推行和发展。提出了水产养殖碳排量计算模型的问卷设计思路以及研究方法,具体分析了碳汇渔业与低碳渔业技术对于碳减排的重要作用和意义,通过借鉴其他行业的碳排量计算模型建立的经验和方法,设计并建立了水产养殖碳排量计算模型,利用回收的养殖场低碳问卷的相关数据,计算了各个养殖场的碳排量和投入产出比等相关数据,最后通过对数据的对比分析,得出了问卷养殖场的单位经济产出碳排量与投入产出比不是直线相关关系的结果,并对原因进行了分析。%The Copenhagen conference held in 21st century has sounded the alarm for human environmental concerns, and various sectors of economic development and social activities of energy conservation was imperative in the face of the increasingly serious environmental problems. The carbon sinks fisheries, with a significant carbon emission reduction effect, should be vigorously implemented and developed. This paper was about how to make a questionnaire of the computing model of carbon emission of aquiculture and propose its research method, analysis the significance and effects which the carbon skin fisheries and the low carbon fisheries technology do to reducing carbon emission, design and make a computing model of carbon emission of aquiculture through borrowing ideas from the experiences and the methods of computing model of carbon emission of other industries, calculate the relative data such as the carbon emission and the compare of investment and production by using the relative data which collective by those questionnaires. Then we make the conclusion what was carbon emissions per unit of

  12. Simultaneous determination of arsenic and mercury of sea-water aquiculture base environment medium by flow injection Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry%流动注射氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法同时测定海水养殖基地环境介质As和Hg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月芳; 曹军; 丁智; 仇东辉; 郝玉凤

    2012-01-01

    应用氢化物发生原子荧光光谱技术,同时测定海水养殖基地环境介质底泥、海水和水产品中微量As和Hg.研究了载流、KBH4浓度对As和Hg测定的影响.在最佳实验操作条件下,As和Hg检出限分别为0.028 3 μg/L、0.017 4 μg/L.底泥中As和Hg的加标回收率分别为89.7%~ 112.6%和91.7% ~ 110.8%,相对标准偏差分别为2.7%~5.3%和2.2% ~4.3%;海水中As和Hg的加标回收率分别为90.2%~ 101.8%和90.0%~ 108.8%,相对标准偏差分别为3.1%~5.6%和2.1%~4.5%;水产品中As和Hg的加标回收率分别为89.6%~ 102.0%和89.2.0%~ 108.0%,相对标准偏差分别为2.6%~4.9%和1.7%~4.4%.%A systemic method for simultaneous determination of arsenic and mercury of sediment, seawater and fishery product in sea-water aquiculture base was developed by Hydride Generation-double channel Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry ( HG-AFS). Effects of flowing acid and concentration of KBH4 solution on the determination of As and Hg were studied and optimized. The detection limits were found to be 0. 028 3 μg/L and 0. 017 4 μg/L for As and Hg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of As and Hg. The values of RSD's ( n = 10) were in the ranges of 2. 7% -5.3%(As) and2.2% -4.3%(Hg) in sediments, 3.1% -5.6%(As) and 2.1% -4.5%(Hg) in seawater, 2.6% -4.9%(As) and 1.7% -4.4% (Hg) in fishery product, respectively. Result s of recovery test were found in the ranges of 89. 7% -112. 6% (As) and 91.7% -110.8% (Hg) in sediments, 90.2% -101. 8% (As) and 90.0% -108.8% (Hg) in seawater, 89.6% -102.0% (As) and 89. 2.0% -108.0% (Hg) in fishery product, respectively.

  13. DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN YANTAI SISHILI BAY AQUICULTURE WATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫红; 王江涛; 焦念志; 赵增霞

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) at 12 stations in Yantal Sishili Bay in May, August, and November of 1997 and March and May of 1998 showed that DOC concentrations varied from 1.14 mg/L to 5.35 mg/L; that the average values at all staticrLs ineach entise varied from 1.52 mg/L to 2.12 mg/L; that POC concentrafions varied from 0.049 mg/L to 1.411mg/L; and averaged 0.159 mg/L to 0.631 mg/L in each cruise. Horizontal distribution of DOC was influ-enced by factors such as continental input, organism activity, temperature, aquieulture environment, etc. The higher POC concentration occurred along the coast. The vertical distribution of DOC and POC changed obviously in spring and summer, but not obviously in autumn and winter. DOC concentration was highest in summer and POC in spring; both were lowest in winter. The seasonal change of DOC was con-sistent with primary productivity seasonal variation, and that of POC was consistent with ehlorophyll-a sea-sanal variation. The seasonal change trend of the C/N ratio of dissolved organic matter was obvious, but the C/N ratio of particulate organic matter had no such trend.

  14. Performance and ecological design of closed re-circulating aquiculture system%封闭循环水集约化养殖池塘的生态设计与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天乐; 杨晓姝; 唐文浩

    2011-01-01

    在分析传统池塘养殖和工厂化养殖生态系统结构与功能缺陷的基础上,运用生态补偿和环境补偿原理对传统养殖池塘的结构、功能与过程进行了生态设计,并在实际生产条件下对新型封闭循环水集约化水产养殖池塘进行了性能测试.结果表明,封闭循环水集约化水产养殖池塘的结构有利于垂直混合增氧、集污和引污,具有持续高效地分离污染物的净水功能,水环境稳定利于水产动物生长,长期运行并不造成硝态氮、氨氮等的积累,可不洗塘、不肥水、不换水、不排水,达到废水零排放,对于传统池塘养殖生产方式转变和产业可持续发展具有重大意义.%Based on the analysis of ecosystem structure and functional defects of the traditional ponds culture and factory farm,a ecological design for the traditional ponds 'structure, function and process by the principle of ecological and environment compensation, anda performance tnst in the new type closed re-circufating intensive aquaculture ponds under the conditions of actual production were done.The results showed that the structure of the new type ponds was aided the vertical structure of mixed aerobic,collecting and excluding sewage, and it hod the performance of the high continuous function to purify water and separate pollutants.The stability of water environment was good for the growth of the aquatic animals, and its long-term operation would not accumulate NO3 -N and NH4-N.The users didn't need to wash the ponds, fertilize,change and drain the water.So,the new type ponds could be zero discharge of wastewater ,and it might be significant to change the traditional modes in production in pond culture and good for the industrial sustainable development.

  15. 池塘循环水养殖模式构建及净化湿地面积配比%Modeling of recirculating water aquiculture system in pond and proportion of purification wetlands area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭刚; 陆全平; 郝忱; 刘伟杰; 严维辉; 唐建清; 童军

    2013-01-01

    建立了在池塘养殖中具有较好净化效果的净化湿地和养殖池的面积配比公式,构建了一种具有较高生产推广价值的池塘循环水生态养殖净化系统,系统由生态养殖区、湿地净化区、生态沟渠、尾水汇集区、净水汇集区、动力设备、潜流坝等组成,养殖尾水经过系统净化处理后可循环使用或达标排放.

  16. Environmental cost of pond aquiculture in Shanghai: an empirical analysis based on double-bounded dichotomous CVM method%上海池塘养殖环境成本——基于双边界二分式CVM法的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克勇; 杨正勇; 杨怀宇; 范晓赟

    2012-01-01

    池塘养殖具有食品供给、空气质量调节、文化服务等多重功能,但在其生产过程中也会产生环境成本.正确认识池塘养殖的正、负生态服务价值,对于避免养殖生产过程中存在的盲目和短视、保持水产养殖业本身的可持续发展、促进水产养殖经济与环境的和谐发展具有重要的现实意义.依据双边界二分式CVM法,通过随机抽样调查法获得当地居民对于环境污染时的受偿意愿(WTA)水平,利用STATA10.0软件定量核算了2010年上海环淀山湖地区的池塘养殖环境成本为1982.26万元/a,约合5105元·a-1·hm-2).研究表明,居民家庭收入、受教育程度、年龄等社会经济因素对居民的环境污染受偿意愿具有显著性的影响,但其具体的影响力大小和方向还有待进一步的探讨.研究同时表明,双边界二分式CVM法具有较强的稳定性,政府应综合考虑各种因素,制定并执行针对性、公平性的生态补偿政策.%At present, academics on the ecological services value research focus on the positive aspects, while the negative service values, such as environment cost, is received little attention. Pond aquaculture performs multiple functions, including aquatic products supply, air quality adjustment as well as culture service and so forth. As a kind of special ecological system, the pond aquaculture also has the environment cost in its production process. A clear cognition of the positive and negative ecological services values in pond aquaculture will be a great significance to avoid the blindness and short-term version in the process of production, keep the development of pond aquaculture sustainable and promote the development of aquaculture in harmony with the environment protection. This paper firstly adopts double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM) and random cluster sampling method to attain the local residents' willing to accept (WTA) , 354 questionnaires were sent out and 340 effective questionnaires were returned, the effective response rate was therefore 96. 05%. Then the paper adopt Logit and Biprobit regression models of econometrics and STATA10.0 software was utilized for analyzing the environment cost of pond aquaculture in the DianShan Lake, Shanghai. Through these methods adopted, the paper has summarized these results as following; 1) The ecological compensation E(WTA) standard of Shanghai residents for the environment pollution damage is 104. 89 RMB Yuan per person in Logit model and 121. 89 RMB Yuan per person in Biprobit model; 2) In 2010, the total pond aquaculture environment cost is about 19. 8226 millionYuan, namely 5105 RMB Yuan*a -hm ) ; 3) The latest research released that several economic social factors such as the income of the household, education background and age lay a great influences on residents' willingness to accept the ecological compensation, but these factors will cause no strict trend influences on the residents' WTA at present. Such as the income of the household, education background of residents affect the E (WTA), which shows a positive effect on the relationship of E (WTA) standard. The 18-45 years old residents pay more attention to the environmental protection. If government takes the ecological compensation policy, they may be the main stakeholders. The paper also mentions the discussions; 1) Because these social economic factors have common influences on the E (WTA) standard of residents, but the size and direction of these influences are not absolute, it needs to do a further study based on the actual situation to establish a stable structure model to determine the size and direction of these influences; 2) By the LR and WALD test, the research indicates that the double-bounded dichotomous discrete CVM has a stronger stability than the single-bounded dichotomous discrete CVM, thus the double-bounded dichotomous discrete CVM can become a relatively stable research method for ecological system service value study; 3 ) The environment property right should be the applicable standard to WTA and WTP. Meanwhile, improving the questionnaire design accuracy, adjusting the research course etc can overcome the differences between WTA and WTP effectively; 4) Government should make and conduct a make-up policy for ecological compensation according to the real situation in order to achieve the environmental equity and sustainable development.

  17. Composição e cinética de degradação do ácido ascórbico em rações para aquicultura Composition and degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in rations for aquiculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Figueiredo Guilherme; José Marcelino Oliveira Cavalheiro; Olivaldo Lacerda Brasileiro; João Paulo de Sousa Prado; Thiago Brandão Cavalheiro

    2009-01-01

    O crescente desenvolvimento da aquicultura nos últimos anos vem despertando o interesse de se estudar a melhor forma de utilização das rações, visto que estas podem elevar em até 60% o custo total de produção. O nível de inclusão de ácido ascórbico em uma dieta deve considerar a variação da matéria-prima, as interações entre nutrientes e as perdas no processamento, estocagem e lixiviação. O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a estabilidade térmica, fotoquímica e lixiviação do ácido ascórbico e...

  18. Outlook on China's Food Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The output of many kinds of foods in China have stood first on the world list, such as fruits, vegetables,meats, rape oil, aquiculture, etc. But China's export volume is minor. For example, the rate of apples exported is less than 1% of the total production, accounting for 6% of the world export volume. This results from quality and safety concerns, particularly the latter one. In order to improve this situation, central government has issued Project of Farming Region for Superior Agricultural Products (2003-2007) recently. The project says that 1118 standardized demonstration regions (base) of producing superior agricultural products will be established within the next 5 years. The superior agricultural products include wheat, special-purpose corn, high oil soy been, cotton, "double-low" rape, "double-high″ sugar cane, citrus fruit, apples,beef cattle, mutton sheep, milk, aquiculture etc.

  19. STUDY OF RED TIDE PREDICTION MODEL FOR THE CHANGJIANG ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper based on field data (on red tide water quality monitoring at the Changjiang River mouth and Hutoudu mariculture area in Zhejiang Province from May to August in 1995, and May to September in 1996) presents an effective model for short term prediction of red tide in the Changjiang Estuary. The measured parameters include: depth, temperature, color diaphaneity, density, DO, COD and nutrients (PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, NH4-N). The model was checked by field-test data, and compared with other related models.The model: Z=SAL-3.95 DO-2.974 PH-5.421 PO4-P is suitable for application to the Shengsi aquiculture area near the Changjiang Estuary.

  20. Winter habitat selection of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪海; 杨月伟

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the winter habitat selection of red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in Yancheng National Natural Reserve, Jiangsu Province. There were six types of habitat used by red-crowned cranes, i.e. salt-works, aquiculture ponds, reed lands, grassy tidal lands, salting wormwood lands and wheat fields. The wheat field was a new type of habitat used by red-crowned cranes. More than 70 percent of red-crowned cranes chose grassy tidal lands, salting wormwood lands, and reed lands as their most important habitats. In recent years, the distribution of red-crowned cranes moved southward gradually. Red-crowned cranes prefer artificial or semi-artificial wetlands rather than original wetlands, successive distribution was broken into fragments.

  1. Earthworm  as  Feed  in  Aquiculture  Application  Effect%蚯蚓作为饲料在水产养殖业中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永芬; 陶宇航; 顾永江

    2012-01-01

      蚯蚓是一种非常宝贵和极具开发潜力的动物性蛋白饲料源,其在水产养殖业中的应用已较为广泛。因此,本文就蚯蚓在水产养殖业中的应用进行了概述,以为广大水产同行合理了解并科学使用蚯蚓提供参考。%  The earthworm is a very precious and most development potential of the animal protein feed source, and its application in aquatic products breeding has been more widely. Therefore, in this paper the application of earthworms in aquiculture were reviewed in this paper, thought the aquatic counterparts reasonable understanding and scientific use of earthworm to provide reference.

  2. Urbanização e gestão do litoral centro-sul do estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six municipalities form the littoral of Santa Catarina State. These municipalities are divided in five sectors: north, center-north, center, center–south and south. Six municipalities belong to the center-south littoral and in this sector is located the bigger coastal lagoon chain of the State. Laguna is the faster growing municipality in this region and has the highest number of inhabitants. The rapid and non-organized urbanization of this area has been causing remarkable environmental impacts such as water pollution, sand dune erosion, loss of coastal vegetation and biodiversity. Activities such as prawn farms, agriculture, tourism and urbanization are the most impacting activities. For a sustainable development of the region some actions should be taken, such as: sewage treatment, urban planning,aquiculture zoning, coastal ecosystems preservation, development and implementation of management plan for conservation areas, environmental laws enforcement.

  3. 水库网箱养鱼环境经济学分析%Environmental Economics Analysis of Raising Fish in Net Box in Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林道辉; 杨志峰

    2001-01-01

    This paper dealed with the influences of raising fish in net boxon the quality of water of aquiculture area and the whole Miyun Reservoir. We also analyzed its cost and benefit and pointed out that it was not worthwhile to raise fish in net box in Miyun Reservoir in the sight of environmental economics.%以密云水库为研究对象,分析了水库网箱养鱼对水库局部水域水质和水库出水水质的影响程度,并从环境经济学角度对水库网箱养鱼进行了费用-效益分析,指出应禁止在密云水库进行网箱养鱼作业。

  4. 新型消毒剂-ClO2的制备方法及应用现状%PREPARATION OF NEW DISINFECTANT-ClO2 AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建华; 韩舞鹰

    2001-01-01

    The preparation method of ClO2, its some present products and application are introduced in this paper. Its preparation methods mainly include chemical and electrolysis methods, and their raw materials are mainly sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite and table salt. The present chloride dioxide products are mainly the stable ClO2 aqueous solution and solid chloride dioxide; the solid chloride dioxide has adsorbing type, gelatifying type and mono-packing type etc. due to different preparation technique. They are extensively applied to the aspects of disinfection, sterilization, algue removal, pulp-bleaching, air purification, food antisepsis and retaining freshness etc. of drinking water, industrial wastewater, hospital sewage, industrial cycle cooling water, fowl slaughter, indoor hygiene, beer production and aquiculture etc.%本文详细地介绍了二氧化氯的制备方法和现有的几种二氧化氯制品及其应用。

  5. Depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) in natural environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; LIU Lei; SONG Xiaoping; LIANG Yubo; ZHUANG Guohong

    2015-01-01

    To study the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) depuration in Japanese scallopPatinopecten yessoensis in natural environment, Japanese scallops naturally contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in the Dayao Bay in the northern Huanghai Sea are transited to Qipanmo waters in the Bohai Sea of no reported PSTs incidents. The levels and profile of PSTs during 30-day depuration are detected by the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results show that the toxicity of the PSTs in soft tissues decreases to a relatively low level at Day 9. Moreover, the depurated ratio at the early stage of the PSTs depuration is higher than that at the later stage. The toxicity analysis of dissected organs reveals that the digestive gland is the most contaminated PSTs part, which is of important implication for the human health and scallop aquiculture. The mortality of Japanese scallops during PSTs depuration experiment is relevant to PSTs level in the soft tissue.

  6. Editorial of the First Edition of the “Ambiente e Água” Scientific Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This release is the first edition of this new interdisciplinary scientific journal, named Ambiente e Água - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, Ambi-Agua, in short. The journal was so named to characterize the emphasis in publishing scientific papers in the areas of Environmental Sciences and Water Resources, once these scientific areas typically integrate systems and processes of the ecosphere (biosphere and atmosphere. Specifically, this Journal will publish scientific findings in the area of Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Environmental Engineering and Sanitation, Forest Engineering and Forest Resources, Ecology, Aquiculture, Oceanology and Fishing Resources, Agronomy, Agrometeorology and Agricultural Engineering, Global Change, Fishing Engineering and Zootechnology, Geography, Geology, Environmental Science, Environmental Legislation and Pollution, among others. As well as, papers in the areas of Remote Sensing, Geotecnologies and Spatial Analysis concerned with the study of water, environment and public health.

  7. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710 Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Vargas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grande progresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dez primers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de indicam que houve baixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence of three piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia (B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  8. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD = Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grandeprogresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dezprimers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de Gst indicam que houvebaixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence ofthree piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia(B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  9. Composition, diversity and short-term temporal fluctuations of zooplankton communities in fish culture ponds (Pindamonhangaba), SP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, N F; Rojas, N E; Rocha, O; Santos Wisniewski, M J

    2009-08-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the composition, diversity and short-term temporal fluctuations of zooplankton communities in fish ponds. The study was carried out in two fish ponds, with 180 m(2) of water surface (6 x 30 m) each, located in the Aquiculture Centre of the Pindamonhangaba Fisheries Institute - São Paulo. The study was developed over eight weeks, from February 16 to April 6, 1998. The physical and chemical conditions of the water in the fish ponds were adequate for zooplankton development. The zooplanktonic community was characterised by high richness of species and a greater diversity was observed in the first fish pond, with a superior density of Rotifera. Temporal changes in zooplankton composition occurred in both ponds with Cladocera appearing in abundance later, in the fourth week, whereas copepods and rotifers were well represented since the beginning. Many species found are typical of fish ponds and are considered to constitute an excellent food source, showing high nutritional value for fish larvae, a good example being individuals from the Rotifera group and the micro-crustacean species Moina minuta and Thermocyclops decipiens. PMID:19802437

  10. Research Advances in Immunomodulation of Echinacea purpurea. in China%国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京城; 李洪; 付京花

    2012-01-01

    紫锥菊属植物,是原产于美洲的一类菊科野生花卉。紫锥菊以其免疫调节作用闻名于世。近年来,国内引种成功,其各种药理作用在人类、畜牧业以及水产养殖业有了广泛的研究。综述国内紫锥菊免疫调节作用在不同行业的研究进展,为紫锥菊在国内的应用提供参考。%The Echinacea purpurea., one of the plants of Compositae originated from America, has been widely used for centuries in North America and later in Europe for many therapeutic purposes. In resent years, the Echinacea purpurea. was introduced successfully in China and the pharmacological effects were widely researched in human, animal husbandry and aquiculture respectively. The advances in immunomodulation studies on Echinacea purpurea. in China were reviewed to provide the references for application of Echinacea purpurea .

  11. 广东沿海赤潮发生与城市发展的关系%A relationship between red tide outbreaks and urban development along the coasts of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓南; 王为

    2004-01-01

    Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red fides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the ftrst period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red fides in local sea areas of the same coasts.

  12. A relationship between red tide outbreaks and urban development along the coasts of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaonan; WANGWei

    2004-01-01

    Red tides are one of the main coastal catastrophic events in Guangdong Province of southern China. The comparison between the number of red tide events and the development indexes of cities along the coasts of the province shows that the regional differences in red tide outbreaks has close relations with the coastal urban developments. The cause for an initiation of red tide blooms may be natural factors, while wastewater caused by the fast development of population, industry and aquiculture of the coastal cities enhanced the blooms. It may explain why the two periods of frequent outbreaks of the red tides over the last two decades matched the urban developments in the coastal areas of Guangdong not only spatially but also temporally. The red tides in the first period were restricted only to the coasts of middle Guangdong, where urbanization process was at a higher speed than the other coastal areas of the province. In the second period, fast development of the coastal cities in eastern Guangdong led to an increase in the occurrence of red tides in local sea areas of the same coasts.

  13. Nutrient and chlorophyll a anomaly in red-tide periods of 2003-2008 in Sishili Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yanju; TANG Danling; YU Long; XING Qianguo

    2011-01-01

    Sishili Bay is the most important aquiculture and tourism area for the city of Yantai, China; however, red tides occurred frequently and have caused huge economic losses in this bay in recent years. To gain a better understanding of the local ecological environments in the bay, we conducted this research between 2003 and 2008 to analyze variations in nutrients and chlorophyll (chl-α) during high frequency red tide period (May to September). The results show that the chl-α concentration increased from 2.70 in 2003 to 7.26 mg/m3 in 2008, while the concentration of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and silicate (SiO3-Si) increased lineally from 5.18 and 1.45μmol/L in 2003 to 18.57 and 9.52 μmol/L in 2008, respectively, and the annual phosphate (PO4-P) varied between 0.15 and 0.46 μmol/L. Special attention was given to a red tide in August 2007 occurred when water temperature was high and nutrient concentrations increased sharply because of a heavy rainfall. Overall, the results show the P limitation in Sishili Bay, and reveal that red tides were caused by eutrophication from terrestrial inputs and local warm weather, particularly during rainy periods. Therefore, to control red tide, greater efforts should be made to reduce sewage discharges into Sishili Bay, particularly during rainfall seasons.

  14. Development and validation of methods for the trace determination of phthalates in sludge and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Benanou, David; Patria, Lucie; Treilhou, Michel

    2005-04-29

    A routine method which is simple, quick and precise has been set up and validated for phthalate analysis in environmental samples (tomato plants and sewage sludges). Six phthalates have been studied simultaneously: dimethylphthalate, diethylphthalate, di-n-butylphthalate, n-butylbenzylphthalate, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate. Optimization of sample, solvent extraction uses a Soxtec apparatus and extract purification with an a solid-phase extraction cartridge allows between 90 and 110% recovery of phthalates. Precise, sensitive and selective identification and quantifying of analytes is by GC-MS in the single ion monitoring mode. This protocol allows analytes with concentrations as low as 10 microg/kg dry matter (DM) to be determined from small (1-2 g DM) samples. This analytical method has been applied to the phthalate transfer study for agricultural recycling of sludges, where phthalate bioavailability has been studied in aquiculture using two types of experiments. Tomatoes have been grown in containers where the trace organics have been directly introduced as pure substances, and in a second experiment under the same growth conditions, sewage sludge has replaced the pure substances. Transfer of these trace organics has been followed into the various parts of the tomato plant and in general only the DEHP is worthy of note although its percentage transfer remains very low even in an experiment designed to maximize this.

  15. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to environmental change in Jiangsu coastal plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of coastal vulnerability to future environmental change has been emphasized in coastal nations or regions. The Jiangsu coastal plain, located to the north of the Yangtze River Delta in China, is most vulnerable to sea level rise and exacerbating coastal hazards. This paper develops the method of delimiting vulnerable scope and assessing coastal vulnerability through field observations and sampling and by applying remote sensing and GIS, which are suitable for great river delta and coastal plains with large area, relative complex micro-geomorphology and the protection of seawall. Applying this method, the coastal vulnerability of the Jiangsu coastal plain to relative sea level rise (approximately 50 cm up to the year 2050) and exacerbating storm surges have been assessed. The results show that, up to the year 2050, the Jiangsu coastal plain will probably lose 12.8 % of tidal flats (about 5.8′104 hm2) and 7.9 % of cultivated land (about 7.2′104 hm2). Meanwhile, 2.0 % of population, 3.8 % of original value of fixed assets, 3.2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 40.3 % of salt industry and 5.8 % of aquiculture respectively will be affected due to coastal environmental change.

  16. Research development of the Mactridae%蛤蜊科贝类的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春阳; 徐善良

    2016-01-01

    蛤蜊科(Mactridae)属于双壳纲帘蛤目贝类,全世界已发现有35属199种。主要从蛤蜊科贝类的分类及地理分布、形态学特征、核型研究、生态习性、繁殖生物学、遗传多样性及系统发生研究、环境毒理学、养殖现状对蛤蜊科贝类的影响等,综述了蛤蜊科贝类的研究进展,并总结了目前研究阶段中尚未解决的问题,以期为以后的蛤蜊科贝类养殖提供科学依据。%Mactridae belongs to Bivalvia Veneroida .199 genera belonging to 35 sorts have been found in the world .In this paper , the influence of classification and geographical distribution , morphology features , karyotype characteristics , ecological habits , reproductive biology, the genetic diversity and phylogeny , environmental toxicology , and the current situation of aquiculture on Mactridae are re-viewed.The research progress of Mactridae is reviewed , and the issues yet to be resolved in current research are summarized in order to provide a scientific basis for the future Mactridae′s farming.

  17. Discussion on 'Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science' Teaching Experience%浅谈水产专业“水生动物营养与饲料学”教学体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇杰; 伦峰; 彭新亮; 龚静

    2012-01-01

    'Aquatic animal nutrition and feed science' is a professional foundation course in higher vocational education of aquiculture specialty.The teaching reformation and exploration were condncted from the positioning of the course,students' interest,theory teaching,practice teaching and assessment examination and other aspects of teaching experience to develop students' learning initiative,stimulate students interest in learning,train students thinking and independent problem solving skills,improve aquatic animal nutrition and feed science teaching effect.%水生动物营养与饲料学是高职高专水产专业的一门专业基础课。从课程定位、学生兴趣、理论教学、实践教学以及考核检查等方面进行了教学改革与探索,从而发挥学生的学习能动性,激发学生的学习兴趣,培养学生思考和独立解决问题的能力,提高水产动物营养与饲料学的教学效果。

  18. Ecological Profit and Loss Analysis of Tidal Flat Reclamation——Tidal Flat Reclamation of Tiaozini Sand as a Case Study%滩涂围垦养殖的生态损益分析——以江苏条子泥滩涂围垦养殖为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 徐敏; 张益民

    2012-01-01

    Reclamation and pond aquaculture is one of the main modes of tidal flat development, and showing a trend of large - scale factory aquiculture. The paper takes Tiaozini Sand reclamation in Jiangsu Province as an example, changes of the ecological service value and ecological profit and loss before and after reclamation are studied, by methods of economic evaluation and ecological emergy. By economic evaluation method and emergy method calculation, the ecological service value of Tiaozini natural wetland is 1. 28 × 104 yuan/hm2 · a and 1. 49 × 10 yuan/hm o a calculated respectively. The ecological service value of Tiaozini Sand is mainly embodied in the aspects of food supply and habitat services. The total ecological service value has no great difference before and after reclamation, is mainly due to great increase in aquiculture production and food supply service value increases significantly after reclamation, while the water purification, gas regulation, habitat and other ecological services value decrease significantly. The evaluation result of the paper provides a basis for scale selection and ecological compensation of Tiaozini Sand reclamation. The methods of analysis could be applied in rationality assessment of reclamation scale and ecological profit and loss, and determination of ecological compensation and construction measures.%围垦养殖是滩涂开发的主要方式之一,并呈现出大规模工厂化的趋势.本文以江苏省条子泥围垦养殖为例,采用经济价值评估法和能值法,研究围垦工程实施前后的生态服务价值变化和生态损益.根据经济价值评估方法和能值法计算出的条子泥天然湿地的生态服务价值分别为1.28×104元/公顷年和1.49×104元/公顷年,条子泥滩涂的生态服务价值主要体现在食品提供和栖息地服务两个方面.围垦后总的生态服务价值较围垦前相差不大,主要由于围垦后养殖产量大幅增加,食品提供生态服务价值明

  19. Combined Process of Slope Constructed Wetland and Aquatic Plant Pond for Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater%边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术处理水产养殖排水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀正; 章星异; 陈卫兵; 叶剑峰

    2011-01-01

    针对上海松江五厍农业园区水产养殖污染问题,提出以边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术进行处理.集成技术示范工程的实际运行结果表明:该技术对水产养殖污染物的削减行之有效,每年COD、TN、TP的减排强度分别达到896、35.2、10.9 kg/hm2,初步解决了园区水产养殖排水污染问题.同时,水生植物塘中生长的浮萍可以用作水产养殖饲料,符合现代水产养殖的发展趋势.%In order to solve the aquaculture pollution problem in Wushe agricultural park in Songjiang district of Shanghai, the combined process of slope constructed wetland and aquatic plant pond was proposed to treat the aquaculture wastewater. The actual operation results of the demonstration project show that the combined process can effectively reduce aquaculture pollutants. The annual reduction quantities of COD, TN and TP are 896 kg/hm2., 35. 2 kg/hm2 and 10. 9 kg/hm2 respectively. The aquaculture pollution problem is preliminarily solved. The duckweeds grown in the aquatic plant pond can be used as aquaculture feed, which is accord with the development trend of the modern aquiculture.

  20. Design of Aquaculture Environment Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Technology%基于ZigBee技术的水产养殖环境监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉梅; 张长利; 王树文; 李正仁

    2011-01-01

    传统的水产养殖手段科技储备不足,浪费了人量的人力和物力.本文采用目前无线传感器网络界士流的ZigBee技术,结合GPRS通讯技术,以及网络数据库技术,设计完成了一套完整的水产养殖环境监测系统,对影响鱼类生长的温度,溶解氧含量、PH值等水环境因素进行实时数据采集监测.系统由无线传感器网络节点和网络管理平台两部分组成,设计了良好的人机交换界面.实验表明该系统能实现对水产养殖环境的实时监测,能满足目前水产养殖自动化和统一管理的需求.%The traditional aquiculture means is lack of technology of advantages, wasting a great deal of manpower and material.This paper adopts mainstream ZigBee technology in wireless sensor network field, combined with GPRS communication technology and network database technology, a set of aquaculture environment monitoring system is designed and completed, for the factors such as the growth of fish temperature, oxygen content, PH value of water environment, realtime data acquisition and monitoring are adopted. The system consists of wireless sensor network node and network management platform, designing a good man-computer exchange interface. Through commissioning in the test experiments,the system can realize real-time monitoring to the aquaculture environment, can satisfy the present requirements for aquaculture automation and unified management.

  1. Etiologic investigation of "mad rush malady" of European eel%欧洲鳗鲡"狂奔病"的病因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温彩霞; 林宗宇

    2001-01-01

    利用组织病理、微生物、血液电解质、寄生虫检查方法对欧鳗"狂奔病"进行分析,发现无论是淡水养殖还是海水网箱养殖,病鳗的组织病理变化基本一致,鳃、肠破坏较为明显,肝、脾、肾、心均有不同程度的充血.从微生物学的分析来看,病毒的检出率并不高,形态也不一致,细菌和寄生虫的感染多样化.病鳗的血液电解质检查结果较为一致,主要以氯离子降低为主,下降幅度在30%~50%之间.由此认为本病不象是病毒、细菌和寄生虫所致.%Using the methods of tissue pathology, microorganism , blood electrolyte assay and parasite examination the etiology of "mad rush malady" of European eel was investigated. It has been found that the general pathological changes were remarkable destructions of branchia and bowels and the congestion of liver, spleen, kidney and heart regardless of fresh water or seawater aquiculture in net box. There were different kinds of infections such as bacterial , virus or parasite in different individuals. Moreover the decrease of chlorine ion concentration by 30 % ~50 % was observed in different individuals. Thus it is considered that the "mad rush malady" of European eel should not be caused from virus, bacteria or parasite.

  2. 近20年来英罗湾红树林景观过程及周边土地利用/覆盖变化%Mangrove landscape changing process and land use coverage change of its surrounding areas in Yingluo Bay, southern China during the past 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀军; 郭菊兰; 武高洁; 郭志华; 林广旋; 吴晓东

    2013-01-01

    全球红树林正以惊人的速度消失,红树林遥感监测对于资源保育至关重要.在GIS和遥感技术支持下,基于1991-2010年的5期Landsat TM遥感影像及相关专题图,结合立地调查,研究了英罗湾红树林空间变化的过程并对其周边的土地利用/覆盖动态和驱动力进行分析.结果表明:研究时段内人为和自然因素均对研究区红树林动态变化产生影响,表现为红树林近陆的内边界缩减而近海的外边界向海扩展;红树林总面积表现为先减少后增加的趋势,净损失量约7%.变化轨迹分析表明:1991-2000年间围垦养殖引起靠近陆地的红树林面积快速减少;红树林在滩涂上不断向海扩展以及2000年以来的生态恢复工程使研究区红树林边界向海推移,且主要发生于靠近河流和海洋的外缘.近20年来,红树林周边的土地利用/覆盖变化显著,城镇化和工业化使研究区林地、耕地减少且主要转化为建设用地,建设用地规模迅速增加且在湛江一侧沿交通干线呈多点分散格局,广西一侧则在原有城镇建设用地基础上向外扩张;靠近河流和红树林周边的水产养殖塘的面积持续增加,前期主要是对红树林的直接围垦,后期则主要来自于政策鼓励下在水田上的筑塘养殖.%Based on GIS and RS technology, the Landsat TM images from 1991 to 2010, associated with the ground truth data in 2011 and the thematic maps on mangrove forests, were hierarchically extracted to identity mangrove and other land use coverage surrounding Yingluo Bay, southern China. Together with the local expert knowledge, 7 land use types were identified, namely farmland, forestland, construction area, water, unused area, aquiculture pond and mangrove forests respectively. The spatial process of mangrove forests landscape change and the dynamics of land use coverage as well as the rate and cause of the changes nearby the Yingluo Bay were analyzed in this paper

  3. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  4. 珠三角地区鱼塘水体中双酚A污染及其生态风险评价%Bisphenol A pollution in aquatic waters of Pearl River Delta and related ecological risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water and sediments of aquiculture pond in Zhongshan City was determined. BPA is detected in all surface water samples and 44.4% sediment samples. Residual content of BPA in surface water is in the range of 0.96 ~ 4.51 μg · L~(-1), with an average of 3.29 μg · L~(-1), that in sediments is in the range of 0.19~1.31 ng · g~(-1)(dry weight), with an average of 0.23 ng·g~(-1) (dry weight). No significant relationship exists between BPA content and that of main environmental factors, except for pH and COD. Based on EC/PNEC evaluation standard, BPA residuary extent of the aquatic environment in Zhongshan City could induce minimal ecological risk to people and the environment.%对地处珠三角的中山市鱼塘表层水及底泥中双酚A(BPA)污染水平进行了测定分析,结果表明:鱼塘表层水样品中BPA检出率为100%,底泥样品中BPA检出率为44.4%.鱼塘表层水中BPA残留量为0.96~4.51μg·L~(-1),平均浓度为3.29μg·L~(-1);底泥中BPA含量较低,浓度范围为0.19~1.31 ng·g~(-1) (干重),平均浓度为0.23 ng·g~(-1) (干重).相关及回归分析表明,除pH及COD外,BPA残留量与大部分环境因子关系不密切.参照EC/PNEC体系,BPA在中山鱼塘水体中的残留水平不会导致生态风险.

  5. Application of Microorganisms in the Degradation of Polluted Chemicals in Aquatic Environments%微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕; 蔡俊鹏

    2008-01-01

    Every year, waters on earth receive large quantities of wastewater from industry, agriculture, fish and poultry raising, and municipal sewage treatment plants. Consequently, the aquatic environment on the earth is under a serious challenge from a very large quantity of pollutants such as antibiotics, insecticides, herbicides, hydrocarbons, etc., contained in the domestic wastewater, industrial and agricultural waste water and illegal effluents. In particular, with the development of intensive aquiculture and poultry, the effluent pollution has recently become more and more serious with more attentions. Furthermore more and more chemical pollutants discharged into aquatic environment have been detected with the advancement of analytical techniques. These chemicals can cause toxic effects on water habitats after discharged into aquatic environment. However, microorganisms have many key functions in pollution control. In this review, applications of microorganism in the degradation of chemicals in aquatic environments are reviewed. It was concluded that most applications of microorganisms degrading chemicals focused on aquaculture waters, whereas other aquatic systems (such as river, lake, sea, coastal waters) have been scarcely studied.%每年有大量来自工业、农业、养殖业和城市污水处理厂的废水被排入到水环境中,因此,地球上的水环境面临大量来自生活废水、工农业废水、非法排放的废水及其它废水的污染物质(如抗生素、杀虫剂,除草剂、烃等)的严重挑战,特别是近年来随着集约化养殖的发展,废水污染问题日益突出,并且随着分析手段的进步,能够检测到被排入水环境中的化学污染物质也越来越多,这些化学污染物对水环境中的生物产生有害影响.但是,微生物在污染控制上具有许多重要的作用.因此,本文对微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用进行了评论.结果表明微生物主要是应用

  6. 中国大陆海岸线近30 a的时空变化分析%The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of the continental coastlines of China in recent three decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高义; 王辉; 苏奋振; 刘桂梅

    2013-01-01

    基于遥感和地理信息系统的方法与技术,以1980、1990、2000和2010年4个时期为特征年,对近30年来我国大陆海岸线时空变化特征进行了分析研究。结果显示:(1)海岸类型转化显著,人工岸线所占比例由1980年的24.6%上升到2010年的56.1%;(2)海岸线变化呈现显著区域特征,变化较剧烈的区域集中在珠江口岸段、长江口-杭州湾岸段、海州湾-吕四段、滦河口-潍河口段及辽河口-葫芦岛港段;(3)3个时期相比,海岸开发由早期的围垦养殖向后期的城镇建设和海洋运输开发方式转变,并且这种转换方式在南方早于北方。%This paper is mainly focused on the continental coastline changes of China in the span of 1980-2010 . Remote sensing images of Landsat MSS ,TM and ETM+in the year of 1980 ,1990 ,2000 and 2010 are processed to extract coastlines and land use in the gap of coastline changes .Based on the technology of RS and GIS ,the spa-tial and temporal changes of coastline are analyzed ,the result show that :(1) the coastline type changes significant-ly ,the length of artificial coastline in 1980 ,1990 ,2000 ,and 2010 occupies 24% ,39.3% ,49.4% and 56.1% ,re-spectively ;(2) the coastline change shows a significant regional characteristic ,coastline changed significantly in the coast segment of the Zhujiang Estuary ,the Changjiang Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay ,the Lvsi Port to the Haizhou Bay ,the Weihe to the Luan Estuaries and the Liaohe Estuary to the Huludao Port ;(3) comparing the three sub periods of the research span ,a coastal reclamation is mainly focuses on an urban construction and a maritime trans-port in the later period while focuses on aquiculture in the earlier period ;from the north to the south ,the changes of continental coastline of China show significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity .

  7. Distribution Characteristics and Contamination Assessment of Arsenic in Lidao Bay%俚岛湾海域砷的分布特征及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂新华; 李晓敏; 张学超; 宋喜红

    2014-01-01

    以威海俚岛湾养殖区为研究对象,调查研究了俚岛湾海域表层海水和沉积物中总砷的分布特征,并综合评价了砷的污染状况及潜在生态风险。俚岛湾海域表层海水总砷浓度为1.78~2.78μg/L,平均浓度为2.20μg/L,比大洋水略高,俚岛湾海域海水水质较好,未受到砷污染;海水中砷的季节变化为夏季较高、秋冬季基本稳定、春季最低。俚岛湾海域表层沉积物中砷的平面分布呈现出由近岸向远岸降低的趋势,砷含量的年际变化甚微,基本保持稳定的水平;采用潜在生态风险指数法和重金属质量基准法对沉积物进行评价。评价结果表明,该海域表层沉积物中砷污染水平较低,属于低潜在生态风险。%Distribution characteristics of arsenic in surface seawaters and sediments were studied in Lidao aquicultural area, and pollution level and potential ecological risk of arsenic was evaluated. Results showed that the arsenic concentrations of surface seawaters in Lidao bay was between 1. 78-2. 78 μg/L, with mean of 2. 20 μg/L. The arsenic concentrations of seawater in Lidao bay was a little higher than oceanic water, so the seawater was not affected by arsenic;The concentrations of arsenic in seawater vary with seasons, higher in summer while lower in spring, basically stable in fall and winter. The distributions of arsenic in sediments were decreased with the distance off the coast. The interannual variability of arsenic basically remained stable. The arsenic pollution level of sediments was evaluated by Potential Ecological Risk Index and Sediment Quality Guidelines. Results showed that the arsenic pollution and its potential ecological risk were lower in surface sediment in Lidao bay.

  8. 不同来源嗜水气单胞菌耐药基因检测%Detection of resistance genes in Aeromonas hydrophila strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晓敏; 葛慕湘; 张艳英; 房海; 陈翠珍

    2015-01-01

    采用PCR方法,对分离于唐山和秦皇岛养殖场的宽体金线蛭( Whitmania pigra)、中国林蛙( Rana temporar-ia chensinensis)、牙鲆( Paralichthys olivaceus)、草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellua)、青鱼( Mylopharyngodon piceus)以及鲤(Cyprinus carpio)肝脏的42株不同水产养殖动物的致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)进行了4种耐药基因β-内酰胺类(TEM)、氨基糖苷类(ant (3″)-I)、磺胺类(Sul3)和四环素类(tet(A))的检测。结果表明:42株嗜水气单胞菌均100%携带TEM、 ant (3″)-I和Sul3,不携带tet(A)。所检不同水产动物源嗜水气单胞菌均携带TEM、 ant (3″)-I及Sul3耐药基因,从分子层面表明该致病菌多重耐药或潜在耐药严重。%42 pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the liver of Whitmania pigra, Rana chensinensis, Paralichthys olivaceus, Ctenopharyngodon idellua, Mylopharyngodon piceus and Cyprinus carpio cultured in the farms of Tangshan and Qinhuangdao were investigated for the presence of resistance genes -TEM, ant (3″)-Ⅰ, Sul3 and tet(A) using PCR method.The results showed that all detected strains were positive for TEM , ant (3″)-Ⅰand Sul3 gene, and negative for tet ( A) gene.A.hydrophila strains isolated from different aquiculture animals contained multiple resistant genes showed antibiotic resistance or potential resistance of the pathogenic strains was serious .

  9. Effect of Four Kinds of Common Bactericides on the Growth of Nitrifying Bacteria in Aquacultural Water%4种常用杀菌消毒剂对养殖水体中硝化细菌生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国霞; 于刚; 白东清; 周文礼; 吴旋; 孙宝静

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to provide scientific basis for adjusting and improving the balance of aquaculture micro-ecosystem and the reasonable application of drugs. [ Method ] Using nitrifying bacteria isolated from aquaculture water as test materials, the effects of common bactericides ClO2, KMnO4, formaldehyde, the mixture of copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate by the ratio of 5: 2 on the growth of nitrif-ying bacteria under the laboratory conditions were studied by the ecotoxicology method . [ Result ] 0.1 mg/L ClO2 , 0.6 mg/L KMnO4 , 20 mg/L formaldehyde, 0. 7 mg/L mixture of copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate by the ratio of 5 : 2 had small effects on the growth of nitrifying bacteria and better control effects on aquatic pathogenic microorganism in water body. [ Conclusion ] In the aquiculture, suitable concentration of bactericides should be used to disinfect the water body.%[目的]为调节和改善养殖微生态环境平衡和合理用药提供科学依据.[方法]以分离自养殖水体的硝化细菌为试验材料,运用生态毒理学的方法,在实验室条件下研究常用杀菌剂二氧化氯、高锰酸钾、甲醛、硫酸铜与硫酸亚铁合剂对其生长的影响.[结果]0.1mg/L二氧化氯、0.6mg/L高锰酸钾、20mg/L甲醛、0.7mg/L硫酸铜与硫酸亚铁(5∶2)合剂对硝化细菌生长的影响较小,同时对水体中的病原微生物有较好的防治效果.[结论]在水产养殖中,应选用适宜浓度的杀菌剂对水体进行消毒.

  10. 臭氧对斜带石斑鱼胚胎发育和初孵仔鱼的毒性效应%The toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic development and post-embryonic larvae of Epinephelus coioide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦滨; 钟声平; 张钰霆; 郭书林; 陈信忠; 毛勇; 苏永全; 王军

    2014-01-01

    Epinephelus coioide is one of the most important seawater fish that cultured in China. In recent years, with the breakthrough of grouper artificial seedling rearing, the farming scale of grouper has expanded rapidly, and the gross of cultured grouper reached 59 534 tons in 2011. The effective prevention and control of virus, vibrio, and the effective treatment for harmful water quality factors is the key link in grouper artificial seedling rearing. In traditional pond farming mode, strong oxidizers, such as chloride, iodine and potassium permanganate, have played a significant role in disease prevention and water treatment. In recent years, flatfish industrial farming system, as a mature mode, has been driving the technology intergration of grouper recirculating aquiculture system. The solid oxidants mentioned above were greatly limited in the advanced farming mode, while ozone, a kind of gas disinfectant, not only can remove toxic substance such as nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia nitrogen and killed pathogenic bacteria effectively, but also will not cause secondary pollution, has been widely applied in water treatment of recirculating aquiculture system in the European Union, the United States, Japan and other developed countries. Although the efficiency and stability of ozone disinfection was widely recognized, its security, especially its toxic effects on the cultured livestock, cannot be ignored. In order to evaluate the ozone disinfection and the potential toxicity of ozone to E. coioide, the efficiency of ozone at two kind of concentration (0.05 mg/L and 0.30 mg/L) on water treatment, such as removing vibrio and nitrite, was as-sessed. Furthermore, using the zygote of E. coioide as material, the toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic develop-ment and post-embryonic larvae were discussed. Our results demonstrated that the efficiency of ozone on water treat-ment was favorable, when the concentration of ozone reached 0.30 mg/L, the removal rate of nitrite

  11. Stable nitrogen isotope tracing anthropogenic influence on Lake Taihu%人类活动对太湖水环境影响的稳定氮同位素示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 吴敬禄; 曾海鳌; 刘文

    2012-01-01

    人类活动对湖泊环境变化的影响是目前全球变化研究的热点之一.识别水体中人为氮源的贡献对于研究人类活动对湖泊环境变化的影响十分重要.稳定氮同位素组成(δ15N)是水环境中人为氮源的有效示踪剂.太湖是我国典型的大型浅水富营养湖泊,位于人口稠密、经济发达的长江三角洲地区,是研究人类活动对水环境影响的理想对象.太湖水体δ15N值的空间分异规律大致反映了不同湖区人类活动影响水环境的方式,上游宜兴小流域及河口主要受农业活动影响,胥口湾和东太湖则主要是水产养殖的贡献,梅梁湾受城市生活污水影响较大.而且水体δ15N值的水平反映了人类活动的影响从南部湖区到北部湖区逐渐加强的趋势,表现为南部河口—东太湖—梅梁湾不同水体从草型水体到藻型水体δ15N值增加的趋势.另外,夏季(6月)太湖水体δ15N值的变化响应于初级生产力的变化,体现了生物作用的影响.在蓝藻水华暴发时期,利用水体δ15N值识别人为氮源的结果可能会受到生物过程的干扰.%Anthropogenic influence on lake environmental change is one of the focus of global change research. It is necessary to identify anthropogenic sources of nitrogen in rivers and lakes. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (S15 N ) have been widely used in tracer studies of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in aquatic environments. Lake Taihu is a large, eutrophic, shallow freshwater lake in China, and is located in the Yangtze delta with high population density and economic development. It serves as an ideal site for examining human impacts on aquatic environment in China. Results of S15 N values measured in inorganic nitrogen fractions (INF) showed that a small river basin and its estuary in Yixing city were characterized by agricultural origin, while INF in Xukou Bay and East Taihu Bay by aquiculture, and INF in Meiliang Bay by discharge of human sewage. 8I

  12. Rendimento da Atriplex nummularia irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia em rejeito da dessalinização de água Behavior of saltbush (Atriplex nummularia irrigated with effluents from tilapia raised in brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo R. Porto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência no rendimento da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia e em algumas características do solo, quando irrigada com efluentes da criação de tilápia (Oreochromis sp. em rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal foi irrigada durante um ano com quatro volumes de efluentes na Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina, PE, cuja salinidade média foi, de 8,29 dS m-1. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4 correspondem, respectivamente, aos volumes de efluentes aplicados semanalmente, de 75, 150, 225 e 300 L planta-1 . A salinidade média do solo na profundidade 0 - 90 cm foi de 0,40 dS m-1, antes de serem iniciadas as irrigações. Após a colheita, respectivamente para os tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, as salinidades médias dos perfis de solo na mesma profundidade (0 - 90 cm foram de 8,02, 6,09, 4,97 e 4,60 dS m-1 e os rendimentos de matéria seca da erva-sal, de 9,75, 12,26, 14,49 e 13,81 t ha-1. O maior rendimento de matéria seca por litro de efluente aplicado foi para o tratamento T1, com 4,84 g L-1 que apresentou, também, a melhor relação entrada/saída de sal, removendo 13,84% do total de sal incorporado ao solo.Looking forward to reduce environmental impacts resulting from desalinization of brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year with four different volumes of aquiculture effluent generated from an intensive tilapia (Oreochromis sp raising system, with a mean salinity of 8.29 dS m-1, in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. A completely randomized block design, with four treatments and three replications was used. The treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponded, respectively, to the weekly volumes of irrigation of 75, 150, 225 and 300 L of water per plant. The mean soil salinity of the

  13. Comprehensive Exploitation and Integrated Protection of Zhejiang Non-inhabitant Islands%浙江省无居民海岛综合开发保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋; 李冬玲; 李加林; 杨晓平

    2012-01-01

      无居民海岛是国家海洋领土的重要组成,在海域资源环境利用、监管和国家权益维护上具有重要的地位与作用。本文梳理了浙江无居民海岛开发利用现状与问题、国家与浙江对无居民海岛管理政策演进趋势,综合两者并从浙江海洋经济发展示范区建设视角,提出浙江省无居民海岛开发保护体系:①科学立法完善海岛综合开发保护法理准则;②科学规划规范海岛综合开发保护行动指南;③宣传推广引导海岛综合开发保护实践操作,以促进浙江无居民海岛可持续发展。%  Non-inhabitant islands (NInIs) are extremely valuable natural resources and have special ecological value. They are important parts of a nation’s territory, significant for sea environment supervision and nation’s welfare. Exploitation suitability is a basic work and precondition of reasonable development and utilization for NInIs.After the promulgation and implementation of the "Island Protection Law", island protection will get more attention. This paper analyses the conservation status and the effects of various forms of protection for the NInIs in Zhejiang Province. It shows utilization for NInIs in Zhejiang remains at a fairly low level. (1) The level of exploitation for NInIs closer to the mainland or big islands, like Zhoushan Island, for example, is relatively higher than small and distant islands. Islands far away from the continent and larger islands are only used for building lighthouse beacon and lighthouse or other relatively simple utilization. Most distant islands still maintain their original status. According to the survey, 300 NI-nIs are exploited at different levels in Zhoushan and Ningbo. It accounts for 11.37% of the total number (2639) of all NInIs. Currently, five marine protected areas have been established in Zhoushan and Ningbo; (2) NInIs may be used for bridges construction for land connecting, aquiculturing

  14. Application of Ecological Carbon Fiber Filler in Treatment of Intensive Aquaculture Wastewater%生态碳纤维填料用于集约型水产养殖废水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌莉莎; 海热提

    2012-01-01

    随着水产养殖逐步从粗放型向集约型养殖发展,水产养殖废水对水环境污染日益加剧.为实现废水循环利用,采用生态碳纤维材料作为接触氧化池内填料处理集约型水产养殖废水,进行中试研究.通过改变曝气强度和水力停留时间(HRT)参数,确定对接触氧化池处理效果及运行特性的影响.试验结果表明:生态碳纤维填料具有易挂膜的优点,接触氧化池内用实际水产养殖废水接种活性污泥,24h后填料表面附有棕褐色的生物膜,池内水体清澈透明.曝气强度和HRT是影响接触氧化池处理效果的重要因素.在DO为3mg几,pH在7~8.5左右,HRT为10h时,COD、NH4+-N、TP、浊度去除率分别为80%、60%、30%和80%左右.NO2 -N、NO3-N浓度分别低于0.1 mg/L和0.5 mg/L,经过接触氧化池处理后的水进入消毒池,出水用于养鱼实现废水循环利用.%As the aquaculture gradually develops from extensive to intensive farming, the effluent water from aquaculture is polluting environment increasingly. To achieve wastewater recycling, pilot study was done by using ecological carbon fiber as contact oxidation filler to treat aquaculture effluent. The treatment effect and operational characteristics on the contact oxidation tank mainly depend on aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time. Results showed that ecological carbon fiber only need 24 h to produce biological membrane on its surface showing clear effluent under the practical aquatic wastewater vaccinating activated sludge. With condition of DO 3 mg/L, pH range 7-8.5 and HRT 10 h, removal rate of COD, NH4+-N, TP and turbidity were 80%, 60%, 30% and 80% respectively. The effluent with concentration of NO2--N and NO3"-N less than 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L respectively through the treatment of contact oxidation process can be used for aquiculture achieving wastewater recycling.

  15. Assessment of coastal wetland ecosystem health based on the press-state-response model: a case study on Liaohe delta%基于PSR模型的滨海湿地生态系统健康评价——以辽河三角洲滨海湿地为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林和山; 陈本清; 许德伟; 王建军; 郑成兴; 黄雅琴; 李荣冠

    2012-01-01

    Based on press-state-response model, this paper selected population, economy, environment, resource exploitation, policies and laws, management decision etc. , as indicators for evaluating the health of coastal wetland ecosystem rated on scales of worst, worse, common, good and excellent. Results showed that the health of coastal wetland ecosystem of Liaohe delta was in a common health status. Due to over-cultivation, the natural wetland in Liaohe delta decreased by 11 072 hm from 1988 to 2007. The areas of Suaeda salsa wetland decreased 75% (2 440 hm ) , while aquiculture land increased 182% (9 359 hm ). Water body was seriously polluted by COD (3.06 mg/dm3) , TIN(795.45 u.g/dm3) , phosphate (44. 01 礸/dm3) and Pb(6.46 礸/dm3). According to the analysis of the pollution status and distribution characters, agricultural and industrial pollutions from Liaohe river and adjacent area were important pollutant sources. Owing to environmental problems, wetlands of Phragmites com-munis and Suaeda salsa, species and abundance of birds, and benthic diversity in Liaohe delta degenerated seriously. Finally, actions for ecological protection and management were proposed for the ecosystem of Liaohe delta wetland.%以PSR评价模型为基础,选取人口、经济、环境、资源开发、政策法规和管理决策等指标,诊断和评估滨海湿地生态系统在湿地开发和环境污染等一系列人类活动干扰下的健康现状,将健康等级分为优、良好、一般、较差和极差等5级.结果表明,辽河三角洲滨海湿地生态系统健康状态一般,由于过度的围垦开发,自然湿地面积在1988 ~2007年间减少了11 072 hm2,其中,碱蓬湿地减少了75% (2 440 hm2),而水产养殖场增加了182%(9 359 hm2).流域及沿岸的工农业排污致使评价区域内水体污染较严重,COD、TIN、活性磷酸盐和Pb的含量分别达到3.06 mg/dm3、795.45、44.01和6.46 μg/dm3,普遍为四类或劣四类水质.环境的恶化,导致

  16. 一种新型贻贝抗菌肽的分离纯化及鉴定%A NOVEL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE IDENTIFIED FROM MYTILUS CORUSCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬敬; 刘慧慧; 周世权; 王信超; 范美华; 申望; 廖智

    2014-01-01

    The researches on antibacterial peptides from Mytilus coruscus, an important mytilus on aquiculture, have significant value that helping people to understand the mechanism of innate immune system of this mussel. By using multi-dimensional reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a novel antimicrobial peptide was isolated from Mytilus coruscus serum. The mass and the N-terminal sequence of this peptide were analyzed by a combination of Mass Spectrometry and Edman degradation. This peptide consisted 55 amino acids and had a 6621.55 D with 6 Cysteines presented in its sequence forming 3 disulfide bonds. A chitin-biding domain was detected by domain analysis and the peptide was named mytichitin-A therefore. The mRNA transcripts of mytichitin-A were mainly detected in gonad, which indicated that mytichitin-A were specifically synthesized and stored in genital system. The expression level of mytichitin-A in gonad was up-regulated and reached to the highest level at 12h after bacterial challenge, which was 9-fold increase compared to that of the control group. These results indicated that mytichitin-A was involved in the host immune response against bacterial infection and might contribute to the clearance of invading bacteria.%厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)广泛分布于我国东部海域,其体内富含各种抗菌肽分子,是研究软体动物免疫防御机制以及开发抗菌肽来源的新型生物抗生素的重要对象。采用多步反相高效液相色谱对厚壳贻贝血清进行分离纯化,获得一种分子量为6261.55 D的具有抗菌活性的多肽成分;经多肽N端测序和基因克隆,结果表明该抗菌肽由55个氨基酸残基构成,含6个半胱氨酸并形成三对二硫键。结构域分析表明该抗菌肽具有几丁质结合结构域(Chitin-biding domain),因此将该抗菌肽命名为mytichitin-A。Mytichitin-A对革兰氏阳性菌具有较强的抑制作用,同时对真菌及革兰氏阴性菌

  17. Distribution of net-phytoplankton and its influence factors in spring in Xiangshan Bay%象山港春季网采浮游植物的分布特征及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志兵; 朱旭宇; 高瑜; 廖一波; 寿鹿; 曾江宁; 黄伟

    2013-01-01

    根据2010年春季象山港28个站位的网采样品,共鉴定出浮游植物6门55属158种,其中硅藻135种(占总丰度的99.0%),甲藻18种,其余门类(金藻、蓝藻、绿藻和隐藻)5种.浮游植物平均丰度为35.29×104个/m3,其分布呈较强的斑块状(3.41× 104-142.35×104个/m3),高值区位于横山至白石山水域及乌沙山电厂邻近水域.Shannon-Weiner多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数总体表现为港口和港口外高于港中部和港底.琼氏圆筛藻(Coscinodiscus jonesianus)为绝对优势种,其丰度(284.97×103个/m3)占总丰度的80.8%.典范对应分析结果显示,影响浮游植物群落的主要因子依次为透明度、悬浮物、温度、水深和氮磷比.光照充足、电厂温排水适度温升、营养盐丰富和氮磷比合适(接近Redfield比值16)导致了港内微藻旺发.受径流、水交换和海洋开发等影响,象山港的理化参数表现了明显的斑块和梯度分布,这为浮游植物的生长提供了不同类型的生境,客观上造成了其分布的空间异质性.聚类、多维尺度和相似性分析结果表明,港底、港中部、港口至港口外区域间的群落组成差异较大.结合历史数据分析表明,象山港浮游植物丰度的升高及群落结构的改变与电厂运行、水产养殖、临港工业发展和滩涂围垦等海洋开发活动有关.%Xiangshan Bay (121°25′-120°00′E,29°05′-29°46′N),located at the East China Sea,is a long semienclosed bay with slow rate of water exchange.As one of the most important marine economic bases in Zhejiang Province,it has confronted a series of ecological challenges due to the coastal power plants (Ninghai and Wushashan Power Plant) running,excessive aquiculture,industrial development,tidal flat reclamation,and sea-crossing bridge construction.These large-scale human activities certainly lead to hydrodynamic alteration,temperature elevation,and eutrophication aggravation in this bay

  18. Fitness evaluation of the land use forms in Hailing Island in 2008%2008年海陵岛土地利用类型适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国霞; 张杰; 马毅; 李晓敏; 包玉海

    2012-01-01

    Island refers to the naturally formed land areas above the sea surface during high tide and surrounded by seawater. The island land resources include island land and intertidal zone. China is a large country with a large number of islands, but the management of the islands is left behind. With the development of exploitation of the islands, land resources protection and management of the islands becomes more and more important. Land fitness evaluation is the basis and core of overall land use planning. The purpose of the fitness evaluation of the use of island land resources is to support island protection and management, and achieve sustainable use of island land resources. In this paper, Hailing Island was taken as the study area, and 2003 SPOT-5 and 2008 aviation images as the data source. Based on the knowledge of land use layout and site selection experiences, the land use forms of Hailing Island in 2003 were used as samples, soil type, elevation, grade and aspect of slope, distance to the shore and traffic condition which have the greatest impact on land use were selected as the evaluation factors, and the raster data spatial overlay analysis method was used to determine the fitness of different land use forms according to the combining frequency of the land use form and the evaluation factors, and work out the suitable weight of every evaluation factor, then the integrated fitness of the land use in 2008 of Hailing Island for all the evaluation factors was obtained with weighted summation method and graded. The results show that the very appropriate land use form of the Hailing Island in 2008 accounts for 41% of the total area, and medium fitness for 28%. The main forms of the land-use are forest lands, distributed at hills such as the Mawei Mountain, which are mainly influenced by the elevation and soil type. The general fitness accounts for 20%, which are mainly aquiculture waters, distributed in the gulf not far away from the shore, and mainly influenced

  19. Ecological sensitivity of Xiamen City to land use changes%厦门市土地利用变化下的生态敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 崔胜辉; 李方一; 邱全毅; 马克明

    2011-01-01

    of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, the spatial distributions of ecological sensitivity were derivate. The results showed that construction land area increased significantly from 67.48 km in 1987 to 308.21 km in 2007, as much as 4. 57 times. The sustained expansion of construction land came from agricultural land and forest. From the year 1987 to 2007, shoreline length of Xiamen City experienced an increase-decrease process, from 290. 19 km in 1987, 343.23 km in 1992, to 299.93 km in 2007. The reclamation aimed at aquiculture causing the coastal line to zigzag and fragment, while the reclamation for transportation or construction land causing the shoreline smoother and shorter. The Land Use Intensity increased from 2.44 in 1987 to 2. 52 in 2007, while the ecosystem services value showed a generally decreasing trend of 7. 39×109 Yuan in 1987 to 7. 02×109Yuan in 2007. The mechanism research of the ecosystem sensitivity to land use change indicated that Land Use Intensity and the ecosystem services value showed an opposite trend and Land Use Intensity increased inversely with the decline of the ecosystem services value. The ESI increased from 1. 50 in 1992 to 4.94 in 1997 , then decreased to 4. 12 in 2002, and finally increased slowly to 4.47 in 2007. Overall, in the past twenty years, the level of ecosystem affected by land use changes was not very severe. Most of the high ecological sensitivity areas located in the coastal area.%当前,城市化与全球变化背景叠加,海岸带生态系统发生了巨大的变化,沿海城市在全球变化下的脆弱性、敏感性与适应能力等问题已经成为政府和科学界关注的重要问题.土地利用变化是导致生态系统敏感性的重要因素之一.以厦门市作为沿海城市的典型代表,对近20 a土地利用变化下的生态敏感性进行系统研究.分析了城市建设用地扩张、围填海等主要土地利用活动对生态敏感性的影响机制;其次建立土地