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Sample records for aqueous sodium chloride

  1. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange m...

  2. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  3. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  4. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  5. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  6. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  7. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  9. Cooling and Freezing Behaviors of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution in a Closed Rectangular Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Akira; Kashiwagi, Takao; Nakane, Ichirou

    This paper investigates cooling and freezing behaviors of NaCl aqueous solution in a rectangular container equipped with horizontal partitions of micro porous film in order to determine the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer through cell wall for the purpose of freezing food. For comparison, experiments were performed using partitions of copper plate, no partition, and water. These processes were visualized and measured using real-time laser holographic interferometry. It was found that there was very little difference in the cooling process due to partitions, but that there were significant differences in freezing process when NaCl aqueous solution is used.

  10. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  11. Identification of co-existing cationic surfactants with preliminary separation on silica HPTLC plates using mixed aqueous sodium chloride-ethanol as eluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic system comprising of silica gel 60 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and ethanol-5% aqueous sodium chloride (8:2 as mobile phase has been identified as most suitable for separation of quaternary mixture of cationic surfactants. Separation efficacy of developed method has been established by obtaining well-resolved densitogram of separated spots. To check the versatility, effects of presence of metal cations, inorganic anions, amino acids, vitamins and non-ionic surfactants as impurities were also examined. The chromatographic parameters like ΔRF, separation factor (α, resolution (RS and limit of detection were also calculated. The proposed method is applicable for the identification of surfactants in eye drops and Colgate Plax mouthwash.

  12. Mixed micellar properties of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hwan [Korea University of Technology, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The critical concentration(CMC) and the counterion binding constant(B) for the mixed micellization of sodium n-octanoate(SOC) with n-octylammonium chloride(OAC) were determined as a function of the overall mole fraction of SOC({alpha}{sub 1}). Various thermodynamic parameters(X{sub i}, {gamma}{sub i}, C{sub i}, a{sub i}{sup M}, and {delta}H{sub mix}) for the mixed micellization of the SOC/OAC systems have been calculated and analyzed by means of the equations derived from the nonideal mixed micellar model. The results show that there are great deviations from the ideal behavior for the mixed micellization of these systems. And other thermodynamic parameters({delta}G{sub m}{sup o}, {delta}H{sub m}{sup o}, and {delta}S{sub m}{sup o}) associated with the micellization of SOC, OAC, and their mixture({alpha}{sub 1}=0.5) have been also estimated from the temperature dependence of CMC and B values, and the significance of these parameters and their relation to the theory of the micelle formation have been considered and analyzed by comparing each other.

  13. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  14. Effect of the cation model on the equilibrium structure of poly-L-glutamate in aqueous sodium chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gabriel; Soetens, Jean-Christophe; Jacquemin, Denis; Bopp, Philippe A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that different sets of Lennard-Jones parameters proposed for the Na+ ion, in conjunction with the empirical combining rules routinely used in simulation packages, can lead to essentially different equilibrium structures for a deprotonated poly-L-glutamic acid molecule (poly-L-glutamate) dissolved in a 0.3M aqueous NaCl solution. It is, however, difficult to discriminate a priori between these model potentials; when investigating the structure of the Na+-solvation shell in bulk NaCl solution, all parameter sets lead to radial distribution functions and solvation numbers in broad agreement with the available experimental data. We do not find any such dependency of the equilibrium structure on the parameters associated with the Cl- ion. This work does not aim at recommending a particular set of parameters for any particular purpose. Instead, it stresses the model dependence of simulation results for complex systems such as biomolecules in solution and thus the difficulties if simulations are to be used for unbiased predictions, or to discriminate between contradictory experiments. However, this opens the possibility of validating a model specifically in view of analyzing experimental data believed to be reliable.

  15. 肌醇在氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓和焓对相互作用%Dilution Enthalpy and Pairwise Enthalpic Interaction of Myo-inositol in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文清; 曲秀葵; 孙德志∗

    2008-01-01

      The dilution enthalpies of myo-inositol in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions had been determined with flow–mix-isothermal microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The enthalpic interaction coefficients in the different concentrations of sodium chloride had been calculated according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. The results showed that enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients (h2) of myo-inositol are negative in aqueous sodium chloride solutions and values of h2 become more positive with increasing the concentration of sodium chloride. It could be interpreted in terms of interactions of solute with solute and solute with solvent.%  应用微量热法测定了298.15 K时肌醇在纯水和氯化钠水溶液中的稀释焓,根据McMillan-Mayer 理论计算了肌醇在不同浓度的氯化钠溶液中的2到4阶焓相互作用系数.结果表明,肌醇在氯化钠溶液中的焓对相互作用系数h2均为负值,并且随着氯化钠浓度的增大, h2的值呈增大趋势.根据溶质-溶质相互作用和溶质-溶剂相互作用对焓对相互作用系数的变化趋势进行了解释.

  16. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  17. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  18. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  19. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  20. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  1. Effect of secondary structure on the interactions of peptide T4 LYS (11-36) in mixtures of aqueous sodium chloride and 2,2,2,-Trifluoroethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Camille O.; Spiegelberg, Susanne; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-10-01

    The potential of mean force for protein-protein interactions is key to the development of a statistical-mechanical model for salt-induced protein precipitation and crystallization, and for understanding certain disease states, including cataract formation and {beta}-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Fluorescence anisotropy provides a method for quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions due to reversible association. Monomer-dimer equilibria for the peptide T4 LYS(11-36) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy. This peptide, derived from the {beta}-sheet region of the T4 lysozyme molecule, has the potential to form amyloid fibrils. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in peptide secondary structure, and was used in aqueous solutions at concentrations from 0 to 50% (v/v) at 25 and 37 C to examine the role of peptide conformation on peptide-peptide interactions. The association constant for dimerization increased with rising TFE concentration and with falling temperature. The peptide-peptide potential of mean force was computed from these association constants. Circular-dichroism measurements showed that the secondary structure of the peptide plays an important role in these strong attractive interactions due to intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation and hydrophobic interactions.

  2. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  3. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  4. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  5. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  6. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  7. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  8. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Wang; Hong-Long Ji

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel.Data Sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google Scholar.The terms used in the literature search were:(1) ENaCs;cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR);asthma/asthmatic,(2) ENaC/sodium salt;CF;asthma/asthmatic,(3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels;asthma/asthmatic,(4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt;asthma/asthmatic,lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar,and (5) CFTR;CF;asthma/asthmatic (ti).Study Selection:These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015).The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors.Results:Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction.ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance.Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations.Conclusions:Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease.

  9. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  10. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  11. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  12. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  13. Enhancement by sodium caprate and sodium deoxycholate of the gastrointestinal absorption of berberine chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dongjiao; Wu, Xiaorong; Dong, Wenna; Sun, Wei; Li, Jinzhuo; Tang, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two absorption enhancers, sodium caprate (C10) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), in increasing the bioavailability of a poorly absorbed paracellar flux drug, berberine chloride, across the intestinal mucosae of rats in vivo, together with examination of their effects on mucosal damage. In addition, all four intestinal segments were collected after administration of the enhancers and sodium saline. The results of the bioavailability experiments showed the oral absorption of berberine chloride was poor and both C10 and SDC could significantly improve the very poor absorption of berberine chloride. After co-administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine chloride was increased 41.1-fold by C10 (100 mg/kg) and 35.3-fold by SDC (100 mg/kg) compared with that in the absence of C10 and SDC, respectively. Local toxicity experiment indicated that both enhancers caused no specific damage to the intact intestine. This study demonstrates that C10 and SDC could significantly promote the absorption of berberine chloride from the gastrointestinal tract with few toxic effects, which might be due mainly to relaxing the absorption limitation while inhibiting the efflux transporter of berberine chloride by the enhancers. Besides, this could lead to the development of new drug-enhancers.

  14. XPS of fast-frozen hematite colloids in NaCl aqueous solutions: I. Evidence for the formation of multiple layers of hydrated sodium and chloride ions induced by the {001} basal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchukarev, Andrei; Boily, Jean F.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2007-12-13

    The influence of the {001} basal plane of hematite on the composition of fast-frozen centrifuged wet pastes of hematite prepared at pH 4 and 9 and at ionic strengths of 0, 10 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two hematite preparations consisted of micrometer-sized platelets with 42% (HEM-1) and 95% (HEM-8) of the surface terminated by the {001} basal plane. A third preparation of spherical shape with no recognizable crystal plane (HEM-control) was used as a control to these experiments. All hematite samples responded to changes in pH and ionic strength, showing that acid/base reactions of surface hydroxyl groups control the composition of the paste. The HEM-1 and HEM-8 sample exhibited divergent properties at the highest ionic strength (100 mM) with energy loss features in the Na 1s and Cl 2p spectra and an important water content. As the spectra were typical of hydrated Na+ and Cl- ions and that the surface concentrations were unusually large, the HEM-1 and HEM-8 samples are proposed to induce the formation of a three-dimensional distribution of these ions in the paste. The sodium, chloride and water content was also correlated to the fraction of the {001} basal plane present in the sample and provided evidence for an approximate stochiometric Na:Cl:H2O ratio of 1:1:2. The {001} basal plane of hematite is consequently proposeD to be the cause of this feature.

  15. INTERACTION OF POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE WITH METAL CHLORIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Khaista Gul; Najeeb Ur Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with metal chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, KC1 and BaC12) have been investigated by viscometric and spectrophotometric techniques in aqueous solutions. Intrinsic viscosity [η] of (PVP) has shown a discontinuity with varying concentration of metal chlorides. The decreasing order of effectiveness of cation is K1+>Ca2+> Mg2+> Ba2+ for poly(vinylpyrrolidone) solution. Changes in the absorption spectra of the cosolutes were observed in the presence of PVP in the lower limit of the UV-visible region i.e. 200-210 nm. These changes were attributed to interaction of PVP molecules with the cosolute molecules. As the concentration of the cosolute increased, a red shift in the peaks was observed, indicating an increase in interaction between PVP and cosolutes.

  16. Structure of aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General, Ignacio J; Asciutto, Eliana K; Madura, Jeffry D

    2008-12-01

    Salt solutions have been the object of study of many scientists through history, but one of the most important findings came along when the Hofmeister series were discovered. Their importance arises from the fact that they influence the relative solubility of proteins, and solubility is directly related to one of today's holy grails: protein folding. In this work we characterize one of the more-destabilizing salts in the series, sodium perchlorate, by studying it as an aqueous solution at various concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1.60 mol/L. Molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature permitted a detailed study of the organization of solvent and cosolvent, in terms of its radial distribution functions, along with the study of the structure of hydrogen bonds in the ions' solvation shells. We found that the distribution functions have some variations in their shape as concentration changes, but the position of their peaks is mostly unaffected. Regarding water, the most salient fact is the noticeable (although small) change in the second hydration shell and even beyond, especially for g(O(w)***O(w)), showing that the locality of salt effects should not be restricted to considerations of only the first solvation shell. The perturbation of the second shell also appears in the study of the HB network, where the difference between the number of HBs around a water molecule and around the Na(+) cation gets much smaller as one goes from the first to the second solvation shell, yet the difference is not negligible. Nevertheless, the effect of the ions past their first hydration shell is not enough to make a noticeable change in the global HB network. The Kirkwood-Buff theory of liquids was applied to our system, in order to calculate the activity derivative of the cosolvent. This coefficient, along with a previously calculated preferential binding, allowed us to establish that if a folded AP peptide is immersed in the studied solution, becoming the solute, then

  17. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M

    2000-07-01

    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  18. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  19. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  20. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  1. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  3. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  4. A Study on the Optimization of Physical and Chemical Parameters for the Precipitate of Sodium Alkylsulfate with Cetylpyridinium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Lee, Don Keun; Lee, Dong Jae; Kang, Young Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The optimum conditions for the most effective precipitate of surfactant complex of sodium alkylsulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride were studied in the aqueous solution. The parameters such as the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants, molar ratio of two surfactants, temperature and the concentration of added NaCl in the aqueous solution were correlatively studied for the productivity of the precipitate formation. By the productivity, the optimum conditions to produce complex of anionic surfactant with cationic surfactant were the longer alkyl chain, equivalent molar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants, 0 .deg. C and 1.5 M NaCl

  5. Compatible compositions based on aqueous polyurethane dispersions and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Barmar, Mohammad

    2013-01-30

    A series of aqueous polyurethane dispersions were synthesized by the reaction of polytetramethylene glycol and isophorone diisocyanate, extended with dimethylol propionic acid. Their chemical structures were characterized using FTIR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR, and thermal properties were determined by DMTA. Then, a number of aqueous polyurethane dispersions-sodium alginate (PUD/SA) compositions were prepared by addition of sodium alginate solution with different concentrations into the aqueous polyurethane dispersion. Characterization of chemical structure and thermal properties of these blends were performed by FTIR, EDX and DMTA, respectively. The morphology of the alginate in polyurethane matrix was studied by SEM. The hydrophilicity of the prepared samples decreases by increasing the content of sodium alginate in blends. These observations were attributed to the increase of hydrophilicity of the blends as a consequence of addition of hydrophilic carboxylate, hydroxyl and ether functional groups of the alginate to them.

  6. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  7. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    of ice appearing to be resistant to road salt, a comparative study has been made on a number of different surfaces measuring the friction index. The friction measurements were performed with a Portable Skid-Resistance Tester. Discontinuous surfaces consisting of small islands of hydrohalite...... was classified as potentially slippery surfaces. It is therefore possible that the formation of hydrohalite contributes to accidents on slippery roads.......From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  8. Structure of concentrated aqueous solutions of scandium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, P. R.; Grechin, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    It is shown via X-ray diffraction that aqueous solutions of scandium chloride form ionic associates in a wide range of concentrations. It is established that the Sc3+ ion coordination number increases upon dilution to 8.2 at an unchanged Sc3+-OH2 distance of 0.215 nm. The second coordination sphere of the cation forms at an average distance of 0.420 nm. The number of solvent molecules in the sphere logically increases during dilution. It is concluded that the anion does not form its own sphere in highly concentrated solutions. This coordination sphere begins to form only in solutions with moderate concentrations at a distance of 0.315 nm, and it contains six water molecules in diluted solutions.

  9. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  10. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-04

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  11. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  12. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at geological conditions: Experimental results at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K and 150 bar and modeling up to 573.15 K and 2000 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haining; Fedkin, Mark V.; Dilmore, Robert M.; Lvov, Serguei N.

    2015-01-01

    A new experimental system was designed to measure the solubility of CO2 at pressures and temperatures (150 bar, 323.15-423.15 K) relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. At 150 bar, new CO2 solubility data in the aqueous phase were obtained at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K from 0 to 6 mol kg-1 NaCl(aq) for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. A γ - φ (activity coefficient - fugacity coefficient) type thermodynamic model is presented for the calculation of both the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase and the solubility of H2O in the CO2-rich phase for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. Validation of the model calculations against literature data and other models (MZLL2013, AD2010, SP2010, DS2006, and OLI) show that the proposed model is capable of predicting the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase for the CO2-H2O and CO2-NaCl-H2O systems with a high degree of accuracy (AAD @gmail.com.

  13. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  15. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  16. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necib, Youcef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric

  17. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gawałek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The material for investigations was typical commercial sodium caseinate in the form of dry powder manufactured in Poland from acid casein using the method of extrusion. The objective of the undertaken empirical studies was the assessment of the impact of the concentration on rheological properties of sodium caseinate concentrates. Investigations were carried out for five concentrates manufactured in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator at concentrations ranging X (% Î (2.5¸12.5 and changing mass proportions of sodium caseinate in the aqueous solution as follows: GS/G (kgS·kg-1 = 0.025. On the basis of the obtained research results, classical flow curves were plotted for individual concentrates. The determined values of viscosity and density of the examined solutions were correlated in the form of h = f(GS/G and r = f(GS/G dependencies which were used during the determination of classical characteristics of mixing forces essential for the assessment of energetic expenditures required to manufacture concentrates in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator. The density of the examined concentrates increased in a way directly proportional, while the dynamic viscosity coefficient increased exponentially together with the increase of sodium caseinate concentration. Sodium caseinate concentrates exhibited Newtonian character in the examined range of concentrations.

  18. HEPARIN OR 0.9% SODIUM CHLORIDE TO MAINTAIN CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PATENCY: A RANDOMISED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Babu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintaining the lumen patency of Central venous catheters (CVCsusing low dose Heparin is recommended in many guidelines of CVC maintenance. This study is to compare the efficacy of low - dose Heparin 3ml (10U/ml and 0.9% Sodium chloride (10ml flush solutions to maintain Centra l venous catheter (CVC lumen patency. METHODS: We s tudied 100 adult patients between March 2012 and August 2012 who required short - term CVC insertion to compare two flush solutions , Heparin and0.9% Sodium Chloride on catheter lumen patency . RESULTS : The crude catheter non patency was 4% ( two lumensin Heparin group and 8% (four lumens in the Sodium Chloride group . There was no incidence of thrombocytopenia in both the study groups. CONCLUSION : This study has demonstrated no significant difference bet ween Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride flushes with regards to catheter patency in adult patients with short - term use of CVCs .

  19. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  20. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  1. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  2. Vitamin E and Sodium Selenite Against Mercuric Chloride-Induced Lung Toxicity in the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Celikoglu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to elucidate the possible protective role of vitamin E and / or sodium selenite on mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the lung tissue of the rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (1.0 mg/kg day for four weeks. Treatment with mercuric chloride led to oxidative stress by enhancing MDA level and also decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S transferaz (GST activities. However, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in histopathological changes in the lung tissue in the rats. MDA level and SOD, CAT GPx and GST activities and histopathological changes modulated in concomitantly supplementation of vitamin E (100 mg/kg day and /or sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg day to mercuric chloride-treated groups.

  3. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  4. Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ljubica J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite γ-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

  5. Aqueous gel formation from sodium salts of cellobiose lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Yamashita, Chikako; Taira, Toshiaki; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Cellobiose lipids (CLs) are asymmetric bolaform biosurfactants, which are produced by Cryptococcus humicola JCM 10251 and have fungicidal activity. In this study, the sodium salts of CLs (CLNa) were prepared to improve aqueous solubility of the CLs, and their surface and gelation properties in aqueous solutions were examined by surface tension, rheology, and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) measurements. The surface tension measurements revealed that the CLNa have high surface activity: CMC1 and γCMC1 are 0.1 mg/mL and 34.7 mN/m, respectively. It was also found that the CLNa form giant micelles above their CMC, whose average size is 116.6 ± 31.9 nm. Unlike conventional surfactants, the surface tension reduced further with an increase in concentration and the aqueous solution became viscous at the minimum gelation concentration (MGC: 5.0 mg/mL). In rheological studies, the obtained gels proved to be rather soft and their sol-gel temperature was found to be approximately 50℃. FF-TEM observation of the gels showed 3D supramolecular structures with an entangled fibrous network. Since the present CLNa aqueous gels have a degree of fungicidal activity, they could be useful for novel multifunctional soft materials applicable to the food and cosmetic industries.

  6. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  7. Report of moderate or severe sodium and chloride disturbance on 82 cases with acute cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma shun-tian

    2000-01-01

    Abtract Objective: To decrease the fatality rate and prevalence rotc of acute cerebral stroke complicated with morderate or servere serum sodium and chioride disturbance by explonng the relation between the pathogency and prognosis Methods: Medical records were surveyed and clinical presentation, laboratory test, complicated。 Actiology pathogency and prognosis were analyzed m 82 cases with moderate or severe serum sodium and chloride disturbance among 736 cases with acute cerebral stroke collected, Results: The prevalence rate and fatality rate of acutc cerebral stroke complicated with moderate or severe serum sodium and chlorede disturbance were 11.3% (82/ 736) and 60.8% (49/52) which were different significantly form that complicated with normal or minimal sedium sodium and chloride disturbame (p (0.001) 。 The 82 cases occured at 3-13 days after hospitalization (mean 6 days) 。 The actiology and pathogency were mainly ralated with some endogenic and iatrogenic factors such as hypothalamic-pituitary system were destroyed resultly from acute cerbral stroke which led to SIADH。 Conclusion: The fatality rate of acute cerebral stroke complicatee with moderate or seyere serum sodium and chloride disturbance is mcreased significantly, Put prophylaxis first to decrease the prevalence rate and fatalty rate。 Pay attlention to comprehensive therapy of acute cerebral stoke to prevent endogenic sodium and chloride disturbance and especially place importance on iatrogenic disturbance。

  8. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  9. Biocompatible sodium alginate fibers by aqueous processing and physical crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-02-15

    Sodium alginate (SA) hybrid fibers have been robustly fabricated by electrospinning of aqueous mixtures containing as high as 60% SA in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Solution viscosities of SA, PVA and their mixtures showed fiber spinning to be strongly influenced by the balance between SA-PVA and PVA-PVA intermolecular polar interaction and SA-SA repulsion. Low viscosity SAl (50 mPas at 1%) enabled higher SA loadings without significantly increasing mixture viscosities, producing more cylindrical fibers. All aqueous mixtures containing 33.3-60% SAl (5.68-7.15% total SAl-PVA) had viscosities ranging from 530 to 3600 mPas and could be electrospun continuously for at least 48 h. The SA-PVA hybrid fibers had diameters ranging from ca. 140 to 350 nm and were rendered stable in water via simultaneous ionic-crosslinking SA and crystallization of PVA (5% CaCl2 in 75% EtOH for 30 min). This aqueous electrospinning and physical crosslinking approach is a green and highly efficient alternative to create alginate hybrid fibers that are biologically compatible and ingestible for potential biomedical, food and other applications.

  10. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride ...

  11. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  12. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  13. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  14. Sodium, potassium and chloride status in Australian foods and diets using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Bowles, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    A study of the status of essential, toxic and trace elements in the foods and diets of Australian has been in progress for six years. Results for sodium, potassium and chloride levels are reported here. The average daily dietary intake of sodium and chloride exceeded the range of values recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council for most population groups with grain and dairy products the main contributor to these high intakes. In contrast, the average daily intakes of potassium fell well within the recommended values for all age groups with intakes for adult females close to the recommended minimum figure. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Electrical conductivity measurements for the ternary systems of glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their applications in cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Woods, Erik J; Gao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    Electrical conductivity of a solution is a property that can be easily determined through the measurement of a conductivity probe. The present study demonstrates the measurements of electrical conductivity for two ternary solutions: glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water. When the concentration of sodium chloride to water ratio (R) is fixed, the existence of either glycerol or ethylene glycol, both cryoprotective agents (CPAs), can be quantitatively determined by their depressive influence on electrical conductivity of the solution. The measurements were performed on solutions with a set of 10 different concentrations of CPAs, ranging from 3.2% to 50% (v/v), along with five ratios of NaCl/water solutions. Equations to fit the experimental measurements were devised to characterize the relations among electrical conductivity, CPAs concentration, and R. A conductivity meter used in this study required conductivity, which is faster than the measurement using osmometry method. The charts of ternary solutions associated with their electrical conductivity and concentrations make it especially useful for monitoring the cryopreservation processes, including addition and removal of CPAs, to prevent osmotic damages to biological samples.

  16. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  18. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  19. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan

    2017-02-06

    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells.

  20. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  1. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not m

  2. RasGRP1 stimulation enhances ubiquitination and endocytosis of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, B.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Cooke, L.L.; Moddes, L.N.; Deen, P.M.T.; Hoover, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the distal convoluted tubule. Recently, we described a novel pathway of NCC regulation in which phorbol esters (PE) stimulate Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), triggering a cascade ultimately activating ERK1/

  3. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  4. Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Methods Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6g NaCl/d) was supplied

  5. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  6. Solubilities ,Densities and Refractive Indices of Rubidium Chloride or Cesium Chloride in Ethanol Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO,Wen-Xia; HU,Man-Cheng; JIANG,Yu-Cheng; LI,Shu-Ni

    2007-01-01

    The data of solubilities.densities and refractive indices of rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in the system C2H5OH-H2O were measured by using a simple accurate analytical method at different temperatures,with mass fractions of ethanol in the range of O to 1.0.In all cases,the presence of ethanol significantly reduced the solubility of rubidium chloride and cesium chloride in aqueous solution.The solubilities of the saturated solutions were fitted via polynomial equations as a function of the mass fraction of ethanol.The CsCl-C2H5OH-H2O temary system appeared in two liquid phases:alcoholic phase and water phase.when the mass fractions of ethanol were in the range of 10.37% to 49.59%at 35℃.Density and refractive index were also determined for the same ternary systems with varied unsaturated salt concentrations.Values for both experiment and theory were correlated with the salt concentrations and proportions of alcohol in the solutions.The equations proposed could also account for the saturated solutions.

  7. Vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons by surfactant micelles. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1984. [Solubilization data for system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.

    1985-04-01

    This final report describes vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives by aqueous micellar solutions. An automated vapor pressure apparatus and a manual apparatus incorporating a mercury-covered sintered-glass disk inlet valve were used to obtain highly precise data for the solubilization of hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols into aqueous solutions of the ionic surfactants sodium octylsulfate and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (cetylpyridinium chloride). A mass-action model based on a modification of the Poisson distribution equations has been developed and applied to data for the system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/, and 45/sup 0/C. An excellent goodness of fit is achieved with the model. Tabulated experimental results (485 sets of activity and concentration data) are included in this report. 12 references, 2 figures.

  8. Zinc chloride aqueous solution as a solvent for starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiying; Shang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Peng; Xie, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Yongyi; Wan, Junyan

    2016-01-20

    It is important to obtain starch-based homogeneous systems for starch modification. Regarding this, an important key point is to find cheap, low-cost and low-toxicity solvents to allow complete dissolution of starch and its easy regeneration. This study reveals that a ZnCl2 aqueous solution is a good non-derivatizing solvent for starch at 50 °C, and can completely dissolve starch granules. The possible formation of a "zinc-starch complex" might account for the dissolution; and the degradation of starch, which was caused by the H(+) inZnCl2 aqueous solution, could not contribute to full dissolution. From polarized light microscopic observation combined with the solution turbidity results, it was found that the lowest ZnCl2 concentration for full dissolution was 29.6 wt.% at 50 °C, with the dissolving time being 4h. Using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was revealed that ZnCl2 solution had no chemical reaction with starch glucosides, but only weakened starch hydrogen bonding and converted the crystalline regions to amorphous regions. In addition, as shown by intrinsic viscosity and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ZnCl2 solution caused degradation of starch macromolecules, which was more serious with a higher concentration of ZnCl2 solution.

  9. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove.

  10. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  11. Aqueous Solution Thermal Conductivity of Beryllium-Subgroup Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdullayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental data on thermal conductivity of BeCl2 and SrCl2 salt aqueous solutions in the temperature range from 20 to 300 °С  and at various electrolyte concentrations  in mass percent. For the first time thermal conductivity of the system Н2О + BeCl2 has been investigated at high temperatures.The experimental results are described with the help of an empirical equation in the form of: λs = λo (1+ Am + Bm3/2 + Cm2,where λs  and λo – thermal conductivity coefficients of solution and water; A, B and C – coefficients depending on electrolyte nature; m – molality in units mol/kg.The formula error is less than  ±1 %.

  12. Drop-on-demand for aqueous solutions of sodium alginate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, C. Leigh; Coutris, Nicole

    2013-06-01

    Inkjet printing is a rapidly growing commercial process for applications that depend on precisely patterning micro-scale droplets. These applications increasingly require complex fluids, introducing viscoelastic properties which play an important role in droplet formation. The objective of this study is to determine how to obtain single, uniform and spherical ("successful") droplets from aqueous solutions of sodium alginate with a piezoelectric drop-on-demand printing method. In order to control the volume and velocities of droplets, the effect on the droplet formation of the characteristics of the waveform such as voltage amplitude and dwell time is studied. The results depend also on the fluid rheology. The viscosity of the chosen fluid is a function of the concentration, as the viscoelastic properties increase at higher concentration. In this paper, the droplet formation process is characterized in terms of both the waveform and the rheological properties of the solution. The characterization of the fluids and waveform will be pursued first and the droplet formation and its control will be studied. Finally, the results will be presented with a map in ranges of the Ohnesorge, Deborah and Weber numbers.

  13. Modeling of sodium acetate recovery from aqueous solutions by electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaleo, Marcello; Moresi, Mauro

    2005-09-05

    The main engineering parameters (i.e., ion transport numbers in solution and electro-membranes; effective solute and water transport numbers; effective membrane surface area, membrane surface resistances, and limiting current intensity) affecting the recovery of sodium acetate from model solutions by electrodialysis (ED) were determined in accordance with a sequential experimental procedure. Such parameters allowed a satisfactory simulation of a few validation tests carried out under constant or step-wisely variable current intensity. The performance of this ED process was characterized in terms of a current efficiency (omega) of about 93% in the constant-current region, a water transport number (t(W)) of about 15, and a specific energy consumption (epsilon) increasing from 0.14 to 0.31 kWh/kg for a solute recovery yield of 95% as the current density (j) was increased from 112 to 337 A/m2. The specific resistance of the anion- or cation-exchange membranes were found to be three or two times greater than those measured in aqueous NaCl solutions and are to be used to design and/or optimize ED stacks involved in the downstream processing of acetic acid fermentation broths.

  14. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A

    1994-09-15

    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of an antiperspirant formulation containing aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, E; Neubert, U

    1982-01-01

    To document deodorant efficacy the antimicrobial activity of a gelatinous antiperspirant formulation of aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate was investigated. In vitro assays demonstrated highly bactericidal activity on microorganisms comprising the resident axillary skin flora, including micrococcaceae and aerobic diphtheroid bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria and yeast were partially inhibited. In vivo experiments utilizing occlusive patches on forearm skin and bacterial sampling of the axilla showed pronounced bacteriostasis and persistence of aluminum chloride on the skin. Inhibition of microbial growth lasted more than 3 days after a single treatment of the axilla. Following repeated open applications to the volar aspect of the forearm, the skin remained virtually sterile for 3 days.

  16. Stepwise aggregation of dimethyl-di-n-octylammonium chloride in aqueous solutions: from dimers to vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Loïc; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Turmine, Mireille; Azaroual, Nathalie; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2010-02-01

    The self-aggregation of dimethyl-di-n-octylammonium chloride, in diluted aqueous solutions, was studied with various experimental and theoretical techniques: zetametry, conductimetry, dimethyl-di-n-octylammonium and chloride-selective electrodes, tensiometry, NMR spectroscopy ((1)H and DOSY), and molecular modeling (PM3 and molecular dynamic). The combination of the data obtained by these techniques led us to propose a stepwise aggregation process with increasing concentration: dimers (0.2-10 mM), bilayers (10-30 mM), and finally vesicles (>30 mM).

  17. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  18. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  19. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...... 500 mug digoxin showed a significant rise in CK, which lasted for 48 hours, and 6 of them had CK values exceeding the upper normal limit. Pentazocine in a dose of 30 mg given to 9 patients caused a significant rise in CK and LDH isoenzyme 1, but in no case did the level exceed the upper normal limit....... No rise in ASAT or total LDH was found after digoxin and pentazocine injections. No changes in enzymes were discovered after bumetanide or isotonic sodium chloride. In the diagnostic evaluation of acute myocardial infarction, a moderate rise in CK must be assessed with caution when the patients have...

  20. Monitoring sodium chloride during cod fish desalting process by flow injection spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Ildikó V. Tóth; Portela, Ana; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel,António O. S. S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to adapt to the market trends that are moving towards ready-to-use products cod !sh industry is including into their industrial operations as the desalting step. The desalting process is a high cost and time demanding operation. The optimization of the desalting process is of vital importance for the !sh industry in order to assure the homogeneity and predictable concentration of sodium chloride in the !nal hydrated cod !sh product. On the other hand, consumers are more a...

  1. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  2. Direct hydride derivatization of methyl- and ethylmercury chlorides in aqueous solution with KBH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A convenient hydride derivatization procedure of methyl-and ethylmercury chlorides to volatile hydrides was reported. In sealed vials methylmercury and ethylmercury compounds in acidic aqueous solutions were converted into their volatile forms by the reaction with potassium tetrahydroborate(KBH4) and elvolved to the headspace of the vials. The gaseous analytes in the headspace were extracted and concentrated by solid phase microextraction(SPME) and injected into gas chromatography (GC) for separation and identified by mass selective detector(MS).

  3. Aqueous dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate geopolymers derived from metakaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Z.; Vance, E. R.; Perera, D. S.

    2012-05-01

    In dilute aqueous solutions, the elemental releases of Na, Al and Si from a metakaolin-based sodium aluminosilicate geopolymer were not very sensitive to pH in the range of 4-10 but increased outside this range, particularly on the acidic side. To minimise pH drifts, experiments were carried out using small amounts of graded powders in relatively large volumes of water. In deionised water, the Na dissolution rate in 7 days was dominant and increased by at least a factor of ˜4 on heating from 18 to 90 °C, with greater increases in the extractions of Al and Si. At 18 °C the elemental extractions in deionised water increased approximately linearly with time over the 1-7 days period. Further exposure led to a slower extraction into solution for Na and Si, with a decrease in extraction of Al. It was deduced that framework dissolution was important in significantly acidic or alkaline solutions, but that contributions from water transfer from pores to elemental extractions were present, even at low temperatures in neutral solutions. It was also deduced from the Na release data that the Na leaching kinetics of geopolymer in deionised water (dilute solutions) followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the pseudo-second-order rate constant evaluated. Contact with KCl, KHCO3, and pH ˜6 and 10 potassium phthalate buffer solutions gave rise to a high degree of Na+ ↔ K+ exchange and rendered the framework ions less leachable in water.

  4. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  5. Determination of Potassium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection%复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红彩

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾含量的测定方法。方法分别采用四苯硼钠重量法和容量法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钾的含量。结果四苯硼钠容量法测得氯化钾含量无显著性差异,符合分析准确度的要求。结论容量法测定方法迅速,简单快速,方便,适合药品制剂快速测定的要求。%Objective: To establish the method for the determination of the content of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection. Methods: The contents of potassium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection were determined by sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method and sodium tetraphenylborate gravimetric method respectively, the results of which were compared. Results: There was no significant dif erence in the test comparison between the determination results of volumetric method and that of the gravimetric method, and the sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method meet the accuracy requirements analysis. Conclusion: The sodium tetraphenylborate volumetric method is simple, fast and accurate, which is suitable for the requirements of rapid determination.

  6. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  7. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride in the presence of silica chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah; Alinezhad; Mahmood; Tajbakhsh; Neda; Hamidi

    2010-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of amines from aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride activated by silica chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.A variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes,ketones and amines when mixed with NaBH_4/silica chloride at room temperature,afforded excellent yield of the corresponding amines.

  8. Comparison of different methods for determination of sodium chloride in cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of NaCl (weight fraction of Cl-ions, in % was analysed in different cheeses, which were bought in supermarkets, and made by domestic manufacturers. Sodium chloride in cheese samples was analysed after the extraction of chloride by nitric acid solution. Concentration of chloride ions was potentiometricly determined, with the chloride selective electrode and titrimetricly by Volhard method. According to the results in the analysis of the content of NaCl in %, by different methods it was determined that the share of NaCl in % ranged from 0.66 to 4.43% (determined by potentiometric route that is from 0.97 to 4.72% (determined by titrimetric route by Volhard method. The difference in received results in different methods is less if the share of NaCl, in % is higher than 3%. If the share is less than 3%, the difference in results rapidly increases, and the biggest difference is when the share is less than 1%. This analysis was done according to the results received by Volhard method, which is accepted as a standard method. As Volhard method is in connection with cheese resolving by intense oxidation means, azotic acid and potassium permanganate, obligatory in fume board (hood, it is not a practical method. On the other hand, the potentiometric method with usage of the chloride-selective electrode is very simple and gives reliable and reproductive results. In case of a small content of NaCl, in %, higher precision and accuracy of determination by chloride-selective electrode can be obtained by indirect measurement of chloride-ions (by standard addition method.

  9. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  10. Impaired intestinal sodium and chloride transport in the blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Menge, H; Riecken, E O

    1987-03-01

    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum were used as a model for the blind loop syndrome in humans. Electrical resistance, short circuit current, and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes were measured using the Ussing technique. Whereas net fluxes for sodium and chloride did not differ significantly from zero in the blind loop or in the control, unidirectional fluxes of either direction were decreased and electrical resistance was increased, indicating an increase in the tightness of the intestinal wall. Measurements of alternating current impedance and micropuncture experiments revealed that this was due to an increase in epithelial resistance from 9 +/- 1 omega X cm2 (n = 15, results of both methods) to 27 +/- 4 omega X cm2 (n = 15) and in subepithelial resistance from 40 +/- 2 omega X cm2 (n = 15) to 76 +/- 7 omega X cm2 (n = 15). As the ratio of epithelial to subepithelial resistance was similar in the blind loop and in the control, lower transport rates in the blind loop are indicative of impaired epithelial transport function. Subsequently, two different transport systems were characterized. First, the 3-o-methyl-glucose-induced, phlorizin-reversible increase in short circuit current, representing glucose-coupled sodium absorption, showed a 77% decrease in maximum velocity in the blind loop and no change in Km. Second, the chloride-induced, bumetanide-reversible increase in short circuit current in tissues stimulated simultaneously by prostaglandin E1 and theophylline, representing rheogenic chloride secretion, also showed a decrease in maximum velocity (of 83%) and no change in Km. A morphometric analysis revealed that the crypt surface area increased by 100% in the blind loop, whereas the villous surface area was not significantly different between blind loops and controls. We conclude that the jejunal self-filling blind loop is characterized by impaired active ion transport processes and an increase in epithelial and subepithelial resistance.

  11. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  12. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  13. Aqueous dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate geopolymers derived from metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Z., E-mail: zaynab.aly@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Perera, D.S. [School of Materials Science, University of NSW, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dilute solutions, Na, Al and Si releases were not sensitive to pH in range 4-10. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating from 18 to 90 Degree-Sign C in DIW, Na dissolution rate increased by a factor of {approx}4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental extractions in DIW at 18 Degree-Sign C increased linearly with time over 1-7 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Na release kinetics in DIW followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact with KCl, KHCO{sub 3} and phthalate buffers (pH6 and 10) resulted in Na{sup +} {r_reversible} K{sup +} exchange. - Abstract: In dilute aqueous solutions, the elemental releases of Na, Al and Si from a metakaolin-based sodium aluminosilicate geopolymer were not very sensitive to pH in the range of 4-10 but increased outside this range, particularly on the acidic side. To minimise pH drifts, experiments were carried out using small amounts of graded powders in relatively large volumes of water. In deionised water, the Na dissolution rate in 7 days was dominant and increased by at least a factor of {approx}4 on heating from 18 to 90 Degree-Sign C, with greater increases in the extractions of Al and Si. At 18 Degree-Sign C the elemental extractions in deionised water increased approximately linearly with time over the 1-7 days period. Further exposure led to a slower extraction into solution for Na and Si, with a decrease in extraction of Al. It was deduced that framework dissolution was important in significantly acidic or alkaline solutions, but that contributions from water transfer from pores to elemental extractions were present, even at low temperatures in neutral solutions. It was also deduced from the Na release data that the Na leaching kinetics of geopolymer in deionised water (dilute solutions) followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the pseudo-second-order rate constant evaluated. Contact with KCl, KHCO{sub 3}, and pH {approx}6 and 10

  14. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  15. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  16. Intravenous bicarbonate and sodium chloride both prolong endurance during intense cycle ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B

    1990-08-01

    To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.

  17. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.O uso de cloreto de sódio (0,5 g/L e 1 g/L e zeolita (22,7 g/L foram avaliados durante o transporte (48 h de Ancistrus triradiatus em altas temperaturas (entre 24,5 e 34ºC. Os seguintes parâmetros foram monitorados: pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e amônia antes e depois do transporte. Também foi mensurada a concentração de glicose no sangue antes do transporte e 0, 24 e 48 h após o transporte. Foi realizado um teste de resistência a altas concentrações de cloreto de sódio após o transporte, sendo registrada a mortalidade no final do transporte e após 7 dias. As duas substâncias testadas aumentam a sobrevivência de A. triradiatus a altas temperaturas durante o transporte, porém o melhor resultado foi obtido com o uso de 1 g/L cloreto de sódio.

  18. Production of carbon nanofibers in high yields using a sodium chloride support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Junfeng; Kinloch, Ian A; Singh, Charanjeet; Golovko, Vladimir B; Johnson, Brian F G; Shaffer, Milo S P; Li, Yali; Windle, Alan H

    2005-09-08

    A new route for the highly convenient scalable production of carbon nanofibers on a sodium chloride support has been developed. Since the support is nontoxic and soluble in water, it can be easily removed without damage to the nanofibers and the environment. Nanofiber yields of up to 6500 wt % relative to the nickel catalyst have been achieved in a growth time of 15 min. Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the catalytically grown carbon had relatively little thermal over-growth and possessed either a herringbone or a semi-ordered nanostructure, depending on the growth conditions.

  19. The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

    2014-08-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

  20. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  1. Photochemical oxidation of chloride ion by ozone in acid aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, Alexander V; Isaykina, Oksana Ya; Amirova, Nazrin K; Antipenko, Ewald E; Lunin, Valerii V

    2015-11-01

    The experimental investigation of chloride ion oxidation under the action of ozone and ultraviolet radiation with wavelength 254 nm in the bulk of acid aqueous solution at pH 0-2 has been performed. Processes of chloride oxidation in these conditions are the same as the chemical reactions in the system O3 - OH - Cl(-)(aq). Despite its importance in the environment and for ozone-based water treatment, this reaction system has not been previously investigated in the bulk solution. The end products are chlorate ion ClO3(-) and molecular chlorine Cl2. The ions of trivalent iron have been shown to be catalysts of Cl(-) oxidation. The dependencies of the products formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and H(+) have been studied. The chemical mechanism of Cl(-) oxidation and Cl2 emission and ClO3(-) formation has been proposed. According to the mechanism, the dominant primary process of chloride oxidation represents the complex interaction with hydroxyl radical OH with the formation of Cl2(-) anion-radical intermediate. OH radical is generated on ozone photolysis in aqueous solution. The key subsequent processes are the reactions Cl2(-) + O3 → ClO + O2 + Cl(-) and ClO + H2O2 → HOCl + HO2. Until the present time, they have not been taken into consideration on mechanistic description and modelling of Cl(-) oxidation. The final products are formed via the reactions 2ClO → Cl2O2, Cl2O2 + H2O → 2H(+) + Cl(-) + ClO3(-) and HOCl + H(+) + Cl(-) ⇄ H2O + Cl2. Some portion of chloride is oxidized directly by O3 molecule with the formation of molecular chlorine in the end.

  2. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  3. Extraction of Palladium (Ⅱ) with p-Methylphenylalkylsulfide from Aqueous Chloride Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立; 章正熙; 刘旭辉; 郭亚莉; 二井晋; 竹内宽

    2005-01-01

    p-Methylphenylalkylsulfide of various alkyl chain length as extractant were synthesized and the extraction of palladium was examined in terms of equilibrium and kinetics. Distribution ratio of Pd was independent of alkyl chain length. For aqueous chloride media, there was a significant difference in distribution ratios for the solution of NaC1 and HC1. The results of loading test and the slope analysis suggest that the extractant and Pd (Ⅱ) form 2:1 complex. Furthermore, the extraction rate based on the volume of aqueous phase was obtained in a stirred vessel, and the rate equation was presented. Unfortunately, it was difficult to construct surfactant liquid membrane system by use of the present extractant.

  4. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2004-04-15

    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was

  5. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  6. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  7. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbing He; Shiyuan Xu; Junjie Huang; Qingjuan Gong

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the speciifc sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression in-creased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These ifndings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 1.

  8. Reentrant condensation of lysozyme: Implications for studying dynamics of lysozyme in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have outlined the use of eutectic solution of lithium chloride in water to study microscopic dynamics of lysozyme in an aqueous solvent that is remarkably similar to pure water in many respects, yet allows experiments over a wide temperature range without the solvent crystallization. The eutectic point in (H2O)R(LiCl) system corresponds to R 7.3, and it is of interest to investigate whether less concentrated aqueous solutions of LiCl could be employed in low-temperature studies of a solvated protein. We have investigated a range of concentrations of lysozyme and LiCl in aqueous solutions to identify systems that do not show phase separation and avoid solvent crystallization on cooling down. Compared to the lysozyme concentration in solution, the concentration of LiCl in the aqueous solvent plays the major role in determining systems suitable for low-temperature studies. We have observed interesting and rich phase behavior reminiscent of reentrant condensation of proteins.

  9. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake.

  10. Sodium chloride as effective antifungal treatment for artificial egg incubation in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policar T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sodium chloride at three different concentrations, 30 000 ppm (S30, 60 000 ppm (S60 and 90 000 ppm (S90, and formaldehyde at one concentration, 3000 ppm (F, were tested as antifungal chemicals during artificial incubation (AI of Austropotamobius pallipes eggs. Two treatments were tested without chemicals as control groups with (R and without (C the removal of dead eggs. After AI, formaldehyde treatment ensured high survival of stage 1 (89.7 ± 2.3% and stage 2 (85.5 ± 2.4% of juveniles. However, comparable survival rate to stage 1 and stage 2 (85.5 ± 5.5% and 80.6 ± 3.2% were also found in the treatment with the highest sodium chloride concentration (S90. Significantly lower survival rate of juveniles (stage 1: 60.6–70.3% and stage 2: 56.1–67.3% were evident in groups S60, S30 and R. However, group R demanded high labor and related costs. The lowest juvenile survival levels to stage 1 (46.4 ± 8.2% and stage 2 (45.2 ± 6.8% were observed in treatments without fungicide chemicals and removal of dead eggs (C.

  11. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The optimum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liquid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  12. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  13. Influence of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate to Aging of Laponite Aqueous Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Laponite aqueous suspensions are widely used in science and industry. Recently polymer-Laponite composites attached great attention due to their remarkable physical properties. In present paper study of aging process of aqueous suspension of Laponite and sodium polystyrene sulfonate is described. For investigation two methods were used: smallangle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology. Concentration of Laponite were fixed at 2.5%wt and concentration ...

  14. A hybridization approach to efficient TiO{sub 2} photodegradation of aqueous benzalkonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchithra, Padmajan Sasikala, E-mail: schithraps@gmail.com [Research group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, University Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Research group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, University Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Ananthakumar, Solaippan [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Trivandrum 695019 (India); Yperman, Jan, E-mail: jan.yperman@uhasselt.be [Research group of Applied and Analytical Chemistry, University Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Hybridization of AC onto TiO{sub 2} tends the catalyst surface negatively charged besides providing highly favorable adsorptions sites for cationic surfactants. The photodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) is investigated. - Highlights: • Activated carbon-TiO{sub 2} composite (ACT) surface tends negative upon UV irradiation. • ACT effectively photodegrade cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BKC). • Optimum pH for UV-photodegradation of BKC is 8 to 9 and reaction time is 2 h. • Aromatic moiety of BKC is degraded faster than long alkyl chain. • UV–vis spectroscopy is sensitive to detect aqueous BKC from 1 μg/mL. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} get positively charged upon UV-irradiation and repel the cationic pollutants away from the surface. Hybridization of AC onto TiO{sub 2} (ACT) tends catalyst surface negatively charged besides providing highly favorable adsorptions sites for cationic pollutants. The photodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a quaternary ammonium surfactant and a pharmaceutical, is investigated with ACT. The surface charge of the catalyst in surfactant and non-surfactant aqueous dispersion under UV-irradiation is investigated and explained. The anomalous increase in COD values at the beginning of BKC-photodegradation is explained. The intermediate products formed are identified in both solution and solid phase. Trace amount of dodecane remained adsorbed on the catalyst surface after 1 h UV-irradiation, but complete mineralization of BKC is achieved with 2 h UV-irradiation. We propose that BKC photodegradation starts by central fission of benzyl C−N bond followed by dealkylation, and demethylation steps.

  15. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in the formulation of French bread: effect on the physical, physicochemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Abrantes Souza GUSMÃO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6% by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8% in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1, compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1 salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.

  16. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist, stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments, Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.  Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when

  17. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  18. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  20. Determination of Trace Iodide in Sodium Bisulfite Aqueous Solution by Ion Chromatography with UV Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Choi, K.S.; Park, S.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The iodide was recovered from a simulated spent fuel to the sodium bisulfite aqueous solution. It was discussed that the trace iodide (below 1 ppm) was determined without the matrix effect of 0.1 M sodium bisulfite and 1 mM HNO{sub 3} in aqueous solution by ion chromatography with UV detection. AS4A-SC(DIONEX) column and UV-absorption spectrophotometer were used. The UV-absorption spectra of sodium bisulfite nitric acid and iodide were obtained, and then 230 nm was selected as an absorption wavelength for iodide determination. 0.1 M NaCl eluent was optimum condition. In this condition the calibration curve of iodide was obtained on the range of about 0-1,000 ppb. The linear coefficient was 0.99993 and the detection limit was 5 ppb. The relative standard deviation was 1.26%. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    was the main electrolyte. The direct electrochemical treatment showed a first order degradation of COD with an optimal energy consumption of 110 kWh/kg CODr. At constant current, addition of sodium chloride resulted in increased degradation up to 2%, whereas no further degradation was obtained at higher....... The experiments proved that the obtained degradation of pesticide solely was caused by indirect electrochemical oxidation, mainly due to the electrolytic formation of hypochlorite during the treatment, and that direct electron transfer from the pesticide substances at the anode surface didn't significantly...... calculations of rate constants using the actual experimental conditions and reactor design. These calculations showed that assuming first order degradation rate, direct oxidation of the non-ionic pesticide substances due to mass diffusion, despite of turbulent conditions in the reactor, was negligible compared...

  2. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infrinite Dilution in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics(MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2K to 763.2K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa ,Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation,an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed,Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data,and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2K to 803.2K and from 25 MPa to 50MPa show that this equation is applicable for calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  4. Analysis of corrosion behavior of LY12 in sodium chloride solution with wavelet transform technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 曹发和; 程英亮; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms(WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limitations of fast Fourier transforms(FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise(EN) data. The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposing electrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients(distinct type of events), which contains information about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. In this context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transform technique. The typical results show that the EN signal is composed of distinct type of events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants. Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot(EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of EN signals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  6. The effects of elevated levels of sodium chloride on ascites and related problems in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W D; Ferguson, A E; Pettit, J R; Cunnigham, D C

    1975-01-01

    The response of young poults to diets containing 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.7 per cent sodium chloride was studied. Water intake, feed intake and wieght gain were not significantly influenced by treatment. Only the highest level caused a significant increase in mortality. Ascites was not a consistent finding even on high levels of salt. A straight line best described the response but confidence limits were large and this was also true for heart, kidney and lung lesions. Lesions showing myocardial distension with pericardial adhesions, severe congestion of the lungs and enlarged pale kidneys seemed more indicative of salt intoxication than classic ascites. Microscopically heterophilic (eosinophilic) lung and meningeal infiltrates accompanied by myocardial degeneration and adhesions were suggestive, but not specific, of salt intoxication.

  7. CORROSION MONITORING OF LY12 IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q. Zhang; Z. Zhang; J.M. Wang; H.B. Shao; C.N. Cao

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous electrochemical noise (EN) can be a rich source of information concerning the processes simultaneously occurring on a corroding interface. But the noise signal is often difficult to be analyzed due to the complicated nature of the specific systems being investigated. In this paper, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with different techniques. The typical results showed that the fractal dimension (D,n) obtained from spectral power density (SPD) is mainly directly proportional to the intensity of pitting corrosion and to the value of pitting parameter (SE) derived from dimensional analysis, while the fractal dimension (DE) obtained from EIS is mainly related to the uniform corrosion.

  8. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  9. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  10. A hybridization approach to efficient TiO2 photodegradation of aqueous benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchithra, Padmajan Sasikala; Carleer, Robert; Ananthakumar, Solaippan; Yperman, Jan

    2015-08-15

    TiO2 get positively charged upon UV-irradiation and repel the cationic pollutants away from the surface. Hybridization of AC onto TiO2 (ACT) tends catalyst surface negatively charged besides providing highly favorable adsorptions sites for cationic pollutants. The photodegradation of benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a quaternary ammonium surfactant and a pharmaceutical, is investigated with ACT. The surface charge of the catalyst in surfactant and non-surfactant aqueous dispersion under UV-irradiation is investigated and explained. The anomalous increase in COD values at the beginning of BKC-photodegradation is explained. The intermediate products formed are identified in both solution and solid phase. Trace amount of dodecane remained adsorbed on the catalyst surface after 1h UV-irradiation, but complete mineralization of BKC is achieved with 2h UV-irradiation. We propose that BKC photodegradation starts by central fission of benzyl CN bond followed by dealkylation, and demethylation steps.

  11. Aromatic quinoxaline as corrosion inhibitor for bronze in aqueous chloride solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Saoudi; A Bellaouchou; A Guenbour; A Ben Bachir; E M Essassi; M El Achouri

    2010-06-01

    A new corrosion inhibitor, viz. 3-ethyl-6-méthyl-quinoxalin-2-one, 1-benzyl-6-methyl-quinoxalin- 2-one, 2-benzyloxy-3,6-dimethyl-quinoxaline, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-quinoxalin-2-one, were synthesized in the laboratory. Their influence on the inhibition on corrosion of bronze in aqueous chloride solution (3% NaCl) was studied by electrochemical polarization methods and weight-loss measurements. The impact of temperature on the effectiveness of the substances mentioned above has been determined between 20 and 60°C. The results showed that the corrosion resistance was greatly enhanced in the presence of inhibitor and that the effectiveness depends on some physicochemical properties of the molecule, related to its functional groups. These compounds act through the formation of a protective film on the surface of the alloy.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  14. Supplementation of fibrin gels with sodium chloride enhances physical properties and ensuing osteogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H E; Miller, S L; Case, E M; Leach, J K

    2011-02-01

    Modifying the relative concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin can control the physical properties of fibrin gels, while the viability of associated cells has been linked to the gel's final network structure. It was hypothesized that increasing the gel ionic strength during fabrication through supplementation with sodium chloride (NaCl) would provide an improved approach for tailoring the physical properties of fibrin gels and maintaining the viability and osteogenic potential of entrapped cells. Fibrin gels were formed by mixing fibrinogen, thrombin and calcium chloride with varying masses of NaCl (0-4.40% w/v), and the osteogenic potential of entrapped human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was examined over 14 days. Physical properties including gelation time, compressive modulus and fiber diameter were dependent upon NaCl content, with gels containing 2.60% NaCl possessing compressive moduli threefold higher than gels without NaCl. Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest for MSC entrapped in gels containing 2.15-2.60% NaCl after 14 days, and all gels exhibited increased calcium incorporation over the culture period. These data confirm that varying the salt concentration of the pre-gel solution can modulate the material properties of fibrin constructs without additional fibrinogen or thrombin, thereby offering a new approach for generating improved cell transplantation vehicles for use in bone tissue regeneration.

  15. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  16. Dechlorination of Aromatic Chlorides in Aqueous System Catalyzed by Functionalized MontK10 Supported Palladium-tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel bisupporter bimetal catalyst PVP-PdCl2-SnCl4/MontK10-PEG400, using for dehalogenation of insoluable aromatic halides in aqueous system, has shown high dechlorination activity and selectivity, without any organic solvent or phase transfer catalyst. The conversion of aromatic chlorides can reach 100%. The catalyst is easy to prepare and has good reusability.

  17. Controlling the structure and rheology of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous suspensions for fabricating advanced nanopaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Liangbing; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard; Zhong, Linxin

    Due to its abundance, low-cost, biocompatibility and renewability, cellulose has become an attractive candidate as a functional material for various advanced applications. A key to novel applications is the control of the structure and rheology of suspensions of fibrous cellulose. Among many different approaches of preparing cellulose suspensions, zinc chloride addition to aqueous suspensions is regarded an effective practice. In this study, effects of ZnCl2 concentration on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOC) nanofiber suspensions have been investigated. Highly-transparent cellulose nanofiber suspension can be rapidly obtained by dissolving TOC in 65 wt.% zinc chloride aqueous solutions at room temperature, whereas a transparent zinc ion cross-linked TOC gel could be obtained with zinc chloride concentration as low as 10 wt. %. The structural and rheological characteristics of TOC/ZnCl2 suspensions have been measured to correlate to the performance of thetransparent and flexible nanocellulose paper subsequently produced via vacuum filtration or wet-casting processes.

  18. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  19. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanhanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  20. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU GaoXiang; ZHENG ShuiLin; DING Hao

    2009-01-01

    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The op-timum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liq-uid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  1. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  2. CEN standard for water-soluble chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels; CEN standard for vandoploeseligt chlorid, natrium og kalium i faste biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In 2000 a European work of standardization for 'Solid bio-fuels' under CEN/TC 335 was started. In Denmark this work is followed through the Danish mirror committee S-358. Denmark was asked to prepare a draft for a European standard concerning determination of the water-soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The draft should be based on the Danish 'Recommended analysis methods' no. 10 and 11 concerning respectively the determination of the water-soluble content of chloride and the water soluble content of sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a fuel is important for the use of the fuel, as high contents can contribute significantly to utilisation problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. The gaseous emissions from the thermal processes may also be affected. Concerning sodium and potassium it is furthermore the content of the water-soluble and readily volatile salts which is problematic in relation with energy conversion processes. Sodium and potassium bound in non-water soluble compounds as clay minerals (silicates) normally will not volatilises during the process and therefore do not contribute to the formation of deposits. A determination of the water-soluble content of sodium and potassium is therefore not an alternative routine method for sodium and potassium, but a separate method for a determination of the 'aggressive' contents of sodium and potassium. For some solid bio-fuels the water-soluble contents will however be equal to the total contents, this goes for instance for potassium in straw. There is a very large variation in the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium for the different types of solid bio-fuel, from the low contents in clean wood to contents in percentage in straw. Knowledge of the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a bio-fuel is thus important in relation to e.g. plant design and fuel purchasing

  3. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively.

  4. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Cadmium on the Growth, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunsheng; XU Ying; JIANG Wei; LV Xin; DONG Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly under-stood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6%NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory ef-fect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  5. Sulfur removal from Gediz lignite using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions under mild oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1999-11-01

    Sulfur removal from a high-sulfur Turkish lignite (Gediz) using aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions having dissolved oxygen was investigated under mild oxidative conditions. Effects of the parameters such as sodium hydroxide/lignite weight ratio, temperature, and partial pressure of oxygen were investigated within the ranges of 0.05--0.8, 423--498 K, and 1--2 MPa, respectively. Optimum values of these parameters were determined regarding sulfur removal and coal recovery. Influences of dry oxidation of the lignite sample as a pretreatment at 573 K and subsequent washing of some treated lignite samples with 1 N HCl were investigated.

  6. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O R Pal; V G Gaikar; J V Joshi; P S Goyal; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium -butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

  8. Rheological properties of wormlike micelles formed in the sodium oleate/trisodium phosphate aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Qiang Ji; Wei Shan Wang; Gan Zuo Li; Li Qiang Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous solution of anionic surfactant,sodium oleate (NaOA),was studied by means of steady-state shear rheology and dynamic oscillatory technique.The system of NaOA/Na3PO4 showed high viscosity,strong viscoelasticity and good ability of countering Ca2+,Mg2+.The Maxwell model and Cole-Cole plot were applied to study the dynamic viscoelasticity of wormlike micelles.The microstructures of the wormlike micelles were characterized by FF-TEM.

  9. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  10. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  11. Lack of the sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE impairs visual function in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hilgen

    Full Text Available Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10, a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pH(i and chloride concentration ([Cl(-](i in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABA(A receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pH(i regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

  12. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (pbacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  13. Effect of Protonation on the Solution and Phase Behavior of Aqueous Sodium Myristate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen; Franses

    2000-11-01

    Aqueous sodium myristate solutions have been shown to have unusually low dynamic tensions (1-10 mN/m) under pulsating area conditions. These solutions have no sharp solubility limit, evidently because they are protonated (or "hydrolyzed") to form the much less soluble myristic acid and acid soaps. With no added electrolytes, the protonation fraction is 1% or less. The apparent protonation equilibrium "constant" increases with increasing concentration, indicating strong solution nonidealities, in addition to micellization. This protonation seems to affect the solution and phase behavior of aqueous sodium myristate strongly, as evidenced by the effect of added NaOH. Ion-selective electrodes (for Na(+) and H(+)) and conductimetry indicate that at 25 degrees C dissolved surfactant concentrations keep increasing well after dispersed particles are observed (2 mM). A cmc of about 4.5 mM, micelles of aggregation number n=70 and counterion binding parameter beta=0.7 are inferred from these techniques. The cmc of sodium myristate increases slightly with temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C. FTIR analysis of the filtered particles indicates that the dispersed particles are mainly acid soaps for concentrations less than 6 mM. With 10 mM NaOH, the particles observed above 2 mM consist mostly of sodium myristate. From both conductivity and IR data, the solubility of sodium myristate in water at 25 degrees C is estimated to be about 6 mM, and as expected, it increases with increasing temperature and decreases with increasing sodium ion concentration. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  16. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  17. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  18. Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-P Deposits in a Sodium Chloride Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaC1 solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

  19. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  20. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H

    2016-04-01

    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-), and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+)-excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+)-accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+), all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance.

  1. WATER AND SODIUM CHLORIDE EFFECTS ON Mimosa Tenuiflora (WILLD. POIRET SEED GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Alves Bakke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and saline soils of the Brazilian semi-arid northeastern region are limiting factors to the development of many plants. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret is a small, multiple use tree that abundantly colonizes unfavorable sites, including environments with severe water stress. This work had the objective of investigating the tolerance of jurema preta seeds to water and salt stresses during germination. Seeds germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 and sodium chloride (NaCl solutions was analyzed under five different osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2MPa, in order to simulate water and salt stress, respectively, in four 100-seed replications for each treatment. Seeds were placed into 10cmx10cmx4cm boxes, and germination accomplished in BOD germinator adjusted to 30oC. The number of germinated seeds was monitored every 24 hours, and percentage and speed of seed germination were generated from these data. Mean percentage germination in the control treatment was ~95%, reducing to 63-53% at -0.9 to -1.2-MPa PEG solutions, and to 27- 9.5% at NaCl solutions at equivalent osmotic potentials. Velocity of germination index was more affected, and decreased up to 1/8 of the control, at -0.6 MPa. Jurema preta seeds showed lower tolerance to NaCl than to water stress, and this species can be classified as a glycophyte.

  2. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  3. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1999-02-01

    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  4. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    OpenAIRE

    Rocchio MA; Belisle CD; Greenwood BC; Cotugno MC; Szumita PM

    2013-01-01

    Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of suc...

  5. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchio MA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797.Methods: At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F], and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours.Results: The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL.Conclusion: Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours

  6. Lithium chloride ionic association in dilute aqueous solution: a constrained molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Duan, Zhenhao

    2004-02-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the lithium chloride ionic associations in dilute aqueous solutions over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediated potentials of mean force have been carefully calculated at different thermodynamic conditions. Two intermediate states of ionic association can be well identified with an energy barrier from the oscillatory free energy profile. Clear pictures for the microscopic association structures are presented with a remarkable feature of strong hydration effect of lithium ion and the bridging role of its hydrating complex. Experimental association constants have been reasonably reproduced and a general trend of the increasing ionic association at high temperatures and low densities was observed. Additional simulations with different numbers of water molecules have been performed to check the possible artifacts introducing from periodic and finite size effects and confirm the reliability of our simulation results. Marginal differences of the simulated curves are believed to result from the significant compensation and canceling effect between the bare ionic forces and solvent induced mean force. Finally we confirmed the importance of accurate descriptions of dielectric properties of solvent in the ionic association study.

  7. Optimized atomistic force fields for aqueous solutions of Magnesium and Calcium Chloride: Analysis, achievements and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfgen, Roman; Hülsmann, Marco; Krämer, Andreas; Köddermann, Thorsten; Kirschner, Karl N.; Reith, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Molecular simulations are an important tool in the study of aqueous salt solutions. To predict the physical properties accurately and reliably, the molecular models must be tailored to reproduce experimental data. In this work, a combination of recent global and local optimization tools is used to derive force fields for MgCl2 (aq) and CaCl2 (aq). The molecular models for the ions are based on a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with a superimposed point charge. The LJ parameters are adjusted to reproduce the bulk density and shear viscosity of the different solutions at 1 bar and temperatures of 293.15, 303.15, and 318.15 K. It is shown that the σ-value of chloride consistently has the strongest influence on the system properties. The optimized force field for MgCl2 (aq) provides both properties in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of salt concentrations. For CaCl2 (aq), a compromise was made between the bulk density and shear viscosity, since reproducing the two properties requires two different choices of the LJ parameters. This is demonstrated by studying metamodels of the simulated data, which are generated to visualize the correlation between the parameters and observables by using projection plots. Consequently, in order to derive a transferable force field, an error of ˜3% on the bulk density has to be tolerated to yield the shear viscosity in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  8. Mercury adsorption on granular activated carbon in aqueous solutions containing nitrates and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, F; Erto, A; Lancia, A; Musmarra, D

    2011-09-15

    Adsorption is an effective process to remove mercury from polluted waters. In spite of the great number of experiments on this subject, the assessment of the optimal working conditions for industrial processes is suffering the lack of reliable models to describe the main adsorption mechanisms. This paper presents a critical analysis of mercury adsorption on an activated carbon, based on the use of chemical speciation analysis to find out correlations between mercury adsorption and concentration of dissolved species. To support this analysis, a comprehensive experimental study on mercury adsorption at different mercury concentrations, temperatures and pH was carried out in model aqueous solutions. This study pointed out that mercury capture occurs mainly through adsorption of cationic species, the adsorption of anions being significant only for basic pH. Furthermore, it was shown that HgOH(+) and Hg(2+) are captured to a higher extent than HgCl(+), but their adsorption is more sensitive to solution pH. Tests on the effect of temperature in a range from 10 to 55 °C showed a peculiar non-monotonic trend for mercury solution containing chlorides. The chemical speciation and the assumption of adsorption exothermicity allow describing this experimental finding without considering the occurrence of different adsorption mechanisms at different temperature.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  10. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; JinXian

    2001-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).  ……

  11. Microwave Assisted Cross-Coupling Reaction of Sodium Tetraphenylborate with Aroyl Chlorides on Palladium-Doped KF/Al2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organoborate compounds with organic electrophiles is very attractive method for organic synthesis. These coupling reactions offer a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. 1 In the past few years a number of methods have been devoloped which permit the use of organoboron compounds that are thermally stable and inert to water and oxygen. Further these coupling reactions have been used successfully for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutical intermediates, and combinatiorial libraries of organic compounds. Sodium tetraphenylborate is a stable, non-toxic and has been used as a phenylating agent affording σ-phenyl complexes of various transition metals by the transfer of a phenyl group from boron to metals. Phenyl transfer from this reagent to some organopalladium complexes making a new carbon-carbon bond has also been noted. Uemura and Huang reported respectively that Pd(0) or Si-P-Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of acyl chlorides and NaBPh4 proceeded in THF to give the corresponding phenyl ketones. However, only one phenyl group out of four in the borate was available for transfer. Recently, Bumagin reported that the cross-coupling reaction of NaBPh4 with acyl chlorides in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Na2CO3 in dry or aqueous acetone to give high yields of unsymmetric ketones. However, the reaction time is long(1-6 h).

  12. Frequency-dependent environmental fatigue crack propagation in the 7XXX alloy/aqueous chloride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasem, Zuhair Mattoug

    The need to predict the fatigue performance of aging aerospace structures has focused interest on environmentally assisted cracking in thick-section damage-tolerant aluminum alloys (AA). The objective of this research is to characterize and understand the time-dependent processes that govern environmental fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) in 7XXX series aluminum alloys exposed to an aggressive environment. Results are utilized to identify the rate-controlling step in growth enhancement in order to develop a mechanistic model describing the time dependency of EFCP. Aluminum alloy 7075, tested in the sensitive (SL) orientation and exposed to aqueous chloride solution, is studied. Da/dNcrit for different D K levels depends on 1/√fcrit, as predicted by process zone hydrogen-diffusion-limited crack growth modeling. A model based on hydrogen diffusion controlled growth is modified to include a stress-dependent critical hydrogen concentration normalized with the crack tip hydrogen concentration (Ccrit/CS). It is proposed that da/dNcrit for a given D K and R corresponds to the distance ahead of the crack tip where the local tensile stress associated with Kmax is maximum. The reversed plasticity estimate of this location equals da/dNcrit for two aging conditions of 7075 (SL)/NaCl at R = 0.1. The EFCP dependencies on alloy microstructure (T6 vs. T7), crack orientation (SL vs. LT), and stress ratio are measured and interpreted based on their effect on da/dN crit and fcrit as well as environmental closure. Chromate addition to the chloride solution eliminates the environmental acceleration of crack growth and reduces corrosion-product induced closure. In chromate-inhibited solution, the frequency dependence of EFCP in 7075 (SL) is unique. Da/dN is reduced at moderate and low frequencies to a value similar to crack growth rate in moist air, probably due to formation of a passive film which inhibits hydrogen uptake. Inhibition is mitigated by increasing frequency or increasing

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of dimethyl sulphoxide by sodium bromate-sodium bisulphite reagent in aqueous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Viroopakshappa; V Jagannadham

    2002-04-01

    Rates of oxidation of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) by HOBr produced in situ from sodium bromate-sodium bisulphite reagent have been studied iodometrically in aqueous medium. The order in [DMSO] is one when [DMSO] < 0.01 mol dm-3, fractional when [DMSO] is between 0.01 and 0.5 mol dm-3 and zero when (DMSO) < 0.5 mol dm-3. Different rate laws are operative under these three conditions though HOBr is the effective oxidizing species in all the cases. A mechanism involving an intermediate four-membered cyclic transition state between DMSO and HOBr (formation constant ), which decomposes in a slow step with a rate constant () has been proposed. Thermodynamic parameters for the adduct formation step and activation parameters for the first-order decomposition of the adduct step have been evaluated in the temperature range 308-323 K. Activation parameters have also been determined while the orders in [DMSO] are unity and zero. The reaction product has been identified as dimethyl sulphone (DMSO2).

  14. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  15. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  16. Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z; Ravnsbaek, DB; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM

    2014-07-01

    Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) synthesized as fine carbon-coated powders is demonstrated for the first time to be a suitable sodium-bearing anode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries (ANaBs). Importantly, Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) is found to be stable in deoxygenated water, enabling use of this material in aqueous systems. As a sodiated anode, it allows use of sodium-depleted cathode materials that require supply of sodium-ions from the anode. As an example, we demonstrate for the first time the use of olivine FePO4 as a cathode in an ANaB. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system Part II: Desiccant regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumo, Nelson [Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tachira, San Cristobal (Venezuela); Goswami, Yogi [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant systems have been proposed as alternative to handle the latent load in vapor compression air conditioning for energy saving. The air dehumidification occurs because of the difference in vapor pressure which let the moisture diffuse from the air to the liquid desiccant. The diffused moisture cause a dilution of the desiccant which must be regenerated to return it to the original conditions. This paper presents the results from a study of the performance of a packed tower regenerator for an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant dehumidification system. The rate of water evaporation, as well as the effectiveness of the regeneration process were assessed under the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, and desiccant temperature and concentration. A variation of the oeberg and Goswami mathematical model was used to predict the experimental findings given satisfactory results. [Spanish] Se han propuesto sistemas desecantes para hacerse cargo de la carga latente en acondicionamiento de aire por compresion de vapor para el ahorro de energia. La deshumidificacion del aire ocurre en razon de la diferencia de presion de vapor que deja la humedad difusa del aire en el desecante liquido. La humedad difusa del aire origina una dilucion del desecante el cual debe de ser regenerado para regresarlo a sus condiciones originales. Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre el comportamiento de un regenerador de torre empacada para un sistema de deshumidificacion de solucion desecante de cloruro de litio. El regimen de evaporacion de agua, asi como tambien la efectividad del proceso de regeneracion que se evaluo bajo los efectos de variables tales como los regimenes de flujo de aire y de desecante, temperatura del aire y humedad, y temperatura y concentracion del desecante. Una variacion del modelo matematico de Oberg y Goswami se uso para predecir los resultados experimentales que dieron resultados satisfactorios.

  18. Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system Part I: Air dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumo, Nelson [Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tachira, San Cristobal (Venezuela); Goswami, Yogi [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternative to vapor compression air conditioning for handling the latent load. Use of liquid desiccants offers several design and performance advantages over solid desiccants, especially when solar energy is used for regeneration. For liquid-gas contact, packed towers with low pressure drop have offered good heat and mass transfer characteristics for compact designs. This paper presents the results from a study of the performance of a packed tower absorber for an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant dehumidification system. The rate of dehumidification, as well as the effectiveness of the dehumidification process were assessed under the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, and desiccant temperature and concentration. A variation of the oeberg and Goswami mathematical model was used to predict the experimental findings given satisfactory results. [Spanish] Se han propuesto sistemas de desecacion como una alternativa de ahorro de energia para el acondicionamiento de aire mediante la compresion de vapor para manejar la carga latente. El uso de desecantes liquidos ofrece varias ventajas de diseno y de rendimiento sobre los desecantes solidos, especialmente cuando la energia solar se usa para la regeneracion. Para el contacto liquido-gas han dado buenas caracteristicas de transferencia de masa para disenos compactos las torres empacadas con baja caida de presion. Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio del comportamiento de un absorbedor de torre empacada para una solucion acuosa de desecante de cloruro de litio como sistema de deshumidificacion. El regimen de deshumidificacion asi como tambien la eficiencia del proceso de deshumidificacion se evaluo bajo los efectos de variables tales como regimenes de flujo de aire y de desecante, temperatura del aire y humedad, y concentracion y temperatura del desecante. Se uso una variante de modelo matematico de

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Liu; Fen-Fen Yu; Yi-Min Zhong; Xin-Xing Guo; Zhen Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity.Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients' quality of life and compliance.This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.Methods:Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes),who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria,were included in the analysis.All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment.In the SH-treated group (56 eyes),unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.In the control group (55 eyes),phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days.Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire,break-up time (BUT) test,corneal fluorescein staining,corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining,Schirmer test,and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91.Results:Compared with the control group,SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test:H =38.668,P < 0.001),fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test:z =-3.843,P< 0.001,and z =-3.508,P < 0.001,respectively),increase in tear film BUT (t-test:t =-10.994,P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test:t =-10.328,P < 0.001) on day 91.The goblet cell density was increased (t-test:t =-9.981,P < 0.001),and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment.Conclusions:SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity,and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment.

  20. The ionic product of water in concentrated tetramethylammonium chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, P; Bódi, I; May, P M; Hefter, G T

    1997-04-01

    The ionic product of water, pK(w) = - log[H(+)][OH(-)] has been determined in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride over the concentration range of 0.1-5.5 M at 25 degrees C using high-precision glass electrode potentiometric titrations. pK(w) data relating to aqueous potassium and sodium chlorides at ionic strengths up to 5 M are markedly lower than the tetramethylammonium chloride results. These differences are almost certainly due to weak associations between potassium and (especially) sodium and hydroxide ions.

  1. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  2. An Ambient Temperature Molten Sodium-Vanadium Battery with Aqueous Flowing Catholyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihong; Shamie, Jack S; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we have investigated the key factors dictating the cyclic performance of a new type of hybrid sodium-based flow batteries (HNFBs) that can operate at room temperature with high cell voltages (>3 V), multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, and decoupled design of power and energy. HNFBs are composed of a molten Na-Cs alloy anode, flowing aqueous catholyte, and a Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte as the separator. The surface functionalization of graphite felt electrodes for the flowing aqueous catholyte has been studied for its effectiveness in enhancing V(2+)/V(3+), V(3+)/V(4+), and V(4+)/V(5+) redox couples. The V(4+)/V(5+) redox reaction has been further investigated at different cell operation temperatures for its cyclic stability and how the properties of the solid electrolyte membrane play a role in cycling. These fundamental understandings provide guidelines for improving the cyclic performance and stability of HNFBs with aqueous catholytes. We show that the HNFB with aqueous V-ion catholyte can reach high storage capacity (∼70% of the theoretical capacity) with good Coulombic efficiency (90% ± 1% in 2-30 cycles) and cyclic performance (>99% capacity retention for 30 cycles). It demonstrates, for the first time, the potential of high capacity HNFBs with aqueous catholytes, good capacity retention and long cycling life. This is also the first demonstration that Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte can be used with aqueous electrolyte at near room temperature for more than 30 cycles.

  3. The Photocatalyzed Reduction of Aqueous Sodium Carbonate Using Nano SrFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Heterogenous photocatalyzed reduction of aqueous Na2CO3 has been carried out byusing nano SrFeO3 semiconductor powders. Formic acid, formaldehyde and methyl alcoholwere identified as photoproducts, and were measured spectrophotometrically. The effect of thevariation of different parameters such as sodium carbonate concentration, amount of photocatalystand different light sources on the yield of photoproducts was also investigated. It shows thatnano SrFeO3 has photocatalytic activity. Irradiation leads to the production of electrons in theconduction band of the SrFeO3 semiconductor. It is likely that the photoproduced electronsreduce CO32- initially to HCOO-, and then to HCHO and CH3OH.

  4. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  5. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  6. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  7. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  8. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  9. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  10. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: Influence of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: aguerrero@ietcc.csic.es; Goni, S. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: sgoni@ietcc.csic.es; Allegro, V.R. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: allegro@ietcc.csic.es

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5 M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 deg. C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  11. Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jo; Wu, Wei; Chun, Sang-Eun; Whitacre, Jay F; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2013-12-24

    Biodegradable electronics represents an attractive and emerging paradigm in medical devices by harnessing simultaneous advantages afforded by electronically active systems and obviating issues with chronic implants. Integrating practical energy sources that are compatible with the envisioned operation of transient devices is an unmet challenge for biodegradable electronics. Although high-performance energy storage systems offer a feasible solution, toxic materials and electrolytes present regulatory hurdles for use in temporary medical devices. Aqueous sodium-ion charge storage devices combined with biocompatible electrodes are ideal components to power next-generation biodegradable electronics. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of melanin pigments for use in energy storage devices. Melanins of natural (derived from Sepia officinalis) and synthetic origin are evaluated as anode materials in aqueous sodium-ion storage devices. Na(+)-loaded melanin anodes exhibit specific capacities of 30.4 ± 1.6 mAhg(-1). Full cells composed of natural melanin anodes and λ-MnO2 cathodes exhibit an initial potential of 1.03 ± 0.06 V with a maximum specific capacity of 16.1 ± 0.8 mAhg(-1). Natural melanin anodes exhibit higher specific capacities compared with synthetic melanins due to a combination of beneficial chemical, electrical, and physical properties exhibited by the former. Taken together, these results suggest that melanin pigments may serve as a naturally occurring biologically derived charge storage material to power certain types of medical devices.

  12. [Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-modified activated carbon as the adsorbent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Jing; Lin, Jian-Wei; Zhan, Yan-Hui; Fang, Qiao; Yang, Meng-Juan; Wang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Surfactant-modified activated carbon (SMAC) was prepared by loading cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) onto activated carbon and used as adsorbents to remove nitrate from aqueous solution. The SMAC was effective for removing nitrate from aqueous solution. The SMAC exhibited much higher nitrate adsorption capacity than that of the unmodified activated carbon. The nitrate adsorption capacity for SMAC increased with increasing the CPC loading. The adsorption kinetics of nitrate on SMAC followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data of nitrate on SMAC could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model. Based on the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum nitrate adsorption capacity for SMAC with CPC loading amount of444 mmol per 1 kg activated carbon was determined to be 16.1 mg x g(-1). The nitrate adsorption capacity for SMAC decreased with the increasing solution pH. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate reduced the nitrate adsorption capacity. The nitrate adsorption capacity for SMAC slightly decreased with the increasing reaction temperature. Almost 95% of nitrate molecules adsorbed on SMAC could be desorbed in 1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution. The main mechanisms for the adsorption of nitrate on SMAC are anionic exchange and electrostatic attraction. The results of this work indicate that SMAC is a promising adsorbent for removing nitrate from aqueous solution.

  13. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  14. 氯化钠对锂离子电池石墨负极的修饰改性%Modification of Graphite Anode for Li-ion Batteries by Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友元; 李新海; 郭华军; 王志兴; 杨勇; 朱文明

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of a graphite electrode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was improved by pretreatment of graphite powders with NaCl aqueous solutions. The procedure of the pretreatment was simple and easy. Graphite powders were dispersed in the aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, followed by stirring, heating and drying. The irreversible capacity at the initial cycle was suppressed by the modification. The sample modified with 1% NaCl had the best electrochemical performances with a reversible capacity of 364.8mAh·g-1, an irreversible capacity of 47.4 mAh·g-1, and an initial coulombic efficiency of 88.5%. The cycling stability of the Li/C cells with modified graphite as anodes was improved. The capacity retention ratio at the 30th cycle was up to 91.97%.

  15. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  16. Influence of sodium polyacrylate on the rheology of aqueous Laponite dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanda, Jordi; Llorens, Joan

    2005-09-01

    Aqueous Laponite dispersions containing a sodium polyacrylate were analyzed, at fixed ionic strength and pH, by rheometric and electroacoustic (for zeta-potential determinations) techniques at 7 days after their preparation. The rheological behavior of these dispersions was determined by oscillatory and flow experiments. Addition of sodium polyacrylate modifies the interactions between Laponite particles and therefore the physical state of the dispersion. The phase diagram of Laponite dispersion as a function of sodium polyacrylate concentration shows different sol-gel transitions for a specific Laponite concentration as a function of the polyacrylate concentration. Under equilibrium flow conditions the Laponite dispersions fit the pseudoplastic Oswald-de Waele power law model. At the same time, these dispersions show thixotropy, which was analyzed using a second-order kinetic equation. The kinetic processes were characterized by breakdown and build-up parameters, which were found to depend on shear rate. This kinetic equation was modified by a power law exponent of viscosity with shear rate that takes into account the viscosity variations when the shear rates are suddenly changed, in order to fit the hysteresis loops.

  17. Recovery of nickel from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate and polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiahui; Qin, Shu; Davidson, Joshua; Li, Wenxi; He, Yiliang; Zhou, H Susan

    2013-01-15

    The recovery of nickel from aqueous dilute solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied. Experiments were performed as a function of aqueous pH, polymer/Ni(2+) ratio and background electrolyte concentration. At optimum experimental conditions, the nickel removal rate reaches 99.5% using PAAS and 93.0% using PEI as the complexation agent. The nickel removal rate was found to decrease as the adding salt NaCl concentration increases for both complexation agents. A series of experiments implied that the mechanism could be the compressing electric double layer other than the competitive complexation. Diafiltration technique was further performed to regenerate complexation agents and recover nickel. The nickel removal rates were found to be close to those obtained with the original PEI and PAAS. Finally, Langmuir-type binding isotherm equation was employed to evaluate the extent of nickel bound to PAAS and PEI. The overall results from the two-step process of complexation-UF and decomplexation-UF separation showed that it could be a promising method for nickel removal and recovery from aqueous solutions.

  18. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-08

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  19. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  20. Evidence of mass exchange between inside and outside of sonoluminescing bubble in aqueous solution of terbium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinfu; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Xun; Yang, Jing; Chen, Zhan

    2016-12-01

    Spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) were obtained for Tb3+ ions emission lines from bubbles in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl3). The spectra provide experimental evidence to prove that an air bubble driven by strong ultrasound will not eventually become a rectified pure argon bubble, which is not as predicted by the argon rectification hypothesis. The time-resolved spectra of SBSL show a mass exchange of material such as Tb3+ ions between the inside and outside of the bubble. With increasing sound pressure, the rate of mass exchange and the SBSL intensity increases.

  1. The effect of surface topography on the micellisation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride at the silicon-aqueous interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2015-02-11

    Amphiphilic aggregation at solid-liquid interfaces can generate mesostructured micelles that can serve as soft templates. In this study we have simulated the self-assembly of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC) surfactants at the Si(100)- and Si(111)-aqueous interfaces. The surfactants are found to form semicylindrical micelles on Si(100) but hemispherical micelles on Si(111). This difference in micelle structure is shown to be a consequence of the starkly different surface topographies that result from the reconstruction of the two silicon surfaces. This reveals that micelle structure can be governed by epitaxial matching even with non-polar substrates.

  2. Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate in water-rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate and aluminium nitrate have been determined in water rich binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (5, 10, 15, 20% by weight of tetrahydrofuran with the help of density measurements. The density measurements were made by using Ward and Millero method and results have been analysed by Masson’s equation and interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. The partial molar volumes vary with temperature as a power series of temperature. Structure making or breaking capacities of aluminium salts have been inferred from the sign à2/ Φvo p i.e second derivative of partial molar volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure. The aluminium salts have been found as structure breakers in binary aqueous mixture of tetrahydrofuran.

  3. Effects and mechanism of ozonation for degradation of sodium acetate in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-min YANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The degradation efficiencies and mechanism of ozonation for the degradation of sodium acetate in aqueous solution were investigated under atmospheric pressure at room temperature (293 K. The effects of the initial pH value, reaction time, and concentrations of, , CaCl2, and Ca(OH2 on the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD were studied. The results indicated that ozonation obviously improved the degradation rate of sodium acetate when the pH value of the solution was not less than 8.5. A suitable long reaction time may be helpful in increasing the COD removal rate, and a removal rate of 36.36% can be obtained after a 30-minute treatment. The COD removal rate increased firstly and decreased subsequently with the increase of the concentration (from 0 to 200 mg/L, and under the same experimental condition it reached the optimum 34.66% at the concentration of 100 mg/L. The COD removal rate was 5.26% lower when the concentration of was 200 mg/L than when there was no . The COD removal rate decreased by 15.68% when the concentration increased from 0 to 200 mg/L. has a more obvious scavenging effect in inhibiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals than . CaCl2 and Ca(OH2 could increase the degradation efficiency of sodium acetate greatly, and the COD removal rates reached 65.73% and 83.46%, respectively, after a 30-minute treatment, 29.37% and 47.10% higher, respectively, than with single ozone oxidation. It was proved that the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozonation process followed the mechanism of oxidization with hydroxyl free radicals (·OH.

  4. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  5. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  6. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  7. The influence of sodium chloride salinity on the growth and mineral nutrition of horsegram, Dolichos biflorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. Nigwekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus plants were grown in sand culture in the presence of five levels of sodium chloride ranging from 25 to 150 mM. The plant was found to possess a good salt tolerance capacity since a general decline in growth was evident only above NaCI concentration of 75 mM. Salt concentrations above 100 mM reduced the yield in terms of average pod number. The analysis of inorganic constituents revealed marked alterations in the mineral nutrition of the plant under saline conditions. Salt stress caused accumulation of sodium in all plant parts although it was more prenounced in roots and stem. The leaves accumulated large amounts of chlorides under saline conditions. The potassium content in the roots and stem markedly decreased due to salinity. The leaves retained a high potassium level up to 50 mM NaCl treatment. Salt stress caused an increase in the calcium content in leaves and roots. The accumulation of phosphorus and magnesium in different plant parts was favoured by salt stress. A reduction in the manganese content in salt stressed leaves was noticed while higher doses of salinity favoured iron accumulation in different plant parts. A possible involvement of these alterations in the salt tolerance behaviour of the plant is discussed.

  8. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  9. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol

  10. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  11. Oxidation of Lingwu Coal Extraction Residue in Aqueous Sodium Hypochlorite under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yunpeng; Zong Zhimin; Li Jinna; Wang Yuelun; Fan Xing; Wei Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the structural features and provide an alternative method for high value-added utilization of coal, Lingwu coal was first extracted with organic solvent at room temperature. Then its extraction residue was oxi-dized in aqueous sodium hypochlorite(ASHC) under mild conditions. Theeffects of oxidation conditions, such as temperature, reaction time, the ratio of Lingwu coal extraction residue(LCER, g) to ASHC(mL) and pH value, on the product distributions and compositions were investigated. The results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) suggested that 53 kinds of methyl esterified products were detected in total, and benzene carboxylic acids were the main oxidation products, while chloro-substituted benzene carboxylic acids were the main by-products. Higher yield and fewer kinds of organic acids could be obtained at lower pH value, especially for the main objective product, benzene carboxylic acids.

  12. Electrochemical studies of copper, nickel and a Cu55/Ni45 alloy in aqueous sodium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Reinaldo Simões

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and a copper/nickel alloy in aerated aqueous 0.10 and 1.0 mol L-1 sodium acetate. The data obtained from different electrochemical techniques were analyzed to determine the influence of Ni and Cu on the electrochemical processes of the alloy electrode. The shapes of the potentiodynamic I(E curves of the alloy were found to be quite similar to those of the Ni voltamograms. Although the anodic current densities of Ni and the alloy increased with greater concentrations of acetate, the opposite effect occurred in Cu. The impedance measurements taken at the open circuit potential revealed that the polarization resistance (R P of the electrodes decreased in the following order: Ni > Alloy > Cu. With increasing concentrations of acetate, the R P of the alloy and the Cu increased while that of the Ni electrode decreased.

  13. Solubility Behaviour of Cellulose in a Sodium Hydrate/Urea/Thiourea Aqueous Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuai; CHENG Feng-wei; LI Fa-xue; YU Jian-yong; GU Li-xia

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose pulps were directly dissolved in a green solvent of sodium hydrate/urea/thiourea/water with different composition for the purpose to prepare new regenerated cellulose fibers or films. The results showed that the highest solubility of cellulose in the solvent with the composition of 8/8/6.5/77.5. The results revealed that the pulp feeding sequence, stirring rate, pre-treatment of pulp and pulp size affected the cellulose concentration in the green solvent. Accordingly, the more effective dissolution method was proposed in order to get higher concentration of cellulose. Furthermore, the properties of solution prepared by different kinds of pulps in the solvent were investigated by ARES rheometer. Rheological analyses indicated that all cellulose aqueous solutions in their high concentration were pseudoplastic fluids and sensitive to temperature and tended to transform to gel when temperature increased.

  14. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  15. INTERACTION OF POLY(SODIUM SULFODECYL METHACRYLATE) WITH CETYLTRIMETHYL AMMONIUM BROMIDE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-hua Lu; Chuan-qiou Luo; Wei-xiao Cao

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of poly(sodium sulfodecyl methacrylate) (PSSM) with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)was studied. It was found that the precipitate formed from PSSM and CTAB will be dissolved by excessive CTAB, resultingin the appearance of two maxima of the solution viscosity at the molar ratio (CTAB/-SO3-) of ≈ 0.68 and ≈ 1.30,respectively. The first one is related closely to the aggregation of polymer chains via CTAB molecules and the second oneshould be ascribed to the formation of the mixed micelles comprising surfactant and the polymer's hydrophobic chains. Theeffect of NaCl on the viscosity, the transmittance of the aqueous solution and the solubility of oil-soluble dye (dimethylyellow) in the mixed system were also investigated.

  16. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-09

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system.

  17. Effects of Metal Ions on Viscosity of Aqueous Sodium Carboxylmethylcellulose Solution and Development of Dropping Ball Method on Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Ford, David; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    This research revealed that metal ions with different charges could significantly affect the viscosity of aqueous sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) solution. On the basis of an Ostwald viscometer, an improvised apparatus using a dropping ball for examining the viscosity of liquids/solutions has been developed. The results indicate that the…

  18. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  19. Nature of large aggregates in supercooled aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1980-09-18

    Preparations of 2.0 and 5.5 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 3.5 wt % (0.6 M) aqueous NaCl are equilibrium micellar solutions above 28/sup 0/C, the Krafft point of the surfactant at this salinity. These systems can be supercooled and remain transparent for hours and days. At 25/sup 0/C at equilibrium they are biphasic, a hydrated crystal phase and an aqueous salt solution phase containing only 0.01/sub 2/ wt % SDS. Conductimetry and /sup 13/C NMR show that these transparent supercooled systems are indeed supersaturated solutions and not microdispersions of the hydrated crystal. The time lag for the onset of nucleation of the crystals depends strongly on stirring details and probably on presence of gas-liquid interface. The big nonequilibrium aggregates present in the supersaturated systems resemble micelles in conductivity and molecular motion, and are likely to be metastable micelles as is presumed by Mazer, Benedek, and Carey. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  20. Effect of sodium tetraborate (borax) on the thermal properties of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Rimando, Annie; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-06-01

    The effect of sodium tetraborate (Na(2)B(4)O(7), borax) on the thermal property of frozen aqueous sugar and polyol solutions was studied through thermal analysis. Addition of borax raised the thermal transition temperature (glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solutes; T(g)') of frozen sucrose solutions depending on the borax/sucrose concentration ratios. Changes in the T(g)' of frozen mono- and disaccharide solutions suggested various forms of complexes, including those of a borate ion and two saccharide molecules. Borax exerted the maximum effect to raise the oligosaccharide and dextran T(g)'s at borax/saccharide molar ratios of approximately 1-2 (maltose and maltooligosaccharides), 2 (dextran 1060), 5 (dextran 4900), and 10 (dextran 10200). Further addition of borax lowered T(g)'s of the saccharide solutions. Borax also raised T(g) and T(g)' temperatures of frozen aqueous glycerol solutions. The decreased solute mobility in frozen solutions by the borate-polyol complexes suggested higher collapse temperature in the freeze-drying process and improved stability of biological systems in frozen solutions.

  1. How does beta-cyclodextrin affect oxygen solubility in aqueous solutions of sodium perfluoroheptanoate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A M A; Andrade-Dias, C; Lima, S; Coutinho, J A P; Teixeira-Dias, J J C; Marrucho, I M

    2006-11-15

    The solubility of oxygen in aqueous solutions of sodium perfluoroheptanoate (NaPFHept) at different concentrations was measured at 310.15 K with an apparatus based on the saturation method. The effect of adding beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) on the solubility of oxygen was also studied. Conductimetry measurements showed that the presence of betaCD in aqueous solutions of NaPFHept increases its critical micellar concentration (CMC). In the presence of betaCD (15 mM), the characteristic minimum of oxygen solubility observed at the CMC is shifted from 83 to 114 mM, and the curvature at the minimum is reduced to 64% of the value in the absence of betaCD. Chemical shift changes for the H5 protons of betaCD, recorded as functions of the initial concentration of NaPFHept, point to the formation of a relatively strong 1:1 inclusion in betaCD of the perfluoroheptanoate anion. Hence, it is suggest that the effect of adding betaCD on the solubility of oxygen cannot be accounted for only by the perfluoroheptanoate anion inclusion in betaCD, but has to be ascribed to the direct influence of this inclusion complex on disrupting the aggregation process reducing the increase of oxygen solubility after the CMC value.

  2. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  3. Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

  4. An Aqueous Symmetric Sodium-Ion Battery with NASICON-Structured Na3 MnTi(PO4 )3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Goodenough, John B

    2016-10-04

    A symmetric sodium-ion battery with an aqueous electrolyte is demonstrated; it utilizes the NASICON-structured Na3 MnTi(PO4 )3 as both the anode and the cathode. The NASICON-structured Na3 MnTi(PO4 )3 possesses two electrochemically active transition metals with the redox couples of Ti(4+) /Ti(3+) and Mn(3+) /Mn(2+) working on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. The symmetric cell based on this bipolar electrode material exhibits a well-defined voltage plateau centered at about 1.4 V in an aqueous electrolyte with a stable cycle performance and superior rate capability. The advent of aqueous symmetric sodium-ion battery with high safety and low cost may provide a solution for large-scale stationary energy storage.

  5. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  6. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  7. Effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and blood coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Wei-Xin Yang; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Xian Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery.Methods:A total of 80 cases of hip joint replacement were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, 40 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were conducted with regular hip replacement, postoperative conventional symptomatic treatment. Based on it, patients of the observation group started to get the safflower yellow pigment and sodium chloride injection in the first week after operation, intravenous injection. A total of 3 weeks of treatment. blood rheological index were compared including plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity, red blood cell hematocrit and blood coagulation indexes: prothrombin time (PT), activation activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB) between the two groups postoperative 1 week, postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 4 weeks.Results:The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in control group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly higher than that of preoperative 1 week; while red blood cell volume, PT, APTT, TT, Fib were significantly lower than preoperative 1 week (P0.05). The PT, APTT in observation group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week, and the TT in observation group postoperative 4 week was significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week (P<0.05); The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in observation group were significantly lower, while the PT, APTT, TT, Fib in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group in the same time point (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hip replacement will cause the change of blood rheology in

  8. Influence of brine concentration on sugar and sodium chloride diffusion during the processing of the green olive variety Arauco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miras, N.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The green olive variety Arauco were debittered using lye concentrations of, 2.50% NaOH.They were then subjected to two rinsing processes with tap water. Next, the olives were cured with brines at 7%, 10% and 13% sodium chloride concentration. During this curing process, the loss of reducing sugars from the olives, and the diffusion of sodium chloride into the olives were quantified. Effective diffusion coefficients of both solutes in the skin and the flesh were calculated for this period using a diffusion model for a composite hollow sphere. The skin effective diffusion coefficients for both solutes ranged from entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s to 4,04x10-13 m2/s. The flesh coefficients varied from 2,92x10-9 m2/s to 3,99x10-9 m2/s for sodium chloride and from 9,76x10-11 m2/s to 2,22x10-10 m2/s for reducing sugars.Aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco fueron tratadas con soluciones de hidróxido de sodio al 2,5%. Estas fueron luego sometidas a dos procesos de lavado con agua corriente. Posteriormente, las aceitunas fueron curadas en salmueras con concentraciones de 7%, 10% y 13% de cloruro de sodio. Durante este proceso de curado, se cuantificó la pérdida de azúcares reductores desde, y la difusión de cloruro de sodio hacia el interior de las aceitunas. Durante este período se calcularon los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel y la pulpa, utilizando un modelo de difusión en una esfera hueca compuesta. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel estuvieron en un rango entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s y 4,04x10-13 m2/s. Los coeficientes de la pulpa variaron entre 2,92x10-9 m2/s y 3,99x10-9 m2/s para el cloruro de sodio, y entre 9,76x10-11 m2/s y 2,22x10-10 m2/s para los azúcares reductores.

  9. Discoloration of Compatibility between Cefotaxime Sodium and Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection%头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍变色的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 任美萍; 曾敬怀; 张润; 蒋英蓝

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察注射用头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后的稳定性.方法 测定两药配伍后的pH值,溶液颜色变化,采用紫外分光光度计测定吸收曲线变化及含量变化.结果 头孢噻肟钠在236nm,奥硝唑在319nm处有最大吸收;混合液在40min时,由微淡黄色澄清液变为淡粉红色;在4h内,混合液的外观、pH值、峰形、含量均无明显变化.结论 头孢噻肟钠与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍后可能会变色,临床应避免配伍.%Objective To investigate the compatible stability of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole chloride sodium injection. Methods The contents and absorption curves of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection after mix were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The appearance of the solution was observed and pH value was determined. Results The absorption peaks of cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were at 236 nm and 319 nm, respectively. The mixture changed from light yellow clear liquid to pale pink at 40min.There were no evident changes in appearance, pH, content and absorption curves during 4 hours. Conclusion The solution might change in color after cefotaxime sodium and ornidazole sodium chloride injection were mixed. Such compatibility should be avoided in the clinic.

  10. Kinetics of the oxidative hydroxylation of sodium hypophosphite in the presence of copper (II chloride modified by humic (fulvo- acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was established that in soft conditions (50-70oC, PO2 = 1 atm sodium hypophosphite effectively is oxidized by oxygen in water solutions of copper(II chloride  to give mainly a phosphorous acid. Humic (fulvo- acid was extracted from brown coal of domestic deposit Kiyakty. For determination of optimum parameters of fulvo-acid extraction the laboratory experiments were carried out using the method of experiment planning. The kinetics, the intermediate and final products, optimal conditions of new catalytic reaction of NaH2PO2 oxidation by oxygen in water solution were defined by kinetics, volumometry, redox-potentiometry and a titration.

  11. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  12. Surface tension measurements of aqueous ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, S. A.; Mccay, M. H.; Mccay, T. D.; Gray, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous NH4Cl's solidification is often used to model metal alloy solidification processes. The present determinations of the magnitude of the variation of aqueous NH4Cl's surface tension as a function of both temperature and solutal concentration were conducted at 3, 24, and 40 C over the 72-100 wt pct water solutal range. In general, the surface tension increases 0.31 dyn/cm per percent decrease in wt pct of water, and decreases 0.13 dyn/cm for each increase in deg C. Attention is given to the experimental apparatus employed.

  13. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B

    2012-01-01

    DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1...

  14. Saltiness enhancement in bread by inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bread and cereals contribute 30% to the daily intake of sodium (Na) in the western human diet. Since the average Na intake is double the recommended intake, pressure has built up for the food industry to lower Na in their products. Especially replacing functionality of Na as a tastant remains very d

  15. An investigation into the use of cuprous chloride for the removal of radioactive iodide from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Ping; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Guanghui

    2016-01-25

    Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was examined as a precipitant to remove iodide (I(-)) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the dosage of CuCl, reaction time, initial concentrations of I(-) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) on I(-) removal were investigated. The results showed that the optimized removal efficiency of I(-) reached approximately 95.8% when the dosage was 150 mg/L, the initial I(-) concentration ranged from 5 to 40 mg/L and the reaction time was 15 min. The removal efficiency decreased from 95.8% to 76.0% with the addition of HCO3(-) at a concentration in the range of 0-107 mg/L. Furthermore, the dissociation of CuCl, the disproportionation reaction of Cu(+), the precipitation of cuprous iodide (CuI) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O), and the formations of copper sulfide (CuxS, 1≤xradioactive I(-) pollution in water.

  16. The phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 as carriers for facilitated transport of chromium (VI)-chloride aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Francisco José; López-Delgado, Aurora; Alonso, Manuel; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2004-11-01

    The behaviour of the phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 in the facilitated transport of chromium (VI) from chloride solutions is described. Transport is studied as a function of several variables such as stirring speeds of the aqueous phases, membrane phase diluent, hydrochloric acid concentration in the source phase and chromium and carrier concentrations. The separation of chromium (VI) from other metals presented in the source phase as well as the behaviour of phosphine oxides with respect to other neutral organophosphorous derivatives (tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) and dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP)) are also investigated. Moreover, by using hydrazine sulphate in the receiving phase, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less toxic Cr(III).

  17. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  18. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  19. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use.

  20. The effect of an addition of sodium chloride and sodium triphosphate on fat oxidation products in cold stored beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Meat and processed meats, depending on the animal species and anatomical element from which they were obtained, exhibit a varied fat content (most typically from 10% to 80% dry matter. Fats are relatively unstable food components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an addition of model brines on lipid oxidation rate in the selected beef element stored under aerobic conditions and in vacuum at a temperature of 5°C. Material and methods. Material for analyses comprised beef: rump cut (R and the heel of round (L. Meat was cured (at 20% in relation to raw material weight with brine A, containing 1% NaCl in total weight and brine B, containing 1% NaCl and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate E 451i (including 56% P2O5 . Meat after being massaged was stored under aerobic conditions (T and in vacuum (P at a temperature of 5°C for 15 days. During storage of samples changes were determined in peroxide value (PV, contents of secondary fat decomposition products using the TBARS test as well as changes in pH value. Results.  It was observed that with an extension of sample storage time peroxide value was growing gradually, but the dynamics of this growth varied. Samples coming from the rump cut muscle, stored in the atmosphere with unlimited access of oxygen, were characterised by slightly, but statistically significantly higher peroxide values in comparison to the other tested samples. The highest increase in the TBARS test value was observed in samples stored under aerobic conditions and coming from the heel of round muscle, irrespective of the type of applied brine. Conducted analyses showed that vacuum packaging of meat, in comparison to the storage of samples at unlimited access of oxygen, effectively slowed down the increase in the content of secondary oxidation products determined by the TBARS test. The greatest effect of vacuum packaging was observed for the heel of round in brine A. Conclusions. Vacuum packaging, in

  1. 氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on Corn Starch and Guar Gum Mixed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      通过测定分析玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系在有无氯化钠和氯化钙存在条件下的糊化特性、动态与静态流变学特性,研究氯化钠和氯化钙对玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的影响。结果表明,氯化钠和氯化钙的加入,提高了玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的成糊温度,降低了崩解值和回升值,峰值黏度也略微下降;玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的弹性模量G′值显著减小,黏性模量G″值的频率依赖性较大;氯化钠和氯化钙使玉米淀粉-瓜尔胶复配体系的假塑性增强,且氯化钙的作用大于氯化钠。%Through the analysis and determination of pasting property, dynamic and static rheological properties of corn starch and guar gum mixed system with or without sodium chloride and calcium chloride, the effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on corn starch and guar gum mixed system were studied. The results showed, the addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride increased the pasting temperature of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, decreased the breakdown value and consistence value, and the peak viscosity also dropped slightly. The G′ value of elastic modulus decreased significantly, the frequency dependence of G" value of viscous modulus was larger. The addition of sodium chloride and calcium chloride enhanced pseudo-plasticity of corn starch and guar gum mixed system, and calcium chloride was more effective.

  2. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats.

  3. Conductivity and Viscosity Measurements for Binary Lysozyme Chloride Aqueous Solution and Ternary Lysozyme-Salt-Water Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, D; Buzatu, F D

    2004-01-01

    We use the conductimetric method, adequate to electrolytes, to determine the lysozyme charge in lys-water and ternary lys-salt-water systems. We measured also the viscosities for the above binary and ternary systems in the same conditions at pH$=4.5$ and T$=298$ K, measurements that allow us to see any effect of viscosity on cations mobilities and implicitly on the lysozyme charge. The method is illustrated for the lysozyme chloride aqueous solution system at 25$^o$ C, using the data reported here for pH$=4.5$ at 0.15, 0.6, 0.8, 1., 1.5, 2., 2.5, 3., 3.5 mM (mg/mL) lysozyme chloride concentrations. The method was also applied to ternary lys-salt-water systems in the same conditions at pH$=4.5$ and T$=25^o$ C. Ternary conductivities are reported for a mean concentration 0.6 mM of lysozyme chloride in all systems and a mean concentration 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 M for NaCl; 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 M for KCl; 0.005, 0.01,...

  4. Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.

  5. The solubility of ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A D

    2004-05-01

    Measurements have been made to determine the solubilities of ethane, C2H6, propane, C3H8, and carbon dioxide, CO2, in aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulfonate (NaCS) at 25 degrees C. The solubilities measured for each gas satisfy Henry's law at all concentrations of NaCS. The solubilities of C2H6 and C3H8 exhibit quite similar behavior with respect to added NaCS. The solubilities of these two gases are very low in pure water and are found to be nearly independent of NaCS concentration over a concentration range of 0-0.4 mol NaCS/kg H2O. At intermediate concentrations of NaCS, the solubilities of C2H6 and C3H8 exhibit a gradual increase with added NaCS concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 mol NaCS/kg H2O. At NaCS concentrations greater than 2.0 mol NaCS/kg H2O, the solubilities of these two gases increase with added NaCS in an approximately linear manner, with the solubility of C3H8 increasing more rapidly than that for C2H6 (by a factor of approximately 2.5). CO2 is much more soluble in pure water than the hydrocarbon gases and exhibits markedly different behavior with respect to added NaCS. The solubility of CO2 decreases with added NaCS over a concentration range of 0-0.9 mol NaCS/kg H2O, passes through a minimum at a concentration of approximately 1.0 mol NaCS/kg H2O, and then increases with added NaCS at higher NaCS concentrations in a manner similar to that observed with C2H6 and C3H8. The trends in solubility observed for these three gases dissolved in aqueous solutions of NaCS resemble those found previously with aqueous solutions of ordinary surfactants. The solubility data measured for these three gases can be interpreted surprisingly well in terms of the mass-action model for micellization, in which salting-out effects due to monomer salt ions suppress gas solubility at low NaCS concentrations and gas solubilization by small micelles of NaCS acts to enhance gas solubility at the higher NaCS concentrations.

  6. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  7. Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2011-12-14

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology.(1, 2)Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Efficient frequency conversion by stimulated Raman scattering in a sodium nitrate aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganot, Yuval, E-mail: yuvalga@sapir.ac.il, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Engineering, Sapir Academic College, D. N. Hof Ashkelon 79165 (Israel); Bar, Ilana, E-mail: yuvalga@sapir.ac.il, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-28

    Frequency conversion of laser beams, based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is an appealing technique for generating radiation at new wavelengths. Here, we investigated experimentally the SRS due to a single pass of a collimated frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) through a saturated aqueous solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), filling a 50 cm long cell. These experiments resulted in simultaneous generation of 1st (564 nm) and 2nd (599 nm) Stokes beams, corresponding to the symmetric stretching mode of the nitrate ion, ν{sub 1}(NO{sub 3}{sup −}), with 40 and 12 mJ/pulse maximal converted energies, equivalent to 12% and 4% efficiencies, respectively, for a 340 mJ/pulse pump energy. The results indicate that the pump and SRS beams were thermally defocused and that four-wave mixing was responsible for the second order Stokes process onset.

  9. Conformational changes in human serum albumin induced by sodium perfluorooctanoate in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Paula V; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M; Sarmiento, Félix

    2005-08-18

    Conformational changes in the bulk solution and at the air-aqueous interface of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by changes in concentration of sodium perfluorooctanoate (C(7)F(15)COO(-)Na(+)) were studied by difference spectroscopy, zeta-potential data, and axisymmetric drop shape analysis. zeta-potential was used to monitor the formation of the HSA-C(7)F(15)COO(-)Na(+) complex and the surface charge of the complex. The conformational transition of HSA in the bulk solution was followed as a function of denaturant concentration by absorbance measurements at 280 nm. The data were analyzed to obtain values for the Gibbs energies of the transition in water (DeltaG(0)(W)) and in a hydrophobic environment (DeltaG(0)(hc)) pertaining to saturated protein-surfactant complexes. The conformational changes that surfactants induce in HSA molecules alter its absorption behavior at the air-water interface. Dynamic surface measurements were used to evaluate this behavior. At low [C(7)F(15)COO(-)Na(+)], proteins present three adsorption regimes: induction time, monolayer saturation, and interfacial gelation. When surfactant concentration increases and conformational changes in the bulk solution occur, the adsorption regimes disappear. HSA molecules in an intermediate conformational state migrate to the air-water interface and form a unique monolayer. At high [C(7)F(15)COO(-)Na(+)], the adsorption of denatured molecules exhibits a behavior analogous to that of dilute solutions.

  10. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  11. A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

    2009-02-01

    Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range.

  12. Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  14. Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of unimer-micelle and sphere-to-rod micellar transitions of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Temperature dependence of specific conductivity of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDBS) aqueous solutions was analyzed. Two breaks on the plot appeared for all temperature, which suggest two micellar transitions. This has been corroborated by surface tension measurements. The first transition concentration occurs at the critical micelle concentration (CMC), whilst the second critical concentration (so-called transition micellar concentration, TMC) is due to a sphere-to-rod micelles transiti...

  16. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde; Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  17. Effects of the protein denaturant guanidinium chloride on aqueous hydrophobic contact-pair interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ryan D; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is one of the most common protein denaturants. Although GdmCl is well known in the field of protein folding, the mechanism by which it denatures proteins is not well understood. In fact, there are few studies looking at its effects on hydrophobic interactions. In this work the effect of GdmCl on hydrophobic interactions has been studied by observing how the denaturant influences model systems of phenyl and alkyl hydrophobic contact pairs. Contact pair formation is monitored through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, i.e., measuring the intrinsic phenol fluorescence being quenched by carboxylate ions. Hydrophobic interactions are isolated from other interactions through a previously developed methodology. The results show that GdmCl does not significantly affect hydrophobic interactions between small moieties such as methyl groups and phenol; while on the other hand, the interaction of larger hydrophobes such as hexyl and heptyl groups with phenol is significantly destabilized.

  18. Calix[4]arene based dipodal receptor nanohybrids for selective determination of chloride ions in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Jasminder; Chopra, Shweta; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-01-01

    A chemical sensor based on p-tert butyl calix[4]arene has been synthesized and characterized using an assortment of spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and elemental analysis. For sensor application, organic nanoparticles (N1) of 1 have been primed by implementing re-precipitation technique, which were further employed for preparing organic-inorganic hybrid (H1) by decorating N1 with gold nanoparticles. Both N1 and H1 were characterized using UV-visible, fluorescence, and DLS studies. Photo-physical changes due to anion binding with H1 were scrutinized using UV-visible absorption spectrometer and found it to promptly and selectively recognize Cl(-) ions in aqueous media. Thus, H1 can be effectively used for recognition of Cl(-) ions in aqueous media over a wide pH range, in samples of real time importance with a detection limit of 2.84×10(-9) M with a linear detection range up to 50 μM.

  19. Phase Diagrams of the Aqueous Two-Phase Systems of Poly(ethylene glycol/Sodium Polyacrylate/Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Pessoa Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA, and a salt have been studied. The effects of the polymer size, salt type (NaCl, Na2SO4, sodium adipate and sodium azelate and salt concentrations on the position of the binodal curve were investigated. The investigated PEG molecules had a molar mass of 2,000 to 8,000 g/mol, while that of NaPAA was 8,000 g/mol. Experimental phase diagrams, and tie lines and calculated phase diagrams, based on Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions are presented. Due to strong enthalpic and entropic balancing forces, the hydrophobicity of the added salt has a strong influence on the position of the binodal, which could be reproduced by model calculations.

  20. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  1. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  2. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  3. Dynamic absorption efficiency of sodium chloride in microwave drying%氯化钠在微波干燥中的动态吸波效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小标; 陈君若; 张伟峰; 彭金辉; 陈华; 郭胜惠; 陈菓

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reflection loss was introduced to study the dynamic absorption efficiency of materials.The microwave reflection loss (RL)of sodium chloride was calculated in the moisture content ranged from 1%to 5%at 20 ℃ and sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)at 20-100 ℃ and 2.45 GHz.The calculated reflection losses show that the maximum microwave absorption with RL of -68 dB can be obtained for sodium chloride (moisture content 4%)with a thickness of 0.014 m at 60 ℃.With increasing thickness,the RL of sodium chloride appears microwave absorption peak following the order of the moisture content from high to low in turn.The results demonstrate that higher microwave absorption throughout the heating process can only be achieved in sodium chloride with a small thickness in which a slight absorption peak shift (less than one-eighth wavelength in sodium chloride)occurs.%为了研究物料在微波干燥过程中的动态吸波效率,文中将反射损耗理论引入其中,计算了2.45 GHz微波频率下,20℃时含水率为1%-5%以及含水率为4%的氯化钠在20-100℃的反射损耗系数。计算结果显示,厚度为0.014 m含水率4%的氯化钠在60℃取得最大的微波吸收效率,达到-68 dB;不同含水率的氯化钠反射损耗系数随着厚度的增加,会按照含水率由高到低的顺序依次出现吸波峰。研究结果表明,只有在对应小于1/8波长的吸收峰偏移的较小厚度下,氯化钠才能在整个微波干燥过程中一直取得较高的吸波效率。

  4. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  6. 氯化钠对分蘖葱头根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响及其致畸效应%Effect of Sodium Chloride on Mitotic Index and Chromosome Aberration of Root Tip Cell of Allium cepa var. aggreatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 齐莹; 王晓伟; 李岩; 顾地周

    2013-01-01

    With the root tip as experimental materials, toxic effect of sodium chloride on Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip was investigated. The Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip cells were exposed to aqueous solution of sodium chloride with different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mol/L) for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. And then the mitotic index, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration of the Allium cepa var. aggreatum root tip cell were investigated. The experimental results indicated that with the elevated concentrations of sodium chloride aqueous and the increase of exposing time, the mitotic index decreased, chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus rate increased gradually. Moreover, the maximum value was reached when the concentration of sodium chloride aqueous was 0.3 mol/L and the exposure time was 48 h, which indicated that sodium chloride is a kind of stress factor.%以分蘖葱头根尖为试验材料,研究了氯化钠对分蘖葱头根尖的毒性效应.用不同浓度(0.05、0.1、0.2、0.3 mol/L)的氯化钠水溶液对分蘖葱头根尖细胞染毒12h、24 h、48 h,观察分蘖葱头根尖细胞有丝分裂指数、微核率以及染色体畸变情况.结果表明:在试验剂量范围内,随着氯化钠水溶液浓度的升高,染毒时间增长,分蘖葱头根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数逐渐降低,染色体畸变率和微核率逐渐升高,并且均在氯化钠水溶液浓度为0.3 mol/L、染毒时间为48 h时达到最大值,说明氯化钠是一种胁迫因子.

  7. Cellulose aerogels prepared from an aqueous zinc chloride salt hydrate melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schestakow, Maria; Karadagli, Ilknur; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-02-10

    Monolithic cellulose aerogels are prepared using a salt hydrate melt based on cheap zinc chloride tetrahydrate (ZnCl2·4H2O) that can be washed out of the wet gel-body by using common solvents such as water, ethanol, isopropanol or acetone. Cellulose aerogels with concentrations of 1-5 wt.% cellulose were produced. These aerogels are characterized with respect to shrinkage, density and surface area as well as mechanical properties and micro-structure via SEM. Cellulose aerogels regenerated in acetone show a specific surface area of around 340 m(2)g(-1) being 60% higher than those regenerated in water. The onset of irreversible plastic deformation under compressive load is around 0.8 MPa for acetone-regenerated aerogels and thus a factor of two larger compared to ethanol regenerated ones. The Young's modulus depends almost linearly on the cellulose concentration which is observed for all regenerative fluids with the exception of water. The results achieved are presented in light of the polarity and ability of solvation of ZnCl2·4H2O in the regenerative fluids used.

  8. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  9. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hee Jung; Lu, Xiaochuan; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Son, Sori; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Developing advanced and reliable electrical energy storage systems is critical to fulfill global energy demands and stimulate the growth of renewable energy resources. Sodium metal halide batteries have been under serious consideration as a low cost alternative energy storage device for stationary energy storage systems. Yet, there are number of challenges to overcome for the successful market penetration, such as high operating temperature and hermetic sealing of batteries that trigger an expensive manufacturing process. Here we demonstrate simple, economical and practical sealing technologies for Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C. Conventional polymers are implemented in planar Na-NiCl2 batteries after a prescreening test, and their excellent compatibilities and durability are demonstrated by a stable performance of Na-NiCl2 battery for more than 300 cycles. The sealing methods developed in this work will be highly beneficial and feasible for prolonging battery cycle life and reducing manufacturing cost for Na-based batteries at elevated temperatures (<200 °C).

  10. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  11. Hydrate film growth at the interface between gaseous CO2 and sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG BaoZi; SUN ChangYu; CHEN GuangJin; YANG LanYing; ZHOU Wei; PANG WeiXin

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas CO2 has become a serious problem for human beings. The hydrate technology has been considered as a possible approach to sequester CO2. In this work, the lateral growth rates of a CO2 hydrate film in aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentrations were measured by means of suspending a single gas bubble in liquid. The results show that the film growth rates depended on not only the driving force, but also the NaCl concentration, and the film growth rates decreased with the increasing NaCl concentration. The simple relationship vf∝△T6/2 could be used to correlate the hydrate film growth rate of a CO2 + NaCl + water system by introducing a NaCl concentration-dependent coef-ficient. The film thickness was investigated experimentally and evaluated theoretically; the results show that it became thicker at a higher NaCl concentration when the temperature and pressure were specified. In addition, a series of interesting phenomena, such as the occurrence of double hydrate films, were displayed and discussed.

  12. Hydrate film growth at the interface between gaseous CO2 and sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas CO2 has become a serious problem for human beings. The hydrate technology has been considered as a possible approach to sequester CO2. In this work, the lateral growth rates of a CO2 hydrate film in aqueous NaCl solutions of different concentrations were measured by means of suspending a single gas bubble in liquid. The results show that the film growth rates depended on not only the driving force, but also the NaCl concentration, and the film growth rates decreased with the increasing NaCl concentration. The simple relationship vf ∝ΔT5/2 could be used to correlate the hydrate film growth rate of a CO2 + NaCl + water system by introducing a NaCl concentration-dependent coefficient. The film thickness was investigated experimentally and evaluated theoretically; the results show that it became thicker at a higher NaCl concentration when the temperature and pressure were specified. In addition, a series of interesting phenomena, such as the occurrence of double hydrate films, were displayed and discussed.

  13. 不同钠水摄入对大鼠血压的影响%Effects of different intakes of sodium chloride and water on rat blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国东; 全洪兵; 周路; 胡建锋; 梁劲生

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds Long-term high intake of sodium chloride would result in high blood pressure, however the mechanism is uncertain. It is not conclusive whether there exists a retention of sodium and water, and it is still unclear regarding the interactions between sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS).Objective To analyze the effects of different sodium chloride amounts of intake and water on the blood pressure of Wistar rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to daily different intakes of sodium chloride and water with 5 rats in each group: low intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply,low intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d), high intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply, and high intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d).The intakes of water were measured daily, and urine samples were collected in the metabolic cages in each group.The difference values ( D-value) were calculated between the intake of water and the volume of urine daily.Weight and rat tail systolic arterial pressures were measured weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood noradrenalin (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) 8 weeks later. Results The blood pressures in high sodium chloride intake groups with a slow increase of body weight were significantly higher than those of low intake of sodium chloride(P<0. 01 ) ;the D-value between the intake of water and the volume of urine, and Ang Ⅱ were significantly lower while blood NEs were higher. Furthermore, there exist significant differences in the blood pressures [(166.7±2.2)and (156.2±2.3)mm Hg], NEs [(3.5±0. 6) and (2.2 ± 0. 5 )μg/L] and Ang Ⅱ [(203. 5 ± 98.0 ) and(233.4 ± 101.7) ng/L] between high intake of sodium chloride group with physiologically-indispensable water and high intake of sodium chloride group with

  14. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  15. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

  16. The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaius Debi Eyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potassium iodide (KI and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2− concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The latter shows that the addition of I− to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3 as compared to NO2− alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2− inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode.

  17. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Alloy 7050-T7451 Exposed to Aqueous Chloride Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Reinhold

    2016-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 7050-T7451 plate material was investigated in short-transverse direction performing constant load and constant extension rate tests. Smooth and notched tensile specimens were permanently immersed in substitute ocean water and in an aqueous solution of 0.6 M NaCl + 0.06 M (NH4)2SO4. Alloy 7050-T7451 exhibited high SCC resistance in both synthetic environments. However, conducting cyclic loading tests, environment-induced cracking was observed. Applying a sawtooth waveform, notched tensile specimens were strained under constant load amplitude conditions at constant displacement rates ranging from 2 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-4 mms-1. The stress ratio R = σ min/ σ max was 0.1 with maximum stresses of 300 and 400 MPa. When cyclically loaded in substitute ocean water, notched specimens failed predominantly by transgranular environment-induced cracking. Striations were observed on the cleavage-like facets. The number of cycles-to-failure decreased with decreasing displacement rate. A slope of 0.5 was obtained by fitting the logarithmic plot of number of cycles-to-failure vs nominal loading frequency, indicating a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism controlled by diffusion.

  18. Role of Citrate Ions in the Phosphonate-based Inhibitor System for Mild Steel in Aqueous Chloride Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunasekaran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition efficiency of phosphonic acid and its derivatives for the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in neutral chloride media is decided by its ability to form protectivefilm over the surface. In this context, the effect of addition of metal cations and certain organic compounds, such as citrate in conjugation with phosphonic acid to impart synergistic corrosion inhibition has been explored. The experiments were carried out using various concentrations of trisodium citrate and zinc ions in an aqueous solution of 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid (2CEPA at 25 ppm. The corrosion characteristics have been determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with determination of corrosion rate by weight-loss method. It has been observed that a combination of inhibitive ions, namely citrate, ZCEPA, and zinc ions at 25 ppm gives 96 per cent inhibition efficiency and this corrosion inhibition is due to the formation of a protective film. By increasing the concentration of citrate beyond 25 ppm, the corrosion inhibition efficiency decreases. This paper discusses the role of citrate and zinc ions in imparting added corrosion inhibition ability using 2CEPA on the basis of experimental results.

  19. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  20. EFFECT OF RADIATION ON HIGH-CHARGE-DENSITY POLYDIALLY-DIMETHYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-long Zhang; Min Yi; Jing Ren; Hong-fei Ha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of radiation on high-charge-density cationic polymer, polydiallyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), in dilute aqueous solution was investigated. The irradiated samples were characterized in terms of reduced viscosity and electric conductivity. The crosslinking reaction of polyDADMAC chains occurs preferentially in the irradiated samples at a concentration of polyDADMAC higher than 1.3 g/100 mL that was induced indirectly by the OH radicals, one of the radiolysis products of water. In more dilute samples (less than 0.8 g/100 mL) the chain scission of macro radicals appears to be the main reaction. N2O atmosphere enhances the erosslinking due to the extra OH radicals produced by reaction between N2O and eaq, another radiolysis products of water. Methanol and some mineral salts such as KC1, KBr inhibit the crosslinking to a certain extent. The mechanism of sensitization and inhibition is discussed in detail.

  1. [Adsorption Characteristics of Nitrate and Phosphate from Aqueous Solution on Zirconium-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Chloride Modified Activated Carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-jing; Lin, Jian-wei; Zhan, Yan-hui; Wang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    A novel adsorbent material, i.e., zirconium-cationic surfactant modified activated carbon (ZrSMAC) was prepared by loading zirconium hydroxide and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) on activated carbon, and was used as an adsorbent for nitrate and phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption characteristics of nitrate and phosphate on ZrSMAC from aqueous solution were investigated in batch mode. Results showed that the ZrSMAC was effective for nitrate and phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted both the nitrate and phosphate kinetic experimental data well. The equilibrium isotherm data of nitrate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC were well fitted to the Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Freundlich isotherm models. The equilibrium isotherm data of phosphate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC could be described by the Langmuir and,D- R isotherm models. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacities for the ZrSMAC were 7.58 mg x g(-1) and 10.9 mg x g(-1), respectively. High pH value was unfavorable for nitrate and phosphate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC. The presence of Cl-, HCO3- and SO4(2-) in solution reduced the nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacities for the ZrSMAC. The nitrate adsorption capacity for the ZrSMAC was reduced by the presence of coexisting phosphate in solution, and the phosphate adsorption capacity for the ZrSMAC was also reduced by the presence of coexisting nitrate in solution. About 90% of nitrate adsorbed on the ZrSMAC could be desorbed in 1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution, and about 78% of phosphate adsorbed on the ZrSMAC could be desorbed in 1 mol x L(-1) NaOH solution. The adsorption mechanism of nitrate on the ZrSMAC included the anion exchange interactions and electrostatic attraction, and the adsorption mechanism of phosphate on the ZrSMAC included the ligand exchange interaction, electrostatic attraction and anion exchange interaction.

  2. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface ...

  3. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on PEPT2 (SLC15A2) mediated renal clearance of cephalexin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Audrey May Yi; Tan, Yen Ling; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2011-01-01

    PEPT2 mediates the H(+) gradient-driving reabsorption of di- and tri-peptides, and various peptidomimetic compounds in the kidney. This study examines the influence of urinary pH modification through sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on the function of PEPT2 in healthy subjects, using cephalexin as the probe drug. Sixteen male subjects received a single oral dose of 1000 mg cephalexin under ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate treatment, respectively, with a wash-out period of one week. The study subjects were genotyped for PEPT2 polymorphic variants. Cephalexin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean renal clearance of cephalexin was significantly higher under ammonium chloride treatment than that under sodium bicarbonate treatment (P < 0.01). This difference was significant for PEPT2*2/*2 (P = 0.017) but not for PEPT2*1/*1 (P = 0.128). No differences were observed for other pharmacokinetic parameters. The findings of this study suggest that urinary pH changes may alter the pharmacokinetics of PEPT2's substrates. This effect was more obvious for the PEPT2*2/*2.

  4. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  5. The antioxidant properties of oligo sodium alginates prepared by radiation-induced degradation in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Murat; Atik, Hanife

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginates (NaAlg), having different guluronic acids (G) and mannuronic acid (M) ratios, (G/M), in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions were investigated first; after that, the antioxidative properties of the oligo sodium alginates prepared were identified. Radiation degradation yield values, G(S), were determined for each irradiation condition and compared with those of the dry-state-irradiated NaAlg. The results showed that the oligo sodium alginates with M from 1000 to 3750 Da could be easily prepared by γ-irradiation of NaAlg solution in the presence of small amount of hydrogen peroxide at low doses (below 5.0 kGy) and by controlling the G/M. The antioxidant properties of the fractions with various molecular weight and G/M were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPHrad ), and 50% inhibition concentrations of LF120 NaAlg, which was irradiated in aqueous solution and H2O2 solution at a dose of 2.5 kGy and having number average molecular weights of 10.2 and 3.75 kDa were found to be 10.0 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The results demonstrated that its molecular weight was an important factor in controlling the antioxidant properties of NaAlg, and due to the sharp decrease in molecular weight in the case of aqueous media irradiation the effect of G/M of initial polymer became unimportant whereas the dry-state-irradiated NaAlgs behaved conversely.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Ipomoea carnea leaf on isolated frog and mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhav, K V; Burande, M D; Rangari, V D; Mehta, J K

    1999-11-01

    Ipomoea carnea fam. Convolvulaceae is a poisonous plant and its toxicity is supposed to be due to the cardiac and respiratory failure. The present paper describes the cardiac effect of aqueous extract of the fresh leaves of I. carnea using mouse and frog heart. The aqueous extract produced an initial blockade of isolated frog heart for 5-10 sec followed by dose dependent increase in both amplitude and rate that lasts up to 2 min. Atropine (1 microgram/ml) blocked the initial depressant phase and potentiated the stimulant effect of the aqueous extract. The dose dependent increase in cardiac contractility of aqueous extract was not altered by propranolol or calcium channel blockers like nifedipine or diltiazem. The decrease in sodium chloride concentration or increase in potassium chloride concentration or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution inhibited the responses to aqueous extract while an increase in sodium chloride concentration or decrease in potassium chloride or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution potentiated the responses to the aqueous extract of I. carnea. It may be suggested from the data that aqueous extract of I. carnea produces positive inotropic effect on isolate frog heart possibly by sodium extrusion or release of the intracellular calcium.

  7. Removal of Uranium and Associated Contaminants from Aqueous Solutions Using Functional Carbon Nanotubes-Sodium Alginate Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Allaboun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of hydrophilic/hydrophobic beads from functional carbon nanotubes (CNTs conjugated with sodium alginate was investigated. Glutaraldehyde was used as a coupling agent and Ca2+ as a crosslinking agent. The formed conjugate comprises two-dimensional sheets of sodium alginate bounded to long tufts of functional CNT tails of micro-size geometry. Detailed characterization of the conjugates was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and its first derivative (DTG, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques. Different ratios of the conjugate were successfully prepared and used as biodegradable environmentally friendly sorbents. Removal of U6+, V3+, Cr3+, Mo3+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ti4+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions using the synthesized biosorbent was experimentally demonstrated. Maximum metal uptake of 53 mg/g was achieved using the % Functional CNTs = 33 sample.

  8. Controlled release of the pineal hormone melatonin from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose/sodium alginate matrices in aqueous media containing dioctyl sulfosuccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Marilena; Tsiakoulia, Athanasia; Eikosipentaki, Aphrodite

    2007-06-01

    An investigation of the controlled release profile of mono-layered formulations of the hormone melatonin in modified aqueous media is described. The tablets used were comprised of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15M) and sodium alginate with melatonin (fully soluble in the dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DSS) containing simulated intestinal solution). Three different sets of tablets (diameters 7.5, 10.0 and 13.0 mm) were tested with respect to the influence of their sizes on the hormone's release; the general trend observed was that tablets with larger surface area values had lower % release. A decrease in the value of W(o), obtained from the ratio [H(2)O]/[DSS], results to the predominance of DSS conformers in the aqueous media, which are less likely to solubilize melatonin effectively.

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate interacting micelles in aqueous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Santhanalakshmi; G Shantha Lakshmi; V K Aswal; P S Goyal

    2001-02-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of D2O solutions (0 1 M) of sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were carried out at = 298 K. Under compositions very much above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the bile salt micelle size growths were monitored by adopting Hayter-Penfold type analysis of the scattering data. NaC and NaDC solutions show presence of correlation peaks at = 0 12 and 0 1 Å-1 respectively. Monodisperse ellipsoids of the micelles produce best fits. For NaC and NaDC systems, aggregation number (9 0, 16 0), fraction of the free counterions per micelle (0 79, 0 62), semi-minor (8 0 Å) and semi-major axes (18 4, 31 7 Å) values for the micelles were deduced. Extent of micellar growth was studied using ESR correlation time measurements on a suitable probe incorporating NaC and NaDC micelles. The growth parameter (axial ratio) values were found to be 2 3 and 4 0 for NaC and NaDC systems respectively. The values agree with those of SANS.

  10. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  11. Curcumin Attenuates Gastric Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea and Saturated Sodium Chloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawiya Sintara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO, control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC, MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W, and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W. To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  12. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  13. Use of sodium-chloride difference and corrected anion gap as surrogates of Stewart variables in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Mallat

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether the difference between sodium and chloride ([Na(+] - [Cl(-] and anion gap corrected for albumin and lactate (AG(corr could be used as apparent strong ion difference (SID(app and strong ion gap (SIG surrogates (respectively in critically ill patients. METHODS: A total of 341 patients were prospectively observed; 161 were allocated to the modeling group, and 180 to the validation group. Simple regression analysis was used to construct a mathematical model between SID(app and [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and between SIG and AG(corr in the modeling group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was also measured. The mathematical models were tested in the validation group. RESULTS: in the modeling group, SID(app and SIG were well predicted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and AG(corr (R(2 = 0.973 and 0.96, respectively. Accuracy values of [Na(+] - [Cl(-] for the identification of SID(app acidosis (47.5 mEq/L were 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.963-1 and 0.998 (95%CI, 0.972-1, respectively. The accuracy of AG(corr in revealing SIG acidosis (>8 mEq/L was 0.974 (95%CI: 0.936-0.993. These results were validated by showing excellent correlations and good agreements between predicted and measured SID(app and between predicted and measured SIG in the validation group (R(2 = 0.977; bias = 0±1.5 mEq/L and R(2 = 0.96; bias = -0.2±1.8 mEq/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SID(app and SIG can be substituted by [Na(+] - [Cl(-] and by AG(corr respectively in the diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders in critically ill patients.

  14. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  15. The use of chloride-sodium ratio in the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ozkiraz, Servet; Ince, Deniz Anuk; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Tarcan, Aylin

    2012-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and Stewart's physiochemical approach by quantifying anions of tissue acids (TA). It is hypothesized that an increase in tissue acids during metabolic acidosis would cause a compensatory decrease in the plasma chloride (Cl) relative to sodium (Cl-Na ratio) in order to preserve electroneutral balance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the use of Cl-Na ratio as a bedside tool to evaluate the identifying raised TA in neonates as an alternative to complex calculations of Stewart's physiochemical approach. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. Infants were included in the study when blood gas analysis reveals a metabolic acidosis; pH anion gap (AG), albumin-corrected AG (AG(corr)), strong ion difference (SID), unmeasured anions (UMA), and TA were calculated at each episode of metabolic acidosis. A total of 105 metabolic acidosis episodes occurred in 59 infants during follow-up. Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis occurred in 17 (16%) of samples, and all had increased TA. The dominant component of TA was UMA rather than lactate. There was a negative correlation between the Cl-Na ratio and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Also, there was a positive correlation between Diff(NaCl) and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Base deficit and actual bicarbonate performed poorly in identifying the TA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Diff(NaCl) and Cl-Na ratio are simple and fast, and may be an alternative method to complex Stewart's physiochemical approach in identifying raised UMA and TA in critically ill neonates.

  16. Curcumin attenuates gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and saturated sodium chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintara, Kawiya; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2012-01-01

    To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl)-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC), MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W), and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W). To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  17. Ion-pair formation in aqueous strontium chloride and strontium hydroxide solutions under hydrothermal conditions by AC conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcis, H; Zimmerman, G H; Tremaine, P R

    2014-09-01

    Frequency-dependent electrical conductivities of solutions of aqueous strontium hydroxide and strontium chloride have been measured from T = 295 K to T = 625 K at p = 20 MPa, over a very wide range of ionic strength (3 × 10(-5) to 0.2 mol kg(-1)), using a high-precision flow AC conductivity instrument. Experimental values for the concentration-dependent equivalent conductivity, Λ, of the two electrolytes were fitted with the Turq-Blum-Bernard-Kunz ("TBBK") ionic conductivity model, to determine ionic association constants, K(A,m). The TBBK fits yielded statistically significant formation constants for the species SrOH(+) and SrCl(+) at all temperatures, and for Sr(OH)2(0) and SrCl2(0) at temperatures above 446 K. The first and second stepwise association constants for the ion pairs followed the order K(A1)(SrOH(+)) > K(A1)(SrCl(+)) > K(A2)[Sr(OH)2(0)] > K(A2)[SrCl2(0)], consistent with long-range solvent polarization effects associated with the lower static dielectric constant and high compressibility of water at elevated temperatures. The stepwise association constants to form SrCl(+) agree with previously reported values for CaCl(+) to within the combined experimental error at high temperatures and, at temperatures below ∼375 K, the values of log10 KA1 for strontium are lower than those for calcium by up to ∼0.3-0.4 units. The association constants for the species SrOH(+) and Sr(OH)2(0) are the first accurate values to be reported for hydroxide ion pairs with any divalent cation under these conditions.

  18. Study on aqueous two-phase systems of the mixture SDS/CTAB surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; CHEN Yah-ming; ZHAO Kong-shuang; Takumi HIKIDA

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of two dilute aqueous phases composed of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) was investigated under various conditions such as concentrations and molarratios of the two surfactants, the addition of sodium chloride and temperature. Vesicles formation was found in theboth phases by TEM image.

  19. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped fluorescent anthracene nanoparticles for sensing fluorescein sodium in aqueous solution and analytical application for ophthalmic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Mahajan, Prasad G; Garadkar, Kalyanrao M; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2015-11-01

    Based on the known complexation ability between polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and fluorescein sodium (FL Na(+)), fluorescent PVP capped anthracene nanoparticles (PVP-ANPs) were prepared using a reprecipitation method for detection of fluorescein in aqueous solution using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) approach. A dynamic light scattering histogram of PVP-ANPs showed narrower particle size distribution and the average particle size was 15 nm. The aggregation-induced enhanced emission (AIEE) of PVP-ANPs was red shifted from its monomer by 1087.22 cm(-1). The maximum emission was seen to occur at 420 nm. The presence of FL Na(+) in the vicinity of PVP-ANPs quenched the fluorescence of PVP-ANPs because of its adsorption on the surface of PVP-ANPs in aqueous suspension. The FL Na(+) and PVP-ANPs were brought close enough, typically to 7.89 nm, which was less than the distance of 10 nm that is required between the energy donor-acceptor molecule for efficient FRET. The quenching results fit into the Stern-Volmer relationship even at temperatures greater than ambient temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters determined from FRET results helped to propose binding mechanisms involving hydrophobic and electrostatic molecular interaction. The fluorescence quenching results were used further to develop an analytical method for estimation of fluorescein sodium from ophthalmic samples available commercially in the market.

  20. Purification of papain by metal affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol/sodium sulfate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hai-De; Wang, Wei-Tao

    2015-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive aqueous two-phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was introduced to improve the selectivity of commercial papain extraction. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was first activated using epichlorohydrin, then it was covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid. Finally, the specific metal ligand Cu(2+) was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid. The chelated Cu(2+) content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.88 mol/mol (polyethylene glycol). The effects on the purification at different conditions, including polyethylene glycol molecular weight (2000, 4000, and 6000), concentration of phase-forming components (polyethylene glycol 12-20% w/w and sodium sulfate 12-20%, w/w), metal ligand type, and concentration, system pH and the commercial papain loading on papain extraction, were systematically studied. Under optimum conditions of the system, i.e. 18% w/w sodium sulfate, 18% w/w polyethylene glycol 4000, 1% w/w polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid-Cu(2+) and pH 7, a maximum yield of 90.3% and a degree of purification of 3.6-fold were obtained. Compared to aqueous two phase extraction without ligands, affinity partitioning was found to be an effective technique for the purification of commercial papain with higher extraction efficiency and degree of purification.

  1. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  2. Computational insights into the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H. R.; Wu, M. C.; Zhou, X. L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Carbon materials have been widely used to form air cathodes for non-aqueous sodium-oxygen (Nasbnd O2) batteries due to their large specific surface area, high conductivity and low cost. However, the effect of carbon structures at the atomic level remains poorly understood. In this work, a first-principles study is conducted to investigate how representative carbon structures, including graphite (0001) surface, point defects and fractured edge, influence the discharge and charge processes of non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries. It is found that the single vacancy (SV) defect has the largest adsorption energy (5.81 eV) to NaO2 molecule among the structures studied, even larger than that of the NaO2 molecule on NaO2 crystal (2.81 eV). Such high adsorption energy is attributed to two factors: the dangling atoms in SV defects decrease the distance from NaO2 molecules, and the attachment through oxygen atoms increases the electrons transfer. The findings suggest that SV defects can act as the nucleation sites for NaO2 in the discharge process, and increasing the number of SV defects can facilitate the uniform formation of small-sized particles. The uniformly distributed discharge products lower the possibility for pore clogging, leading to an increased discharge capacity and improved cyclability for non-aqueous Nasbnd O2 batteries.

  3. Effect of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride associated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the progression of enamel erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João-Souza, Samira Helena; Bezerra, Sávio José Cardoso; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Aranha, Ana Cecília; Scaramucci, Tais

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the progression of enamel erosion after treatment with gels containing sodium fluoride (NaF; 9047 ppm F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2; 3000 ppm Sn), associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and protected by a tape, leaving an exposed surface area of 4 × 1 mm. The specimens were immersed in 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3) for 10 min to create an initial erosion lesion. After, they were randomly divided into six groups: (C) control: gel without active ingredient; (F): NaF gel; (F + Sn): NaF + SnCl2 gel; (laser): Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.5 W; 50 mJ; ∼41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s); (F + laser): NaF gel + Nd:YAG; (F + Sn + laser): NaF + SnCl2 gel + Nd:YAG. All gels had pH = 4.5 and were applied for 1 min. Laser irradiation was performed after gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3), six times per day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in μm). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak tests (alpha = 0.05). The control and the laser groups presented the highest enamel loss (means ± SD = 53.52 ± 3.65 and 53.30 ± 2.73, respectively), followed by F + Sn (44.76 ± 2.83). The groups F (36.76 ± 2.28), F + laser (36.25 ± 3.59), and F + Sn + laser (39.83 ± 4.62) showed the lowest enamel loss, with no significant difference among them (p > 0.05). In conclusion, NaF by itself or associated with SnCl2 and Nd:YAG laser was able to reduce enamel erosion progression. Nd:YAG laser alone did not show a protective effect.

  4. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  5. Application of thermodynamic models to study micellar properties of sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: alf@usc.es; Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero, Maria J. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-06-27

    Sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (CnFONa) with n = 6, 9, 10 have been studied by conductivity measurements at different temperatures. The Krafft point was determined for C9FONa and C10FONa at the highest concentration studied by measuring the temperature dependence of the specific conductivity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the ionization degree of the micelle ({beta}) were estimated from conductivity vs. molality plots at different temperatures. Using these data and previous results on temperature dependence of cmc and {beta} of sodium perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorooctanoate, different models were applied to obtain the thermodynamic properties of micellization. The results are discussed in terms of alkyl chain length.

  6. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  7. 双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定%Determination of benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a method to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops. Methods Separation was performed on a CNW column (150 mmX4.6 mm, 5 urn). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: 5 mmol · L-1 ammonium acetate-1% triethylamine (adjusting pH to 5.0 ± 0.5 by acetic acid) = 65 : 35 (v/v). The UV detection was 214 nm. Results Benzalkonium chloride had a good linearity at 12.50 - 125.00 μg · mL-1, the average recovery of benzalkonium chloride was 99.0% and the RSD was 1.3%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and it could be applied to determine benzalkonium chloride in diclofenac sodium eye drops.%目的 采用HPLC双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的含量.方法 乙腈-5mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液(含1%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH值至5.0±0.5)(65:35)为流动相,CNW色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),检测波长为214 nm.结果 苯扎氯铵的测定在12.50~125.00 μg·mL-1与峰面积线性关系良好,苯扎氯铵的平均回收率为99.0%,RSD为1.3%.结论 方法简单、灵敏度高,可用于双氯芬酸钠滴眼液中苯扎氯铵的测定.

  8. Salt effect on the (polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate) aqueous two-phase system: Relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A., E-mail: laferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Teixeira, Jose A. [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on PEG 8000 - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} ATPS. > Influence of salt additive on the hydrophobic character of the coexisting phases. > Partitioning behavior of a series of five sodium salts of DNP-amino acids. > A relationship between {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}), TLL and I of the salt additive was established. - Abstract: The relative hydrophobicity of the phases of several {l_brace}polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 + sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){r_brace} aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs), all containing 0.01 mol . L{sup -1} sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB, pH 7.4) and increasing concentration of a salt additive, NaCl or KCl, up to 1.0 mol . L{sup -1}, was measured by the free energy of transfer of a methylene group between the phases, {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}). The {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) of the systems was determined by partitioning of a homologous series of five sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP) - amino acids with aliphatic side chains in three different tie-lines of each biphasic system. The relative hydrophobicity of the phases ranged from -0.125 to -0.183 kcal . mol{sup -1}, being the NaCl salt the one to provide the more effective changes. The results show that, within each system, there is a linear relationship between the {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) and the tie-line length (TLL), and biphasic systems with high salt additive concentration present the most negative {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) values. Therefore, the feasibility of establishing a relationship between the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in a given TLL and the ionic strength of the salt additive was investigated and a satisfactory correlation was found for each salt.

  9. The Adsorption of Isobutyramide at the Mercury/Aqueous Sodium Fluoride Solution Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Sodium Fluoride Solution Interface by W.R. Fawcett and A.J. Motheo Prepared for Presentation at Electrochemical Society Meeting Los Angeles, CA May...ge Prepared for presentation at: Electrochemical Society Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, May 1989. A#J - 30 "W" The differential capacity of the electrode

  10. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  11. Sodium Chloride-Sodium Hypochlorite Method for Gold Recovery from Cyanide Residue%氯化钠—次氯酸钠法从氰化渣中回收金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史娟华; 于先进; 张亚莉

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ratio of solid to liquid, leaching temperature and time on the gold leaching rate were studied by adding a proper amount of sodium hypochlorite with sodium chloride as solvent. The results show that the gold leaching rate is above 41% under the optimum conditions including leaching temperature of 50 ℃ , leaching time of 3 h and ratio of solid to liquid of 4.%以氯化钠为溶剂,加入适量次氯酸钠,考察了液固比、浸出温度和时间对氰化渣中金浸出率的影响.结果表明,在下述最优试验条件下,金浸出率可以达到41%以上:浸出温度50℃、浸出时间3h、液固比4.

  12. Exploration of cobalt phosphate as a potential catalyst for rechargeable aqueous sodium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Baskar; Khan, Ziyauddin; Park, Sangmin; Seo, Inseok; Ko, Hyunhyub; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-04-01

    Bifunctional catalysts are prominent to attain high capacity, maximum energy efficiency and long cycle-life for aqueous rechargeable Na-air batteries. In this work, we report the synthesis of bi-functional noble metal free, Co3(PO4)2 nanostructures by facile precipitation technique and evaluated its electrocatalytic activity. Co3(PO4)2 nanostructure was investigated as a potential electrocatalyst for rechargeable aqueous Na-air battery for the first time. The synthesized Co3(PO4)2 grain-like nanostructures showed better oxygen evolution activity compared to Pt/C catalyst. The fabricated Na-air battery with the Co3(PO4)2 catalyst as air-cathode delivered low overpotential and its round trip energy efficiency reached up to 83%. The Na-air battery exhibited stable cycle performance up to 50 cycles.

  13. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of unsaturated trifluoromethylated sodium carboxylates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Christine; Carcenac, Yvan; Abarbri, Mohamed; Coudert, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Structural modifications of unsaturated sodium carboxylate surfactants in terms of trifluoromethylation associated with the hydrocarbon chain length have been studied, the synthesis is described, and aggregation properties have been examined by conductimetry and vapor pressure osmometry between 30°C and 45°C. No strong effect of adding a CF3 group was observed on the Critical Micellar Concentrations. However, the thermodynamic study shows the specific effect exerted by the CF3 group through the enhancement of the entropic contribution.

  14. An increase in [Ca2+]i activates basolateral chloride channels and inhibits apical sodium channels in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which increases in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) cause a decrease in macroscopic sodium absorption across principal cells of the frog skin epithelium. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope set-up, sodium...

  15. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  16. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  17. Determination of Calcium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永鑫; 何宇新

    2014-01-01

    A method was established to determine the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection .By atom-ic absorption spectrometry , the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection was determined under the condition as follows:detection wavelength was 422.7 nm,the flame tape was air/acetylene(13.5∶2.0),the lamp current was 10 mA,slit width was 0.5 nm.Good linear relationship of concentration and absorption of Ca 2+was within the range of 1μg/mL-9μg/mL, the recovery rate range from 98.42%to 100.93%, detectability was 0.008206μg/mL,the RSD between results obtained from official method and ones obtained from comparative method is 1.21%.This method has good specificity, stability, reproducibility, and is accurate for de-tecting the content of Ca 2+,and can be supplementary method to official one .The concentration of calcium chloride in compound sodi-um chloride injection is between 0.0329296%g/mL and 0.0340398%g/mL, which meets the required quality standards .%目的:建立原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙含量的方法。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙的含量,检测波长为422.7 nm;燃气类型为空气-乙炔,燃气比为空气体积︰乙炔体积=13.5∶2;灯电流:10 mA;狭缝宽度:0.5 nm。结果:Ca2+浓度在1~9μg/mL之间,与对应吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回收率在98.42%~100.93%,检测限为0.008206μg/mL,与药典方法含量检测结果之间的RSD值为1.21%。结论:该方法进行复方氯化钠注射液Ca2+含量的测定专属性好,精密度高,稳定性强,重复性好,可作为药典补充方法。复方氯化钠注射液CaCl2·2H2 O质量浓度测定结果为0.0329296%~0.0340398% g/mL,符合质量标准要求。

  18. SODIUM DI-N-DODECYL PHOSPHATE VESICLES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION - EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, PROPANOL, AND TETRAHYDROFURAN ON THE GEL TO LIQUID-PHASE TRANSITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANDAMER, MJ; BRIGGS, B; BUTT, MD; WATERS, M; CULLIS, PM; ENGBERTS, JBFN; HOEKSTRA, D; MOHANTY, RK

    1994-01-01

    For aqueous solutions containing vesicles formed by sodium di-n-dodecyl phosphate, the gel to liquid-crystal transition occurs near 35 degrees C, the temperature T-m. When ethanol is added, T-m decreases, but the scan shows evidence of several transitions as more alcohol is added. The effect of adde

  19. Reactive extraction of carboxylic acids from apolar hydrocarbons using aqueous solutions of sodium hydrogen carbonate with back-recovery using carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanovic, Boris; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de Andre B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    A combination of using an aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate for forward-extraction of carboxylic acids from a dilute apolar organic solvent, and carbon dioxide under pressure for its back-recovery, is studied. Used in combination, these two steps might provide a technique for the recover

  20. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  1. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time.

  2. Altered expression of renal bumetanide-sensitive sodium-pota-ssium-2 chloride cotransporter and Cl- channel -K2 gene in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tao; LIU Zhi-quan; SUN Chao-feng; ZHENG Yong; MA Ai-qun; FANG Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) on the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and the Cl- channel (CLC)-K2 at both mRNA and protein expression level in Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertensive rats. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of Ang Ⅱ with chronic subpressor infusion on nephron-specific gene expression of NKCC2, NCC and CLC-K2. Results Ang Ⅱ significantly increased blood pressure and up-regulated NKCC2 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney. Expression of CLC-K2 mRNA in the kidney increased 1.6 fold (P<0.05).There were no changes in NCC mRNA or protein expression in AngII-treated rats versus control. Conclusions Chronic subpressor Ang Ⅱ infusion can significantly alter NKCC2 and CLC-K2 mRNA expression in the kidney, and protein abundance of NKCC2 in kidney is positively regulated by Ang Ⅱ. These effects may contribute to enhanced renal Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in response to Ang Ⅱ.

  3. Influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection on cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Wen-Yun Xu; Juan Pu; Qing-Qing Zhang; Mou-Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence degree of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH 40) for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer.Methods:A total of 60 patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were divided into the control group and the observation group, and 30 cases in each group according to the method of random number table. The control group was treated with conventional treatment, and the observation group was treated with HSH 40 on the treatment of the control group. The cardiac and pulmonary function indexes of two groups before and after the treatment at different time after the treatment were compared.Results:The hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the two groups before the treatment had no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the observation group at different time after treatment were all significantly better than those of the control group(allP>0.05).Conclusions:The influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer is better, and the application effect for the surgical patients is better.

  4. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  5. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  6. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1–4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60–62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis. PMID:28045916

  7. Rheology and Gelation Temperature of Aqueous Gelatin and Sodium Alginate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Algarín, Vivian; Acevedo-Rullán, Aldo

    2008-07-01

    The rheology and gelation of biodegradable polymers, such as gelatin and sodium alginate, are of particular interest in the processing of films in pharmaceutical industry. Constant-stress temperature-ramps were used to determine the gelation temperature (Tgel). The effect of operating parameters, such as stress and cooling rate, and formulation parameters, concentration and pH among other were studied. The steady-state rheology above Tgel was experimentally determined over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. Time-Temperature superposition and concentration shifting were used to obtain master-curves for the steady-state viscosity. Simple phenomenological models were fitted to the master curves.

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  9. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution using zeolite modified by microwave-sodium acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董颖博; 林海

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the zeolite modified by microwave and sodium acetate and its sorption of ammonia-nitrogen from simulated water sample were investigated. The results show that the modified zeolite by microwave-sodium acetate (SMMZ) has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen removal rate of SMMZ reaches 92.90%. The surface of SMMZ becomes loose and some pores appear, the specific surface area, total pore volume and average pore diameter increase after modification. Compared to the natural zeolite, SMMZ has a more concentrated pore size distribution in the range of 0−10 nm. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of SMMZ is higher than that of the natural zeolite. And the ammonia nitrogen removal rate is consistent with the change of CEC. The SMMZ possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen sorption is consistent with both Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen follows the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  10. Extraction of uranyl nitrate, sulphate and chloride with tri-n-octyl amine (TOA from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJE M. PETKOVIC

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of uranyl nitrate, chloride and sulphate with tri-n-octyl amine (TOA in benzene as a function of the TOA concentration has been studied. The concentration based extraction equilibrium constants were calculated from the distribution data of the uranyl salts, fitting the parameters of a chemical model to the experimentally obtained extraction isotherms. The calculated equilibrium constants are 46.5, 89.4 and 4.2·104 for uranyl nitrate, chloride and sulphate, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the previously reported extraction equilibrium constants calculated by the inflection point method.

  11. Dynamic fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate dication by chloride ion in ionic and neutral micellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunita; Varma Y, Tej Varma; Pant, Debi D.

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Quinine sulfate dication (QSD) by chloride-ion (Cl-) in micellar environments of anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous phase has been investigated by time-resolved and steady- state fluorescence measurements. The quenching follows linear Stern-Volmer relation in micellar solutions and is dynamic in nature.

  12. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  13. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  14. Apparent and partial molar volumes of long-chain alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides and bromides in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C[Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides; Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium bromides; Micellization; Density; Apparent molar volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Ruso, J.M.; Nimo, J.; Rodriguez, J.R. E-mail: fmjulio@usc.es

    2003-12-01

    Density measurements of dodecyl- (C{sub 12}DBACl), tetradecyl- (C{sub 14}DBACl), hexadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C{sub 16}DBACl) and of decyl- (C{sub 10}DBABr) and dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}DBABr) in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C have been carried out. From these results, apparent and partial molar volumes were calculated. Positive deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. The change of the apparent molar volume upon micellization was calculated. The relevant parameters have been presented in function of the alkyl chain length. Apparent molar volumes of the present compounds in the micellar phase, V{sub phi}{sup m}, and the change upon micellization, {delta}V{sub phi}{sup m}, have been discussed in terms of temperature and type of counterion.

  15. Conductivity Prediction of Sodium and Potassium Hydrogen Tartrates in Aqueous Solution at Low Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@1 INTRODUCTION Acid salt is one kind of important compound, and studies on its solution conductivity behavior are very necessary in chemical analysis and medicine, biology and food industry. However, in aqueous solution, theconductivity behavior of the acid salt is quite compli-cated due to the existence of dissociation and asso-ciationequilibria among the species, which makes itdiffcult to predict or correlate the molar conductivityof acid salt solution. Now though conductivity equa-tion such as Pitts[1,2], Onsager-Fuoss-Chen (1978)[3],Fuoss(1978)[4], Lee Wheaton[5], and Quint-Viallard[6]equations are able to predict the conductivity of elec-trolyte solution, the reliability and accuracy of predic-tio are difficult to ensure.

  16. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by flotation using polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and carbonate ion as activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, S E; Mahmoud, I A; Ragab, A H

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a separation technology for removing toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Here a simple and rapid flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. It is based on the use of polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and flocculent, carbonate ion as activator and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. Both ion and precipitate flotation are included depending on the solution pH. Ion and precipitate flotation in the aqueous HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+-CO3(2-) system gave powerful preferential removal of Cu2+ (F -100%) over the HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+ system containing no CO3(2+) ion (F approximately 86%). The role of CO3(2-) ion is also evident from decreasing the dose of PAX-XL60 S from 700 mg l(-1) to 200 mg l(-1). The other parameters, influencing the flotation process, namely: metal ion, surfactant and PAX-XL60 S concentrations, ionic strength, temperature and foreign ions were examined. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu2+ ions from different volumes up to 11 and from natural water samples.

  17. Physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions of sodium glycinate in the non-precipitation regime from 298.15 to 343.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shuaib Shaikh; Azmi Mohd Shariff; Mohd Azmi Bustam; Ghulam Murshid

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, including the density, viscosity, and refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium glycinate as a solvent for CO2 absorption in the non-precipitation regime were measured under the wide temperature range of 298.15 to 343.15 K. The concentration of the sodium glycinate in an aqueous form in the non-precipitation regime was identified up to 2.0 mol·L−1. The coefficients of thermal expansion values were estimated from measured density data. It was found that, the densities, viscosities and refractive indices of the aqueous sodium glycinate decrease with an increase in temperature, whereas with increasing sodium glycinate concentration in the solution, all three properties increase. Thermal expansion coefficients slightly increase with rising temperature and concentration. The measured values of density, viscosity and refractive index were correlated as a function of temperature by using the least squares method. The predicted data obtained from correlation equations for all measured properties were in fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Solubility relations in the system sodium chloride-ferrous chloride-water between 25 and 70.degree.C at 1 atm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Phan, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility relations in the ternary system NaCl-FeCl2-H2O have been determined by the visual polythermal method at 1 atm from 20 to 85??C along six composition lines. These she composition lines are defined by mixing FeCl2??4H2O with six aqueous NaCl solutions containing 5, 10, 11, 15, 20, and 25 wt % of NaCl, respectively. The solid phases encountered in these experiments were NaCl and FeCl2??4H2O. The maximum uncertainties in these measurements are ??0.02 wt % NaCl and ??0.15??C. The data along each composition line were regressed to a smooth curve when only one solid phase was stable. When two solids were stable along a composition line, the data were regressed to two smooth curves, the intersection of which indicated the point where the two solids coexisted. The maximum deviation of the measured solubilities from the smoothed curves is 0.14 wt % FeCl2. Isothermal solubilities of halite and FeCl2??4H2O were calculated from these smoothed curves at 25, 50, and 70 ??C.

  19. Exploring molecular insights into aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate in aqueous solution: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhadip; Paul, Sandip

    2015-02-19

    Hydrotropes are an important class of molecules that enhance the solubility of an otherwise insoluble or sparingly soluble solute in water. Besides this, hydrotropes are also known to self-assemble in aqueous solution and form aggregates. It is the hydrotrope aggregate that helps in solubilizing a solute molecule in water. In view of this, we try to understand the underlying mechanism of self-aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) in water. We have carried out classical molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous SCS solutions with a regime of concentrations. Moreover, to examine the effect of temperature change on SCS aggregation, if any, we consider four different temperatures ranging from 298 to 358 K. From the estimation of densities of different solutions we calculate apparent and partial molal volumes of the hydrotrope. The changes in these quantities increase sharply at a characteristic minimum hydrotrope concentration. The determination of molal expansibility at infinite dilution for different temperatures indicates the water structure breaking by SCS molecules, which is further confirmed by the calculations of water-water pair correlation functions. In comparison with typical surfactants in micelles, a slightly lower value of volumetric change upon aggregation per carbon atom suggests the formation of a more closely packed structure of hydrotrope aggregates. A close examination of different structural properties of hydrotrope solutions reveals that the hydrophobic interactions through their hydrophobic tails significantly contribute in hydrotrope aggregation,and the dehydration of hydrophobic tail at elevated temperatures is also visible. Remarkably, the aggregates have little or no impact on the average number of water-SCS hydrogen bonds.

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of sodium azide with hypochlorite in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterton, Eric A; Lowry, Joe; Ingamells, Robin; Venner, Brad

    2010-10-15

    Production of toxic sodium azide (NaN(3)) surged worldwide over the past two decades to meet the demand for automobile air bag inflator propellant. Industrial activity and the return of millions of inflators to automobile recycling facilities are leading to increasing release of NaN(3) to the environment so there is considerable interest in learning more about its environmental fate. Water soluble NaN(3) could conceivably be found in drinking water supplies so here we describe the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of azide with hypochlorite, which is often used in water treatment plants. The reaction stoichiometry is: HOCl + 2N(3)(-) = 3N(2) + Cl(-) + OH(-), and proceeds by a key intermediate chlorine azide, ClN(3), which subsequently decomposes by reaction with a second azide molecule in the rate determining step: ClN(3) + N(3)(-) --> 3N(2) + Cl(-) (k = 0.52+/-0.04 M(-1) s(-1), 25 degrees C, mu = 0.1 M). We estimate that the half-life of azide would be approximately 15 s at the point of chlorination in a water treatment plant and approximately 24 days at some point downstream where only residual chlorine remains. Hypochlorite is not recommended for treatment of concentrated azide waste due to formation of the toxic chlorine azide intermediate under acidic conditions and the slow kinetics under basic conditions.

  1. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J. [Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing, Department of Chemical Engineering, 230 Ross Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90{sup o}C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8mol kg{sub H{sub 2}O}{sup -1}. The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25{sup o}C and 1atm are 0.1634V for 0.100m, 0.1077V for 1.00m, and 0.0976V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0wt.% NaOH at 80{sup o}C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75{sup o}C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations. (author)

  2. Hg/HgO electrode and hydrogen evolution potentials in aqueous sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Ryan A.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Payne, Robert U.; Cahela, Donald R.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The Hg/HgO electrode is usually utilized as a reference electrode in alkaline solution such as for development of an alkaline hydrogen electrode. The reference electrode provides a suitable reference point but is available from few commercial vendors and suffers from inadequate documentation on potential in varying electrolytes. A new numerical method uses activity, activity coefficients, and a few correlated empirical equations to determine the potential values in both dilute and concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 0-90 °C and at concentrations of 0.100-12.8 mol k gH2O-1 . The computed potentials of the Hg/HgO electrodes versus a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) at 25 °C and 1 atm are 0.1634 V for 0.100m, 0.1077 V for 1.00m, and 0.0976 V for 1.45m NaOH solutions. The Hg/HgO reduction potential further changes to -0.0751 V versus NHE and hydrogen evolution potential changes to -0.9916 V versus NHE in a solution of 30.0 wt.% NaOH at 80 °C. The calculated values are compared with the measured data at 25 and 75 °C. The experimental data agree well with the numerical values computed from the theoretical and empirical equations.

  3. Electrochemiluminescence of terbium (III)-two fluoroquinolones-sodium sulfite system in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-lv; Ding, Fen; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Hui-chun

    2006-05-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of Tb 3+-enoxacin-Na 2SO 3 system (ENX system) and Tb 3+-ofloxacin-Na 2SO 3 system (OFLX system) in aqueous solution is reported. ECL is generated by the oxidation of Na 2SO 3, which is enhanced by Tb 3+-fluoroquinolone (FQ) complex. The ECL intensity peak versus potential corresponds to oxidation of Na 2SO 3, and the ECL emission spectra (the peaks are at 490, 545, 585 and 620 nm) match the characteristic emission spectrum of Tb 3+, indicating that the emission is from the excited state of Tb 3+. The mechanism of ECL is proposed and the difference of ECL intensity between ENX system and OFLX system is explained. Conditions for ECL emission were optimized. The linear range of ECL intensity versus concentrations of pharmaceuticals is 2.0 × 10 -10-8.0 × 10 -7 mol l -1 for ENX and 6.0 × 10 -10-6.0 × 10 -7 mol l -1 for OFLX, respectively. A theoretical limit of detection is 5.4 × 10 -11 mol l -1 for ENX and 1.6 × 10 -10 mol l -1 for OFLX, respectively. The ECL was satisfactorily applied to the determination of the two FQs in dosage form and urine sample.

  4. Characterization of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides of a sodium chloride solution/water system by computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Junya; Asanuma, Soto; Murata, Hiroyasu; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Hotta, Hiroki; Sato, Kiichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi

    2013-12-01

    A stable liquid/liquid optical waveguide (LLW) was formed using a sheath flow, where a 15% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution functioned as the core solution and water functioned as the cladding solution (15% NaCl/water LLW). The LLW was at least 200 mm in length. The concentration distributions of the liquid core and liquid cladding solutions in the LLW system were predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to validate the characteristics of the waveguide. The broadening of the region of the fluorescence of Rhodamine B excited by the guided light and the increase in the critical angle of the guided light with the increase in the contact time of the core and the cladding solutions were well explained by CFD calculations. However, no substantial leakage of the guided light was observed despite the considerably large change in the refractive index profile of the LLW; thus, a narrower and longer waveguide was realized.

  5. Determination of sodium chloride in ion - exchange membrane caustic soda%离子膜碱中氯化钠的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昕; 孙士娟; 邱雪松

    2000-01-01

    The determination of sodium chloride in ion- exchange membrane caustic soda by potentiometry and by spectrophotometry are introduced, and the results obtained by the above two methods are compared. It is concluded that potentiometry is suitable to macro analysis with characteristics of simple operation, rapid analysis and accurate measurement.%介绍了用电位滴定法和分光光度法测定离子膜碱中氯化钠含量的方法,并对这2种方法的测试结果进行了比较。电位滴定法适用于常量分析,具有操作简便、分析速度快、测量结果准确等特点。

  6. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.K. (Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh)); Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Thionine Chloride in Aqueous Solution over Nanometer ( CdS/TiO2 )/MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hanling; LI Jianwei; GE Lingmei

    2006-01-01

    ( CdS / TiO2 )/MCM-41 loaded nanometer photocatalyst was prepared by the sol-gel method and dipping process, the photocatalytic degradation of methyl thionine chloride in water was investigated by using the photocatalyst. The experimental results show that the optimum concentration of CdS over TiO2 was 3% ( molar ratio ), the photocatalytic activity was enhanced when making TiO2 the anatase phase with a rise of the roasting temperature, and the carrier, mesoporous molecular sieve MCM- 41, was beneficial to improving the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of methyl thionine chloride. The morphology and the crystalline phase of the photocatalyst were discussed by means of XRD and SEM techniques, and the reaction mechanism of catalytic properties was also discussed.

  8. The aqueous catanionic system sodium perfluorooctanoate-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontán, José Luis; Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Schulz, Pablo C; Sarmiento, Félix

    2007-08-15

    The interaction between sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) was studied by several methods and it was found strongly synergistic. Above a mole fraction of SPFO in the surfactant mixture (alpha(SPFO))=0.38, the interaction is repulsive and increases with the content of SPFO in both, the overall mixture and micelles, whereas the interaction is attractive if DTAB is in excess. At alpha(SPFO)=0.38 the low miscibility between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon is counterbalanced by the electrostatic attraction between the opposite charged head groups, and the micelle composition is ideal (i.e., the mole fraction of SPFO in micelles X(SPFO)=alpha(SPFO)=0.38). The solubility of fluorocarbon in hydrocarbon is lower than that of hydrocarbon in fluorocarbon. Micelles of DTAB act as a solvent for SPFO without important structural changes, whilst micelles of SPFO undergo important changes when dissolve DTAB. This asymmetry may be interpreted as caused by the difference in chain length that favors the inclusion of the shorter chain in micelles of the longer surfactant, but disfavors the opposite process. Above X(SPFO)=0.5 there is an excess adsorption of bromide ions on the mixed micelles surface, giving rise to a high zeta potential. Micelles of pure SPFO or pure DTAB show an important energy barrier which prevents micelle flocculation. The inclusion of SPFO in DTAB micelles produces a reduction of the energy barrier, which disappeared when alpha(SPFO)=0.5. This produces the flocculation of micelles giving rise to the formation of a non-birefringent coacervate, which is probably formed by unordered isometric clusters of micelles.

  9. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Caroline; Adebayo, Matthew A; Lima, Eder C; Cataluña, Renato; Thue, Pascal S; Prola, Lizie D T; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Machado, Fernando M; Pavan, Flavio A; Dotto, G L

    2015-05-30

    Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10 min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6 mol L(-1) HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25 °C are 63.47 and 74.81 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations.

  11. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Miranda, A.; Lopez-Valdivieso, A., E-mail: alopez@uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia (Mexico); Viramontes-Gamboa, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ciencia Fisico-Matematicas (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by sulfite ions (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag{sup +} turned to Ag{sup 0} in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 Degree-Sign C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 {mu}mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low {+-}5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  12. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, A.; López-Valdivieso, A.; Viramontes-Gamboa, G.

    2012-09-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by sulfite ions (SO3 2-), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag+ turned to Ag0 in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 °C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 μmol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low ±5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  13. Application of surface response analysis to the optimization of penicillin acylase purification in aqueous two-phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Penicillin acylase purification from an Escherichia coli crude extract using PEG 3350 – sodium citrate aqueous two phase systems was optimized. An experimental design was used to evaluate the influence of PEG, sodium citrate and sodium chloride on the purification parameters. A central composite design was defined centred on the previously found conditions for highest purification from an osmotic shock extract. Mathematical models for the partition coefficient of protein and enzyme, balance o...

  14. Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2011-09-15

    This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment.

  15. One-pot, four-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles catalyzed by sodium benzoate in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Kiyani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, green, and facile four-component reaction for the preparation of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives through the condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile, and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of commercially available organocatalyst sodium benzoate under aqueous condition is reported. The products are produced with high yields and in shorter reaction times. It also is mild, safe, green and environmental friendly.

  16. An Efficient and Practical Process for Pd/Cu Cocatalyzed Homocoupling Reaction of Terminal Alkynes Using Sodium Percarbonate as a Dual Reagent in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU, Lei; ZHAN, Hai-Ying; LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng

    2007-01-01

    A new process for the Pd/Cu co-catalyzed homocoupling reaction of terminal alkynes was developed. The reaction was carried out in aqueous media with sodium percarbonate as both a clean oxidant and a base. Meanwhile, a palladium complex immobilized on a synthetic PS-PEG400-PPh2 resin was used as the catalyst, which may be recovered by simple filtration and reused for several times with high activity.

  17. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  18. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  19. Development and testing of a silver chloride-impregnated activated carbon for aqueous removal and sequestration of iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanfil, T; Moro, E C; Serkiz, S M

    2005-11-01

    Silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) can effectively remove iodide from water and sequester it in the form of AgI(s)). Given the extremely insoluble nature of AgI(s), the spent SIAC can be safely disposed of in land burial facilities. However, when the molar ratio of silver to iodide is greater than one, which is typical for waters contaminated with iodide, unreacted silver on the SIAC leached into solution with decreasing pH. To minimize silver leaching, a silver chloride impregnated activated carbon (SIAC-Cl) was produced from a SIAC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the presence of silver chloride on the SIAC-Cl. Batch isotherm experiments conducted at pH 5, 7 and 8 showed that the iodide uptakes of SIAC-Cl and SIAC were similar and independent of pH. SEM/EDX and XRD analyses after reaction with iodide indicated that chloride was exchanged with iodide to form AgI(s) on the SIAC-Cl. Batch leaching experiments demonstrated that leaching of silver from SIAC-Cl under acidic conditions was significantly lower than from SIAC. The performance of SIAC and SIAC-Cl for practical applications was evaluated by conducting column experiments using a radioactively contaminated groundwater that included 129I. SIAC and SIAC-Cl showed similar degrees of iodide uptake. However, a significant degree of silver leaching, about 50% of the total silver, occurred from the SIAC during the course of the column experiments, whereas silver leaching from SIAC-Cl was remarkably low (only 6% of the total silver). SIAC-Cl appears to be a suitable getter material to remove and sequester iodide from contaminated waste streams.

  20. Rheological behaviour of some saccharides in aqueous potassium chloride solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banipal, Parampaul K., E-mail: pkbanipal@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chahal, Amanpreet K.; Singh, Vickramjeet [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Banipal, Tarlok S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2010-08-15

    The viscosities, {eta} of mono-, di-, tri-saccharides and methylglycosides, viz., D(+)-xylose (XYL), D(-)-arabinose (ARA), D(-)-ribose (RIB), D(-)-fructose (FRU), D(+)-galactose (GAL), D(+)-mannose (MAN), D(+)-glucose (GLU), D(+)-melibiose (MEL), D(+)-cellobiose (CEL), D(+)-lactose monohydrate (LAC), D(+)-maltose monohydrate (MAL), D(+)-trehalose dihydrate (TRE), sucrose (SUC), D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate (RAF), {alpha}-methyl-D(+)-glucoside ({alpha}-Me-GLU), methyl-{alpha}-D-xylopyranoside (Me-{alpha}-XYL), and methyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside (Me-{beta}-XYL) in water and in (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg{sup -1} aqueous solutions of potassium chloride (KCl) have been determined at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from efflux time measurements by using a capillary viscometer. Densities used to determine viscosities have been reported earlier. The viscosity data have been utilized to determine the viscosity B-coefficients employing the Jones-Dole equation at different temperatures. From these data, the viscosity B-coefficients of transfer, {Delta}{sub t}B have been estimated for the transfer of various saccharides/methylglycosides from water to aqueous potassium chloride solutions. The {Delta}{sub t}B values have been found to be positive, whose magnitude increases with the increase in concentration of potassium chloride in all cases. The dB/dT coefficients, pair, {eta}{sub AB} and triplet, {eta}{sub ABB} viscometric interaction coefficients have also been determined. Gibbs free energies of activation and related thermodynamic parameters of activation of viscous flow have been determined employing Feakin's transition-state theory. The signs and magnitudes of various parameters have been discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring in these solutions. The effect of substitution of -OH by methoxy group, -OCH{sub 3} has also been discussed.

  1. Novel composite membrane coated with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/urushi semi-interpenetrating polymer network for non-aqueous redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunhae; Won, Jongok

    2016-12-01

    Novel composite membranes of a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) coated on the surfaces of a porous Celgard 2400 support are prepared and investigate for application in a non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB). A natural polymer, urushi, is used for the matrix because of its high mechanical robustness, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) provides anionic exchange sites. The PDDA/urushi (P/U) semi-IPN film is prepared by the photo polymerization of urushiol in the presence of PDDA. The thin layer composed of the P/U semi-IPN on the porous support provides selectivity while maintaining the ion conductivity. The coulombic and energy efficiencies increase with increasing amounts of PDDA in the P/U semi-IPN layer, and the values reach 69.5% and 42.5%, respectively, for the one containing 40 wt% of PDDA. These values are substantially higher than those of the Neosepta AHA membrane and the Celgard membrane, indicating that the selective layer reduces the crossover of the redox active species through the membrane. This result implies that the formation of composite membranes using semi-IPN selective layers on the dimensionally stable porous membrane enable the successful use of a non-aqueous RFB for future energy storage systems.

  2. 降低肉制品中氯化钠含量研究进展%Progress towards Sodium Chloride Reduction in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海舟; 张迎阳; 唐静; 余翔; 黎良浩; 王建; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    An excessive intake of meat products, particularly dry-cured meat products, is not recommended from a health point of view, at least for some population groups, due to their high levels of sodium. Nevertheless, despite the importance of sodium chloride in producing food, over-consumption of sodium has the propensity to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper attempts are made to make a detailed review on the role of NaCl in processed meats, ways of reducing salt and their effect on the quality of meat precuts. It can provide some useful information for reducing salt levels of traditional meat products in our country and make meat products healthier.%从健康的观点来看,过度的摄入肉制品特别是传统的干腌肉制品不被推荐。因为这些肉制品钠含量较高,过度的摄入可能使人们导致高血压等心血管疾病。本文综述了氯化钠在肉产品加过过程中的作用、降低盐含量的方法以及他们对肉制品加工过程中品质的影响。为探索减低我国传统肉质品盐含量提供参考,有效提高肉制品的健康性。

  3. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahuya Sengupta; Gauri Dutta Sharma; Biswajit Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods: First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results: The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  4. Extraction of Thermodynamic Data from Ternary Diffusion Coefficients of Lysozyme Chloride in Water and Aqueous Na$_2$SO$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, D; Buzatu, F D; Albright, J G

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents, for ternary lysozyme-Na$_2$SO$_4$-water system, the thermodynamic data extracted from the measured values of four ternary diffusion coefficients and the Onsager reciprocal relations. The calculation for derivatives of solute chemical potentials with respect to solute molar concentrations was made using the method presented in \\cite{1}. This method is applicable to systems in which the molar concentration of one solute is very small compared to that of the other, like in our case. The approach is illustrated for the lysozyme chloride-Na$_2$SO$_4$-water system at 25$^o$ C, pH 4.5 and at 0.6 mM (8.6 mg/mL) lysozyme chloride and 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.65, and 0.8 M Na$_2$SO$_4$ concentrations. The calculated solute chemical potential derivatives were used to compute the protein cation charge approximately. We also compute the diffusion Onsager coefficients $(L_{ij})_o$ for each composition at pH 4.5.

  5. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  6. Performance Evolution of Silica Aerogel Synthesized from Sodium Silicate in the Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Rahmani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenol is a toxic and persistent substance in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of silica aerogel synthesized using sodium silicate in the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions. Material and Method: Silica aerogel was prepared by Sol-Gel process. The influence of effective variables such contact time, initial pH of the solution, adsorbent dose, and initial phenol concentration on the adsorption efficiency was investigated. The characterization of prepared silica aerogel and confirmation of phenol adsorption was determined through SEM, XRD analysis and NMR, FTIR spectra respectively. The adsorption data was evaluated via Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Results: This research found that the phenol adsorption efficiency increased by increasing pH from 3 to 11, so that after 60 min, the absorption efficiency at the 100 mg/L initial phenol concentration and 0.5 g adsorbent obtained 84 and 96.4 % at pH 3 and 11, respectively. The SEM image and XRD patternof synthesized silica aerogel confirmed the creation of porous and amorphous structure. After the phenol absorption, the NMR and FTIR spectra of silica aerogel, confirmed the creation of new bands because of phenol molecule at the adsorbent structure. The absorption of phenol was compatible with Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic. The maximum absorption capacity (qm obtained was 47.39 mg/g. Conclusion: Silica aerogel as an adsorbent, due to special characteristics in the structure and usage, can be a promising treatment process for adsorption of toxic and persistent substances.

  7. Solubilization of benzene and cyclohexane by sodium deoxycholate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Smith, L.S.; Bushong, D.S.; Tucker, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Vapor pressure-solubility data were obtained for the aqueous systems benzene-sodium deoxycholate and cyclohexane- sodium deoxycholate at 25/sup 0/C. The results are consistent with a mass action model similar to the BET equation. Equilibrium constants are inferred to characterize interactions of hydrocarbons with solubilization sites assumed to consist of units of four deoxycholate anions. Although addition of sodium chloride increases the middle aggregation number, solubilization results are affected very little by variation in salt concentration. When pure liquid hydrocarbon standard states are employed, solubilization results for benzene and cyclohexane (at varying salt concentrations) are quite similar. 26 references.

  8. 硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液致肾损害%Renal injury caused by etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珲; 赵冠人; 李国栋; 冯端浩

    2012-01-01

    患者,男性,57岁,因腹膜后纤维化、双肾积水、泌尿系感染等症,给予硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液0.3 g静脉滴注,每天1次,连续用药9d后,尿素氮由6.74 mmol·L-1上升至9.85 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐由103.0μmol·L-1升至373.9 μmol·L-1.停药6d后尿素氮降至5.11 mmol·L-1,血清肌酐降至122.1 μmol·L-1.随后的20多天里,仍按上述方案间断使用该药,用药过程中尿素氮及血清肌酐随用药或停药而上升或下降.在停药2周并针对原发病治疗后尿素氮恢复至2.94 mmol·L-1,肌酐恢复至76.0μmol·L-1.调整给药方案为硫酸依替米星氯化钠注射液,静脉滴注,0.15 g,每天2次,连续使用6d,尿素氮及血清肌酐未见明显升高.%One 57-year-old man with retroperitoneal fibrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis and urinary system infection was administrated with intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.3 g once daily. Nine days later, his urea nitrogen increased from 6.74 mmol·L-1 to 9.85 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine increased from 103.0 μmol·L-1 to 373.9 umol·L-1. Six days after etimicin withdrawal, his urea nitrogen decreased to 5.11 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 122.1 μmol·L-1. About 20 days after etimicin withdrawal, etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection was given again intermittently, urea nitrogen and serum creatine increased or decreased following the etimicin administration or withdrawal. After 2 weeks withdrawal combined with original disease treatment, his urea nitrogen decreased to 2.94 mmol·L-1 and serum creatine decreased to 76.0 umol·L-1. And then the dosage regimen was regulated to intravenous drop infusion of etimicin sulfate and sodium chloride injection 0.15 g twice daily. After six days of continuous administration, his urea nitrogen and serum creatine did not increase obviously.

  9. Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Manickam Minakshi; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram; Rao, Penki Tirupathi; Munichandraiah, Nookala

    2015-12-14

    Energy storage devices based on sodium have been considered as an alternative to traditional lithium based systems because of the natural abundance, cost effectiveness and low environmental impact of sodium. Their synthesis, and crystal and electronic properties have been discussed, because of the importance of electronic conductivity in supercapacitors for high rate applications. The density of states of a mixed sodium transition metal phosphate (maricite, NaMn(1/3)Co(1/3)Ni(1/3)PO4) has been determined with the ab initio generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+Hubbard term (U) method. The computed results for the mixed maricite are compared with the band gap of the parent NaFePO4 and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement. A mixed sodium transition metal phosphate served as an active electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The hybrid device (maricite versus carbon) in a non-aqueous electrolyte shows redox peaks in the cyclic voltammograms and asymmetric profiles in the charge-discharge curves while exhibiting a specific capacitance of 40 F g(-1) and these processes are found to be quasi-reversible. After long term cycling, the device exhibits excellent capacity retention (95%) and coulombic efficiency (92%). The presence of carbon and the nanocomposite morphology, identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, ensures the high rate capability while offering possibilities to develop new cathode materials for sodium hybrid devices.

  10. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  11. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: pandeygajanan@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  12. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  13. 烧伤回吸期持续性高钠高氯与侵袭性感染%Persistent High Level of Sodium and Chloride Ions and Invasive Infection in Resorption Phase Postburn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨大面积烧伤患者持续性高钠高氯产生的原因及防治措施;动态监测大面积烧伤后血清Na+,Cl-的临床意义。方法:回顾性分析了7例严重烧伤后持续性高Na+高Cl-和61例严重烧伤后非持续性高Na+,高Cl-患者的临床特点。结果:7例严重烧伤后持续高Na+,高Cl-患者均有严重侵袭性感染;且高Na+出现愈早,上升愈快,则感染愈重,愈后愈差。结论:1.烧伤后持续性高Na+,高Cl-产生的原因是严重侵袭性感染。2.动态监测血清Na+Cl-对感染的评价及抗感染效果有积极意义。3.预防措施包括平稳渡过休克,保护创面,避免长途转运。治疗上一旦出现持续性高钠高氯,除对症治疗外,根本措施是创面处理及抗感染。%Objective: To investigate the cause persistent high level of sodium and chloride ions in serum and methods for its prevention and treatment. The clinical significance of dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels in severe burn patients. Method: To make a review of 7 cases with persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels and 61 cases without. Results: All of the severe cases had invasive infection. The earlier the presence of high serum sodium and chloride ion levels, the more dangerous the case. Conclusion: 1. Persistent high serum sodium and chloride ion levels is caused by invasive infection. 2. Dynamic monitoring of serum sodium and chloride ion levels is of great clinical significance. 3. Prevention measures include: to tide over shock stage, to protect burn wounds, to avoid long distance transfer. 4. Treating measures include careful management of burn wounds, anti-infection and expectant treatment.

  14. Mechanism and toxicity research of benzalkonium chloride oxidation in aqueous solution by H2O2/Fe(2+) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Yu-Feng; Hong, Jun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    As widely used disinfectants, the pollution caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Since it is not suitable for biodegradation, BAC was degraded firstly by Fenton advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) in this research to enhance the biodegradability of the pollutions. The result revealed that the optimal molar ratio of H2O2/Fe(2+) for BAC degradation was 10:1, and the COD removal rate was 32 %. To clarify the pathway of degradation, the technique of GC-MS was implemented herein to identify intermediates and the toxicity of those BAC intermediates were also novelty tested through microbial fuel cells (MFC). The findings indicated that ten transformation products including benzyl dimethyl amine and dodecane were formed during the H2O2/Fe(2+) processes, which means the degradation pathway of BAC was initiated both on the hydrophobic (alkyl chain) and hydrophilic (benzyl and ammonium moiety) region of the surfactant. The toxicity of BAC before and after treated by Fenton process was monitored through MFC system. The electricity generation was improved 337 % after BAC was treated by H2O2/Fe(2+) oxidation processes which indicated that the toxicity of those intermediates were much lower than BAC. The mechanism and toxicity research in this paper could provide the in-depth understanding to the pathway of BAC degradation and proved the possibility of AOTs for the pretreatment of a biodegradation process.

  15. Short-column anion-exchange chromatography for soil and peat humic substances profiling by step-wise gradient of high pH aqueous sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutta, Milan; Ráczová, Janka; Góra, Róbert; Pessl, Juraj

    2015-08-21

    Novel anion-exchange liquid chromatographic method with step gradient of aqueous EDTA(4-) based mobile phase elution has been developed to profile available Slovak soil humic substances and alkaline extracts of various soils. The method utilize short glass column (30mm×3mm) filled in with hydrolytically stable particles (60μm diameter) Separon HEMA-BIO 1000 having (diethylamino)ethyl functional groups. Step gradient was programmed by mixing mobile phase composed of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0; 5mmolL(-1)) and mobile phase constituted of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0, 500mmolL(-1)). The FLD of HSs was set to excitation wavelength 480nm and emission wavelength 530nm (λem). Separation mechanism was studied by use of selected aromatic acids related to humic acids with the aid of UV spectrophotometric detection at 280nm. The proposed method benefits from high ionic strength (I=5molL(-1)) of the end mobile phase buffer and provides high recovery of humic acids (98%). Accurate and reproducible profiling of studied humic substances, alkaline extracts of various types of soils enables straightforward characterization and differentiation of HSs in arable and forest soils. Selected model aromatic acids were used for separation mechanism elucidation.

  16. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Reddy K; Rajeev Reddy E; Ganapaty S

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract sho...

  17. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  18. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, Caroline [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Adebayo, Matthew A. [Department of Chemical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State (Nigeria); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: eder.lima@ufrgs.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cataluña, Renato [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Thue, Pascal S. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 455, Ngaoundere (Cameroon); Prola, Lizie D.T.; Puchana-Rosero, M.J. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, Fernando M. [Technology Development Center, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL), Pelotas (Brazil); Pavan, Flavio A. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bagé, RS (Brazil); Dotto, G.L. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Microwave-assisted cocoa shell activated carbon was prepared and characterized. • The anti-inflammatories, diclofenac and nimesulide, were adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0. • Adsorption maximum values are 63.47 (diclofenac) and 74.81 mg g{sup −1} (nimesulide). • General order kinetic model suitably explained the adsorption process. • MWCS-1.0 was effectively used for treatment of simulated hospital effluents. - Abstract: Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10 min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6 mol L{sup −1} HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25 °C are 63.47 and 74.81 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations.

  19. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  20. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  1. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  2. Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by interacting with a sodium chloride co-transporter in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Melita M; De Joussineau, Cyrille; Carter, D Howard; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Gamba, Gerardo; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2007-09-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used worldwide as a first-choice drug for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In addition to their antihypertensive effect, thiazides increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures. Traditionally, these effects have been attributed to increased renal calcium reabsorption that occurs secondary to the inhibition of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule. The aim of the current study was to determine whether thiazides exert a direct bone-forming effect independent of their renal action. We found that the osteoblasts of human and rat bone also express NCC, suggesting that these bone-forming cells may be an additional target for thiazides. In vitro, NCC protein was virtually absent in proliferating human and fetal rat osteoblasts, whereas its expression dramatically increased during differentiation. Thiazides did not affect osteoblast proliferation, but directly stimulated the production of the osteoblast differentiation markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin. Using overexpression/knockdown studies in fetal rat calvarial cells, we show that thiazides increase the formation of mineralized nodules, but loop diuretics do not. Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides directly stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independent of their effects in the kidney. Therefore, in addition to their use as antihypertensive drugs, our results suggest that thiazides may find a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Synergistic bactericidal action of phytic acid and sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells protected by a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-06-16

    The food industry must prevent the build-up of strong Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms in food processing environments. The present study examined the bactericidal action of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran and the hulls/peels of legumes, against E. coli O157:H7 biofilms. The synergistic bactericidal effects of PA plus sodium chloride (NaCl) were also examined. E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were allowed for form on stainless steel coupons by culture in both rich (tryptic soy broth, TSB) and minimal (M9) medium at 22°C for 6days. Bacterial cells within biofilms grown in M9 medium were significantly more resistant to PA than those grown in TSB (pbiofilm effect of PA was significantly increased by addition of NaCl (2-4%) (pbiofilms without recovery (a>6.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Neither PA nor NaCl alone were this effective (PA, 1.6-2.7logCFU/cm(2) reduction; NaCl, food safety managers who encounter thick biofilm formation in food processing environments.

  4. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  5. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  6. Corrosion Resistance ofAA6063-TypeAl-Mg-SiAlloy by Silicon Carbide in Sodium Chloride Solution for MarineApplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi; Malik Abdulwahab; Ferdinand Asuke

    2015-01-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type Al-Mg-Si alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance (Rp), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  7. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João

    2016-03-01

    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications.

  8. Synchrotron-based in situ soft X-ray microscopy of Ag corrosion in aqueous chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, B.; D'Urzo, L.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kaulich, B.; Kiskinova, M.; Prasciolu, M.; Tadjeddine, A.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we report an in situ X-ray microscopy study of a model metal electrochemistry system, incorporating faradaic reactivity: the anodic corrosion and cathodic electrodeposition of Ag in aqueous systems. The information at sub-μm scale about morpho-chemical evolution of the electrified interface, provided by this novel electroanalytical approach fosters fundamental understanding of important issues concerning material fabrication and stability, which are crucial in developing the next generation electrochemical technologies, such as fuel cells and biosensors. The key methodology challenge faced in this pilot electrochemical experiments is combining a three-electrode configuration and wet environment, which required metal electrodes suitable for transmitting soft X-rays and a sealed cell allowing working in high vacuum. This has been solved via lithographic fabrication route fabricating 75 nm thick Ag electrodes and using Si3N4 membranes as X-ray windows and electrode support. Imaging in the STXM mode with phase contrast allowed us to monitor the corrosion morphologies and metal outgrowth features. Localised thickness variation and the build-up of reaction products of electron density different from that of the starting material have been detected with high sensitivity.

  9. Synchrotron-based in situ soft X-ray microscopy of Ag corrosion in aqueous chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, B; D' Urzo, L [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita del Salento, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gianoncelli, A; Kaulich, B; Kiskinova, M [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., ELETTRA, s.s. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Prasciolu, M [CNR-INFM TASC National Laboratory S.S.14 Km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Tadjeddine, A, E-mail: alessandra.gianoncelli@elettra.trieste.i [3UDIL/CNRS, BP34 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we report an in situ X-ray microscopy study of a model metal electrochemistry system, incorporating faradaic reactivity: the anodic corrosion and cathodic electrodeposition of Ag in aqueous systems. The information at sub-{mu}m scale about morpho-chemical evolution of the electrified interface, provided by this novel electroanalytical approach fosters fundamental understanding of important issues concerning material fabrication and stability, which are crucial in developing the next generation electrochemical technologies, such as fuel cells and biosensors. The key methodology challenge faced in this pilot electrochemical experiments is combining a three-electrode configuration and wet environment, which required metal electrodes suitable for transmitting soft X-rays and a sealed cell allowing working in high vacuum. This has been solved via lithographic fabrication route fabricating 75 nm thick Ag electrodes and using Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} membranes as X-ray windows and electrode support. Imaging in the STXM mode with phase contrast allowed us to monitor the corrosion morphologies and metal outgrowth features. Localised thickness variation and the build-up of reaction products of electron density different from that of the starting material have been detected with high sensitivity.

  10. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  11. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  12. Diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in aqueous solutions of lactose at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Gomes, Joselaine C.S., E-mail: leidygomes18@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Barros, Marisa C.F., E-mail: marisa.barros@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871, Alcala de Henares (Madrid) (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Binary mutual diffusion coefficients (interdiffusion coefficients) of nickel chloride in water at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at concentrations between (0.000 and 0.100) mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3}, using a Taylor dispersion method have been measured. These data are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss and Pikal models. The equivalent conductance at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at T = 310.15 K has been estimated using these results. Through the same technique, ternary mutual diffusion coefficients (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) for aqueous solutions containing NiCl{sub 2} and lactose, at T = 298.15 K and T = 310.15 K, and at different carrier concentrations were also measured. These data permit us to have a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behaviour of NiCl{sub 2} in different media.

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  14. Liquid-liquid equilibrium and partitioning features of bovine trypsin in Ucon 50 HB5100 /sodium citrate aqueous two phase systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tubío, Gisela; Venâncio, Armando; Teixeira, J. A.; Nerli, Bibiana B.; Picó, Guillermo A.

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagrams of Ucon 50-HB-5100, a non-ionic random copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EOPO) and sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems were determined at different pHs (5.20 and 8.20) and temperatures (5, 20 and 40º C). The binodal curves were determined by refractive index and enzymatic assay of the solution and described using a four-parameter sigmoidal equation, the reliability of the measured tie line compositions was ascertained by correlation equations...

  15. Partial molar volumes and partial molar adiabatic compressibilities of a short chain perfluorosurfactant: Sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Elena [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruso, Juan M. [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: faruso@usc.es; Prieto, Gerardo [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sarmiento, Felix [Group of Biophysics and Interfaces, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Density and ultrasound measurements of sodium heptafluorobutyrate in aqueous solutions at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K have been obtained. From these results partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibilities were calculated. Deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at lower concentrations. The change of the partial molar volume and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation was calculated. Variations of the change of partial molar volumes and isentropic partial molar adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation are discussed in terms of temperature.

  16. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabiazar, Roonak [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shekaari, Hemayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 4}mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C{sub 4}mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na{sub 3}Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na{sub 3}Cit and [C{sub 4}mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na{sub 3}Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of

  17. Determination of Sodium Chloride Content in Food(Ion chromatography)%食品中氯化钠含量的测定(离子色谱法)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆

    2012-01-01

    Level of sodium chloride content in food was analyzed by using ion chromatography for the determination of anions in liquid sample.3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3 were adopted as eluent solution,20~80mmol/L H_2SO_4 were adopted as suppression solution.Results showed that the detection limit of sodium chloride was 0.01%,the recovery was 95%.The method shows convenience,high accuracy,easy pretreatment,and can satisfy the analysis for sodium chloride in food.%利用离子色谱法测定样液中的阴离子含量,以3.2mM Na_2CO_3+1.0mM NaHCO_3为淋洗液,以20~80mmol/LH_2SO_4为抑制液,分析测定了食品中氯化钠的含量。结果表明,食品中氯化钠的检出限为0.01%,回收率达95%。该方法简便、快速、准确度高、前处理简单、能够满足食品中氯化钠的分析要求。

  18. Durability of API class B cement pastes exposed to aqueous solutions containing chloride, sulphate and magnesium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a durability study conducted on API class B cement, the type used in shallow oil wells, when exposed to aggressive formation water. Its resistance to the major ions, namely –SO4=, Mg+2 and Cl-–, is related both to its capacity to assimilate the aggressive action of each harmful agent and to the changes in the chemical reactivity of some of its components. The methodology used consisted in preparing and immersing cement specimens in neutral solutions containing variable concentrations of these ions to monitor the chemical reactions taking place. These solutions were analyzed and XRD studies were conducted for over a year to identify mineralogical variations. The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of joint ionic attack on this kind of cement and to monitor the variations in the calcium concentration in the aqueous solutions of Na2SO4, MgCl2 and NaCl in contact with API class B cement pastesEste trabajo se basa en el estudio de la durabilidad de un cemento API clase B, utilizado en pozos petrolíferos someros, frente a la agresividad de las aguas de formación a las que puede estar expuesto. Su eficacia frente a la exposición a los iones más importantes –SO4=, Mg+2 y Cl-– se relaciona con su capacidad de asimilar la acción agresiva de cada agente perjudicial, así como de las reacciones químicas que sufra por la reactividad de alguno de sus compuestos. La metodología aplicada supone la preparación de probetas de este cemento y su inmersión en disoluciones neutras, conteniendo los referidos iones a distintas concentraciones, para evaluar el desarrollo de las reacciones existentes en su seno. A tal fin se realizaron análisis de las disoluciones y estudios de DRX durante más de un año para conocer su evolución mineralógica. El objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar los efectos resultantes de los ataques conjuntos de los citados iones al referido cemento; así como la observación de las

  19. Effect of Potassium Chloride as Partial Sodium Chloride Substitution in Salted Duck Eggs%KCl部分替代NaCl腌制咸蛋效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 孙静; 乐立强; 马美湖

    2011-01-01

    用KCl 5%、6.5%、8.5%、12.5%不同质量分数的替代量部分替代NaCl进行咸蛋腌制,25%的饱和食盐水浸泡作为腌制对照组,通过这种混合腌制的方法可直接降低食盐的添加量,改善腌制过程中咸蛋白口感偏重的问题,以腌制出品质优良的低盐咸蛋;另外,对咸蛋中NaCl含量、蛋黄出油率、水分的相关理化指标、质地结构、色度及对微观结构影响的测定,并且对咸蛋品质进行综合感官评定。结果表明:用6.5%部分替代NaCl组较好,蛋清NaCl含量从54.4mg/g降到40.1mg/g,降幅为26.29%。感官评定的结果表%Salted eggs are important egg products in our country.Sodium chloride(NaCl) is an essential component in the manufacturing of salted eggs,and can improve the structure and texture of eggs and special flavor formation.In this study,potassium chloride(KCl) was added at ratios of 5%,6.5%,8.5% and 12.5% as a partial substitute for NaCl to process salted duck eggs and 25% saturated NaCl immersion was used as the blank.Using this mixed method,the amount of salt addition was directly reduced,and partial substitution with KCl could improve the salting process.In addition,the oil release rate of egg yolk,the water contents of egg white and yolk,and the NaCl content,texture,structure,color parameters and microstructure of whole salted eggs were determined and the sensory quality of salted eggs was comprehensively evaluated.The results indicated that 6.5% sodium chloride was the best addition.The NaCl content in egg white protein was decreased from 54.4 to 40.1 mg/g with a range of 26.29%.Sensory evaluation revealed that potassium ions at excess concentrations could result in bitter taste.However,partial substitution of NaCl with KCl did not affect egg texture and the oil release rate and loose sand-like mouthfeel of egg yolk.Therefore,this method is feasible for reducing sodium content.

  20. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K; Determinacion de las constantes de hidrolisis del lutecio (III), en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de cloruro de sodio, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  2. Polymorphisms in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes and plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus ascorbate concentrations in an ascorbate depleted setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumari, Srinivasan; Talwar, Badri; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Jayanthi, Ramamurthy; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Saravanan, Charu; Young, Ian S; Dangour, Alan D; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2014-07-01

    We have previously reported low concentrations of plasma ascorbate and low dietary vitamin C intake in the older Indian population and a strong inverse association of these with cataract. Little is known about ascorbate levels in aqueous humor and lens in populations habitually depleted of ascorbate and no studies in any setting have investigated whether genetic polymorphisms influence ascorbate levels in ocular tissues. Our objectives were to investigate relationships between ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens and whether these relationships are influenced by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2). We enrolled sixty patients (equal numbers of men and women, mean age 63 years) undergoing small incision cataract surgery in southern India. We measured ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus using high performance liquid chromatography. SLC23A1 SNPs (rs4257763, rs6596473) and SLC23A2 SNPs (rs1279683 and rs12479919) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. Patients were interviewed for lifestyle factors which might influence ascorbate. Plasma vitamin C was normalized by a log10 transformation. Statistical analysis used linear regression with the slope of the within-subject associations estimated using beta (β) coefficients. The ascorbate concentrations (μmol/L) were: plasma ascorbate, median and inter-quartile range (IQR), 15.2 (7.8, 34.5), mean (SD) of aqueous humor ascorbate, 1074 (545) and lens nucleus ascorbate, 0.42 (0.16) (μmol/g lens nucleus wet weight). Minimum allele frequencies were: rs1279683 (0.28), rs12479919 (0.30), rs659647 (0.48). Decreasing concentrations of ocular ascorbate from the common to the rare genotype were observed for rs6596473 and rs12479919. The per allele difference in aqueous humor ascorbate for rs6596473 was -217 μmol/L, p ascorbate of -0.085 μmol/g, p ascorbate on aqueous humor ascorbate were higher for the GG

  3. 氯化钠的吸波特性及微波干燥工艺研究%STUDY ON MICROWAVE ABSORPTION PROPERTY AND MICROWAVE DRYING PROCESS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨辉; 张利波; 彭金辉; 刘秉国; 夏洪应; 黄卡玛; 顾晓春; 史谊峰

    2012-01-01

    The open-ended coaxial sensor reflection method is adopted to measure the coefficient of wet sodium chloride with moisture from 0% to 5% , the influence of microwave frequency, water content and temperature on microwave absorbing ability and microwave drying technology of wet sodium chloride are studied. The results show that: the microwave frequency which is between 2. 3 ~2. 6 GHz almost has no effect on the microwave absorption property, the increase of water content in the sample can dramatically increase in the microwave absorption property, and the microwave absorption property of the sample has a linear relationship with water content, temperature increasing leads to significant increase in microwave absorption property of wet sodium chloride. Microwave drying technolo- gy of sodium chloride is studied thus the optimized microwave drying process parameters for sodium chloride are obtained as follows: drying temperature 60 ~70 ℃ , drying time 70~90 s with sample thickness 35 -45 mm.%采用终端开路同轴探头反射法测量了含水率0%~5%的氯化钠反射系数,研究了微波频率、含水率和温度对氯化钠含水物料吸波性能的影响,并对氯化钠的微波干燥工艺进行分析.结果表明:微波频率在2.3~2.6 GHz对物料的吸波性能影响不大,含水率的增加能显著提高物料的吸波能力和微波能的耗散,氯化钠的吸波性能与含水率之间存在线性关系,温度升高也会引起物料吸波性能显著提升;通过对物料微波干燥工艺研究得到较好的微波干燥工艺条件:干燥温度60~70℃、干燥时间70 ~90s、物料厚度35 ~45 mm.

  4. Partial molar volume and partial molar compressibility of four homologous {alpha}-amino acids in aqueous sodium fluoride solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K., E-mail: krpal25@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Government College of Engg., Tirunelveli 627 007, Tamilnadu (India); Edwin Gladson, S., E-mail: aseg_win@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, St. Xavier' s Catholic College of Engg., Chunkankadai 629 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: Partial molar volume indicates strong solute-cosolute interaction in the NaF solution. Partial molar compressibility results compliment partial molar volume results. Hydration number proves that sodium fluoride has dehydration effect on amino acids. Interactions between sodium fluoride and (NH{sub 3}{sup +},COO{sup -}) group of amino acid are stronger. - Abstract: Density and ultrasonic speed of four amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine) in aqueous sodium fluoride solutions {l_brace}(0.1 to 0.5) M{r_brace} have been measured at T = (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. Apparent molar volumes (V{sub {phi}}), partial molar volumes (V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), transfer volumes ({Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}) and hydration number (n{sub H}) are evaluated using density data. Adiabatic compressibility ({beta}{sub s}), change ({Delta}{beta}{sub s}), and relative change in compressibility ({Delta}{beta}{sub s}/{beta}{sub 0}), apparent molar compressibility (K{sub {phi}}), partial molar compressibility (K{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), transfer compressibility ({Delta}K{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), and hydration number (n{sub H}) have been calculated using ultrasonic speed data. The linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0},{Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0},K{sub {phi}}{sup 0} and {Delta}K{sub {phi}}{sup 0} for a homologous series of amino acids have been used utilised to calculate the contribution of charged end groups (NH{sub 3}{sup +}, COO{sup -}), CH{sub 2} group and other alkyl chain of the amino acids. The analysis shows that the ion-ion interactions are much stronger than ion-hydrophobic interactions over the entire concentration range of sodium fluoride. It is observed that sodium fluoride has a strong dehydration effect on amino acids.

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  6. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen.

  7. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  8. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  9. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  10. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-12-10

    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.8±33.2, 403.5±107.9, and 239.3±21.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of 282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.8±40.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings.

  11. Development of a new colorimetric assay for detection of bisphenol-A in aqueous media using green synthesized silver chloride nanoparticles: experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalililaghab, Shiva; Momeni, Safieh; Farrokhnia, Maryam; Nabipour, Iraj; Karimi, Sadegh

    2017-02-08

    In the present study, a cost-effective, green and simple synthesis method was applied for preparation of stable silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs). The method was done by forming AgCl-NPs from Ag(+) ions using aqueous extract of brown algae (Sargassum boveanum) obtained from the Persian Gulf Sea. This extract served as capping agent during the formation of AgCl-NPs. Creation of AgCl-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, while the morphology and size analyses were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. After optimization of some experimental conditions, particularly pH, a simple and facile system was developed for the naked-eye detection of bisphenol-A. Moreover, a theoretical study of AgCl interaction with bisphenol-A was performed at the density functional level of theory in both gas and solvent phases. Theoretical results showed that electrostatic and van der Waal interactions play important roles in complexation of bisphenol-A with AgCl-NPs, which can lead to aggregation of the as-prepared AgCl-NPs and results in color change from specific yellow to dark purple, where a new aggregation band induced at 542 nm appears. The absorbance at 542 nm was found to be linearly dependent on the bisphenol-A concentration in the range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with limit of detection of 45 nM. In conclusion, obtained results from the present study can open up an innovative application of the green synthesis of AgCl-NPs using brown algae extract as colorimetric sensors.

  12. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes.

  13. Graphene oxide adsorption enhanced by in situ reduction with sodium hydrosulfite to remove acridine orange from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2012-02-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a highly effective adsorbent, and its absorbing capability is further enhanced through its in situ reduction with sodium hydrosulfite as the reductant. Acridine orange is the selected target to eliminate with GO as the adsorbent. Under identical conditions, GO without the in situ reduction showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 1.4 g g(-1), and GO with the in situ reduction provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 3.3 g g(-1). Sodium hydrosulfite converts carbonyl groups on GO into hydroxyl groups, which function as the key sites for the adsorption enhancement.

  14. The effect of water and sodium chloride intake on blood pressure and the mechanism%不同剂量水钠摄入对血压影响的基础研究及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全洪兵; 于国东; 陈伟才; 胡建锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of changes of blood pressure by different sodium chloride and water intake in Wistar rat.Methods Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups equally.Groop A received low - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group A1 and A2 equally.Group A1 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group A2 was fed by dry food with 0.5% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day according to the physiological need for water.Group B received high - sodium chloride intake, and subdivided into group B1 and B2 equally.Group B1 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride without limitation of water intake.Group B2 was fed by dry food with 4% sodium chloride and 40ml of water every day.The intake of water and the volume of urine, and the body weight and rat tail blood pressure were measured daily and weekly respectively for 8 weeks.Serum noradrenalin ( NE ), angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ )and creatinine (Cr) were analyzed after the 8 - week diet.Results Blood pressure in group B was higher than in group A ( P < 0.01 ), and higher in group B2 than in group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The difference between the intake of water and the volume of urine volume in group B was less than that in group A ( P <0.01 ), similar between group A1 and group A2 ( P >0.05 ), significantly different between group B2 and group B1 ( P < 0.01 ).The body weight in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.01 ).Ang Ⅱ level in group B was lower than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and lower in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).NE level in group B was higher than that in group A ( P < 0.05 ), and higher in group B2 than that in group B1 ( P < 0.05 ).However, there was no difference in the level of Cr between all groups ( P > 0.05 ).One rat in group B2 was dead at week 4 after experiment, and the cause was unknown.Conclusion High intake of sodium chloride would increase blood pressure.The increase

  15. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  16. Derivation of Pitzer Interaction Parameters for an Aqueous Species Pair of Sodium and Iron(II)-Citrate Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Nemer, M.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. The WIPP is located in the Permian Delaware Basin near Carlsbad, New Mexico, U.S.A. The TRU waste includes, but is not limited to, iron-based alloys and the complexing agent, citric acid. Iron is also present from the steel used in the waste containers. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer activity coefficients for the pair of Na+ and FeCit- complex to expand current WIPP thermodynamic database. An aqueous model for the dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in a Na3Cit solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer interaction parameters for the Na+ and FeCit- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) plus the stability constant for species of FeCit- were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (<1 ppm) throughout the experiments due to redox sensitivity. EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations, packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a, calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each individual experiment with respect to the solid of interest. The calculation of aqueous speciation and saturation indices was repeated by adjusting stability constant of FeCit-, β(0), β(1), and Cφ in the database until the values are found that make the sum of squared saturation indices the smallest for the given number of experiments. Results will be presented at the time of

  17. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in environmentally benign brine solution using acetyl chloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Basu; Suchandra Chakraborty; Achintya Kumar Sarkar; Chandan Saha

    2013-05-01

    Acetyl chloride is one of the most commonly available and cheap acylating agent but its high reactivity and concomitant instability in water precludes its use to carry out acetylation in aqueous medium. The present methodology illustrates the efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in brine solution by means of acetyl chloride under weakly basic condition in the presence of sodium acetate and/or triethyl amine followed by trituration with aqueous saturated bicarbonate solution. This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the amide derivatives. Mechanistic rationale of this methodology is also important.

  18. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  19. Solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges

    2007-06-28

    We report molecular dynamics studies on the solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([BMI][Tf2N] IL). We first consider the potential of mean force for dissociating a single Na+Cl- ion pair, showing that the latter prefers to be undissociated rather than dissociated (by ca. 9 kcal/mol), with a free energy barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol (at d approximately 5.2 A) for the association process. The preference for Na+Cl- association is also observed from a 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a concentrated solution, where the Na+Cl- ions tend to form oligomers and microcrystals in the IL. Conversely, the simulation of Na13Cl14- and Na14Cl13+ cubic microcrystals (with, respectively, Cl- and Na+ at the vertices) does not lead to dissolution in the IL. Among these, Na14Cl13+ is found to be better solvated than Na13Cl14-, mainly due to the stronger Na+...Tf2N- interactions as compared to the Cl-...BMI+ interactions at the vertices of the cube. We finally consider the solid/liquid interface between the 100 face of NaCl and the IL, revealing that, in spite of its polar nature, the crystal surface is solvated by the less polar IL components (CF3(Tf2N) and butyl(BMI) groups) rather than by the polar ones (O(Tf2N) and imidazolium(BMI) ring). Specific ordering at the interface is described for both Tf2N- anions and BMI+ cations. In the first IL layer, the ions are rather parallel to the surface, whereas in the second "layer" they are more perpendicular. A similar IL structure is found at the surface of the all-neutral Na0Cl0 solid analogue, confirming that the solvation of the crystal is rather "apolar", due to the mismatch between the IL and the crystal ions. Several comparisons with water, methanol, or different BMI+-based ILs as solvents are presented, allowing us to better understand the specificity of the ionic liquid-NaCl interactions.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the complexation product of sodium tartrate and iron(III chloride as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexation product of sodium tartrates and iron(III chloride (Fe mTA is proposed for use as an anti-caking agent, only in salt or its substitutes, with a maximum use level of 106 mg Fe mTA/kg salt. Fe mTA can be expected to dissociate into its constituent iron(III and tartrate components upon ingestion. Studies in rats demonstrated that up to 90 % of ingested DL-tartrate or tartaric acid were absorbed, studies in humans suggested that only 20 % of an ingested dose of tartaric acid were absorbed. There are no ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion data for meso-tartrate. From a 90-day rat study, the lowest calculated BMDLs (Benchmark Dose Level for Fe mTA were: 75 mg/kg body weight (bw per day for males (BMDL05 for serum bile acids and 267 mg/kg bw per day for females (BMDL10 for goblet cells hyperplasia. Several in vitro studies showed that there is no safety concern for genotoxicity. No reprotoxicity and developmental toxicity was reported, however no study was specifically designed for teratogenicity. No long-term or carcinogenicity studies were available. The Panel concluded that the toxicity database was insufficient to establish an ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake and calculated MoS (Margin of Safety by comparing the highest intake of Fe mTA of 0.092 mg/kg bw per day for children at the 97.5 percentile with the lowest BMDLs. The resulting MoS were 815 and 2 900 for males and females, respectively. Owing to the conservative assumptions included in the exposure assessment, the Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the single condition of use and use level of Fe mTA proposed. The Panel noted that this evaluation was based on a limited toxicity database, for a single use resulting in a very low exposure, and therefore concluded that any extension of use and/or use level of Fe mTA, would require a new risk assessment.

  1. 氨基三磺酸钠水相酯化法合成蔗渣木聚糖硫酸酯%Aqueous Esterification of Bagasse Xylan with Sodium Nitrilotriacetic Sulfonate as Esterifying Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 杨官威; 胡杨; 杨永哲; 张垚

    2012-01-01

    以蔗渣木聚糖为主要原料,以氨基三磺酸钠为酯化剂,在水相中合成了蔗渣木聚糖硫酸酯.用氯化钡-明胶分光光度法对蔗渣木聚糖硫酸酯的取代度进行了测定.考察了诸因素对取代度的影响,确定了反应的较佳条件.结果表明,当酯化温度为50℃,酯化时间为4.0 h,溶液pH值为9.0,亚硝酸钠和蔗渣木聚糖的配比为0.057 mol比5g,反应溶液体积和蔗渣木聚糖的质量配比为75 mL比5g时,木聚糖硫酸酯的取代度为1.22.采用紫外光谱法、红外光谱法和扫描电镜对产物结构进行了表征,结果表明所得产物为蔗渣木聚糖硫酸酯.%Bagasse xylan sulfate was synthesized in aqueous phase with bagasse xylan as the raw material and sodium nitrilotriacetic sulfonate as the esterifying agent. The degree of substitution (DS) of bagasse xylan sulfate was determined with barium chloride-gelatin spectrophotometry. The influence of various parameters on the DS was examined and an optimal reaction condition was then obtained. The results showed that, under the condition of reaction temperature of 50℃, reaction time of 4.0 h, pH of 9.0, ratio of sodium nitrite to bagasse xylan of 0.057 mol to 5.0 g, and ratio of reaction solution volume to bagasse xylan of 75.0 mL to 5.0 g, the DS of the obtained bagasse xylan sulfate was 1.22. The structure was also characterized by UV spectroscopy, FTIR and SEM, and it was confirmed that the product was bagasse xylan sulfate.

  2. Dynamic control of gold nanoparticle morphology in a microchannel flow reactor by glucose reduction in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Takayuki; Ishigaki, Atsushi; Kawanami, Hajime; Suzuki, Akira; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2012-02-01

    Continuous flow synthesis of gold nanoparticles was demonstrated using a microchannel reactor with glucose reduction in aqueous alkaline medium. Particle size, morphology, and visual/optical properties of the dispersion liquid were controlled dynamically by tuning of the rate of NaOH addition. Characteristic star-like nanoparticles formed spontaneously as a quasi-stable state, but they changed the morphology to round shape and showed spectral change over time.

  3. Bivalence Mn5O8 with hydroxylated interphase for high-voltage aqueous sodium-ion storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Xiaoqiang; Charles, Daniel S.; Lei, Yinkai; Qiao, Ruimin; Wang, Guofeng; Yang, Wanli; Feygenson, Mikhail; Su, Dong; Teng, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted significant attention owing to their high safety, low cost and environmental friendliness. However, their applications have been limited by a narrow potential window (∼1.23 V), beyond which the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions occur. Here we report the formation of layered Mn5O8 pseudocapacitor electrode material with a well-ordered hydroxylated interphase. A symmetric full cell using such electrodes demonstrates a stable po...

  4. Low Sodium Chloride and Low Blood the Prognosis of Acute Stroke Correlation%低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申淑侠

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the low sodium chloride and low blood acute brain stroke the correlation of prognosis, and draw the conclusion methods acute stroke patients collection, observation period prognosis and low sodium chloride the correlation between the low disease. Results:In this study in patients with acute stroke outcome 46%developed low sodium chloride low hematic disease, low sodium chloride low blood the prognosis of patients with serious influence. Conclusion:Hyponatremia is acute hemorrhagic stroke more common complications, the serious influence the prognosis of patients. Only in patients with hyponatremia understanding of the pathophysiology of mechanism, can effectively correct hyponatremia, and prevent possible complications. Introduce acute hemorrhagic stroke appear with hyponatremia were the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the pathogenesis and the progress of research.%  目的:研究低钠血症与急性脑卒中预后的相关性,并得出相应的结论。方法:收集急性脑卒中患者,观察期预后与低钠血症之间的相关性。结果:本研究中急性脑卒中预后患者中46%出现了低钠血症,低钠血症严重影响患者的预后。结论:低钠血症是急性出血性脑卒中较为常见的并发症之一,严重影响患者的预后。只有了解患者发生低钠血症的病理生理学机制,才能有效地纠正低钠血症,并防止可能出现的并发症。现介绍急性出血性脑卒中出现低钠血症患者的临床表现、诊断、发生机制及治疗方面的研究进展。

  5. 高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉用于前列腺电切术的可行性%The feasibility of using hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch in resection of prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武德; 兰莲莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺肥大的患者在腰硬联合麻醉下行前列腺电切术时输注高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉(hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch,HSH)预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.方法:随机将60例前列腺肥大患者分为A组(观察组)和B组(对照组)各30例.观察组术前先输注复方氯化钠,手术开始后输注HSH 5ml/kg.对照组仅输注复方氯化钠.抽取静脉血检测手术开始前(T0)、开始后30min(T30)、60min(T60)、90min(T90)各时点的电解质、HCT的变化.结果:观察组血中的电解质、HCT变化不大.对照组同一时点与观察组相比,Na+、HCT明显降低.结论:腰硬联合麻醉行前列腺电切术时输注HSH安全有效,有一定预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.%Objective:To study whether hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch (HSH) can prevent transurethral resection syndrome (TURS) in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for prostatic hypertrophy under combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Methods:Sixty patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly divided into two groups:observation group (n= 30 ) and control group (n = 30). In observation group inlravenous compound sodium chloride was administered before operation,aud after the beginning of operation intravenous 5mL/kg HSH was administered in each patient. In control group only intravenous compound sodium chloride was given. Venous samples were taken before operation (T0 ), after 30 minutes (T30) ,60 minutes (T6o) ,90 minutes (T9o) of operation beginning, to detect the change of blood electrolyte and HCT. Results:The change of blood electrolyte and HCT in observation group was not obvious. At the same time points,Na+ and HCT were obviously lower in control group than in observation group. Conclusions:Intravenous infusion of HSH is safe in TURP under CSEA ,and effective in preventing TURS.

  6. Micellization, interaction and thermodynamic study of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous-ethanol solution at 25, 30 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found to enhance the diffusion significantly depending on hydrophobic/hydrophilic group lengths and the structure of the surfactant molecule. Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant, at a range of temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C have been measured by the conductometric study in aqueous-ethanolic composite solution. The experimental data of aqueous-ethanolic solutions as a function of SDS concentration ranging from 1 to 14 mM dm−3 show the presence of inflexion points indicating micellization and interaction mechanisms. Effect of temperature was also observed in increasing the CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration in the narrow composition. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated viz: (a the standard enthalpy change (ΔHm°, (b standard entropy change (ΔSm°, and (c standard Gibbs energy change (ΔGm°. The results showed that the presence of alcohol, as well as the composition of water + ethanol may have effect on thermodynamic parameters. The variation in these parameters with the concentration of surfactant or with the change in temperature suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the studied system.

  7. Fast and highly-efficient removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by poly(styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid)-sodium-modified magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Bei; Lv, Shao-Nan; Cheng, Chang-Jing; Ni, Guo-Li; Xie, Xiao-Wa; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) modified with different amounts of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium (PSSMA) have been prepared through simple one-step solvothermal method for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The prepared MCNCs are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, effects of the solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength and initial dye concentration on MB adsorption onto the MCNCs are systematically investigated. The PSSMA-modified MCNCs show fast and highly-efficient MB removal capacity, which dramatically depends on the immobilization amounts of PSSMA, solution pH and adsorbent dosage. Their adsorption kinetics and isotherms exhibit that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions can be well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir model, respectively. These magnetic nanocomposites, with high separation efficiency, low production cost and recyclable property, are promising as functional adsorbents for efficient removal of cationic organic pollutants from aqueous solution.

  8. Bivalence Mn5O8 with hydroxylated interphase for high-voltage aqueous sodium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang; Charles, Daniel S.; Lei, Yinkai; Qiao, Ruimin; Wang, Guofeng; Yang, Wanli; Feygenson, Mikhail; Su, Dong; Teng, Xiaowei

    2016-11-01

    Aqueous electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted significant attention owing to their high safety, low cost and environmental friendliness. However, their applications have been limited by a narrow potential window (~1.23 V), beyond which the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions occur. Here we report the formation of layered Mn5O8 pseudocapacitor electrode material with a well-ordered hydroxylated interphase. A symmetric full cell using such electrodes demonstrates a stable potential window of 3.0 V in an aqueous electrolyte, as well as high energy and power performance, nearly 100% coulombic efficiency and 85% energy efficiency after 25,000 charge-discharge cycles. The interplay between hydroxylated interphase on the surface and the unique bivalence structure of Mn5O8 suppresses the gas evolution reactions, offers a two-electron charge transfer via Mn2+/Mn4+ redox couple, and provides facile pathway for Na-ion transport via intra-/inter-layer defects of Mn5O8.

  9. Bivalence Mn5O8 with hydroxylated interphase for high-voltage aqueous sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoqiang; Charles, Daniel S; Lei, Yinkai; Qiao, Ruimin; Wang, Guofeng; Yang, Wanli; Feygenson, Mikhail; Su, Dong; Teng, Xiaowei

    2016-11-15

    Aqueous electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted significant attention owing to their high safety, low cost and environmental friendliness. However, their applications have been limited by a narrow potential window (∼1.23 V), beyond which the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions occur. Here we report the formation of layered Mn5O8 pseudocapacitor electrode material with a well-ordered hydroxylated interphase. A symmetric full cell using such electrodes demonstrates a stable potential window of 3.0 V in an aqueous electrolyte, as well as high energy and power performance, nearly 100% coulombic efficiency and 85% energy efficiency after 25,000 charge-discharge cycles. The interplay between hydroxylated interphase on the surface and the unique bivalence structure of Mn5O8 suppresses the gas evolution reactions, offers a two-electron charge transfer via Mn(2+)/Mn(4+) redox couple, and provides facile pathway for Na-ion transport via intra-/inter-layer defects of Mn5O8.

  10. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  12. RESEARCH ON MECHANISM OF LEACHING ANTIMONOUS OXIDE BY AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND GLYCERIN%NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘朝群; 邓先和; 宾万达; 杨天足

    2001-01-01

    Antimonous oxide can be dissolved in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and glycerin and the new product is sodium antimonite containing glycerin.The solution is stable under a certain concentration of sodium hydroxide.The mechanism of the reaction and the stability of sodium antimonite containing glycerin solution have been studied.%NaOH、甘油或木糖醇的水溶液浸出锑氧粉得到双金属醇盐,溶液在一定的碱性条件下能保持稳定;本文对NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑生成甘油亚锑酸钠的机理及其稳定性作了一系列的研究。

  13. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Conformation of Sodium Microcrystalline Cellulose Sulfate in Aqueous Solution%微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 熊文雯; 王兆梅

    2006-01-01

    Sodium microcrystalline cellulose sulfate ( NaCSMC) is a new type of effective anti-coagulant, whose anti-coagulant activity is closely related to the conformation in solution. In order to reveal the anti-coagulant activity of NaCSMC, the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution was investigated by the optical rotation measurement, the viscosity analysis and the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis. The measurement results of optical rotation show that the conformation of NaCSMC is regular in neutral or weak alkaline solution. The same results can also be obtained by means of viscosity analysis. Moreover, it is indicated by the Congo red helix-coil transition analysis that the conformation of NaCSMC in aqueous solution is of not only regular conformation but also single helix and multi-helix structures.%微晶纤维素硫酸钠是一种具有显著抗凝血活性的物质,其抗凝活性与其在溶液中的构象密切相关.为了解其抗凝活性,文中通过旋光度分析、粘度分析和刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析,研究了微晶纤维素硫酸钠溶液的构象.旋光度分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在水溶液或弱碱溶液中具有规则的空间构象;由粘度分析也可得出同样的结果;刚果红螺旋-线团过渡分析表明,微晶纤维素硫酸钠在溶液中具有规则的空间构象,同时具有单螺旋结构与高级螺旋结构.

  15. Synthesis of high molecular weight polylactic acid from aqueous lactic acid co-catalyzed by tin(II)chloride dihydrate and succinic anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ziqiang; BAI Yanbin; WANG Shoufeng

    2005-01-01

    Polylactic acid was synthesized from commercial available cheap aqueous lactic acid (85%―90% w/w) using succinic anhydride and SnCl2·2H2O as catalyst in the absence of organic solvents. As a result, polylactic acid with a molecular weight of 60000 was prepared in 10 h. The new procedure is much simple, cheap and outstanding in that the start material is aqueous lactic acid; the catalytic system is environmentally benign.

  16. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  17. Adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride on low-weight greige and bleached cotton nonwovens in different aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC) on cotton nonwovens is dependent on pretreatment of the substrate, more specifically whether it is greige or bleached fabric. In this work we examine the effect of varying the chemical and physical propert...

  18. Effect of varying nonwoven cotton substrate and the properties of the surfactant solution upon the adsorption of aqueous solutions of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on greige, alkaline scoured, and bleached nonwoven cotton fabrics was investigated at varying surfactant concentrations and liquor ratios using UV-vis absorption spec...

  19. 加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%Compatibility of Gatifloxacin for Injection With Ornidazole Sodium Chloride Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性。方法配置加替沙星、氯化钠溶液标准品,测定吸光度,绘制标准曲线,配置不同浓度配伍液,在不同时间段测定吸光度、pH值,肉眼观察物理变化,并进行回收率试验。结果测得加替沙星波长289.9 nm, C=22.3353△A+0.1576,奥硝唑测定波长319.7 nm,C=30.3313△A-0.1554;不同浓度配伍液体不同时间按段回收率、pH值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),无气泡、无沉淀产生。结论加替沙星与奥硝唑氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性较好。%ObjectiveTo evaluate the gatifloxacin and ornidazole sodium chloride injection compatibility stability.MethodsConfigure gatifloxacin,sodium chloride standard measured absorbance,the standard curve,configured with different concentrations of the mixed solution,measuring absorbance, pH,physical changes visually observed at different time periods,and recovery test.Results The measured gatifloxacin wavelength 289.9 nm, C=22.335 3△A+0.1576,ornidazole measurement wavelength 319.7 nm,C=30.331 3△A-0.1554,compatibility of liquids with different concentrations at different times by segment recovery,pH value of the difference no statisticaly significant(P> 0.05),no bubbles,no precipitate. Conclusion Gatifloxacin and ornidazole sodium chloride injection compatibility better stability.

  20. A frogspawn-inspired hierarchical porous NaTi2(PO4)3-C array for high-rate and long-life aqueous rechargeable sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baidan; Lin, Bo; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Hollow micro/nano-arrays have attracted tremendous attention in the field of energy conversion and storage, but such structures usually compromise the volumetric energy density of the electrode materials. Frogspawn consists of a spawn core and a transparent jelly shell organized in a hierarchical porous array, which exhibits superior mechanical strength and high-efficiency oxygen permeability. It can be used as a model for designing a new high-performance electrode material, which has advantages such as a high surface area, fast mass transport and superior durability. Herein, we report a frogspawn-like NaTi2(PO4)3/C array prepared by a facile preform impregnation strategy. The framework is formed by a hollow carbon sphere connected by the NaTi2(PO4)3/C skeleton, and its hollow is filled with the NaTi2(PO4)3 nanospheres. The whole hierarchical porous three-dimensional array copies the structure of a frogspawn. This unique structure not only enables easy electrolyte percolation and fast electron/ion transport, but also enhances the reversible capacity and cycling durability. When it is applied as an anode of the aqueous sodium ion battery, it exhibits favorable high rate capability and superior cycling stability, and retains 89% of the initial capacity after two thousand cycles at 20 C. Moreover, the full cell using the frogspawn-inspired NaTi2(PO4)3-C as the anode and Na0.44MnO2 as the cathode is capable of ultralong cycling up to one thousand cycles at alternate 10 and 60 C, which is among the best of state-of-the-art aqueous sodium ion systems. Therefore, the frogspawn-inspired architecture provides a new strategy to the tailored design of polyanion materials for high-power applications.Hollow micro/nano-arrays have attracted tremendous attention in the field of energy conversion and storage, but such structures usually compromise the volumetric energy density of the electrode materials. Frogspawn consists of a spawn core and a transparent jelly shell organized in

  1. Self-aggregation of synthesized novel bolaforms and their mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kajari; Mitra, Debolina; Mitra, Rajendra N; Panda, Amiya K; Das, Prasanta K; Rakshit, Animesh K; Moulik, Satya P

    2010-06-10

    Bolaforms B(1), B(2), and B(3) of the formulas, Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)N(+)Me(3)Br(-), Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)OH, and Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)COO(-)Na(+), respectively, were synthesized, and their properties in the bulk as well as at the air/aqueous NaBr (10 mM) solution interface have been studied. Their interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) also have been investigated. Tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, and microcalorimetry techniques were used for characterization and estimation. Both pure bolaforms and their mixtures with SDS and CTAB have been found to self-aggregate, forming micelles in solution. The mixed systems of bolaform and SDS have been observed to form both micelles and vesicles. Their mutual interactions were synergistic, which at the interface was more spontaneous than in the bulk. The interfacial and bulk compositions of the mixed binary systems (bolaform and SDS or CTAB) with their associated interaction parameters have been estimated from the Rosen interaction model and the regular solution theory of Rubingh, respectively. The formed vesicles have been found to entrap the water-soluble dye, bromophenol blue, and the dye solubilized vesicles of B(1)-SDS and B(2)-SDS completely eluted out of the sephadex column proving their formation. A rough estimation of the size and polydispersity index of the formed micelles and vesicles has been made from DLS measurements.

  2. Rapid removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/ sodium humate composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junping; Jin, Yeling; Wang, Aiqin

    2011-04-01

    A series of novel granular chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite/sodium humate (CTS-g-PAA/APT/SH) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by one-step free radical graft polymerization and applied as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorbent composition (including the contents of APT, SH and CTS) on adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were investigated in detail. Results from kinetic experiments showed that the rate of Pb(II) adsorption on the composite hydrogels was quite fast, that more than 90% of the equilibrium adsorption capacity occurs within two minutes and that the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved within 10 minutes. The adsorption kinetics fit well with the pseudo-second order equation. The introduced SH is helpful for both adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. The -COOH and -COO of PAA, -NH2 of CTS, Ph-O and -COO- of SH, as well as cation exchange and Si-OH of APT, participate in adsorption of Pb(II). The synergistic effect of these groups is responsible for the high adsorption capacity and rate.

  3. Interrelationship between partition behavior of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; da Silva, Nuno R; Wlodarczyk, Samarina R; Loureiro, Joana A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2016-04-22

    Partition behavior of adenosine and guanine mononucleotides was examined in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. The partition coefficients for each series of mononucleotides were analyzed as a functions of the number of phosphate groups and found to be dependent on the nature of nucleic base and on the type of ATPS utilized. It was concluded that an average contribution of a phosphate group into logarithm of partition coefficient of a mononucleotide cannot be used to estimate the difference between the electrostatic properties of the coexisting phases of ATPS. The data obtained in this study were considered together with those for other organic compounds and proteins reported previously, and the linear interrelationship between logarithms of partition coefficients in dextran-PEG, PEG-Na2SO4 and PEG-Na2SO4-0.215M NaCl (all in 0.01M Na- or K/Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 or 6.8) was established. Similar relationship was found for the previously reported data for proteins in Dex-PEG, PEG-600-Na2SO4, and PEG-8000-Na2SO4 ATPS. It is suggested that the linear relationships of the kind established in ATPS may be observed for biological properties of compounds as well.

  4. Sodium Borohydride Reduction of Aqueous Silver-Iron-Nickel Solutions: a Chemical Route to Synthesis of Low Thermal Expansion-High Conductivity Ag-Invar Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, E. A.; Stolk, J.; Hafford, L.; Gross, M.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal management is a critical concern in the design and performance of electronics systems. If heat extraction and thermal expansion are not properly addressed, the thermal mismatch among dissimilar materials may give rise to high thermal stresses or interfacial shear strains, and ultimately to premature system failure. In this article, we present a chemical synthesis process that yields Ag-Invar (64Fe-36Ni) alloys with a range of attractive properties for thermal management applications. Sodium borohydride reduction of an aqueous Ag-Fe-Ni metal salt solution produces nanocrystalline powders, and conventional powder processing converts this powder to fine-grained alloys. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, and electrical conductivity measurements; thermal conductivity is estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz law. Sintering of Ag-Fe-Ni powders leads to the formation of two-phase silver-Invar alloys with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) and relatively high electrical conductivities. A sample of 50Ag-50Invar exhibits a CTE of 8.76 μm/(m· °C) and an estimated thermal conductivity of 236 W/(m·K). The Ag-Invar alloys offer thermodynamic stability and tailorable properties, and they may help address the need for improved packaging materials.

  5. Effect of Vesicle-to-Micelle Transition on the Interactions of Phospholipid/Sodium Cholate Mixed Systems with Curcumin in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-08-01

    The role of vesicle-to-micelle transition has been investigated in the interactions of phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid/sodium cholate (NaC) mixed vesicles, and phospholipid/NaC mixed micelles with curcumin in aqueous solution. The addition of NaC causes phospholipid vesicles to transit into phospholipid/NaC mixed vesicles and phospholipid/NaC mixed micelles. Turbidity measurement reveals that the presence of curcumin increases the NaC concentration for the solubilization of phospholipid vesicles, which indicates that the bound curcumin tends to suppress the vesicle-to-micelle transition. The pyrene polarity index and curcumin fluorescence anisotropy measurements suggest that phospholipid/NaC mixed micelles have a more compact structure than that of phospholipid vesicles and phospholipid/NaC mixed vesicles. Curcumin associated with phospholipid vesicles, phospholipid/NaC mixed vesicles, and phospholipid/NaC mixed micelles often results in higher intensities of absorption and fluorescence than those of free curcumin. However, phospholipid/NaC mixed vesicles lead to the highest values of absorption and fluorescence intensities, binding constant, and radical-scavenging capacity with curcumin. The different structures in the phospholipid bilayer of phospholipid/NaC mixed vesicles and the hydrophobic part of phospholipid/NaC mixed micelles where curcumin located are discussed to explain the interaction behaviors of phospholipid/NaC mixed systems with curcumin.

  6. Extraction protease expressed by Penicillium fellutanum from the Brazilian savanna using poly(ethylene glycol)/sodium polyacrylate/NaCl aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kleber V G; Souza, Paula M; Cardoso, Samuel L; Borges, Leonardo L; Filho, Edivaldo X F; Junior, Adalberto P; Magalhães, Pérola O

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning of protease expressed by Penicillium fellutanum from the Brazilian savanna in a novel inexpensive and stable aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sodium polyacrylate (NaPA) was studied in this work using factorial design. The ATPS is formed by mixing both polymers with a salt (NaCl) and fermented broth of P. fellutanum. The effects of molar mass (2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 g ⋅ mol(-1)) and concentration (6, 8, and 10 wt%) of PEG and that of NaPA concentration (6, 8, and 10 wt%) on protease partitioning (K) at 25 °C were studied. A two-level factorial design (2(3)) was implemented. The effect of Na2 SO4 concentration (5, 10, and 15 wt%) on the reextraction of the enzyme was also analyzed. The partition coefficient K ranged from 77.51 to 1.21, indicating the versatility of the method. The reextraction was achieved with the addition of 5% Na2 SO4 , allowing the partitioning of the protease to the upper phase, whereas total proteins were directed to the bottom phase. The results of partitioning using the PEG/NaPA/NaCl system and that of the subsequent reextraction with Na2 SO4 suggest that this method can be used to purify proteases from fermented broth of P. fellutanum.

  7. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of the full dielectric function of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and lithium chloride at concentrations approaching their solubility limits at room temperature. We find that the dielectric properties of the two salts are rather different at THz frequen...... frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  8. 氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集锡(Ⅳ)%Separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) by phase extraction in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 陈彬; 马万山

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and conditions for extraction separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) from other metal ions in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system were investigated.The results showed that 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in presence of sodium chloride.During the phase separation process,[Sn(SCN)5~6] [(5~6)-4]-formed from stannum (Ⅳ) and ammonium thiocyanate could reacted with protonized 1-propanol of C3H7OH2 + to form associated complex of [Sn(SCN)5~6][C3 H7OH2]1-2,which could be fully extracted by 1-propanol phase.When acidity of the solution was fixed at pH 2.0,and the concentration of 1-propanol,ammonium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V),0.09 mol/L and 0.17 g/mL,respectively,the extraction yield of stannum(Ⅳ) was more than 98.3%.Simultaneously,Fe(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Al (Ⅲ),Mg(Ⅱ),Mn(Ⅱ),Ce(Ⅲ),Cr(Ⅲ),Zn(Ⅱ),Ag(Ⅰ),Cd(Ⅱ)and V(V) could not be extracted,realizing the separation of stannum (Ⅳ) from these metal ions.The method has been applied to the separation and determination of stannum (Ⅳ) in Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloy sample with recovery of 97.4% and relative standard deviation(n=7) of 2.1%.%研究了氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Sn(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Sn(Ⅳ)和硫氰酸铵生成的[Sn(SCN)5~6][(5~6)-4]-与质子化正丙醇C3H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Sn (SCN)5~6][C3H7OH2]1-2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.固定溶液酸度为pH 2,当正丙醇、硫氰酸铵和氯化钠的浓度分别为30% (V/V)、0.09 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Sn(Ⅳ)的萃取率在98.3%以上,Fe(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Pb(Ⅱ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Mg(Ⅱ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)、Cd(Ⅱ)和V(Ⅴ)不被萃取,实现了Sn(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.方法用于Pb-Ca-Sn-Al合金中Sn的分离和测定,平均回收率为97.4

  9. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infinite Dilution in Supercritical Water%超临界水中NaCl无限稀释扩散系数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2 K to 763.2 K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa. Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation, an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed. Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data, and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2 K to 803.2 K and from 25 MPa to 50 MPa show that this equation is applicable for the calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  10. Efeito da substituição de cloreto de sódio por cloreto de potássio em pão francês Effect of the substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in French rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karoline Ferreira Ignácio

    2013-03-01

    se produzir pão francês com até 30% de redução de sal (1,4% na formulação comercial, o que proporcionaria pães com a quantidade de sódio proposta para atender aos limites estabelecidos (234 mg.50 g-1, em relação a uma formulação padrão de 2% de sal (base farinha.There is a worldwide trend to reduce sodium in industrialized food products due to its relationship with high blood pressure. Since French rolls are one of the food products most contributing towards the ingestion of sodium by the Brazilian population, the objective of this research was to evaluate the substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl by potassium chloride (KCl in this product, as a way of complying with this tendency. Four formulations were evaluated, standard (FP with 2% NaCl, the substitution of 30% (F1 and 50% (F2 of this percentage by KCl, and F3 with no sodium chloride addition, equivalent to 307, 234, 176.5 and 4.5 mg sodium per French roll (50 g, respectively. All the reductions conformed with the recommendations made by ANVISA for 2014. The wheat flour used was characterized from its proximate composition, gluten content and index and the extensigraphic and farinographic analyses, being found adequate for breadmaking. The rheological characteristics of doughs prepared with saline solutions of the same concentrations as the formulations, were obtained using the extensigraph. The rolls were evaluated for specific volume and their sodium and potassium contents, and also submitted to an acceptance test with 53 bread consumers. The reduction in sodium content did not significantly alter their specific volumes. In the sensory analysis, it was not possible to differentiate up to 30% salt reduction in relation to the 2% salt standard, for all the attributes evaluated. However the formulation with 50% substitution was significantly less accepted for taste than the standard, its average acceptance score being equivalent to "I liked it slightly". The formulation with no added sodium chloride

  11. Removal of As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from aqueous environments by poly(acrylonitril-co-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride)-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudu, Tuba Ersen; Sahiner, Mehtap; Alpaslan, Duygu; Demirci, Sahin; Aktas, Nahit

    2015-09-15

    Cationic poly(Acrylonitril-co-Acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl Ammonium Chloride) (p(AN-co-APTMACl)) hydrogels in bulk were synthesized by using acrylonitrile (AN) and 3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (APTMACl) as monomers. The prepared hydrogels were exposed to amidoximation reaction to replace hydrophobic nitrile groups with hydrophilic amidoxime groups that have metal ion binding ability. Those replacements were increased the hydrogels absorption capacity for As(V) and Cr(VI). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms equations were utilized to obtain the best-fitted isotherm model for the absorption of the ions at different metal ion concentrations. The absorption data of As(V) ion were fitted well to Freundlich isotherm while those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm. The maximum absorption of poly(3-acrylamidopropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)) and amid-p(AN-co-APTMACl) macro gels were 22.39 mg and 21.83 mg for As(V), and 30.65 mg and 18.16 mg for Cr(VI) ion per unit gram dried gel, respectively. Kinetically, the absorption behaviors of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and those of As(V) ions were fitted well to a pseudo 1st order kinetic model.

  12. Observation Efficacy on Cerebral Hemorrhage Piracetam Sodium Chloride Injection Therapy%吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明达

    2016-01-01

    Objective Piracetam sodium chloride injection to be applied to the efficacy of the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage were observed and analyzed. Methods From March 2014 to September 2015 in our hospital, 238 cases of cerebral hemorrhage patients were divided into 2 groups and test groups of 119 cases of patients were to be mannitol treatment, and topiramate levetiracetam sodium chloride treatment. For the treatment groups were observed. Results Observed after treatment, the experimental group of patients with total efficiency than the conventional group, in addition to intracranial pressure and neuropeptide Y levels lower than conventional group. Conclusion Observed after treatment, the experimental group of patients with total efficiency than the conventional group, in addition to intracranial pressure and neuropeptide Y levels lower than conventional group.%目的:对吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液应用于治疗脑出血患者的疗效进行观察和分析。方法选取2014年3月~2015年9月来我院就诊并接受治疗的238例脑出血患者,分为常规组和试验组,每组119例,分别予以甘露醇治疗和吡拉西坦氯化钠进行治疗,对两组患者治疗效果进行观察。结果经治疗后观察比较,试验组患者的总有效率优于常规组,此外颅压和神经肽 Y 水平低于常规组。结论吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液治疗脑出血能够获得较好效果。

  13. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  14. Investigation of the stability of the dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection in sodium chloride injection%地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中的稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔敏; 陈念祖; 王东蕾; 赖永华; 马勤; 闫晶超

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the stability of dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection in sodium chloride injection. METHODS Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and mecobalamin were determined by RP-HPLC method at 4℃ and normal temperature under natural illumination and nonillumination within 12 h. The appearance of the solution was observed and its pH value was determined. RESULTS No significant change was found in the terms of the appearance and the contents of the mixed solution, the changes of pH value were not more than 1.0 under nonillumination within 12 h. No significant change was found in the terms of the content of dexamethasone sodium phosphate under illumination within 12 h. However, more than 50% mecobalamin was degraded under natural illumination within 5 min. CONCLUSION The dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection and mecobalamin injection should not be simultaneously put in the sodium chloride injection for intravenous infusion.%目的 考察地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中的稳定性.方法 监测地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中配伍后于4℃、常温时自然光照射下及避光条件下12 h内的含量变化,同时考察配伍液pH值与外观的变化情况.结果 与配伍后0h比较,在避光条件下12 h内,pH、外观及两者含量均无显著变化;未避光条件下,地塞米松磷酸钠在12 h内无显著变化,5min内甲钴胺含量有显著变化,50%以上已降解.结论 建议地塞米松磷酸钠注射剂不要与甲钴胺注射剂在氯化钠注射剂中配伍后用于静脉滴注.

  15. Kinetic of formation for single carbon dioxide and mixed carbon dioxide and tetrahydrofuran hydrates in water and sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabil, K.M.; Duarte, A.R.C.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Ahmad, M.M.; Yusup, S.; Omar, A.A.; Peters, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale reactor system is built and operated to measure the kinetic of formation for single and mixed carbon dioxide-tetrahydrofuran hydrates. The T-cycle method, which is used to collect the kinetic data, is briefly discussed. For single carbon dioxide hydrate, the induction time decreas

  16. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... manufacture of polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymers intended for use as articles or components of...

  17. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  18. Effect of light on self-assembly of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2007-04-24

    We report light and small-angle neutron scattering measurements that characterize microstructures formed in aqueous surfactant solutions (up to 1.0 wt % surfactant) containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the light-sensitive bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA) as a function of composition, equilibration time, and photostationary state (i.e., solutions rich in cis-BTHA or trans-BTHA). We observed formation of vesicles in both SDS-rich and trans-BTHA-rich regions of the microstructure diagram, with vesicles present over a particularly broad range of compositions for trans-BTHA-rich solutions. Illumination of mixtures of BTHA and SDS with a broadband UV light source leads to formation of photostationary states where the fraction of BTHA present as cis isomer (75-80% cis-BTHA) is largely independent of the mixing ratio of SDS and BTHA. For a relatively limited set of mixing ratios of SDS and BTHA, we observed UV illumination of SDS-rich vesicles to result in the reversible transformation of the vesicles to micellar aggregates and UV illumination of BTHA-rich vesicles to result in irreversible precipitation. Surprisingly, however, for many mixtures of trans-BTHA and SDS that formed solutions containing vesicles, illumination with UV light (which was confirmed to lead to photoisomerization of BTHA) resulted in only a small decrease in the number of vesicles in solution, relatively little change in the sizes of the remaining vesicles, and coexistance of the vesicles with micelles. These observations are consistent with a physical model in which the trans and cis isomers of BTHA present at the photostationary state tend to segregate between the different microstructures coexisting in solution (e.g., vesicles rich in trans-BTHA and SDS coexist with micelles rich in cis-BTHA and SDS). The results presented in this paper provide guidance for the design of light-tunable surfactants systems.

  19. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, G., E-mail: venkatguru_1966@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Sheik Mideen, A. [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Jha, Abhay K. [Materials Processing Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kulandainathan, M. Anbu [Electro Organic Chemistry Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India)

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al{sub 2}Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition.

  20. 氯化钠-硫氰酸钾-正丙醇体系析相萃取分离和富集钛(Ⅳ)%Study on extraction and enrichment of titanium(Ⅳ) by phase separation with sodium chloride-potassium thiocyanate-1-propanol system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢先春; 司学芝; 马冬冬; 许春萱

    2012-01-01

    研究了正丙醇-硫氰酸钾-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Ti(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Ti(Ⅳ)和硫氢化钾生成的Ti(SCN)62-与质子化正丙醇C3 H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Ti(SCN)62-][C3 H7OH2+]2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.当正丙醇、硫氰酸钾和氯化钠的浓度分别为30%(V/V)、8.0×10-2 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Ti(Ⅳ)的萃取率达到98.9%以上,V(Ⅴ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、MgⅡ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Cd(Ⅱ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Fe(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)和W(Ⅵ)不被萃取,实现了Ti(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.对合成水样中的钛进行分离和测定,结果满意.%The enrichment and extraction behaviors of titanium(Ⅳ) in 1-propanol-potassium thiocyanate-aqueous system and the separation conditions from other metal ions were investigated. The results showed that the 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in the presence of sodium chloride. The complex of [Ti(SCN)62- ][C3H7OH2+]2 formed from protonized 1-propanol ( [C3H7OH2 + ]2) and [Ti(SCN)62-] (which was generated by titanium (Ⅳ) and potassium thiocyanate) could be completely extracted by 1-propanol during the phase separation process. When the concentration of 1-propanol, potassium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V) , 8. 0×10~2 mol/L and 0. 17 g/mL, respectively, the extraction yield of titaniumf(Ⅳ) was higher than 98. 9% while V(Ⅴ) Ce(Ⅲ), Mg(Ⅱ), Mn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), Cr(Ⅲ), AI(Ⅲ), Fe(Ⅱ) , Zn(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Ag(Ⅰ) and W(Ⅳ) were not extracted to realize the separation of titanium(Ⅳ) from the above-mentioned metal ions. This method has been successfully applied to the determination and extraction separation of titanium in the sample of synthetic water with satisfactory results.

  1. The effect of different complexing agents on the properties of zinc sulfide thin films deposited from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition using the aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea, pH regulator and complexing agent (ammonia and hydrazine hydrate, trisodium citrate or sodium hydroxide). The calculations of boundary conditions for formation of zinc sulfide and zinc hydroxide were made at various zinc salt concentrations with different complexing agents. The structural, morphology and optical properties of the ZnS thin film...

  2. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  3. New Data on Activity Coefficients of Potassium, Nitrate, and Chloride Ions in Aqueous Solutions of KNO3 and KCl by Ion Selective Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Debasmita Dash; Shekhar Kumar; C. Mallika; U. Kamachi Mudali

    2012-01-01

    Ion selective electrodes (ISEs) are used to measure the single-ion activity coefficients in aqueous solutions of KNO3 and KCl at 298.15 K against a double-junction reference electrode. The EMF responses of ISEs up to 0.01 m are plotted to obtain the slope and intercept values. The obtained slopes and intercepts are used in Nernst equation for higher concentrated solutions for calculation of individual ion activity coefficient. The mean ionic activity coefficients are estimated from single ion...

  4. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-09-01

    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  5. 胞磷胆碱钠的葡萄糖注射液和氯化钠注射液的灭菌稳定性%The sterilization stability for Citicoline Sodium and Glucose Injection and Citicoline Sodium and Sodium Chloride Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明; 嵇杨; 高锦; 刘俊; 程洋; 赵春杰

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the sterilization stability of Citicoline Sodium and Glucose Injection (CG)and Citicoline Sodium and Sodium Chloride Injection ( CS) , so as to provide reference to the manufacturers for selecting the appropriate sterilization process. Methods The pH value, related substances content and absorption of CG and CS before and after sterilization ( five different sterilization conditions) were determined. The mice toxicity test was conducted. Results After sterilization, the pH value of CG decreased significantly and the absorption increased. A significant increase occurred in related substances content. The related substances content of CG(0.S mg/mL)has already exceeded the ChP( 2010) limits after five different sterilizations. The related substances content of CG(2.5 ,2 mg/mL) has already exceeded the ChP( 2010) limits after overkilled sterilization ( Fo>12). After sterilization, the pH value of CS decreased, the absorption did not change, the related substances content increase slightly and did not exceed the ChP(2010) limits. The mice toxicity was not caused by both. Conclusion CG(0. 5 mg/mL) should not choose terminal sterilization process,and CG(2.5,2 mg/mL)should choose residual probability method (8≤S F0<12)as the sterilization process instead of overkilled sterilization ( F0>12) , but should ensure SAL≤10-6. Compared to CG.CS is more suitable for large volume injection.%目的 研究3种规格胞磷胆碱钠葡萄糖注射液(CG)和4种规格胞磷胆碱钠氯化钠注射液(CS)的灭菌稳定性,为选择适宜灭菌工艺提拱参考.方法 分别测定5种不同灭菌条件下,灭菌前后注射液的pH值、有关物质及340和700 nm波长处吸光度差值,并考察对小鼠的毒性.结果 灭菌后CG的pH值明显降低,吸光度差值增高,规格为0.5 mg/mL的CG在5种灭菌条件下、规格为2.5和2 mg/mL的CG在Fo >12灭菌条件下灭菌后,有关物质超过中国药典规定的限度.灭菌后CS的pH值有一定

  6. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  7. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations.

  8. Characterization of the high-pressure structural transition and thermodynamic properties in sodium chloride: a computational investigation on the basis of the density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Qin-Sheng

    2008-11-06

    Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, the thermodynamic properties, and the structural phase transition between the B1 (rocksalt) and the B2 (cesium chloride) phases of NaCl are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method. The calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. On the basis of the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure Pt between the B1 phase and the B2 phase of NaCl is determined. The calculated values are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. From the theoretical calculations, the shear modulus, Young's modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio of NaCl are derived. According to the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we estimated the Debye temperature of NaCl from the average sound velocity. Moreover, the pressure derivatives of elastic constants, partial differentialC11/partial differentialP, partial differentialC12/partial differentialP, partial differentialC44/partial differentialP, partial differentialS11/partial differential P, partial differentialS12/partial differentialP, and partial differentialS44/partial differentialP, for NaCl crystal are investigated for the first time. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NaCl, and it still awaits experimental confirmation.

  9. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  10. Study on desulphurization processes of spent lead paste in sodium citrate aqueous solution%废铅膏在柠檬酸钠水溶液中脱硫行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩春侠; 方明学; 陈艳娟; 王杜友; 陈群

    2015-01-01

    废铅膏中 PbSO4所占的质量分数大于 80 %,柠檬酸钠可以使废铅膏有效脱硫,研究其在柠檬酸钠水溶液中的脱硫行为对废铅膏的回收再利用具有重要作用.本文通过正交试验以及极差分析研究废铅膏在柠檬酸钠水溶液中的脱硫行